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cylinder axis

Annular cylinder

about cylinder axis

axis

axis

Solid cylinder

about cylinder axis

axis

axis

Solid cylinder

about central diameter

Solid sphere

Thin Spherical shell axis

about any diameter about any diameter

axis Hoop

about any diameter

Slab about

axis through

centre

axis

Let the body is to be rotated about z axis perpendicular to the plane of the body passing through . Let an particle of mass is located at ⃗ = ⃗ + ⃗ from and at ⃗ = ⃗ + ⃗′ with respect to centre of mass. is the moment of inertia of the body about an axis passing through centre of mass and is the mass of the body and is the distance between the two parallel axis (axis of rotation and axis through centre of mass) Proof Consider a rigid body having mass in − . Let the coordinates of centre of mass be the ( . Mathematically we express = + Here. Now we have. from the diagram = + & = + …………( ) The rotational inertia or moment of inertia of the mass = = ( + is ) Using ( ) = ( + ) + ( + ) . ) respectively with respect to .PARALLEL AXES THEOREM: Statement Moment of inertia of a body about any axis is equal to the sum of moment of inertia of the body about an axis passing through its centre of mass and mass of the body times the square of the distance between the two axis.

Let mass of a particle whose position vector is ⃗ from an axis through plane. So we are left with ( = + )+ + Applying summation for the whole body ( = = Since + and + )+ = + + ………( ) So we have now = + Which can be expressed as = + ………….e = + Importance: This theorem is very helpful in determining the moment of inertia of any system of 1-D. Mathematically = + Proof: Let and be the two perpendicular axes in the plane of a lamina. The distance of this particle from axis is . axis is be the perpendicular to and the distance of this particle from . 2D or three dimensional mass distribution. Perpendicular Axis Theorem: Statement: Moment of inertia of a plane lamina about an axis perpendicular the plane or lamina is equal to the sum of the moment of inertia of lamina about two axes at right angle to each other in its own plane intersecting each other at the point where the perpendicular axis passes through it.( ) The 1st term in equation ( ) is the moment of inertia of the body about an axis through its centre of mass and 2nd term represents the “Mass of the body time the square of the distance between the two parallel axes” i.⇒ = + + + + + ′ Now we have ( = )+ + + + + ………( ) The last two terms in ( ) vanish because the body is always symmetrical about its centre of mass.

… having position vectors ⃗. … … and from axis be . . … … so that their distances from .e.Moment of inertia of particle about axis = Moment of inertia of particle about axis= Let we divide the whole sheet or lamina into number of particles of masses . . . … about an axis perpendicular to + + ……… + + ……… ………( ) + Comparing ( ) and ( ) = + Importance It is useful for the determination of moment inertia of a 2D system only. = . . . along axis is = ⇒ ⇒ = = + ⇒ + + + = ………( ) . … … then axis be Moment of inertia of lamina about axis = = + + ……… Moment of inertia of lamina about axis = = + + ……… ⇒ = . + … Now the moment of inertia of the masses the plane (lamina) i. ⃗. . . . ⃗.

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