Experiment 302: Heat and Calorimetry

Summary
In the first part of the experiment, the specific heat of the two metals, brass
and aluminum, were obtained. The mass of the calorimeter (inner vessel), the two
metals, and the calorimeter with tap water was weighed using a digital weighing
scale. The temperature of the tap water in the calorimeter was measured. A beaker
was half-filled with tap water and was warmed up for a minimum of 30 minutes
and the aluminum metal was heated for the first trial. When water reaches its
boiling point, the metal immersed in the beaker is transferred to the calorimeter.
When the reading in the thermometer becomes stationary, this is then recorded as
the temperature of the mixture. The same procedure also applies to the brass metal
for the second trial. Moving on to the second part of the experiment, the latent heat
of fusion of ice was determined. The pre-heated water in the beaker from the first
part of the experiment was transferred in the calorimeter. A cube of ice was added
to the calorimeter and the phase change from solid to liquid was keenly observed.
When the ice liquefies, the temperature of the mixture is immediately recorded.
Two trials were performed.

From the relationship Qlost=Qgained, the equation

c m=

( mw c w+ mc c c ) (t mix−tow )
mm (t om−t mix )

was derived. This is used to calculate for the experimental value of the specific
heat of metals. The same relationship was used to formulate
Lf =

( mw c w +mc cc ) ( t ow −t mix )−mi c w t mix
mi

which is used to compute for the experimental

value of the latent heat of fusion. Observing the variables in the equation, the latent
heat of fusion is inversely proportional to the mass of the ice. As the mass of the
ice decreases, the latent heat of fusion increases. The temperatures obtained from
the two parts of the experiment are at thermal equilibrium. This is necessary to
ensure that the data acquired is efficient. Since the concept of heat and calorimetry
is involved, the various masses and temperatures in the two equations are vital for
the calculations.

the heat given up by the hot body is equal to the heat absorbed by the cold body. the process of determining the amount of heat quantitatively is called calorimetry. Give one advantage and one disadvantage of using the stirrer of the calorimeter in “mixing” the metal and water. Guide Questions Part I: 1. Calorimeter is the apparatus used to perform calorimetry. Why do you need to wipe off the water from the metal’s surface before dropping it into the calorimeter? Wiping off the moisture from the metal prevents additional water to blend in the calorimeter. These are the concepts that were exploited in the experiment.This is to guarantee that the heat would penetrate deeply in the metal. Only the latent heat of fusion was utilized in the experiment and it is used to liquefy a solid without any adjustments in temperature. The stirrer would be advantageous because it would help the mixture to reach thermal equilibrium faster. . It is based from the law of heat exchange which states that in an isolated system. Why is it important to immerse the metal in the boiling water for a long time? The metal should be submerged extensively to ensure that the metal and the boiling water would attain thermal equilibrium at 100oC. This is the basis for the derived equations in the two parts of the experiment. On the other hand.Expounding further. its mass should be included in the equation but for simple calculations. if the stirrer would be used for mixing. 2. 3. the latent heat is the amount of heat needed to for a body to undergo phase change without any variations in temperature. There are two types of latent heat: the latent heat of fusion and the latent heat of vaporization. specific heat is the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of a body. But on the other hand. its mass is assumed to be negligible. This would affect the final temperature of the mixture that could be a possible source of error in this experiment. Related to calorimetry.

In part 1 of the experiment. This would affect the final temperature of the experiment which could be a possible source of error for the experiment. Analysis 1. In part 2 of the experiment. Converting water to ice requires phase change. this transformation happens at water’s freezing point which is 0oC. the phase change could require more time to happen and the evidence of phase change could not be visible enough. is it better to use hot water in the calorimeter compared to using just tap water? Why or why not? The use of hot water is more advantageous because when the ice is submerged in the calorimeter. phase change will occur rapidly and the temperature of the mixture could be obtained easily and accurately. . Increasing the masses of the metals will not improve the result of the experiment and it is very impractical. This will only lengthen the performance of the experiment.Part II: 1. 2. Upon heating. larger masses of metals will require additional amount of time for heat to be distributed equally. Knowing that ice is produced by freezing water. would the result of the experiment improve if larger masses of metals were used? Explain. Unlike when typical tap water is used. 2. What is the initial temperature of the ice? How can you determine the temperature of ice without using a thermometer? The initial temperature of the ice is 0 oC. Why is it important to wipe off the water from the ice’s surface before putting it in the calorimeter? Wiping off the water from the ice is significant because it inhibits additional water to mix in the calorimeter. Therefore. its temperature can be obtained without the aid of a thermometer.

In both parts of the experiment. The use of an absorbent material like a tissue will be effective since it will suck up all the excess moisture. it is considered exothermic. an erroneous value of the temperature of the mixture could be encountered. it is crucial to wipe off the moisture present in the metal and the ice before transferring it into the calorimeter.3. It is significant because it allows measurement of heat flow that happens within a reaction. Temperature change and phase change happen alternately. Give at least 2 possible sources of errors in the experiment. If the heat flow is below zero. A reaction is considered endothermic if the amount of heat exceeds zero. observations should be done keenly and with much focus. b. In order to avoid this. . Moreover. The study and process of calorimetry measures both the magnitude (amount) and the direction of the heat flow. This could happen when the phase change of the ice has been complete and the observer did not record the temperature at this instance. a. heat has two major effects: the change in temperature which involves the specific heat and the phase change which includes the latent heat of fusion and heat of vaporization. Conclusion: Calorimetry is a process to determine the effect of heat in a process. The concept of calorimetry is well-applied in the thermo chemistry field. Calorimeter is an apparatus which determines heat effect by direct measurement of temperature. Heat is the central component of calorimetry and it goes along with masses and changes in temperature. For each. give a suggestion on how to minimize the error. Referring to the second part of the experiment.