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parallel axis theorem

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cylinder axis

Annular cylinder

about cylinder axis

axis

axis

Solid cylinder

axis

axis

Solid cylinder

about central diameter

Solid sphere

Thin Spherical shell axis

about any diameter about any diameter

axis Hoop

about any diameter

Slab about

axis through

centre

axis

Statement

Moment of inertia of a body about any axis is equal to the sum of moment of inertia of the

body about an axis passing through its centre of mass and mass of the body times the square of

the distance between the two axis.

Mathematically we express

=

Here,

is the moment of inertia of the body about an axis passing through centre of

mass and is the mass of the body and is the distance between the two parallel axis (axis

of rotation and axis through centre of mass)

Proof

Consider a rigid body having mass in

z axis perpendicular to the plane of the body passing through . Let an

particle of mass

is located at = + from and at = + with respect to centre of mass. Let

the coordinates of centre of mass

=

&

( )

=

is

)

Using ( )

=

( +

) +

( +

Now we have

(

)+

( )

The last two terms in ( ) vanish because the body is always symmetrical about its centre of

mass. So we are left with

(

)+

(

=

=

Since

and

)+

So we have now

=

=

.( )

The 1st term in equation ( ) is the moment of inertia of the body about an axis through

its centre of mass and 2nd term represents the Mass of the body time the square of the

distance between the two parallel axes i.e

=

Importance:

This theorem is very helpful in determining the moment of inertia of any system of 1-D, 2D or three dimensional mass distribution.

Statement:

Moment of inertia of a plane lamina about an axis perpendicular the plane or lamina is

equal to the sum of the moment of inertia of lamina about two axes at right angle to each other

in its own plane intersecting each other at the point where the perpendicular axis passes

through it. Mathematically

=

Proof:

Let

and

plane. The distance of this particle from

axis is

axis is

be the

perpendicular to

axis =

axis=

Let we divide the whole sheet or lamina into number of particles of masses

,

,

, having position vectors , , , so that their distances from

, , , and from axis be , , , then

axis be

axis =

axis =

=

,

the plane (lamina) i.e. along axis is

=

=

+

+

+

+

=

( )

, about an axis perpendicular to

+

+

( )

Comparing ( ) and ( )

=

Importance

It is useful for the determination of moment inertia of a 2D system only.

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