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Define Internet

Internet is a vast computer network linking smaller computer networksworldwide (usually
preceded by the). The Internet includescommercial, educational, governmental, and other
networks, all ofwhich use the same set of communications protocols.
A means of connecting a computer to any other computer anywhere in the world via dedicated
routers and servers.
When two computers are connected over the Internet, they can send and receive all kinds of
information such as text, graphics, voice, video, and computer programs.
The Internet is a global network connecting millions of computers. More than 100 countries are
linked into exchanges of data, news and opinions. According to Internet World Stats, as of
December 31, 2011 there was an estimated 2,267,233,742 Internet users worldwide. The number
of Internet users represents 32.7 percent of the world's population.

A Brief History of Internet:

The Internet was made possible by the development of the telephone and the personal computer.
The first ideas for the Internet were developed by engineers and computer scientists. They
suggested ways in which they could communicate with each other using their computers.

Initial concepts of packet networking originated in several computer science laboratories in the United States. Merit Network. and France. including the development of the ARPANET (which would become the first network to use the Internet Protocol.) The first message was sent over the ARPANET from computer science Professor Leonard Kleinrock's laboratory at University of California. The ARPANET in particular led to the development of protocols for internetworking. In the early 1990’s the Internet was opened up for use by businesses and the general public. This network was expanded and links were made with other countries. The idea of the World Wide Web was developed as a research project at the European Centre for research into particle physics (CERN) in 1991. andTelenet. Tymnet. . CYCLADES. were developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s using a variety of communications protocols. Great Britain. The ‘Web’ soon became very popular in business. Packet switching networks such as ARPANET. government. History Found in WIKI PEDIA: The history of the Internet begins with the development of electronic computers in the 1950s. the network became ideal for passing messages to each other and this became the most common use of the Internet. education and the home.In the mid-1960’s the US Department of Defense provided funding to four US Universities to establish a computer network to allow them to exchange research data. in which multiple separate networks could be joined into a network of networks. Mark I at NPL in the UK. The US Department of Defense awarded contracts as early as the 1960s for packet network systems. Los Angeles(UCLA) to the second network node at Stanford Research Institute (SRI). After email was invented.

instant messaging. and more than 97% of the telecommunicated information by 2007. two-way interactive video calls. Since the mid-1990s. removing the last restrictions on the use of the Internet to carry commercial traffic. Increasing amounts of data are transmitted at higher and higher speeds over fiber optic networks operating at 1-Gbit/s. Private connections to the Internet by commercial entities became widespread quickly. 10-Gbit/s. . the Internet has had a revolutionary impact on culture and commerce. voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) telephone calls.[1] Today the Internet continues to grow. The Internet's takeover of the global communication landscape was almost instant in historical terms: it only communicated 1% of the information flowing through two-way telecommunications networks in the year 1993. and online shoppingsites.Access to the ARPANET was expanded in 1981 when the National Science Foundation (NSF) funded the Computer Science Network (CSNET). entertainment. already 51% by 2000. driven by ever greater amounts of online information. and social networking. social networking. The ARPANET was decommissioned in 1990. blogs. In 1982. and National LambdaRail. The research and education community continues to develop and use advanced networks such as NSF's very high speed Backbone Network Service (vBNS). Commercial Internet service providers (ISPs) began to emerge in the late 1980s. which also created network access to the supercomputer sites in the United States from research and education organizations. In the early 1980s the NSF funded the establishment for national supercomputing centers at several universities. and provided interconnectivity in 1986 with the NSFNET project. the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) was introduced as the standard networking protocol on the ARPANET. Internet2. and the World Wide Web with its discussion forums. or more. including the rise of near-instant communication by electronic mail. and the NSFNET was decommissioned in 1995. commerce.

or in your home has Internet access. exchanging traffic. That’s a good thing. The Internet was designed to be redundant and fault-tolerant—meaning that if one network. Many (but not all) ISPs are big telecommunications companies like Verizon. If the network at your university. it connects to an Internet service provider (ISP). everything else should keep on running. The Internet has no center and no one owns it. and AT&T. and ensuring your messages can get to any other computer that’s online and willing to communicate with you. Rising from military research and work at educational institutions dating as far back as the 1960s. or server stops working. Comcast.How the Internet Functions: The Internet is a network of networks—millions of them. your employer. the Internet really took off in the 1990s. and much of the Internet’s operating infrastructure was transitioned to be supported by private firms rather than government grants. These providers connect to one another. actually. when graphical Web browsing was invented. Figure 12.1 . connecting wire.

the “state. you’re telling your browser what you’re looking for. Enough history—let’s see how it all works! If you want to communicate with another computer on the Internet then your computer needs to know the answer to three questions: What are you looking for? Where is it? And how do we get there? The computers and software that make up Internet infrastructure can help provide the answers. Internet Work through two Paths: . The URL: “What Are You Looking For?” When you type an address into a Web browser (sometimes called a URL for uniform resource locator). In the diagram above. and these networks are connected together. Let’s look at how it all comes together.The Internet is a network of” campus network is connected to other networks of the Internet via two ISPs: Cogent and Verizon.

yahoo one can connect with many other people Via internet. Internet Helps Every Users to connect with each other: Using different protocol and sites like google. - Return Path: On behalf of request Internet will give you feed back and send you your requested sites on your device. . . Internet Works Independently: It is designed in such a way that no specific company like Google or Facebook or some other site can control each other. Many people can Visit at once: It has such capability that at a time a lot of people can get information at a time. facebook.- Request Path: Once you typing the URL that is you are requesting for a web sites. Service is providing by the ISP: As user you can get internet connection through your Local ISP and it will enable you to go World Wide Web.

an extranet expands that access by allowing non-members such as suppliers and customers to use company resources. extranets. they are different in terms of the levels of access they allow to various users inside and outside the organization and the size of the network. take a look at this drawing: Summary: The Internet. and intranets all rely on the same TCP/IP technologies.Internet Intranet Extranet:  Intranet is shared content accessed by members within a single organization.  Extranet is shared content accessed by groups through cross-enterprise boundaries. the Internet generally allows everyone to access all network resources. The difference between the Internet and extranets is that while the extranet allows limited access to non-members of an organization. . An intranet allows for restricted access to only members of an organization. For better comprehension. However.  Internet is global communication accessed through the Web.

Web pages must conform to the rules of HTML in order to be displayed correctly in a Web browser. server breakdowns and other problems that may slow the network. public space. An intranet may be accessible from the Internet. Stands for "Hyper-Text Markup Language. And they Block 80% of any kind of "fun" or entertaining website available on the Internet) The Extranet is a portion of an organization's Intranet that is made accessible to authorized outside users without full access to an entire organization's intranet. Within a company. while an intranet is designed to be a private space.Optional Internet. Define HTML: HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) is the set of markup symbols or codes inserted in a file intended for display on a World Wide Web browser page. This makes it easier to serve high bandwidth content. From within a company. Also known as hypertext documents. users have much more bandwidth and network hardware may be more reliable. such as audio and video. . The HTML syntax is based on a list of tags that describe the page's format and what is displayed on the Web page. This is because the public Internet is at the mercy of traffic spikes. Then you don't get to watch video's.and Extranet There's one major distinction between an intranet and the Internet: The Internet is an open. an intranet server may respond much more quickly than a typical Web site." This is the language that Web pages are written in. but as a rule it's protected by a password and accessible only to employees or other authorized users. however. Intranet . over an intranet. (unless you work for the United States Marine Corps.

although it is not a strict subset. . These programs allow you to place objects and text on the page and the HTML code is written for you. The with <HTML><HEAD>(enter correct here structure what for document an is HTML document about)<BODY> and starts ends with </BODY></HTML>. the HTML language is relatively easy to learn. many Web development programs allow you to create Web pages using a graphical interface. Short for HyperText Markup Language. All the information you'd like to include in your Web page fits in between the <BODY> and </BODY> tags. the authoring languageused to create documents on the World Wide Web. HTML is similar to SGML. Even more fortunately (so much for good grammar). HTML defines the structure and layout of a Web document by using a variety of tags and attributes.Fortunately.