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CHAPTER 20- INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT AND SYSTEMS ANALYSIS

1. Five Phases of the Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC)

Systems analysis- tahap ketika seluruh informasi yang dibutuhkan untuk
membeli, mengembangkan atau memodifikasi sistem dikumpulkan. Karena
terbatasnya sumber daya yang dimiliki, permintaan pengembangan harus
disaring dan diprioritaskan. Jika tujuannya adalah untuk membuat sistem lebih
baik, maka:
o (initial investigation)
sifat dan ruang lingkup proyek yang diajukan harus diidentifikasi
o (systems survey)
lakukan survey terhadap sistem yang ada saat ini untuk mengidentifikasi
o
o

o

yang dibutuhkan untuk memilih atau mengembangkan sistem yang baru
(deliver system requirement)
Siapkan laporan system analysis dan laporkan kepada information system

steering committee
Conceptual design – menentukan bagaimana memenuhi keinginan users.
o (design alternatives)
pilih antara membeli software, develop-in-house, outsource
o (design specifications)
sistem seperti apa yang ingin dibuat dan bagaimana pengendalian atas
o

keunggulan dan kelemahan sistem
(feasibility study)
tentukan apakah proyek tersebut feasible
(information needs and system requirements)
jika proyek feasible, identifikasi dan dokumentasikan seluruh informasi

sistem tersebut
(conceptual design requirements)
permintaan desain secara konseptual dilaporkan pada information system

steering committee
Physical design
o mengartikan permintaan desain konseptual lebih spesifik seperti detail
sandi dan uji program komputer, pembuatan dokumen input dan output,
pembuatan file dan databases, pembuatan prosedur dan pengendalian
o

atas sistem yang baru.
(developed system)
Hasil physical design kemudian dilaporkan kepada information system

steering committee
Implementation and conversion – penggabungan seluruh sistem dan aktivitas
pembangunan sistem

o
o
o
o
o
o

perencanaan dibuat dan dilaksanakan (planning),
hardware dan software diinstal dan diuji
pegawai direkrut, detraining atau direlokasi
prosedur diuji dan dimodifikasi
standar dan pengendalian telah terbentuk dan dokumen sudah siap
organisasi menggunakan sistem baru, membuat beberapa penyesuaian,

o

dan melakukan evaluasid an koreksi atas implementasi sistem baru.
membuat laporan operational system dan melaporkannya kepada

information system steering committee
operations and maintenance – sistem bar uterus direview dan dimodifikasi.
Jika terjadi modifikasi besar-besaran atau perubahan sistem dalam tahap ini,
maka proses akan kembali ke tahap pertama

2. People involved in systems development and the role they played

Management - menekan pentingnya keterlibatan

users dalam proses

pembuatan sistem, mendukung dan mendorong proyek pengembangan
sistem, menyelaraskan sostem dengan tujuan perusahaan, menetapkan
tujuan pembangunan sistem, memilih dan melakukan penilaian atas kinerja
dari pimpinan system department, menetapkan kebijakan atas proyek yang
terpilih, dan berpartisipasi dalam kepuntusan penting terkait sistem tersebut.
User management menentukan informasi yang dibutuhkan, mendampingi
analis dengan pertimbangan cost dan benefit, menempatkan staf dalam
proyek pengembangan tersebut, dan mengalokasikan dana untuk proyek

terkait.
Accountants and other users
o sebagai pengguna : menentukan informasi yang dibutuhkan
o sebagai anggota tim proyek atau anggota steering committee
o

membantu pengembangan sistem
jika diminta, akuntan dapat membantu membuat, menguji dan mengaudit

kontrol yang memastikan keakuratan dan kelengkapan pemrosesan data
information system steering committee – membuat perencanaan dan
mengawasi
memastikan

:

information
keterlibatan,

system
arahan

function,
dan

membuat

kontrol

dari

kebijakan

AIS,

top-management

memfasilitasi koordinasi dan integrasi aktivitas dalam sistem.
Project development team – mengarahkan pengembangan, merencanakan
proyek, mengawasi untuk memastikan ketepatan waktu dan efektifitas biaya
penyelesaian, memastikan pertimbangan yang tepat dalam pemilihan

computer programmer: membuat program berdasarkan detail yang diberikan sistem analyst dan memodifikasi atau menjaga program yang  masih ada. berisikan analisis cost/benefit. dan memastikan bahwa sistem yang baru o dapat memenuhi kebutuhan users. dan pemerintah. Teknik Perencanaan: . mempersiapkan detail yang dibutuhkan programmer. siapa yang mengembangkan. bagaimana mendapatkan sumber daya yang dibutuhkan. vendor. System analyst and programmers o system analysts: mempelajari sistem yang ada.  software). 3. menspesifikasikan apa saja yang terdapat dalam sistem. menjembatani gap antara manusia dan teknologi dengan sering berinteraksi dengan pegawai terkait pengembangan sistem. mendesain sistem baru. permintaan developmental dan operasional (orang. dan tujuan AIS tersebut. mengkomunikasikan status proyek ke top management dan steering committee dan memfasilitasi penerimaan pengguna atas sistem  baru. Master plan – dibuat oleh steering committee. dan jadwal aktivitas untuk membangun dan mengoperasikan sistem yang baru. The importance of system developments planning and planning techniques Kenapa harus ada planning?  memudahkan untuk menyelaraskan tujuan pembuatan atau pembangunan  sistem dengan tujuan perusahaan secara keseluruhan sistem lebih efisisen.personel. subsistem saling terhubung. auditor eksternal. dana. cara pengembangan. Bentuk planning:  Project development plan – disiapkan oleh tim proyek. hardware. dan terdapat dasar untuk    memilih aplikasi baru dalam pengembangan sistem perusahaan update dengan perubahan terbaru dalam IT sistem menjadi less costly dan lebih mudah digunakan manajemen siap untuk sumber daya yang dibutuhkan dan pegawai siap atas perubahan yang terjadi. External players – pelanggan.

NPV  dan IRR) technical dikembangkan dan   diimplementasikan dengan teknologi yang ada saat ini legal feasibility – apakah sistem telah mengikuti aturan yang berlaku scheduling feasibility – apakah sistem dapat dikembangkan dan  diimplementasikan dalam waktu yang telah ditetapkan operational feasibility – apakah organisasi memiliki akses terhadap orang feasibility – apakah sistem dapat yang mendesain. sehingga keputusan ini harus ditetapkan sedini mungkin. Gantt charts diagram batang yang terdiri dari aktivitas di bagian kiri dan satuan waktu pada bagian atas. sepanjang pengerjaan Keuntungannya : proyek diagram ini memperlihatkan keseluruhan progress aktivitas. Why systems changes behavioral reactions. berdasarkan Diagram tingkat batang diiisi penyelesaiannya. Makin lama proyek berjalan makin sulit untuk dibatalkan. Various types of feasibility analysis and calculate economic feasibility Kenapa harus nalisis feasibility? untuk menentukan menghentikan proyek. mengimplementasikan dan mengoperasikan sistem ini? apakah sistem ini akan digunakan? 5. Setelah waktu penyelesaian  ditentukan. tentukan pula critical path (proses yang memerlukan waktu pengerjaan paling lama). uang dan sumber daya yang dibutuhkan untuk implementasi sitem (bandingkan biaya dengan payback period. Jenis feasibility analysis:  economic feasibility – berapa waktu. melanjutkan proyek tanpa syarat apapun atau melanjutkan proyek jika suatu masalah telah terselesaikan. form of resistance and how to minimize the problem . penyelesaian dan awal mula suatu proyek. Diagram batang digambarkan sepanjang waktu pengerjaan (starting-ending). Program Evaluation and Review Techniques (PERT) seluruh aktivitas dan hubungan antara aktivitas sebulum dan sesudahnya harus diidentifikasi untuk menggambarka PERT diagram yang menunjukan mana aktivitas yang memerlukan pengeluaran sumber daya dan waktu yang paling banyak. Kelemahannya : diagram ini tidak dapat menunjukan hubungan antar aktivitas 4.

melumpuhkan dan melemahkan sistem. dan ketidakpastian top management support.ketika kurang dukungan top mmanagemenmt ats muncul mdar ketidak tahuan. bersikap loggis. projection menyalahkan sistem jika suatu hal berjalan tidak sesuai. menguji sistem. menekankan keuntungan sistem baru. ketakutan kehilangan pekerjaan. teknologi. mereka akan memopertanyakan mengapa  mereka harus menyetujui perubahan tersebut experience with prior change – ketika mereka pernah memiliki pengalam  buruk pada perubahan sebelumnya communication-pegawai tidak mau mendukung perubahan kecuali ada  penjelasan mengapa perubahan tersebut terjadi disruptive nature of change – permintaan informasi dan interview membuat mereka menggangu dan menambah beban bagi pegwai sehingga  menimbulkan kesan negatif manner in which chang is occurred – alasn perubahan yang diterma top   management bisa jadi tidak dpt diterima oleh lower level biases and emotions – jika sisi emosional terpengaruh personal characteristic and background – semakin muda dan semakin berpendidikan lebih mudah menerima perubahan Bentuk penolakan:    aggression perilaku yang merusak. megadakan training.Mengapa terjadi?  Fear-  kehilangan status. selalu membuka komunikasi dengan users. libatkan users dalam proses pembuatan. dan humanize sistem. penuhi kebutuhan users. seperti meningkatnya kesalahan atau sabotase. kegagalan. evaluasi kinerja sistem baru. Bagaimanan mencegah hal tersebut terjadi? dapatkan dukungan manajer. CHAPTER 21 – AIS DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES . avoidance mengacuhkan sistem yang baru dengan harapan sistem tersebut tidak akan digunakan lagi. perubahan yang dilakukan.

turnkey software-software yang dijual sepaket dengan hardware nya. acquiring hardware-software – untuk pembelian yang banyak dan complex maka gunakan RFP agar: menghemat waktu )tanpa harus interview berulang).. evaluating proposal and select system – proposal yang menyediakan informasi yang kurang. masalah teknis yang menjadi urusan vendor sulit  dianalisa dan mnambah biaya yang dikenakan. vendor kemudian diminta untuk mendemonstrasikan sisrem tersebut. control and implementation-user mengendalika proses  pengembangan system that meet user needs . Kekurangannya : vendor tidak dapat menyarankan alternatif lain. Tahap :   pemilihan vendor-bisa mellaui konferensi. Setelah itu membandingkan biaya yang dibutuhkan (purchasing cost + requirement cost). Membandingkan vendor dengan menggunakan point scoringdimana tiap-tiap kriteria diberikan berat brebeda berdasarkan tingkat kepentingannya. Development in house End user developed software end user computing – pengembangan. penggunaan dan pengendalian sistem dilakukan oleh users Keuntungan:  user creation. tidak memenui permintaan dasar dan ambigu akan ditolak. proposal dicocokan dengan sistem requirement. dll. Jika lolos dalam paper screening.Purchasing software canned software-djual pada pengguna yang memiliki kesamaan kebutuhan. dan mengurangi kemungkinan ketidakcocokan (masing2 pihak sudah memiliki ekspektasi tertentu). internet. ASP merupakan pnyedia jasa penyewaan software mellaui internet. majalah. menyederhanakan proses pembuatan keputusan (semua respons berdasarkan format dan info yang sama). buku telepon. mengurangi eror (tidak perlu overlook).

dan dpat digunakan diamana saja Kelemahan :  logic and development error. sehingga seringkali mereka banyak  melakukan eror atau tidak menyadari adanya eror tersebut inadequately tested application – jarang dilakukan tes yang menyeluruh      karene tidak mengetahui kegunaan tes tersebut inefficien systems poorly controlled and documented system: system incompatibilities wasted resources – ada duplikasi sistem increased cost.  timeliness. evaluasi hardware software baru.menghemat waktu freeing up of system resources – sumberdaya dapat digunakan untuk  pengembangan sistem lain versatility and ease of use – mudah dipahami. menyediakan bantuan teknis dan pendampingan dalam pembuatan aplikasi OUTSOURCING Merupakan kegiatan merekrut perusahaan luar untuk menangani seluruh aktivitas pemrosesan data organisasi.user yang mengembangkan sistem tidak memiliki pengetahuan IS yang baik. dapat dimodifikasi. dll less development time – perusahaan outsourcer yang baik dapat  mengerjakan pengembangan lebih cepat elimination of peaks and valley usage – mengurangi penggunanaan untuk  mengurangi operational cost facilitation of downsizing – merampingkan struktur Kelemahan : . melakukan training.update Cara mengatasi kelemahan : help desk (menyelesaikan masalah. instalasi. Keuntungan:      a business solution –agar perusahaan lebih fokus pada bisnis utamanya asset utilization – menjual aset pada outsourcer access to greater expertise and better technology – diserahkan pada ahlinya lower cost – mengurangi biaya labor.

sehingga harus tetap    menggunakan sistem yang dibangun unfulfilled goals – banyak tujuan yang tidak terpenuhi poor service – outsourcer kurang responsive terdapat perubahan yang terjadi increased risk – ope. strategy . STEP ONE: Identify basic requirements The first step is to identify basic requirements by meeting with users to agree on the size and scope of the system and decide what it should include and exclude. Prinsip penting di bawah BPM :    Proses bisnis dapat menciptakan competitive advantage Proses bisnis harus dikoordinasikan dan dikomunikasikan dengan baik. fin. personnel. Karena dinilai kurang efektif maka proses ini dikembangkan menjadi BPM dengan pengembangan yang m=berkelanjutan untuk mengoptimalkan proses bisnis dalam organisasi. jika ada ketidak[uasan dari pelnggan    sangat sulit proses untuk pembatalan kontrak tersebut loss of control –terutama kontrol atas system dan data reduce competitive advantage – karena tidak mengetahui proses locked in system – pengeluaran cukup besar. legal dan regulatory risk BUSINESS PROCESS MANAGEMENT Business process reengineering (BPR) is the analysis and redesign of business processes and information systems to achieve significant performance improvements. termasuk peraturan dalam    bisnis analisa bisnis untuk mengidentifikasi isu. inflexibility – kontrak berkisar 10 tahun. tren dan kesempatan integrasi seluruh aktivitas menyetorkan dan mengamankan dokumen dan file penting lainnya PROTOTYPING Four steps are involved in developing a prototype: 1. Developer and users also determine decision-making and transaction processing . tech. business proses harus dapat beradaptasi mennyesuaikan perubahan yang  terjadi bisnis proses harus selaras dengan tujuan dan kebutuhan perusahaan empat komponen utama BPM :  proses untuk membuat dan menjalankan aplikasi.

and the system being turned back to users for next round. They must also respond to prompts. make necessary computations and calculations. the developer must add needed controls.outputs and inputs and data needed to produce those outputs. developers making the changes. The emphasis is on what outputs should be produced rather than how. system controls. input prompts. STEP THREE: Repeated iterations The third step involves repeated iterations of users identifying changes. judge response times. The developer must ensure user expectations are realistic and their basic information requirements are met. For example. validation of input data. This step continues until users are satisfied—usually 4 to 6 iterations. The designer uses the information requirements to develop cost. and feasibility estimates for alternative AIS solutions 2. 4. process data. the developer returns to the users and demonstrates the system. and issue commands. When it’s not practical to . The emphasis is on speed and low cost rather than efficiency of operation. query the system. time. at this point. STEP TWO: Develop an initial prototype The second step involves developing an initial prototype that meets the agreed-on requirements. Half of the prototypes are turned into fully functional systems referred to as operational prototypes. Users are instructed to experiment and comment on what they do and do not like. and integrate the prototype with the systems with which it interfaces. Users must see and use tentative versions of data entry display screens. menus. exception handling. STEP FOUR: Use the system The final step involves using the system approved by the users. and produce real output. An approved prototype is typically used in one of two ways. there is ignorance of non-essential functions. access real data files. When the prototype is finished. Changes may be necessary to allow the program to accept real input. and source documents. improve operational efficiency. some aspects are sacrificed. The goal is to implement the prototype within a short time period. Because of time constraints. processing speed. provide backup and recovery. To make them operational. 3. and efficiency considerations.

It may take days or weeks to get a prototype up vs. Significant user time 2. and the prototype is a model. Higher user involvement and satisfaction 3. the SDLC is followed to develop the system. Better definition of user needs -. They may be discarded. Incomplete system development 4. non-operational or throwaway prototypes can be used in several ways. if users and developers decide the system is unsalvageable. It’s also easy to identify and terminate an infeasible AIS early 5. Inadequately tested and documented systems . they may be used as the initial prototype for an expanded system designed to meet needs of many users.Shortcuts in developing the system may result in poor performance and reliability and high maintenance and support costs 3. Faster development time -. Fewer errors -. Less efficient use of system resources -. As a final alternative. Less costly -. There are some advantages of prototyping : 1. the prototype can be discarded completely. and the systems requirements identified in the process of building them can be used to develop a new system. More opportunity for changes 6. If so.Some for 10–20% of the cost of traditional systems Despite its advantage.modify the prototype to make a fully functional system. Alternately.Because of intensive end-user involvement 2.Errors are detected early because the users experiment with each version. prototype also has several disadvantages : 1. a year or more for a traditional system 4.

Incompatibility -. users. program. analyze.5. Improved control procedures -. design. and programmers in understanding information needs. Negative behavioral reactions -.Some tools don’t interact effectively with some systems . Increased productivity -- Can generate bug-free code from system specifications and automate repetitive tasks 2. There are several advantages of CASE technology : 1. which improves quality of development and reduces threat of serious design errors. and error handling procedures 5. CASE technology also has several disadvantages : 1. Never-ending development -. security measures.If the prototype is discarded. Users may also be dissatisfied if all their suggestions are not incorporated or if they have to go through too many iterations 6.Cost savings of up to 80–90% are possible 4.Can simplify enforcement of structured development standards. can check internal accuracy of design and detect inconsistencies 3. Improved program quality -. Cost savings -. system auditability. It is used to plan.If not managed properly.Encourages development early in the design process of system controls. users may be upset about using it and losing it. and maintain an information system. It is also used to enhance efforts of managers. Simplified documentation -- Automatically documents as the system development progresses Despite its advantage. the development could get stuck in a terminal loop CASE TOOLS Computer-aided software (or systems) engineering (CASE) tools are an integrated package of computer-based tools that automate important aspects of the software development process.

or Paper  What type of data storage structure should be used? – Files or Database  How should files be organized and accessed? – Random. or Local area  What type of storage media should be used for data? – Tape. OCR. IMPLEMENTATION AND OPERATION Conceptual Systems Design In the conceptual systems design phase.Source documents.Some packages > $360. Disk.2. a general framework is created for implementing user requirements and solving the problems identified in the analysis phase. Coaxial cable. Microwave. POS. Evaluate design alternatives The steering committee evaluates the alternatives. or Voice  What format will the input take? -. MICR. The three main steps are : 1.Point-to-point. EDI.Phone lines. Fiber optics. Unmet expectations -. Hard drive. Cost -. Decentralized. or Screen . or Line-sharing  What type of communications channel should be used? -. Following are some design considerations and alternatives:  How should the communications channel be configured? -. or Satellite  What type of communications network should be used? – Centralized. Source data automation. Distributed. Sequential. orIndexed-sequential access  What media should be used to input data? – Keying. Diskette.Only 37% of CIOs believe they achieved expected benefits CHAPTER 22 – SYSTEM DESIGN.000 3. Multi-drop. Turnaround documents. CD.

Prepare design specifications Once a design has been selected. Table. Hourly.On demand or at predetermined times  What format will the output take? – Narrative. Weekly.By batch or Online  How frequently will updates occur? – Instantly. orReal time  What type of processor will be utilized? -- Personal computer. or Microfilm  How will output be scheduled? -. Graph.How will data be stored to produce the desired outputs? . the output specifications are prepared first  Data storage -. or Monthly 2. Daily. or Mainframe  How will software be acquired? – Canned. Custom. Minicomputer. or Modified  How will transactions be processed? -.Because output is what goes to the user and the system must be designed to meet user needs. Voice. Turnaround documents. Weekly. or System-generated forms  What processing mode will be used? – Manual. Hourly. Electronic file or communication  What form will printed output take? -. the project team develops the conceptual design specifications for the following elements:  Output -. Batch.  How will the system be operated? -. Screen. Diskette.In-house or Outsourcing How frequently will outputs be produced? – Instantly. or Monthly  What media will be used for output? – Paper.Pre-printed forms. CD. Daily.

Where is the output to be sent?  Access -. format. Input -. or graphic. and help the steering committee assess system feasibility. when is it needed?. Screen. Important design considerations include :  Use of the output -. It could be table. narrative. Output Design The objective of output design is to determine the nature. Physical System Design 1.Should select the format that clearly conveys the most information. Voice response.  Pre-printed -. and Other  Output format -.What types of data must be entered to produce the desired outputs?  Processing procedures and operations -. Diskette.Who should be able to access hard-copy and screen output? .Who will use it and why?. Microfilm. content.How will data be processed and in what sequence to produce the desired outputs? 3. communicate how management and user information needs will be met. A conceptual systems design report is prepared at the end of the conceptual design phase to guide physical system design activities. and screen displays. and timing of printed reports. and what decisions will it facilitate?  Output medium – Paper. Prepare the conceptual systems design report.Should paper output be on preprinted form and/or turnaround document?  Location -. documents.

Hard drive. Headings and legends organize data and highlight important items. or Paper  Processing mode – Manual. prepared only in response to abnormal conditions. for example: analysis of impact of a government mandate on profitability  Triggered exception reports -.Lengthy output should be preceded by an executive summary and a table of contents. File and database design Important file and database design considerations include:  Storage medium -..How many records and how big are they? and how fast are they expected to grow?  Activity level -. Detailed info goes in an appendix. for examples: weekly sales analysis and monthly financial statements  Special-purpose analysis reports -. Tape.  Timeliness -.have pre-specified content and format.How often should the output be produced? Outputs usually fit into one of the following four categories:  Scheduled reports -. for example: cost overruns  Demand reports -. Disk. are prepared on a regular basis.What procedures are needed to effectively maintain the data?  Size -.e. batch or real time  Maintenance -. typically prepared in response to a management request. the “trigger”. Detail -. i.have pre-specified content and format.no pre-specified content and format. Diskette. CD.have pre-specified content and format and prepared only on request.What portion of records are added or deleted each year? and what portion needs to be updated? . 2.

How much data are to be entered?  Personnel -. and Remote location  Input format -. Customer. forms and computer screens.What is the nature of the data?  Volume -. EDI. POS terminal.3. MICR. double-thick lines.Source or turnaround document. Input design There are two principal types of data input. and source data automation  Input type -. and Voice input  Input source – Computer. position the address for placement in a window envelope. use a standard size and one that is consistent with requirements for filing.What functions and expertise do the data entry operators have? and is additional training necessary?  Frequency -. or mailing. binding. Form design Following are important principles for designing new forms and evaluating existing ones: • General considerations -. use bold type. if mailed to external parties. use appropriate weight and grade of paper.How can costs be minimized without adversely affecting efficiency and accuracy?  Error detection and correction -. OCR.What errors are possible? and how can they be detected and corrected? 4. Considerations in input design include:  Input medium – Keyboard. screen. .Preprint as much data as possible. and shading to highlight different parts of the form.How often is data to be entered?  Cost -.

and a dollar or numeric total . retrieve his name/address data from the system. Computer screens are most effective when the following principles are used:  Organize the screen for quick.Group together logically related information • (e. and complete entry of the data -Minimize input by retrieving as much as possible from the system.Provide space for recording final • disposition of the form. info about the customer.Use clear and explicit error messages that are consistent on all screens and provide a help feature for online assistance  Avoid clutter by restricting the amount of data on one screen -. and if distributed to external parties.have copies of the form printed in different colors to facilitate accurate distribution. provide sufficient room to record each item. grouping logically related data together  Design the screen so users can jump from one data entry location to another or use a single key to go directly to screen locations  Make it easy to correct mistakes -. and include clear instructions for completing the form.. accurate.Limit the number of menu options on a single screen . use codes and check-offs in places where standardized explanations are likely. Main body of form -. Example: If the customer number is entered. info about the product).Place the form name at the top in • bold type. have company name and address pre-printed on the form. dates of approval and final disposition. order the data items consistent with the sequence in which the data is likely to be gathered. clearly indicate the distribution of each form. have the forms pre-numbered consecutively.  Enter data in the same order it appears on the document  Complete the screen from left to right and top to bottom. Conclusion section of form -. Introductory section of form -.g. approval signatures.

 STEP FIVE: Document the program -. organized in a manual. Errors discovered late cost 80–1000% more to fix than those found early. and the company begins to use the system.All components are brought together.  STEP TWO: Develop and document a plan -.  STEP SEVEN: Install the system -.Debugging is discovering and eliminating program errors. etc.. Errors need to be found as soon as possible in the development process. narrative descriptions of the system. E-R diagrams. It includes flowcharts.Occurs during the systems analysis stage of the SDLC. Desk checking happens after a program is coded and involves a visual and mental review to discover programming errors.  STEP ONE: Determine user needs -. Program design The following slides discuss the eight steps for developing software and where these steps take place in the SDLC. such as individual program modules. Programs are tested for logic errors using test data that simulates both valid transactions and all possible error conditions.  STEP THREE: Write the program code -.  STEP SIX: Train program users -. record layouts. It begun during systems design and completed during systems implementation. .  STEP FOUR: Test the program code -. known as hierarchical program design. Large programs are often tested in three stages.Often uses the program documentation. and the interfaces between the program being tested and other application programs.Documentation explains how programs work and helps correct and resolve errors.Design in increasing levels of detail.Occurs during the conceptual design phase and the beginning of physical design. REA data models.5. the linkages between the module and the control module.

Controls design Improperly controlled input. Procedures may take the form of system manuals. error detection and correction. user instruction classes. The procedures may be written by development teams. Procedure design Individuals who interact with a newly-designed AIS need procedures to cover input preparation. and computer operator instructions. Controls must be built into an AIS to ensure its effectiveness. destruction.Program maintenance is a response to any factors that require program revision. training materials. Important control concerns that must be addressed include:  Validity -.Are input. output preparation and distribution. These controls should minimize errors and detect and correct errors when they do occur. and accuracy.Is input verified to ensure accuracy? and what controls ensure that data is not lost when passing between processing activities?  Security -. or values such as tax rates. processing. or teams representing both groups. and output activities authorized by the appropriate managers?  Accuracy -. controls. efficiency. users. reconciliation of balances. 7. database access. or disclosure of information and software and theft of system resources? . processing. error detection and correction. alteration. and online help screen.Is the system protected against unauthorized physical and logical access to prevent improper use. changes in input. transaction processing. STEP EIGHT: Use and modify the system -. and database functions produce information of questionable value. It includes requests for new or revised reports.Are all interactions valid?  Authorization -. and conversion to new hardware. storage. file content. 6. Accountants play a vital role in this area.

This report serves as the basis for management’s decision whether to proceed to implementation. and inadvertent manipulations?  Audit trail -. document. expected completion dates.Can the system be modified without affecting system availability.Are documents pre-numbered to prevent errors or intentional misuse and to detect when documents are missing or stolen?  Availability -. Numerical control -. security.Can data be traced from source to output and vice versa? 8. Physical system design report At the end of the physical design phase.Is the system available as set forth in agreements? and can users enter. a physical systems design report is prepared. update. The plan specifies when the project should be complete and operational. The implementation team should identify risk factors that decrease the likelihood of successful implementation. Systems Implementation and Conversion Systems implementation is the process of installing hardware and software and getting the AIS up and running. and retrieve data during those times?  Maintainability -. and communicate changes to management and authorized users?  Integrity -- Is processing authorized?. schedule. Are resources available to manage. and the plan should contain a strategy for coping with . Developing a plan An implementation plan consists of implementation tasks. tested. from accurate. unauthorized or timely. Is it free complete. and integrity?. Are only authorized. Phases include 1. and documented changes made to the system and data?. cost estimates and specification of the person(s) responsible for each task. summarizing what was accomplished.

input. Completing documentation Three types of documentation must be prepared for new systems:  Development documentation -.Describes the AIS and includes a system description.each of the risks. because the employees already understand the business. raised floors. Effective training includes hardware and software skills and orientation to new policies and operations. Types of training include technical training from vendors. Selecting and training personnel Employees can be hired from outside or transferred internally. storage. case studies. and experimenting with the AIS under the guidance of experienced users. airconditioning. space for equipment. such as fire protection and emergency power supply. Transferring displaced employees can enhance loyalty and morale. elimination or downsizing of existing departments. computer-aided instruction. self-study manuals. special lighting. Companies take training shortcuts because effective training is time-consuming and expensive and those who understand the system are maintaining and upgrading it. Hiring from within is usually more effective and less costly. Preparing the site : Installing and testing hardware and software A large computer may require changes such as new electrical outlets. 4. Site preparation is a lengthy process and should begin well ahead of the installation date. and changes even in the data processing department. data communications facilities. security measures. and offices. and database . file. including creation of new departments. When training is insufficient. copies of output. humidity controls. roleplaying. 3. the company will not achieve the expected return on investment. AIS changes may require adjustments to the company’s organizational structure. 2. videotape presentations. The training should be scheduled just before systems testing and conversion. The hidden cost is that users will turn to their coworkers who have mastered the system for help. It results in less productive coworkers and increased costs.

Direct conversion . Four conversion approaches are used to change from an old to a new system: 1. ongoing part of the system. files. requires both valid and erroneous data. Many elements must be converted. and address logical and structural aspects of program code. program flowcharts.  Operations documentation – Includes operating schedules.Determines whether the program operates as designed. and includes a procedures manual and training materials. Conversion is the process of changing from the old AIS to the new. outputs. test results. users develop acceptance criteria. focus is on organization input.layouts. and equipment. files and databases accessed. the correct response for each test should be specified in advance.  Acceptance tests -. The process is complete when the new AIS has become a routine.  Processing test transactions -. Testing the system Inadequate system testing has contributed to the failure of systems.Step-by-step reviews of procedures or program logic : Attended by the development team and users early in system design. including hardware.Teaches users how to operate the AIS. 5. and data flows. Three common forms of testing include:  Walk-throughs -. and file retention requirements  User documentation -. software. subsequent walk-throughs are attended by programmers.Uses copies of real transactions and files rather than hypothetical ones. security. and procedures. and then make final decision whether to accept. and user acceptance forms. data files.

but the disadvantages are costs of creating temporary interfaces between old and new AIS and time required to make the complete conversion. Appropriate when the old AIS has no value. When problems with the system are resolved. Main advantage to direct conversion is inexpensive. Phase-in conversion Gradually replaces elements of the old AIS with the new one. Parallel conversion Operates the old and new systems simultaneously for a period of time.g. The advantages of this conversion is it localizes conversion problems and allows training in a live environment. tedious. a branch office or a single store. The difficulty and magnitude is easy to underestimate. but the main disadvantage is it provides no backup AIS. parallel processing has gained widespread popularity. the new system could be implemented at the remaining locations. You can process transactions with both systems.. Data conversion can be time-consuming. 2. reconcile differences. tape to . and make corrections to the new AIS.g. e. But the disadvantages are long conversion time and need for interfaces between old and new systems. there are files may be moved to a different storage medium (e. The new system is often phased in a module at a time.Immediately terminates the old AIS when the new one is introduced. Pilot conversion Implements a system in just one part of the organization. Data files may need to be modified in three ways. Main advantage to parallel conversion is it protects the company from errors but the main disadvantage is it is costly and stressful for employees to process all transactions twice. There is a high risk of failure unless the new system has been very carefully developed and tested. The main advantage is data processing resources can be acquired over time.. 3. Because companies often experience problems during conversion. and expense. 4. or the new AIS is so different that comparisons between the two are meaningless. compare output.

. Check files for completeness and data inaccuracies. Do the actual data conversion. and remove any inconsistencies. Steps in the data conversion process: 1.g. data content may be changed (e. fields added or deleted). 3. and a file or database format may be changed. Decide which data files need to be converted. . 2.disk).