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Reducing Energy Consumption of Vehicle Air Conditioning System

by an Energy Management System
Hamid Khayyam, Abbas Z. Kouzani, and Eric J. Hu

Abstract-This paper presents an energy management
system to reduce the energy consumption of a vehicle when its
air conditioning system is in use. The system controls the mass
flow rate of the air by dynamically adjusting the blower speed
and air-gates opening under various heat and loads
circumstances. Simulations were conducted for a travelling
vehicle operating the air conditioning system without and with
the developed energy management system. The results show
that the comfort temperature within the cabin room is achieved
for reduced amount of energy consumption.
Keywords: Energy consumption,
algorithm, air conditioning.





NCREASING demands for energy consumption reduction
in vehicles are resulting in the development of intelligent
energy management systems for vehicles and their internal
components. Vehicle air conditioning system is one of the
internal components of a vehicle that contributes greatly
towards the overall energy consumption in the vehicle. The
significant power used by the mechanical compressor of a
vehicle air conditioning system raises the fuel consumption.
Lambert et al. [1] reported that the mechanical compressor
can increase fuel consumption by up to 12-17 per cent for
subcompact to mid-size cars.
Optimising the energy consumption of the air
conditioning system on board of a vehicle would help
improve the overall energy efficiency of the vehicle. A
number of methods have been developed so far to improve
the energy efficiency associated with operating the vehicle
air conditioning system.
Yeh et al. [2] reported that making the fan speed
adjustable adds flexibility to control design and thus can
cause an improvement in the performance and energy
efficiency. They presented two algorithms that reduce
power consumption in steady state and transient time
incorporating fan control. Kim et al. [3] developed a 3D
CFD program that analyses the performance of the vehicle
cooling system. It can predict the coolant inlet temperature
of the radiator. The results show that the radiator
performance had a linear relation with the coolant inlet
temperature. Jabardo et al. [4] developed a model for the
Hamid Khayyam is with the School of Engineering, Deakin University,
Geelong, VIC 3217, Australia (e-mail:
Abbas Z. Kouzani is with the School of Engineering, Deakin University,
Geelong, VIC 3217, Australia (e-mail:
Eric 1. Hu is with the School of Engineering, Deakin University,
Geelong, VIC 3217, Australia (e-mail:

978-1-4244-3504-3/09/$25.00 ©2009 IEEE


refrigeration circuit with a variable capacity compressor that
is run by an electric motor. The model indicates that
maximum deviations from the experimentally is within a
20% range, although most of the simulated results are within
the 10% range. It also shows that the coefficient of
performance (COP) is always affected negatively by
increments in refrigerant charge. Qi et al. [5] developed an
experimental study of auto controlled air conditioning
system. They used an externally controlled variable
displacement compressor. Attention was paid to evaporator
characteristics and in-car temperature fluctuation based on
occupant's thermal comfort. The results show that the air
conditioning system can maintain the deviation of in-car
temperature within 2°C. Frazaneh et al. [6] focused on
thermal comfort temperature and energy. They used a
Fanger's predicted mean value as controller feedback.
Evaporator cooling capacity was selected as a criterion for
energy consumption. Two fuzzy controllers were designed
one with a temperature feedback and the other with the
predicted mean value index feedback. The results show that
predicted-mean-value controller better controls the thermal
comfort temperature and energy consumption. They
optimised the fuzzy controller using a genetic algorithm and
reported an increase in the thermal comfort level and
decrease in the energy consumption.
This paper presents an energy management system that
reduces the energy consumption of the vehicle operating the
air conditioning system. The contributions of the work
include: (i) controlling mass flow rate of air by adjusting the
operation speed of the blower, (ii) automatically adjust the
opening of the fresh air as well as recirculation air gates in
order to maximise indoor air quality of the cabin room, and
(iii) controlling the operation of the evaporator using an
intelligent algorithm that results in the reduction of the
vehicle energy consumption.
The paper is organised as follows. Section 2 describes the
energy balance equation associated with the vehicles' cabin
room. Section 3 gives the developed simulation
methodology. Section 4 presents the experimental results
and associated discussions. Finally, the concluding remarks
are given in Section 5.


The cabin room of a vehicle can be treated as a controlled
volume in which various energy enter it as shown in Fig. 1.
The energy balance of the cabin room is represented in
equation (1):

. 2) j Diffuse = C j dn (1 + cos f3) / 2 Diffuse radiation factor (see Table II) The surface angle with the horizontal The Diffuse-Solar-Radiation value is give in Table III 22nd Des Melbourne (Australia) 1018 0. 138 II = . (t) = Evaporator Heat QEvaporator Qventilatioo(t.6 - T 10 ) / QVenti/atio n mair Mass flow rate of air kgjs 1005 k/j C Temperature in zone 3 shown in Fig. C PARAMETERS OF ASHRAE MODEL FOR CLEAR SKY [8] Month City Latitude ABC (see Fig. 2. 138 (0. hF=kNux/X. QMetabolioc= NpassengersX Qpassenge Number of passengers W / m 65 . TABLE I PARAMETERS INVOLVED IN THE ENERGY BALANCE EQUATION Qpassenger - Ventilation QExhaust(RPM) ~assengel (0.oom) The parameters associated with equation (1) are described in Table I. (RPM) = Engine Heat QEngme (t .T.Re fleeted . Representation of the direct solar radiation component Incidence Surface Apparent solar irradiation (see Table II) Extinction coefficient (see Table II) Zenith angle as shown in Fig.2 [8] cos B z = sin B i Constant listed in Table II g C Absorbed Re Ambient Load QAmbient (t.207 0. The cabin room energy flow mxCroom dT· .Troom ) + QConvection (t. Troom ) I-Free convection Two phases: 2-Forced convection hi=kNux / x Nu = C Re ~ Pr Values are listed in Table V ( t.5 = liz C p (TZ 3 - TZ 2 ) Evaporator Temperature in zone 5 shown in Fig. B.2 = Ambient Load Metabolic Heat = T7 7 - T Engine = Sxj Dir = Q.radiation = S x j Re f = Radiation reflected by road QAmbient(t. . 4 X (0.oom) . T.cos f3) / 2 ground reflectivity=0.Nu x = C(GrfPrf)m room =Q (t)=Q + dt Trans Metabolic QDireCf-SOlar-radiation Exhaust Heat +QDif!USfrSOlar-radiation + QExhaust -pipe = QExhaust 7 + QExhaust 11 QREjlecte~Solar-radiation +QAmbienlt . 2 The angle of incidence of beam e i Diffuse Solar Radiation C f3 = 50 0 .0355 = Exhaust heat content . Troom ) 7 II QEngine = Metabolic Heat Load QDirect-Solar-radiation QExhaust QExhaust Engine Heat Where: QMetaboliC n The incident as well as zenith angles associated with the direct solar radiation component of the energy balance equation are depicted in Fig.17 ) + 63 RPM 10 (T Engine (10 . 4 = Ventilation Load . T room = ) QConduction (t . Troom ) T room - ) he = heat transfer coefficient A = Suitable area for heat flow T room = Cabin room temperature QConvection Fig. 1. Troom ) QConduction heA ( T amb (t. T room ) X X RPM RPM 2) dt + ) + 77 .100 2 [7] Assumed to be 300 Watts Direct Solar Radiation Fig.. TABLE II A. T.136 TABLE III SOLAR RADIATION FOR VEHICLES IN STEADY STATE [8] Vehicle Surface 753 f3 0 ez C j Dir j Diffus j Refl Total .Solar .oom) + QExhaust +QEngine + (1) QventilatiOl (t. 4 Temperature in zone 2 shown in Fig.QEvaporato. ez = 40 0 The parameters associated with solar radiations loads are given in Tables II and III. 4 Temperature in zone 3 shown in Fig. 2.Radiation reflected 8 P j j fl (C + sin Dir Bi ) P g (1 .Diffuse-Solar-radiation Q.(t) = he 2 A 77 (T Exhaust = he 2 A II (T Exhaust T Exhaust 7 = T Exhaust II Direct Solar Radiation Load = S x j Diffuse = Diffuse Solar Radiation Load = hc2 A RPM X X ) / dt TIl) / dt ) .

. Ambient load is a function of time requiring a host of information about the vehicle geometry and characteristics./ . evaporator temperature.71 In /?Gam Floor Panel .23 x2=0. Nissan Pulsar 1995 surface geometries: (a) room geometry.23=2.40 90 A3 Rear window 1. a number of conditions and limitation associated with the drive strategy and vehicle type are determined.42 15 A6 Rear side window x 2 0.[J. Re = VL/v. the figure represents the air conditioning system in the form of 11 zones. and stable drive operation. The system includes two main components. It passes through evaporator into cabin room as indicated in Fig. Ambient Unit (AU): This unit provides the amount ambient temperature frequently.. Solar Unit (SU): This unit calculates the solar radiation during the trip. select the engine specifications. h . and overall compressor and power consumption... gates...21 x2=0.136 0 62 57 119 The ambient energy influences the cabin temperature through convection and conduction through the vehicle root: glass surfaces.41 x1.98 o A8 Floor 1..:===~::::::::::E:SJ- Fresh Air • G1 Blower Z1 Z2 Z3 Z4 Z5 Fig. 6. These units sense and calculate the data associated with either of the AC or environment../ ... 754 . the blower and evaporator work together to create the comfort temperature in the cabin room. 3.58=0.5=6. iii.99x2=1.136 777 93 16 886 70 40 0.. and (b) thickness of glass and panel TABLE IV SURFACE AREAS AND ANGLES Surface No Area m Surface 2 Al Windshield 1.98 40 A2 Roof panel 1. . 4mm 2mm I I I . SIMULATION METHODOLOGY The block diagram description of the system is shown in Fig.oom(tl I I I .:::::::. bottom surface.. Control Management Unit (CMU): This unit includes the following four components: i. B./ S Tamb . Average Laminar boundary Nu = 0.2 TABLE V FORCED CONVECTION FORMULAS [9] External Flows for Flat Plate: Characteristic length = L = length of plate.Wind shield Rear window Side Window 40 40 0. iv.136 0 71 46 117 80 40 0. working in an iterative and backward approach. In addition.71 x1./ .23=1../ .. All properties at arithmetic mean of surface.. The driver is expected to determine the drive strategy including setting the comfort temperature. 4./ . 4.. Additionally._~ Z11 --=---:--~~~~~::::=::::::i:Z. Overview of the air conditioning system III. and doors. ii. and surface angles in relation to vertical axis..46 15 A5 Side window x 2 0. 5. Table V give the forced convection formulas. the compressor and the blower take energy (torque.8=0.05x2=0. The EMS calculates and control air mass flow rate. Table IV gives the actual values of the associated surface areas.1 15 A7 Side panels x 2 0.037 Re 15 Pr 1/3 ofh boundary layer: Re> 5 x lOs Average Laminar-turbulent Nu = 0..13xl. and start the vehicle motion. Energy Management System (EMS) The EMS consists of two units as described below. C. Room Temperature Unit (RTU): This unit senses the cabin room temperature during the trip. Ventilation refers to the air movement into vehicle from outside./ . environmental conditions.1 90 A9 Vehicle 4./ L Smm (b) Fig. 3 represents the geometry information associated with a sample vehicle (1995 Nissan Pulsar). To manage this task. Fig.2. Air Conditioning (AC) According to equation (1) and Table I. Engine Unit (EU): This unit sets the values of engine operation and gives such data as PRM and torque. Each zone posses a certain temperature and air velocity./ .l."I (a) ~ I I T. r Tid cabinufoom .:ooJt)1 S LOins Tamb I I I A.23xO. B.664 Re ~ 2 Pr 1/ 3 value of h layer: Re < 5 x lOs Turbulent Local value Nu = 0. The algorithm combines such data as vehicle behaviour.23 xO.71 60 A4 Front window x 2 0. Drive Strategy Unit (DSU): This unit is set by the driver strategy and then start controlling the comfort temperature.337(Re1 15 -871)Pr1l3 value Rec= boundary layer: Average value Re> 5 x lOs 5 x lOs B. 1. T. EMS Algorithm 1 The overview of the simulation algorithm for the EMS is given in Fig. speed) from engine.

Otherwise._._._._.=-._.._.=.1 OPTR ! !! ! !! c~ IF L____ i T I---'---------------L-.J 1 1 RPM Engine I 1 ~ ._._. 5._.._._.._._._._.i 1Fig._._.=-._._._._._._._._.._._.1 s-I 1 1 I I I 1 !! i! I ! .=-._._._.J Fig._. Next._._. The data include arrays of 3600 elements (steps)._. the vehicle/environment/solar radiation data is retrieved from CMU._._..: : :f!e~~~1 G~ ~tcG2 ~ I ( ~) Increase Blower speed l I D~:-~~~~~~~ CMS ~ Yes l No I ._. If the current total solar radiation is different from the energy associated with the solar energy._._. ATTl increases or decreases the amount of ambient temperature._._._._.._._.._._._._. In this case.._. The cabin room temperature should remain constant and thus the heat transfer of vehicle is expected to remain constant.._._._._.._._.-._._. OPTR block is entered._._.0 sec._._.._._._._.._._._._._.._._._._.._._._.._._._._. If the predicted ambient temperature is different from the current ambient temperature._._. blower may become larger than the normal load and heats._._._._._._._._._._._._._.C ~ ~ ! OR FG! i l ! ! ! ! 1 1 .._._._._ ! ! ! ! !! ! ! i! • ._._..- No Coo 2 Increase or Decrease 1 1 1 1 1 i i i i i - Solar Radiation !: i G! ! i No No ! ! ! Yes ! ! No t =t+l Yes S10 ' No Con 6 Yes ~~~g~~ ~.~e~b~i~H._._._._._._. Overview of the energy management system for air conditioning j._._._._.._._._._._.._._._._._._._._.-~ItT1 r.._._._._._._._._. Overview of the energy management system algorithm The simulation starts with initialising several variables including vehicle geometry and some constant parametric values._.._._-----_._. However._._._. vehicle speed and the information from last block in an iterative manner._. OPTR optimises the compressor. I I BOAC I BOAC Balance Operation Air Conditioning ~.._._.: _~ ( ~) Control Management Unit Ambient Temperature Type Identification Solar Radition Type Identification Optimize Process Temperature Room 2gS ::~m:m::~:::::HOdF~hM'Gm._._._._._._._._._._._._._._. 755 SRIT block is triggered calculating the amount of energy for outside vehicle geometry heat transfer.._._. more ._._._._._._._._._. The ambient temperature data is retrieved from CMU.._._._.""! ! i i !i i i !i ii Ambient Temperature Coni 1Tern f !i i !i ! - Ternc 1)0 ._._._._._._._.- ~I Increase or Decrease Ambient Temperature 1:1 ~1 y~ SRTI 1 IS~-S~_II)O Solar Radiation Room Tempemtu<e and IAQ ii i Ii - "0 eMU !! 1 ! 1= ! ~~ A-:"18.J - ------------------J. 6._._._._._._._._._._._._._._.i i i i i i i• i i i i i i St~::a ! l Energy Management System (EMS) i i i i i i i i i ._._._._._._._._._._. blower and gates with respect to the cabin room temperature._._._._._. the required evaporator._._. I: ! i i r---~I._._._._._._..._._._._._.·._._.-t i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i ~ Q a a l'"'! ~~ i i i i i i i !EMS i i._.=-..._._._._._._._.. Each iteration takes 1. due to changes in various load and heats._._.._._._._.._._...

Next. Simulation 2: In simulation.98 0.5 6. when either of temperature becomes smaller than the desired limit.8 21. The result of OPTR is compared against the drive strategy (DSU). Otherwise.8 8.5 20 1000 Humidity (%) Air speed (mls) Average Surface Room SI 21. We have employed the highway method where the road has no bends.6 48. A. Parameters C.O. D. all loads and the heats are examined in every 1. circulation compressor operation will be consumed to keep the comfort temperature within their specified ranges.5 6.9 3000 10.5 6. A. the vehicle was tested under similar conditions as the fITst simulation but using the developed EMS.51 13. ORFG In the assignment block.5 6. In this case.71 3. the equilibrium temperature was achieved after 600 sec. m blower and gates are corrected by decreasing or increasing it in the increase/decrease block.14 54.5 41. TABLE IX COMFORT STRATEGY Min Max Parameters Average Speed (m / s ) 19. then the combination of circulation compressor operation and blower speed is increased.01 . In our simulation.5 6.5 24 1200 250 315 300 Parameters Temperature (C) 20 25. Discussions B. The parameters given in Tables VI-IX were employed to achieve the comfort temperature in the cabin room for 2400 sec.14 49.93 o 10 Sub Cool superheat 2415 310 Charge Discharge TABLE VII BLOWER SPECIFICATIONS Min Max Normal 1. the comfort evaporator temperature.42 98. Table X shows the results for the fITst 1200 seconds. Simulation 1: In this simulation. TABLE VIII COMFORT CABIN ROOM SPECIFICATIONS Min Max 40 Surface Average 12.5 6. SIMULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS The simulation results are described in the following. B. Simulation 1: The results are given in Tables X-XI and Fig.00 sec.21. The comfort cabin room specification are listed in Table VIII as reported by ASHRAE [10] .15 1500 4000 5.20 20.44 49.74 69. A.6 25 1800 12.5 756 TABLE XI SIMULATION 1 RESULTS: THE NEXT 2400 SEC he hf hf Equilibrium 20 20 20 Temperature W / m e w/ m e w/ m C 0C Shimizu [11] Hamid At 600 sec 6. Finally the cabin room temperature and humidity are then compared with the drive strategy data. Simulations Results Two simulations were conducted in sunny and operating fan conditions for a moving vehicle operating the air conditioning system without EMS and with EMS. 7.62 86. the fan and the air conditioning are turned on.5 Vehicles are often simulated in urban or highway conditions. On the other hand. Once either of temperature or m is found greater than the desired limit.5 41.45 1. these data will be forwarded to the next block where they overwrite the results of the previous iteration.4 51. As shown in Table XI and Fig.00 Acceleration (m / s 2 ) -0.1 48.74 43.6 40.44 21.22 37.49 49.98 0. old data is overwritten with the new data.14 63. we have considered a vehicle with a compressor and a blower whose specifications are given in Tables VI and VII. Drive Strategy In this work.1. Also the iteration results are displayed for the driver and used for balance operation BOAC.1. the required circulation compressor operation becomes smaller than the normal compressor operation. The equilibrium temperature is around 64°C after 650 sec. In each iteration.26 After 1200 sec mark. On the other hand.38 7.circulation compressor operation will be consumed to maintain the comfort temperature within their desired ranges. the air conditioning and fan are turned on to achieve the comfort temperature.4 40.6 60 50 1 5 2. if certain load and heats are reduced. 7. the circulation compressor operation and blower speed is decreased.P CAP (KW) RMP (rev /min ) Evaporator (KW) Temperature (C) Gas R-134 Pressure (kPa) Gas R-134 Parameters Volts Amp RMP (rev /min ) Engine power (W) TABLE VI COMPRESSOR SPECIFICATIONS Min Max 1. These steps are repeated maintaining both the temperature remain within their desired ranges until the simulation time reaches the fmal step. Room SI S2 S3 S7 SII TABLE X SIMULATION 1 RESULTS: THE FIRST 1200 SEC h h h Equilibrium C f f Temperature 0C 20 20 20 W/m C W/m C W/m C At 650 sec Shimizu[ll] Hamid 6. We have formulated a set of rules called "Drive Strategy" shown in Table IX.90 12.52 46. the vehicle was tested under sunny condition fITst for 1200 sec for the vehicle speed of 20 mls. equation (1) is calculated to fmd the actual temperatures in cabin room and some surfaces. If the comparison is satisfied.4 48.5 3600 72000 1 Travel Time (s) Travel Distance m IV. Also no traffic lights are included.

-j.Q) . 2006.pp. 27.49 49..1 1 -+ .4 MJ energy was needed to achieve the comfort temperature in cabin room.2007." Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy (ANSI Approved).- -+ .5 6.... Qi....1 48..-_. It takes into account the role of combined mass flow rate air.. and z. "Fundamentals handbook ". Part 1: conceptual and embodiment design..S2 S3 S7 SII 6.44 36.2.__ 1_ 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1. and gates to minimise the energy consumption under various heat and loads conditions..0 0.. air conditioning.- o~ ~ 1 - EQ) - 1 1 - 1 1 - 1 1 - ." Applied Thermal Engineering vol." IMechE Automobile Engineering vol.5 6.-----..I 1 1 - .5 48. Lambert and B.5 6.I.----..&. 8 show the energy consumption for the air conditioning and fan for the next 2400 seconds with EMS.1 1 1 1 1 1 -1..8000 §: 60 -1. M.- - 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1. 1896-1906. ASHRAE. As can be seen.-j.. T. Mamani..-_. 927-933.----. Hara... Table XIII shows the results for beyond 1200 sec...&.14 64. j.5 48. Asakawa.-1. 14.6 MJ energy was required to achieve the comfort temperature in the cabin room. "The estimation of metabolic heat for use in the assessment of thermal comfort " Report from Loughborough University.------r-----..5 51..6 40. pp. 7.. Kim.." chapter 2 7 fenestration 1985. Y.. 220 Part D. R. 1. UK 1989..172 2820 7. Tootoonchi. S.&. Y...------..0 0. and M.-_--' 0 o 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600Tim1~ofs) 2000 2200 2400 2600 2800 3000 Fig..-_"---_.49 40.-p.-_--'-----_--'-----_--'-----_--'-----_----'----_----'----_----'----_---L. Cabin room temperature and energy consumption for Simulation 1 c: =-=-===-=-===-==~ 6000 ao E ~ g (f) 4000 o""'--_.4 and 7. TABLE XII SIMULATION 1 RESULTS: ENERGY CONSUMPTION FOR THE NEXT 2400 SEC Speed G1 G2 liz AlC Total Energy ml s Min Min Kg/s W MJ Ave Max Max Ave Ave At 2400(s) 20 1.1 1 + ..5 48. respectively.57 65.. and F.59 MJ per 2400 second. Simulation 2: The results for the fITst 1200 sec are the same as those of Simulation 1 (see Fig.--. xxxxx.." Applied Thermal Engineering. 25. "Modeling and experimental evaluation of an automotive air conditioning system with a variable capacity compressor.0 0. Hwang. gate1. "A numerical analysis for the cooling module related to automobile air-conditioning system.1. [2] B.5 21. 8.31 6. "Standard 55. 2004. vol.. The total energy consumption for Simulations 1 and 2 were around 14. "Controlling automobile thermal comfort using optimized fuzzy controller. A..- - 1 1 -' 1 1 1 I - 1 1 1 1 1. CONCLUSIONS An energy management system for air conditioning 80r---r---r---.197 6240 14.I. Speed mls Ave 20 [8] [9] [10] TABLEIXV SIMULATION 2 RESULTS: ENERGY CONSUMPTION liz AlC Total Energy G1 G2 Min Min Kg/s W MJ Max Max Ave Ave At 2400(s) 1.-----... References Table XII gives the energy consumption for the air conditioning and fan during the next 2400 seconds. 1...56 [5] [6] [7] Table IXV and Fig.14 63.--.14 54.I - - 1 1 1 -1.4 49.2008.-----.I..58 system was presented. pp.. 80-90. gate2.pp.----." International Journal ofRefrigeration vol. vol..2002.4 1. 959-972. pp.0 0.5 48. Parsons.l.-----." Applied Thermal Engineering.1 0. The comfort temperature in the cabin room is achieved by EMS managing mass of flow rate.-1.1.-_.. Two simulation studies were conducted: with and without EMS.r- co 40 o~ c:~ .59 0.14 49. 28.1.-_.1. z. H.14 95.0 0. pp. Chen. 51. K.- 1 ---J - I 1 1 1 1 1 1 - 1 1 - 1 -1.73 6. vol. ~~ I-- 20 1 t. Jones...-_.--"-----'-------'--------'--------'--------'--------'--------'--------'----------'---------'---------'----- o 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 2600 2800 3000 3200 3400 Time(s) Fig.-g..-------. 8).- - 1 1 J 1 1 - 1 I - - 1 - 1 .1 54. "Experimental study of an auto-controlled automobile air conditioning system with an externally-controlled variable displacement compressor.4 49. 1982..l.-_---L. 2008.. "Automotive adsorption air conditioner powered by exhaust heat. Cabin room temperature and energy consumption for Simulation 2 757 3200 3400 3600 ..- 1 - 1 1 1_ _ 1 1 1 ." Applied Thermal Engineering. Yeh. H.41 6. 1906-1917.. S. A.4 49. 1157-1172..-----. 28. Chen.-Y.----.42 6.0 [1] M. "Fundamentals handbook....." JSAE.....4 48.&. and W.14 83. Jabardo. Shimizu.. pp. As can be seen. "Analysis on air conditioning heat load of passenger vehicle.1 1 - 1 1 I 1 1 1 - 1 1 - 1 . Farzaneh and A.77 41. Surface Room S1 S2 S3 S7 SII [3] [4] TABLE XIII SIMULATION 2 RESULTS: THE NEXT 2400 SEC he hf hf Equilibrium WI 20C I 20C I 20C Temperature °C m W m W m At900(s) Shimizu[ll] Hamid 6.9 [11] V. and air conditioning. 7. G... ASHRAE... Kim and C.04 53.5 41. Review..4 49. The simulations show that EMS can provide comfort temperature inside the cabin room using reduced amount of energy consumption.1 1 - 1 t.- - 1 ---J - 1 1 J _ _ L _ - 1 1 1 r.-----. Iranella.------. ASHRAE. "Incorporating fan control into air-conditioning systems to improve energy efficiency and transient response.1 1 1 __ 1 1 1 I - - 1 1 0'----'----'----.. Chen.. 2005.59 6.