Cover designed by Claudiu Magarit.

CONTENTS
5 Foreword

54

Ethical Mining and Fair Trade
6

6
7

8

Rapaport Fair Trade Jewelry Conference
Gemfields Partners with the World Land Trust
Designers Pledge to Continue Not Using Coral

Industry News
10
50

General Industry News
GILC Opens Discussion on Key Issues

Cover Feature
16
24

24
48

Thailand Sets Gem and Jewelry Branding and Promotion Strategy

Education
The Edward Arthur Metzger Collection, The Photographs of Jeffrey A. Scovil
Federation for European Education in Gemology

Gemology
34
44
47
51

The Uses, Potential, and Risks of Analytical Equipment in Gemology
AGL Discusses the Latest “New” Ruby Heat Treatment Coming out of Thailand
AIGS Lab Launches Master Gemstone Report

Book Review
51

The Stunning Mineral Collection of the Sorbonne University in Paris

Market Trends and Trade Fairs
52
54
56
57
58

Full Steam Ahead for Color in Tucson
Color in the Desert
BaselWorld 2010 – Looking Ahead
Positive Optimism Marks the 45th Bangkok Gems & Jewelry Fair
More Buyers, More Buying Power in Hong Kong

56
www.gemstone.org

InColor | Spring 2010 3

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Pornsawat Wathanakul. chief gemologist. Further details will be sent as soon as the venue is confirmed. was created featuring a public area for general discussion of industry issues and a private area for committee members only. to ethical mining and Fair Trade certification challenges for the colored gemstone sector. Sri Lanka Rajiv Jain. answers proposed. India Bryan E. and ICA vice president and World Bank consultant. and especially our appreciation to the speakers who prepared material for presentations. The ruby committee has already worked on and concluded a new treatment classification. with the responsibility to report back to the GILC participants with their conclusions.9054 www. Austria Emmanuel Piat. The format of GILC allowed for discussions of the scheduled topics with presentations from well-known industry experts followed by questions addressed to the speaker and then by open discussion and debate. GILC has always been an invitation-only event.org 2009-2011 BOARD OF DIRECTORS PRESIDENT Wilson K. most likely on January 31st. Fax: 212. Muhammed Imtizam. Dr. Gem & Jewelry Institute of Thailand.GILC Forum.gemstone. director. For more information. academic adviser.W. While we didn’t know what the response from the industry would be after this hiatus. Boehm. Ahmadjan Abduriyim of the Gemological Association of All Japan.H. Lore Kiefert. Thailand Kamal Kothari. At the end of each session. Shane McClure. and glass-filled rubies.org BUSINESS MANAGER Aashish Shah Ash@gemstone. With topics ranging from the origin of andesine. The tentative date for the next GILC is set for September 2010 in Hong Kong.0900. Our noted speakers included Christopher P. NY 10010-6805 USA Tel: 212. Israel Prida Tiasuwan. Japan A. and also to serve the entire GILC community.org OFFICE MANAGER Claudiu Margarit ica@gemstone. Suite 705 New York. Kenya Phuket Khunaprapakorn. To facilitate this communication among committees. president of American Gemological Laboratories. articles. an online forum. send an email to: ica@gemstone. D 19 West 21st Street.org Sushil Goyal ICA Director GILC Chairman InColor | Spring 2010 5 .620.org EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR Barbara Wheat Barbara@gemstone.org. and solutions debated among key industry players and those with knowledge and influence on gemstone related issues. uring the Tucson gem shows earlier this year. USA Nobuyuki Horiuchi. nomenclature. Japan Avner Sofiov. Gemological Institute of America. Smith. India Susie Kennedy. We look forward to seeing you there. Thailand EDITOR-IN-CHIEF Jean Claude Michelou EXECUTIVE EDITOR Barbara Wheat SENIOR EDITOR Cynthia Unninayar CONTRIBUTING EDITOR Delphine Leblanc PRODUCTION Innovative Productions The contents of InColor magazine may be reprinted with proper attribution. West Coast Identification Services. colored stone grading standards. Jean Claude Michelou. GILC will be held in Tucson next year. Gubelin Gem Lab. USA Terrence Coldham. and leading members of the industry from both the wholesale and retail sectors. Yuen VICE-PRESIDENTS Jean Claude Michelou Charles Abouchar TREASURER Michael Haag SECRETARIES Benjamin Hackman Clement Sabbagh EXECUTIVE BOARD MEMBER Muhamad Asraf Sultan DIRECTORS Edward W.352. there was plenty to be passionate about during the all-day meeting. Dr. a great number of these passionate individuals were in attendance at GILC. Fortunately. www. but word spread quickly resulting in many calls to the ICA office from people active in industry debates requesting to be added to our list. The end result was that we had excellent participation from all major international gemological laboratories—including representatives from CIBJO and LMHC—heads of associations and organizations. Pavlik.gemstone. Dr. ICA held the Gemstone Industry & Laboratory Conference (GILC) for the first time since 2007. contact the ICA office at ica@gemstone.FORE W ORD Dear Readers. working groups were formed to engage in followup discussions. I extend my thanks to all participants in GILC in Tucson. The strength of GILC is that all parties involved in these issues are in the same room at the same time where questions can be raised. This and other information as well as downloads will soon be available on the website. or photo material. ISSN: 1158934X To Subscribe to InColor. registration numbers were double what we anticipated.org www. Our industry fosters many people who are passionate about issues relating to gemstone treatments. France Capt. Australia Sushil Goyal.org. Ramji Sharma. and disclosure.

and sustainable development.hensive program in Corporate Social Responsibility. sustainable poverty country certification at the Rapaport conference (photo national trade organizations and industry associations. RJC plans to: ex. CSR should be recognized as an integral part of our industry’s DNA. while providing reduction and social responsibility courtesy of Rapaport). “This is proactive CSR. Danish Jewellers Associa. indicating that 80 percent of Damien Cody introduced a the world’s colored gems come from Jewellery Ethical Trade System artisanal small-scale mining (ASM) (JETS) currently being considered and that 90 percent of ASMs are in for implementation by CIBJO. which he is develMichael Rae. His presentation showed how Country of Origin that membership has grown from 148 at the end of 2009 to Certificates could be used and traced along the distribution. For 2010-2011 initiatives. British Jewellers Association. Jean Claude Michelou presented the industries. over 190 companies and trade associations throughout the manufacturing. It should define challenges to certification for colus as a community and be a characored gemstone producing nations teristic by which consumers recogand the gem and jewelry supply nize us.gemstone. Association of Goldsmiths. According to initiatives for this certification scheme. and the World Dr.Executive CSR Course.org . 6 InColor | Spring 2010 www. Reports from some are summa.ICA vice president Jean Claude Michelou talks about and small participants in existing fied exports. Rapaport Fair Trade Jewelry Conference Organized during the BaselWorld fair. investigate Confederation Education Foundation (WJCEF) and hosted the feasibility of chain-of-custody standards as a voluntary by HRD in Antwerp. work on the stan. and I propose that it should set us apart from other luxury product certification option for members under the RJC System. Jewelers of America. followed by a report on one of Gemfields’ environmental projects. This section begins with a look at the Rapaport Fair Trade Jewelry Conference held at BaselWorld 2010. chain.” said Cavalieri. Belgium.BaselWorld (photo courtesy of Rapaport). and retail chain. He highlighted the present global diamond and gold jewelry supply chain. These practices include Fair Trade. the new member. announced the launch of a compreGold Council. offered through the World Jewellery dards for gemological laboratories and assayers. The World Jewellery Confederation (CIBJO) president. National Management of Mineral Resources” project.E T H I C A L M I N I N G & FA I R T R A D E Recent Reports on Responsible Practices S tarting with this issue.oping and implementing as a case model with the Nigerian tion is the first Scandinavian trade association to join. The developing countries. the pand the certification scope with platinum. ethical mining practices. the Rapaport Fair Trade Jewelry Conference featured speakers from leading A panel discussion at the Rapaport Fair Trade Jewelry Conference held at international organizations. American Gem Society. rized here. Gaetano Cavalieri. InColor will present a section on responsible practices in the gem and jewelry industry. He explained principles involved in JETS were how ethical mining of colored initially developed by ICA and stones and related Fair Trade prininclude developing a global ethical ciples should be based on certifytrade system throughout the suping the country of origin through ply chain that embraces both large three simple criteria: development of a value chain. formal and certi. Other government as part of the World Bank funded “Sustainable members include the Union Française de la BJOP. ICA vice president. The Responsible Jewellery Council (RJC) announced initiatives.

Gemfields Partners with the World Land Trust In association with the World Land Trust (WLT). “Fair Trade is about a new relationship between producers and consumers. a life-size fiberect. Gemfields says that its mine-to-market capability guarantees the provenance of every gem. which is being launched at Selfridges’ Wonder Room in London. which uses ethically produced gold from Oro Verde in Colombia and Ecoandina in Argentina.gemstone. Earlier. the Emerald Queen. and market access for self-determined producers. and then will be sold at auction at Sotheby’s. who presented the brand’s Globo collection.” Robin expressed his concerns that if Fair Trade becomes perceived as corporate access to Fair Trading producers because it pays a little more. It focuses on the consistent supply of what it describes as “ethically produced emeralds.The Emerald Queen. in support of the World for elephants so that Land Trust’s Indian Elephant they can move safely Corridor project. founder of Host Universal. He insisted that Fair Trade be considered as much more than just a label on a product. The rough emerald has been dubbed “Insofu. Other speakers included Elisabetta Molina. Its goal is to bring about social. is a vital signpost and assurance. that was designed by Sabine Roemer using www. Other supporters of the trust’s project include Sir David Attenborough and David Gower.Roemer using Gemfields Zambian tional migration routes emeralds. social. InColor | Spring 2010 7 . The partnership will enable both organizations to meet shared strategic objectives and to create a system ensuring that ASM miners earn a better price for gold while improving mining conditions and protecting the environment. unusually large size. Gemfields has collaborated with eight jewelry designers to create a collection of fine emerald jewelry.E T H I C A L M I N I N G & FA I R T R A D E artisanal miners a channel for their products to reach wholesalers and retailers. and only belief will drive the transformation of consumers into investors. supply chain transparency. shared his views on the fundamental drivers behind the success of Fair Trade. The Emerald Queen will also take part in the London Elephant Parade. designed by Sabine ing to safeguard tradi.” stated Gemfields. between national parks and other protected forests. in honor of emeralds by Jim Currens. which is raising funds to save elephants in India. “The aim of the collection is to create awareness of the plight of the Asian elephant and to bring attention to the WLT’s Indian Elephant Corridor project.” The Fair Trade label.” which are mined under a rigorous set of standards in regards to Fair Trade.org Gemfields’ Zambian emeralds. through a full disclosure and certification program. and economic development in ASM communities. only the evidence of transformation will drive belief. The WLT is work. and safety practices. The collection centers on a life-size fiberglass elephant. environmental. he argued.” meaning “elephant” in the vernacular of the region’s indigenous Bemba Necklace in Gemfields Zambian people. Patrick Schein of the Alliance for Responsible Mining (ARM) introduced the new alliance with Fair Trade Labeling Organizations International (FLO) for the development of the first ever third-party independent certification for gold. from Italian jewelry manufacturer Garavelli. A percentage of the profits will go towards the Indian Elephant Corridor proj. the company announced the discovery of a 6. rather than lay down the law. then nothing much has changed. thus delivering sustainable economic development to communities. between May and July. The partnership will be communicated on the product with a co-labeling hallmark using both FAIR TRADE and FAIR MINED.225-carat rough emerald at its Kagem mine in Zambia. Another speaker was Elisabeth Umlas from SMART. The collection is showcased at Selfridges during May and into mid-June. Robin Smith.glass elephant. but only a thriving producer economy will deliver the evidence of transformation. We’re here to help create the right market conditions. environmental. who highlighted a social venture whose goal is to construct a transparent route to market for responsibly mined minerals and metals. in support the Elephant Corridor of the World Land Trust’s Indian Project and the stone’s Elephant Corridor project.

“CITES could have provided that but the representatives failed to heed the science showing these Comprehensive. populations are in steep decline.emeraldpassion. president of SeaWeb. June 4 at 3:30 PM in the Titan Room. “a major step backward for the long-term survival of red and pink coral and the industries that depend on them. Clair. vice president of science initiatives for SeaWeb. 250 color photos. Irene Neuwirth.” and noted that intensive lobbying by coral industry interests occurred in the days leading up to the vote. JCK Las Vegas Available at emeraldpassion.accurate” “ an adventure book with passion and understanding. “The jewelers joining the campaign today are helping to set the standard in responsible design among the fine jewelry industry by pledging to personally do their part to protect these natural resources by refusing to purchase or use real coral in their designs. Temple St. “Too Precious to Wear” brooch in gold with assorted gemstones by Jean Schlumberger.gemstone.. and a conflict-free diamond clasp by Monique Péan.” said Dawn Martin.com and most gem booksellers. with 23 chapters and foreword by John Koivula. “Coralliidae are in desperate need for a mechanism that controls the immense trade in these species. vintage recycled bakelite. Info & Ordering: www.org 8 InColor | Spring 2010 in 14K recycled gold. slow-growing species have recovered. It is now up to the jewelry and design industries and their customers to act where governments have failed. calcite crystals. While 64 countries voted in favor of protection.. reported ocean conservation organization SeaWeb.E T H I C A L M I N I N G & FA I R T R A D E Jewelry Designers Continue Pledge To Not Use Coral A measure that would have granted trade protection to red and pink corals (Coralliidae) used in jewelry and home décor failed to receive the necessary two-thirds majority at the 15th Conference of Parties of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). TooPreciousToWear. “Too Precious to Wear” necklace All photos courtesy of SeaWeb.” SeaWeb created the “Too Precious to Wear” campaign. SeaWeb called the decision on Appendix II. www. Supporters of the campaign include Tiffany and Co.com Lecture and book signing at JCK Education session. 59 voted against it and 10 abstained. Thurs. The efforts of these committed fine jewelry designers mean we are experiencing a sea-change in the fashion and design industry when it comes to coral use. SeaWeb. a long list of designers have pledged to not use coral in their creations. which calls on jewelers and designers to refuse to use red or pink coral until sound management is in place and populations of the long-lived.” Emeralds. and many others. A Passionate Guide by Ronald Ringsrud contains 70 photomicrographs. which would have required countries wishing to export them to prove that trade is not harming their continued survival.org . After the setback vote. Nak Armstrong of Anthony Nak.” said Kristian Teleki. SeaWeb had called on governments to protect Coralliidae under Appendix II of CITES..org.

New York.5312 Email: sgoyal@libertygems.4057867 Email: emeralds@singhalgems. Jaipur -302001 INDIA Tel: +91.$Ŀ<Ŀ>DĿn><Ņ877Ņ@ :7>B4D111 Dealer of Fine Gemstones.com 925 Sterling.Subhash Marg.5649 Fax: 917. NY 10036 Tel: 212. Inc. Tanzanite & Zambian Emeralds Manufacturer of Fine Sterling Jewelry 62 West 47th Street.141. Singhal Gems D-50 .com . C-Scheme.391. Suite 905.595.

10 InColor | Spring 2010 www. or US$0. The share of lots sold amounted to 78.03/carat to US$38/carat. for example.78 tons. This was Gemfields’ largest auction in terms of weight sold and sales realized. sapphire. The Mining Act 2010 also requires mining companies to list on the Dar Es Salaam Stock Exchange. tanzanite. Lots ranged from about US$0. although current agreements with foreign companies remain unchanged. with a volume of 5. emerald. laying the path for Zambian emeralds to take the lead in the supply of ethical gemstones of guaranteed provenance. Tanzanite One. Tanzania’s Controversial New Mining Law T anzania’s parliament passed a new mining law that increases the rate of royalties paid on minerals such as gold from 3 to 4 percent and requires the government to own a stake in future mining projects. Faceted tanzanite gems mined in Tanzania (photo courtesy of Tanzanite One). with 25 participating companies compared to the previous auctions in London.org . India in March. topaz.2 million. selling 89 percent of material by value for US$7. We were particularly pleased to further cement our relationships with our various customers. turquoise.9 percent by weight and 89 percent by value at US$7. Buyers examine lots at the Gemfields auction in Jaipur (photo courtesy of Gemfields).gemstone. Gemstones identified by the new law include diamonds. A total 28. The new law requires that the Tanzanian government own a stake in future mining projects and that the country will no longer issue gemstone mining licences to foreign firms. ruby.” said CEO Ian Harebottle. etc.9 million carats of principally lower-quality rough emeralds and beryl were offered in 56 separate lots. of which 49 were sold with 8 bids per lot on average.IND UST RY N E WS Gemfields: Record Sales at Rough Emerald and Beryl Auction in Jaipur G emfields held its first rough emerald and beryl auction of 2010 in Jaipur. will not be affected by the new ownership rules.31/carat.2 million. “Jaipur marked our first low-grade auction and the improvement in market sentiment was palpable.

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as it would have “serious repercussions” on the industry.org . Mining companies said they hoped to convince the government to amend the new law before it receives presidential assent.” that it would curtail future mining projects in the nation. and the release by the CIBJO Marketing and Education Commission of a diamond. pearl. “[The bill] will only serve to hinder further growth of the mining sector as existing investors resort to curtailing existing and expansion projects.” the chamber stated to Reuters. The GLBB is a guide for the management and technical operations of gemological laboratories. Among the highlights were: the approval by CIBJO’s Coloured Stone Commission of a set of codes for the industry to describe gem treatments. colored gemstone. and precious metals guide for jewelry consumers. and is bound to scare potential investors who will look elsewhere. the World Jewellery Confederation (CIBJO) held its annual congress in Munich. In a joint statement issued through the Tanzania Chamber of Minerals and Energy (representing international and local investors). www.IND UST RY N E WS Mining companies however have said that this law would further erode investor confidence. Germany where 135 delegates from across the globe discussed important industry-related topics.gemstone. a decision by the CIBJO Diamond Commission to broaden the number of acceptable terms to describe synthetic diamonds. the legislation is described by investors as “distorted. 12 InColor | Spring 2010 One of the sessions at the CIBJO 2010 annual congress (photo courtesy of CIBJO). It suggests best practices and general requirements for laboratories to 2010 CIBJO Congress I n February. the release of its Gemmology Laboratory Blue Book (GLBB).

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CIBJO. and tourmaline with price points starting at $85. This is the first time the three organizations have endorsed a common initiative. British Reality Show Targets Luxury Goods Industries T he first episode of a new BBC reality show aiming to highlight the workers’ conditions in producing luxury goods started with a look at gemstone mining. “Together. which has been inspired by the museum’s collection of iconic pieces. The line with QVC will include earrings. we will create jewelry that is not only fashionable but also serves to educate the public about the Smithsonian and the jewelry. and AGTA Cooperate on Common Disclosure Codes T he International Colored Gemstone Association (ICA) met with CIBJO and AGTA delegates in Tucson to set the basis for developing a common code of disclosure for the colored stone sector. rings.000 Swiss franc scholarship fund. diamonds. pins.IND UST RY N E WS carry out tests. the world is totally so unfair.000 individual specimens. Gaetano Cavalieri announced the development of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) programs by the World Jewellery Confederation Education Foundation (WJCEF).gemstone. and internal calibrations on instruments.org . which will operate according to a model developed for CIBJO by a United Nations-appointed team of CSR experts. and minerals found in its collections. The show’s inspiration is to get the characters and viewers thinking more about the human cost of that shiny sapphire necklace or that new leather handbag. CIBJO had created a 50. The first course will be an intensive WJCEF Executive Program. colored gemstones. CIBJO president Dr.” www.” Debra Puzio. including the blue Hope Diamond and the Marie Antoinette Earrings. For the first episode. six rich Brits were shipped off to the isolated mining town of Ilakaka. gems. using gems such as alexandrite. and pearls. garnet. the participants “have a collective moment of realization: ‘Oh my God. In his address to the CIBJO Assembly of Delegates. added. as well as replicas of pieces in the museum’s collection. “Millions of people visit the museum each year. and brooches. QVC’s director of merchandising. according to BBC’s website. bracelets. based on >O`^V\SKH+LHSLYULLKH 7YVMLZZPVUHS(WWYHPZLYMYVT 5(1(& ‹*VUÄYTH[PVU ‹0KLU[PÄJH[PVU ‹(\[OLU[PJH[PVU ‹*VUZ\S[H[PVU ‹4HYRL[ *VTWHYPZVU MVY`V\Y PU]LU[VY` <UIPHZLK VIQLJ[P]L WYVMLZZPVUHSNLTVSVNPZ[ HWWYHPZLYZLY]PJLZPUJS\KPUN MHPYTHYRL[]HS\LPUZ\YHUJL KVUH[PVUHWWYHPZHSKVJ\TLU[Z 5IF/BUJPOBM"TTPDJBUJPOPG +FXFMSZ"QQSBJTFST  ^^^5(1(HWWYHPZLYZJVT-PUKHU(WWYHPZLY 14 InColor | Spring 2010 a system previously developed by AGTA. and it will be used to help finance the first WJCEF executive course. As a TV reviewer for The Guardian wrote.” said Carol LeBlanc. which will be hosted by HRD Antwerp in Belgium in June. “The Smithsonian is delighted to work with QVC.” QVC and Smithsonian Partner on Jewelry Line T V retailer QVC has teamed up with the Smithsonian Institute to create a line of fashion jewelry expected to launch this fall. The National Gem and Mineral Collection contains more than 375. grading.’ One even criticized the European gem dealer for making all the money while the guys at the mines do all the work for a pound a day. ICA. manufacture. director of consumer products for Smithsonian Enterprises. It is envisioned that these codes will be used and understood by the great majority of the global colored gemstone trade. The premise of Blood. Madagascar where they are lowered down a 50-foot deep mine shaft to dig for sapphires. admiring its beautiful and rare jewelry and gemstone collection. process and recycle luxury goods. Sweat and Luxuries was to send six young British consumers to work alongside the people who mine. topaz. Now our customers can share these national treasures in a very personal way as we give them access to owning jewelry based on items of great historical significance.

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brandply of rough gemstone material ing. global marketplace. and logo The main objective for esing the Thai gem and jew. standards and a pricing index Another major development for the gemstone industry. following a mandate from the The Thai gem and jewelry Thai government to support industry provides more than one small and medium enterprises million jobs and is the country’s (SMEs). Thailand. By Barbara Wheat W 16 InColor | Spring 2010 www. tablishing such standards was elry industry. This initiative is part of the through a variety of projects strategy to ensure a regular supthat include promotion. gets see planning and implementation actively involved in concrete coof projects aimed at sustaining operation with the private sector the growth of the Thai gem and to develop initiatives intended to jewelry industry as well as putweather the uncertainties of the ting measures in place to provide world economy while keeping continuing support for producers.org . merce of the Gem & Jewelry It is no wonder that the governBusiness Development Commitment. under the GCT. Some initiatives by TGJTA to promote (SME Bank) to provide loans to gem and jewelry stakeThailand as the Gems and Jewelry Trade Route include the holders using gemstones as collateral. one of Thai Gem and Jewelry Tradthirteen committees formed. now the Royal Thai a permanent attraction in the Government and the Bangkok Gems and Jewelry combined cooperation of asFair. through its Ministries of tee of Thailand (GCT) to overCommerce and Finance. and a “Buy With Confidence” campaign. as well as the de. TGJTA’s goal is to support the decision by to make Thailand the world’s gem and jewelry hub the Small and Medium Enterprises Development Bank by 2014. initiatives aimed at support. Nigeria.the SME Bank could not support the industry with loans cision of the Thai government to scrap the value added tax against their stock of gems. Kenya. changes on import taxation into the country to supply the regulations.gemstone.(photos courtesy of GIT). the sector at the forefront of the traders. and developing many lapidary companies. Without a solid branding of gemstones processed in Thailand as “Ploi Thai” system in place for grading and pricing colored gemstones. the mittee. top. has drawn exhibitors from sociations and institutes in Afghanistan. in was entrusted with the task of cooperation with the Thai Minpreparing both a quality stanistry of Commerce. The Educational SubcomOver the past few years. ith the support of The Zero VAT Pavilion. ers Association (TGJTA). is the formation by fourth largest export sector with Thailand’s Ministry of ComUS$27 billion in sales in 2009. the gem and jewand other gem producing naelry industry is being sustained tions.COVER S TO RY Thailand Sets Gem And Jewelry Branding And Promotion Strategy (VAT) on the import of raw materials such as rough gemstones.The Thai “Buy with Confidence” certificate. has rolled dards and a reference pricing out several major projects and index for colored gemstones. and retailers.

COVE R STORY

Zero Vat pavilion shared by African rough stone dealers at the Bangkok Fair (photo courtesy of Jean Claude Michelou).

The subcommittee was comprised of representatives of the
Thai Gem and Jewelry Traders Association (TGJTA), specialists from the Gem and Jewelry Institute of Thailand (GIT),
as well as international experts from every sector of the business, including those involved in rough stones, production,
trade, the retail sector, and technology. Their objective was
to specify reference standards and establish pricing guidelines
that could facilitate fair-trading, and which would establish
consumer confidence in Thailand and abroad.
The Colored Stone Buying Guide was completed on
December 28, 2009, and is the first such reference guide
to circulate in the world of commercial colored gemstone
trading. The documents are available in Thai, English,
and Chinese, the major languages of the destination markets for the campaign. Distribution of the Colored Stone
Buying Guide has, to date, been concentrated at trade
shows in Bangkok, Hong Kong, Vicenza, and Basel.
Over 30 years ago, the Asian Institute of Gemological
Sciences (AIGS)—Asia’s first professional gemological
school and gem testing laboratory—launched the AIGS
Ruby and Sapphire Grading system. “The grading system
is part of AIGS’s aim to provide students with a complete
education, involving not only gem identification and theowww.gemstone.org

retical knowledge, but also to give an understanding about
qualities, prices, market history, trends, and sources,” said
AIGS founder and president, Henry Ho. He further explained that the grading is not used on the AIGS laboratory reports issued in Bangkok.
The Colored Stone Buying Guide goes further in that it
is available to the entire industry to serve as a tool to sustain the growth of the Thai gem and jewelry industry. It is
hoped that the combined initiatives will be of benefit to the
colored gemstone industry in Thailand, and also boost consumer confidence in Thai products worldwide. The reaction
to the Colored Stone Buying Guide is expected to emphasize Thailand’s position as a leading world gem-trading center with fair trading practices. Also important is the fact that
this reference price index will assist Thailand in protecting
the colored stone market from the crises and disruptions that
have adversely affected the industry during the last decade.
As the first such standards, these documents focus on
the most important and popular colored stones in the
Thai gem trade: sapphire and ruby, the gems in which
Thailand has the world’s best expertise. The standards include
namely corundum, of which there are five basic colors: ruby,
blue sapphire, yellow sapphire, pink sapphire, and orange
InColor | Spring 2010 17

COVER S TO RY

sapphire. In grading the levels of quality,
the four attributes that are assessed are
color, cut, clarity, and size/weight. The
pricing index serves only as a guideline
and is subject to monthly updates.
All parties involved in the preparation
of the guide realize that establishing and
issuing these quality standards and reference price index is not 100 percent perfect, but it has reportedly been done in
a professional and transparent manner,
based on data from the commercial retail
market. They foresee that using these reference documents
when trading colored stones can benefit both the buyer
and the seller. The documents are the basis for facilitating
sales, and they leave room for periodically adjusting prices
at all stages of the trading cycle.

The Thai government appointed the SME Bank to begin providing loans for working capital to gem and jewelry businesses using gemstones as collateral (photo courtesy of SME Bank).

According to information released by the Gem and Jewelry Business Development Committee of Thailand, benefits
of the quality standards and reference-pricing index are:
1. Gem trading prices will reflect the world market situation, and are adjusted in accordance with the realities of
the world market.
2. The standards will establish confidence among consumers both in Thailand and abroad.
3. The reference documents will facilitate sales at every level
of the market, and will permit more flexibility in trading.
4. As listings, the documents inform traders of market
conditions, and enable traders to adapt their operations
to suit the market.
5. The standards reduce the contrast between producers and
small-scale merchants, and facilitate trading at fair prices.
6. The standards facilitate increased trading volume, in both
the Thai market and in international markets.
18

InColor | Spring 2010

7. The standards and price index will
maintain the position of Thailand as a
leading center of gemstone trading.
Following the above principles, this
cooperation was developed through the
efforts of the Thailand Small and Medium Enterprises Development Bank (SME
Bank) along with Thailand’s Ministry of
Commerce and Gem Appraisal Co., Ltd.,
with the support of three major trade organizations; the Thai Gems and Jewelry
Traders Association; the Thai Gems and
Jewelry Manufacturers Association; and the Chantaburi Gem
and Jewelry Traders Association. The government appointed
the SME Bank to begin providing loans for working capital
to gem and jewelry businesses using gemstones as collateral.
Members of these three associations are eligible to submit applications for bank loans using only gemstones as
collateral for short-term loans to cover immediate expenses or to enhance business liquidity. The terms of the loan
require payment within three months and can be extended
for an additional three months at the Minimum Loan Rate
(MLR) with a maximum loan amount of 10 million Baht
(approximately US$310,443) per loan.
Gem Appraisal Co., Ltd. located in the Jewelry Trade
Center, provides the appraisal services for the gemstones used
as collateral. According to its president, Chirakitti Tangathach,
Gem Appraisal Co., Ltd is the sole appraiser for the SME
Bank. Since the service became available in late February
2010, the equivalent of over US$375,000 has been provided
in loans to various gem and jewelry businesses in Thailand.
Currently, the bank has more than 40 loan applications pending ranging in amount from 100,000 Baht to 10 million Baht.
Although the pricing and value classification of the Colored Stone Buying Guide is reportedly set to be taken as a
basis for evaluation by the SME Bank loan system, it is not
clear how much it will be used and promoted by the trade.
No industry organization or country has ever set standards and pricing for the colored gemstone market—until
now. At a time when many gem traders are resistant to grading colored gemstones, and some organizations in the industry actively oppose the idea, Thailand has nonetheless proceeded with the release of the Colored Stone Buying Guide.
The guide is printed in Thai, English, and Chinese and
positions itself towards the fastest growing markets. However, several questions arise on what the reaction will be
from both Thai and international traders. Will the market accept this grading and certification system? Will the
Chinese market embrace it? Nobody knows yet what the
reaction from the market will be. It is, without a doubt, a
very big step for Thailand to have taken.
www.gemstone.org

COVE R STORY

Color Standardization and Trade Name

www.gemstone.org

InColor | Spring 2010 19

org .COVER S TO RY Clarity Grading Guide 20 InColor | Spring 2010 www.gemstone.

gemstone.org InColor | Spring 2010 21 .COVE R STORY Trade Name www.

org .COVER S TO RY 22 InColor | Spring 2010 www.gemstone.

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Sikkim. and natural color.gemstone. By E. he upcoming book. Skalwold and W. but his sense of aesthetics and color. New Guinea. His adventures took him selves. Scovil One of the many acquisitions Irma Vollrath made for Edward Metzger is this 22K gold necklace containing 32 unheated rubies of exceptional color from the Valley of Mogok (approximately 38 total carats). clarity.E D U C AT I O N The Edward Arthur Metzger Collection The Photographs of Jeffrey A.A. “Extraordinary Gems: The Edward Metzger the Collector lived a life as extraorEdward Arthur Metzger Collection. many of very fine otic places.” documents the dinary as his collection. Bassett also to extraordinary size.16 cts only pertains to the gem material.org . gems with his lifetime of travel in disWhile the images speak for themtant lands. His interests in gems was born story behind Cornell University’s out of his upbringing in a family surfantastic collection of gemstones as rounded by fine art and later refined by seen through the lens of one of the his careful study of their attributes and grand masters of mineral photography. Nepal. The collection encompasses a broad Antarctica and many other equally exrange of gem species. T 24 InColor | Spring 2010 www. Bhutan. history. who helped him pursue his passion. what follows is a brief look at the not only to commonly visited desticollector himself and a few of the people nations. history and quality and great rarity. The cultures. 102. but also to remote Kashmir. as well as many fashioned of non-traditional gem minerals. He directly linked his love of Jeffrey Scovil. Their rarity not nature all played a part in developing Kunzite Spodumene.A.

gemstone.45-ct black opal brooch (designed and executed by Claus Vollrath).84 mm. yellow.E D U C AT I O N The collection contains many colors of zoisite including pink.org Rubellite Briolette: 39. InColor | Spring 2010 25 . 25. green.56 cts. conveying how every movement brings out a magnificent kaleidoscope of changing colors in this stunning 20.54 x 13.43 x 19. www. The color and brilliance of this spectacular 33.55-ct stone is nothing less than dazzling as it graces this lovely platinum brooch (designed and executed by Claus Vollrath). This portrait seems to come alive. and of course the magnificent variety so familiar to all—tanzanite.

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Edward added both to his collection without hesitation.30 mm) spinel was cut from a 32-ct rough crystal originating from Okkampitya. Besides the stone dealer.54-ct sapphire.96 x 9.01-ct (16. the size of this fancy vivid green blue diamond was extraordinary. www.08-ct “Fancy Vivid Green-Blue” SI1. with most below a carat and almost none above one carat of this particular color (Hofer. The rough originated from the Ubangi Watershed area of the Central African Republic. but also traveled to IdarOberstein and elsewhere in search of fabulous gems for Edward. 18. The preeminent GIA gemologist Robert Crowningshield once said of Claus. Edward collected loose stones. Some acquisitions took many individuals working together to procure the final gem that would satisfy Edward’s shrewd sense of quality and desire for rarity.69 x 11.50 x 8. Claus’ exacting workmanship was what Edward most often favored whenever he chose to have a fabulous stone set in jewelry. While it appears to be an “old mine cut. Needless to say.85 x 11. For the most part. For these reasons.71-ct cat’s eye that nearly defines the variety.97 mm.E D U C AT I O N Very often finding the perfect specimen of a certain gemstone took a great deal of searching worldwide on the part of the Vollraths. Many of the set stones and fabulous jewelry designs were of Claus Vollrath’s making. It is one of several such chrysoberyls including an alexandrite cat’s eye (designed and executed by Claus Vollrath).78 cts. Edward was the first of Irma’s clients to view these untreated marvels. 2003 personal correspondence).gemstone.” this diamond was actually fashioned around the year 2003. whom he knew well. as well as that of a magnificent 51. “the man with the most beautiful stones!” Many of these found their way into Edward’s collection. deceptively simple in design and which never detracted from the gem itself. Sri Lanka in the late 1980s. As of 2004. Sri Lankan Sapphire: 18. helped Edward put together the majority of this collection. The story of the Metzger Collection cannot be separated from that of the late master goldsmith Claus Vollrath and his wife Irma who. This magnificent 13.org . but he also had a love of very fine goldwork. 28 InColor | Spring 2010 This 18K gold ring sports an 11. over a 35-year period. who in 1983 watched this Padparadscha’s cutting from the rough outside of Ratnapura. The Teal Diamond: 1. who not only called in stone dealers from around the globe.

) www. Color Change Diaspore: 11.42 mm.70 x 13.21 cts.30 mm.05 cts. 28. (Left: daylight. Right: incandescent light.10 x 9.gemstone.45 x 19. 13.41 x 13.E D U C AT I O N Topaz and diamond brooch: 58.org InColor | Spring 2010 29 .

30 InColor | Spring 2010 Padparadscha: 13.E D U C AT I O N 30.org . author and consultant Stephen Hofer. A telling illustration of Edward’s passion for colored gems. is that he had obtained and studied Stephen’s famous tome on the subject.35 mm. but also the science of color in diamonds.77-ct Star Sapphire Ring (David Webb design). 6.61 x 11.16 x 8. Irma brought in one of the most famous colored diamond experts. Not one to be daunted by such a challenge.gemstone. An unheated magnificent facet-grade “sugarloaf” cabochon set in platinum. Purveyors of colored stones can appreciate what a challenge and a pleasure it might be to sit across the table from such a client. 15. While not every item in the collection was acquired through them. Stephen related to this author (EAS) that he was profoundly impressed with Edward’s acumen and deep interest in not just the beauty and diversity. not only for their assistance in obtaining fine materials. In personal letters. While gems of every type make up the collection. Kashmir Sapphire Ring: 14. an important section is that of the fancy colored diamonds. Purchased in Colombo. www.67-ct Star Ruby Platinum Ring.63 cts. they certainly influenced Edward’s careful purchases anywhere else in the world. Edward urged Irma to find him a true red diamond. Sri Lanka in the mid-1990s.22 x 8. For years. part of which Edward had already begun to acquire.13 x 12. but also for educating him in the subtle details of what constitutes a connoisseur gem. 15. from the early 1990s (Raymond Yard design). Edward often praised the Vollraths. and diamonds in particular.36 cts.39 mm. to assist in the quest for this elusive gem and to advise Edward directly regarding the building of a marvelous suite of fancy colored diamonds.

14. 19.39 x 8. Scheelite: 48.50 cts. Aragonite: 47.75 x 19. 17.17 x 8.E D U C AT I O N Exotic Gem Minerals Phosphophyllite: 10.24 x 14. Rhodochrosite: 10.93 cts.32 mm.org Zircon: 22.67 mm.05 cts.87 cts.92 x 14.28 mm. InColor | Spring 2010 31 . www.40 x 20.30 x 10.25 mm.99 cts.77 x 10.gemstone.16 x 13.76 mm. 13.39 x 10. 30.

org . 30. he and Irma took the green diamond (below) out into Central Park to see if it compared favorably with the color of the grass! 11.gemstone. www. but also chrome tourmaline.22-ct Peridot. 0.64-ct green diamond. 15.91 mm in diameter.90-ct “Merelani Mint” garnet.95-ct Tsavorite garnet.E D U C AT I O N A Predilection for Green Edward collected a multitude of green gems. and chrome diopside. not just the ones seen here.32 to 4. While searching for the perfect green diamond. 32 InColor | Spring 2010 26-inch Imperial jadeite bead necklace with beads ranging from 9. demantoid garnet.

org About the book authors: Gemologist Elise A. Ph. FGA. Since that time.C. Edward succumbed quickly to illness.gemstone.73 x 8. InColor | Spring 2010 33 .” The Treasure of California: The natural abalone pearls in this necklace were discovered in the 1970s and 1980s along the coast of California and Lower (Baja) California.” At that time.C. Skalwold.04 x 16. To his collection. The extremely rare color of this Brazilian diamond defines the exact boundary between pure and purplish-red making it a “master stone” with which to judge all others (Hofer. he was able to add scallop pearls. All photographs are copyright Cornell University and Jeffrey A. your finest. Bell of San Francisco. Largest pearl: 20. The Metzger Red: 0. awe and love—perhaps in one respect embodying one’s earthly existence in such a way as to be worthy to be remembered by. whose origin was the alluvial diamond fields in the country of Edward’s birth. its rank has dropped considerably.C.89-carat Brazilian diamond now known as “The Metzger Red. but also to natural pearls of many types. Tragically in 2004. He already possessed conch and melo pearls of good size and fine color. www. adding the stone to the collection just two days before he passed way. once life has fled. is a 1982 Cornell graduate. Bassett..45 mm. Edward’s passion for colored gemstones is remembered by those in the gem world who were fortunate to meet him. William A. and your rarest. ranked as eighth largest in the world in the red family and was the largest fashioned as an emerald cut. and one of the pioneers of diamond anvil cell high pressure research. Cornell University. but it still holds a historic place among this family of rarest color (Hofer. Scovil. Irma was able to fulfill Edward’s long quest for a diamond which rivals ruby in its blood red hue: the 0. Edward’s interest in the unusual and very rare extended not only to the colored diamonds and non-traditional gem minerals. but not before he made arrangements to share with the larger world what up until then had been a very private passionate pursuit. received on the telephone as he listened to a stranger’s pleasant voice utter: “K. a 1996 Roebling Medalist.D. Text is copyright of the authors and InColor magazine.E D U C AT I O N How many of us would spend what we knew to be our last hours on such a project? Only those for whom the beauty inherent in gemstones holds such fascination. In 2003. a so-called “pumpkin” diamond. 2003 personal correspondence). not least of all by any means. this stone. clam pearls. GG. such as K. natural saltwater pearls and. He learned from K. BSc. this is Edward Metzger in New York.C.47-carat conch pearl. 2003 personal correspondence). is professor emeritus of geology. a 45.89-ct “Fancy Purplish Red” VS1. with Stephen’s assistance. a long lovely conch pearl necklace. Perhaps what personifies Edward’s passion for gems is simply the greeting that K. Edward completed what he could of the color wheel of fancy diamonds by making sure that one of the rarest colors was represented. the magnificent necklace of very large abalone pearls pictured here. about other types of pearls of even more exotic and rare nature. I’d like to see your best.

the well-known mineralogist and gemologist George Bosshart introduced spectrometers into the gemological field and was the first one to record UV-Vis spectra of gemstones and even low-temperature spectra of diamonds in a gemological laboratory. many started to invest in analytical equipment. for example. Another important difference is that. geology. and dichroscopes. were not following this evolu- Figure 1. computer tomography. which is associated with it. the technique of photoluminescence spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Until the 1970s. with the main difference being that the spectrum does not show up as lines and bands visible within the “rainbow” of all spectral colors but rather is shown on a screen as a continuous graph. Two different types www. Potential. 34 InColor | Spring 2010 tion and only in the 1990s with the advent of many new treatments and more and more synthetics. gemology is still regarded by some as something between science and art since much that has been done in earlier days was rather rudimentary compared to other sciences such as mineralogy. Bosshart. was added to the equipment list of the major labs.000 nm. especially the ones doing mostly diamond grading. such a UV-Vis-NIR spectrometer can cover a much larger domain than the standard spectroscope. refractometers. and chemistry. which covers 400 to 700 nm. the laboratories were mainly equipped with standard equipment such as microscopes. Even later. director and research gemologist at the Gemlab Laboratory for Gemstone and Pearl Analysis and Reports in Balzers. the instruments that started to be used in the major gemological laboratories included UV-Vis-NIR spectrometer. and scanning electron microscopy. most researchers working in gem labs come from one of these sciences and advanced gemology has truly evolved into a science. potential. LIBS (laser induced breakdown spectroscopy) and rarely SIMS (secondary ion mass spectroscopy) were introduced into the gemological field.GEMO LO GY The Uses. destructive techniques such as ICPMS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy). direct vision spectroscopes. A natural color blue diamond: this is one of the most prestigious gems that requires complex laboratory analysis. scanning electron microscopy via collaboration with universities or large geological institutes. In 1976. and some had access to certain mineralogical techniques such as X-ray diffraction and. a spectrometer typically covers the range of 190 to 1. and risks. polariscopes. the so-called standard gemological techniques were sufficient and the need for more sophisticated instrumentation was not imminent. the most sophisticated instrumentation operated and interpreted by very experienced gemologists are required to solve most of the problems. many laboratories. Interestingly. UV-Vis-NIR Spectroscopy This technique is the modern equivalent to the spectroscope. There are NIR spectrometers that cover the entire near infrared but such systems are rarely in use. With the appearance of HPHT-treated diamonds. The advent of the first synthetics (Verneuil synthetic corundum and synthetic spinel) and diamond irradiation treatments were the main challenges in this early period of gemstone analysis. mainly for the use of light-element detection in beryllium-treated sapphire. which represents the intensity of absorbance or transmittance measured at each point on the spectrum. Nowadays. the science of gemology had just been born. For most challenges during this time.100 nm but can go all the way to about 3. Even today. The evolution of gem treatments and synthesis in the past 20 years has changed the requirements for gem analysis.org . depending on the system used. Following this initial step by Mr. radiography. In today’s complex gemology world. The following paragraphs give a brief description of the methods and their uses. Other instruments that were adapted for gemological purposes included x-ray diffraction. and EDXRF chemical analysis systems. Liechtenstein W hen the first gemological laboratory was founded in London in 1925. at a later time.gemstone. and Risks of Analytical Equipment in Gemology By Thomas Hainschwang. infrared spectrometer. among others.

In diamonds. the light sources providing the UV are very costly. It has been estimated that. this method detects also a variety of electronic transitions.200 to 25.gemstone. The graphs show the polarized spectra recorded on this instrument from a natural emerald from the Habachtal/Austria of 1. This technique can be used for a large list of tasks including identification of mineral species. which are found in the near-infrared portion of the spectrum.100 nm is required. as an average. synthetics.GE MOLOGY Figure 2. and color-treatment analysis of gemstones and pearls. This type of spectroscopy measures how much infrared radiation passes through a sample put in its path. Today. the costs of a complete instrument rise steeply. Infrared Spectroscopy Infrared spectroscopy is a technique that mainly determines vibrational absorptions due to vibrating molecules in materials. As soon as a high-resolution and high-sensitivity instrument covering the domain of the UV to about 1. The prototype of the high resolution UV-Vis-NIR spectrometer system used at the GEMLAB laboratory (top). Diode spectrometers have the advantage that they are much quicker and sometimes more efficient but the results need care when interpreted since such instruments measure both absorption and emission at the same time. approximately one out of one million scattered photons is a Raman signal. treatments. and certain InColor | Spring 2010 35 . In Raman spectroscopy. Of these. determination of the diamond type. there are nearly exclusively FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) spectrometers in use since they are much faster and efficient than the older generation of dispersive infrared spectrometers. determination of inclusions. The domain from about 1. and presence of IR active hydrogen.000 nm (~7800 to 400 cm-1) is covered by most of today’s infrared spectrometers. is only popular since lasers have become widely available. UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy is extensively used for country-of-origin determination of gemstones. nitrogen content. This domain represents the energetically lower wavelengths of light which are invisible www. and finally for the identification of organic groups within gem materials such as OH (hydroxyl) groups. of spectrometers are generally used—scanning spectrometers and diode spectrometers. The use of this method is mainly for material identification (including filling materials in treated gemstones).04 cts (left) and the comparison of the reflectance spectra recorded on this instrument of a natural black pearl from Pinctada margaritifera (blue trace.org to the eye. it has become possible to efficiently detect extremely small amounts of inelastically scattered light (Raman scattering) within elastically scattered light (Raleigh scattering) from a sample to be analyzed. photo) and a color-treated black pearl (red trace). While the spectrometers themselves have made a great evolution in the past 15 years and portable low-cost instruments are available today. Raman Spectroscopy This method. although known since the 1930s. the frequency of such inelastically scattered laser light is measured and thus the identity of a substance can be determined. color-origin determination of diamond. Thanks to the intense lasers and very sensitive detectors. the scanning spectrometers are the traditional instruments that are relatively slow but that have the advantage of only measuring absorption.

100 cm-1. and anything else that is in between the laser and the spectrometer. The vast variability of lasers covering the entire range of wavelengths of interest permits one to excite emissions related to all possible types of defects in a material. www. unless two different laser excitations are available to verify this. One problem in Raman spectroscopy is the presence of luminescence. which are by far not all studied in detail by this method. The broad bands represent photoluminescence while the sharp features are Raman scattering peaks.GEMO LO GY Figure 3. The most noteworthy exception is diamond where Raman spectroscopy is of very limited interest while infrared spectroscopy is one of the most important techniques for diamond analysis. Diamond needs to be studied at room temperature and low temperature (commonly by the use of liquid nitrogen with a temperature of -196°C) because the spectra can be dramatically different. Usually. thus phenomena such as fluorescence. the emissions sharpen strongly at low temperature. luminescence can mask the Raman signal and make it impossible to successfully record a Raman spectrum. Knowing these and reducing or eliminating them is important for the proper interpretation of the resulting spectra. 36 InColor | Spring 2010 Photoluminescence Spectroscopy Photoluminescence is a term that stands for emission of photons. there are vast possibilities for the analysis of all other gem materials. Photoluminescence spectra can show a variety of artifacts from laser. which are identified by the features in the spectral domain from 2. The Raman/photoluminescence spectra of calcite and aragonite recorded using two different lasers (473 and 532 nm). but in certain cases they are even absent at room temperature but very dominant at low temperature (see figure 4). It can also be a problem to determine whether a peak is a Raman scattering signal or luminescence. the absorption of a photon (light) puts a material into an excited state. filter. The features in Raman spectra can also be used to determine the cristallinity of a material. the main use of photoluminescence spectroscopy can be found in diamond analysis.800 to 3. In such phenomena. diamond spectra exhibit a very large variety of rather sharp vibronic-type absorptions and emissions caused by many different defects (point and extended defects).gemstone. Unlike any other gem material. Photoluminescence spectroscopy is a technique that is commonly measured with the same instruments used for Raman measurements. and the energy loss when falling back to the ground state occurs in the form of an emission. The FTIR spectrometer used at the GEMLAB laboratory (left) and the infrared spectra recorded on this instrument from untreated emerald as well as emeralds treated by various commonly used organic fillers (right). Figure 4. Although diamond is the main gemstone analyzed by this method.org . Raman spectroscopy that is based on the vibrations of molecules is a complementary technique to infrared spectroscopy and in many cases either of them can be used to solve a given problem. Lasers are perfect sources to excite luminescence in gem materials. Even though there are many applications of this technique in many different gem materials. organic coloring agents. Excited by the laser.

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with the right Figure 5. which give direct insights into the growth of diamond. with the most prominent being diffraction peaks that can be reduced by rotating a sample during the analysis. Furthermore. when they are replaced by electrons from an outer shell.” The emitted secondary X-rays have energies characteristic for each chemical element of the periodic table and therefore this technique permits the non-destructive chemical analysis of gem materials. The setup of the xenon-based luminescence spectroscopy system (left) and the result obtained from a blue-fluorescing diamond using various excitation wavelengths (right). various artifacts occur. There are basically two types.gemstone. therefore the name “X-ray fluorescence.org . 38 InColor | Spring 2010 www. The other type is used for all sorts of analyses such as detection and quantification of organic fillers and the observation of irregular defect distribution in gemstones.GEMO LO GY UV Imaging Techniques UV imaging is a very useful method to study luminescence and its distribution microscopically. gem materials can be excited and observed under light wavelengths from 250 nm to about 650 nm. The first one is known from the instrument “DiamondView™” which has its main uses in the field of diamonds. EDXRF (Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence) Spectroscopy This type of spectroscopy is actually the measurement of secondary X-rays that are emitted by a material when excited by X-rays. setup. The only drawback of this technique is that light elements (lower atomic number than sodium) cannot be detected because of the beryllium window that is usually employed at the entrance of the detector and that the determinable light elements (Na. but simply recorded using an excitation source other than a laser. The very intense emission system seen in the domain around 700 nm is nickel-related and well known from HPHT synthetic diamonds grown by a nickel catalyst. Figure 6. Well-calibrated EDXRF systems permit the quantitative or semi-quantitative chemical analysis of materials. Si) need to be present in relatively high concentrations in order to be detected. In EDXRF. Mg. The spectra shown are photoluminescence spectra. Such an experiment showing the blue fluorescence emission depending on the excitation wavelength using a xenon light source and a monochromator is shown in figure 6. red trace) spectra recorded from a nickel-rich natural diamond (inset). The spectra were recorded with a 532 nm laser on the PL spectrometer system used at the GEMLAB laboratory. since the UV wavelength just below the diamond intrinsic UV absorption allows one to observe surface-restricted luminescence phenomena. The X-rays cause electrons in the inner shell to be ejected from their sites and. one using very high-energy UV light (< 225 nm) and one using anything from about 250 nm to about 450 nm in the blue part of the spectrum. There are many ways to use a UV microscope and. The room temperature (blue trace) and low temperature (-196°C. such instruments can be coupled to a spectrometer to record the emission of a sample when excited by the intense light source that is necessary for UV microscopy. Al. secondary X-rays are emitted.

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Using this technique. they can save time and allow many images to be recorded under different conditions. This helps solve many tasks of “difficult” pearls that may otherwise require computer tomography. Additionally. and far from the resolution of the best X-ray film in the market. For two decades. it is an instrument that can very easily lead to erroneous results if not used with utmost caution and precision. super sensitive for quantitative trace element analysis but. typically very small shallow craters are created. many instruments www. Film-based radiography has been used for a long time and has proven to be efficient in pearl testing. The small shallow craters are about as tiny as the ones created by LIBS. The drawbacks are that it is time-consuming if good results are needed and that the initial investment and the running costs for the complex machine are major. LIBS (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) This chemical analysis method cannot be performed without destroying small quantities of material and is based on the well-known and practically abandoned technique of flame spectroscopy. While these detectors are very expensive. thanks to laser ablation via a microscope. The major drawback of digital radiography has always been the resolution of the images obtained. on the other hand. 40 InColor | Spring 2010 The two most important imaging techniques using X-rays are the well-known radiography and the more sophisticated and very expensive Micro Computer Tomography.org . usually several diode spectrometers covering only a short range each are coupled to achieve the high resolution necessary to resolve all the very sharp emissions. ICPMS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy) The highly sophisticated and expensive method is a destructive one that can. the resolution was not satisfactory. ICPMS is extremely sensitive and practically all elements can be detected in very low concentrations (sub-ppm). small quantities are vaporized using a laser and the resulting atomic emissions are measured with a very high-resolution spectrometer. the visualization of compositional fluctuations. Pearls often need to be X-rayed from several directions for conclusive evidence and such procedures can be very time-consuming. ICPMS is. gem materials can be tested without major traces visible after analysis. In the past years. only single pearls can be tested. perhaps one day these systems may be economically viable in a commercial gemological laboratory. real-time imaging has become a reality. strings cannot be scanned with these systems. Additionally. The problem with this method is the time needed for each radiography. In this modernized version. The problem is that it can really only be run correctly if standards are used for the different materials to be analyzed and even then only by a highly specialized operator. When pearls are really ambiguous. The method has its main application in the detection of light elements in gem materials. on one hand. this situation has changed and some systems are available that have similar or even equal resolution levels of X-ray film. With well-focalized lasers and a well-adapted stage. Other Methods Scanning electron microscopy usually permits the observation of the surface of a sample with magnifications up to several ten thousands. The EDXRF chemical analysis of a lead glass treated star ruby.GEMO LO GY X-Ray Imaging Techniques Figure 7. which can be removed practically without weight loss. such as beryllium in sapphire. computer tomography may be the only solution. thus creating no real problem in gem testing. If the high-resolution CT scanners evolve and become more rapid and if prices come down. and variations in a substance and if available also the luminescence of a sample under the electron beam used in the microscope. This means that a pearl must be quite some size in order to be worth the expense of Micro-CT analysis. see figure 8).gemstone. be used in the gemological field. Until quite recently. digital radiography has been available in the market. LIBS is relatively difficult to calibrate to be used quantitatively. performed on a custom EDXRF spectrometer system with a thermoelectrically cooled detector used at the GEMLAB laboratory. Radiography is used for pearl analysis and to visualize and quantify certain fillers in gem materials such as the notorious lead glass filled rubies (or glass-ruby composite material. but approximate values can be obtained. The technique has a resolution superior to radiography and creates three-dimensional images. Only the highest-resolution systems make sense since instruments with lower resolution have no significant advantage over a highest-resolution real-time radiography system.

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a piece of about 0. leading to rather breathtaking conclusions from data obtained by Raman spectroscopy. the cost of such instruments has decreased to a certain degree and smaller laboratories and others interested in the techniques can afford them more easily. It is also evident that such instruments have their applications and uses for gemologists not directly involved in laboratory work. have EDX capacities. These two methods are only rarely used in gemology and gem labs can generally only access them by cooperation with universities or other research labs. Today.015g must be available for destructive analysis. experience. the instruments. Emmanuel Fritsch and Dr. which gain credibility due only to the fact that some fancy instruments were used to come to the published conclusions. one can find rather abstruse papers online about gemological topics. The fact that the internet has made it easy to publish any type of information without verification by an independent expert is one of the major problems in gemology today. from a short course allowing one to use the title. SEM-EDX has the advantage that very small surfaces can be scanned point by point. which is a method that permits mainly to identify mineral species (see above).hainschwang@gemlab. Therefore. but that the limitations and risks associated with them should always be kept in mind. The author is grateful to Franck Notari (GemTechLab Geneva) for proofreading the manuscript. for example. Without a doubt. the use of such still very costly instrumentation has permitted the laboratory gemologist to solve most problems that occur in gemology today. Gemology needs to be separated into a scientific and a commercial definition. With this in mind.000 years. unless the data obtained is simply used to learn and not to be published. There are many methods offering much potential for gemstone and pearl analyses.D on a diamond topic at the University of Nantes (France) under the supervision of Prof. Ions obtained from the material are accelerated to extraordinarily high kinetic energies before mass analysis in order to efficiently determine the 12C to 14C isotope ratio. By measuring how much of it is left. www. it is not difficult to imagine what can happen when inexperienced users try to interpret spectral data.” 14 C isotope analysis for age determination of certain organic gem materials (radiocarbon dating) is usually realized using an accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS). the age can be determined. but the detection limit of the instrument is lower than in EDXRF since the electrons used to X-ray emission cause a background noise known under the term “Bremsstrahlung. techniques. Discussion and Concluding Remarks This short overview of the instruments used and needed in today’s gemological laboratories has demonstrated that gemology is a real field of science today. It is evident that running a serious laboratory without a variety of analytical instruments is impossible. Today.730 years and which is accumulated by all living things on earth. it is safer to keep the fingers from such specialized instruments. The advent of advanced instrumentation has brought the science of gemstone analysis to a new level. but this risk is far higher in non peer-reviewed online publications. A radiography of the lead glass treated star ruby shown in figure 7 (left) and of a natural pearl (right) recorded on the custom-made real-time radiography “Blackbox” system used at the GEMLAB laboratory. Benjamin Rondeau. Without sufficient background knowledge. photoluminescence data has been regarded as Raman data. The com42 InColor | Spring 2010 bination of classic gemological tools with a multitude of advanced instruments is the key for the gemological community to defend its credibility and to protect consumers. The problem that arises with the availability of specialized analytical instruments is the interpretation of the data obtained. and caution. and expensive method. complex. together with very little 13C). which has a half-life of 5.net) is currently working on his Ph. such errors happen very rapidly since they are not always evident. to scientific education and a life full of passion for gems. It is no secret that even peer-reviewed publications by experienced scientists may contain major errors. The bright white to lighter gray zones in the image of the ruby represent lead glass fillings. which then permits the determination of the age of a substance. Even the most experienced operators can misinterpret data or some artifacts can be regarded as real results.GEMO LO GY Figure 8. For this destructive. since the title “gemologist” can mean just about anything. Thomas Hainschwang (thomas. and the physics behind them must be part of the knowledge of a laboratory gemologist who is employing them and interpreting the data. which means that they allow point analysis of the chemical composition. with a maximum of about 40.gemstone.org . 14C is the short-lived radioactive isotope of carbon (mostly 12C is the stable isotope present in nature. More than once.

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the American Gemological Laboratory (AGL) released its conclusions and policies for their reports (AGL 2010). common. and what special care requirements did it carry. and polishing. Minor to trace elements of chromium. The majority of rubies examined were of medium to lower quality. Lynch of Ouellet & Lynch in Phoenix. 2009. Durability Tests Initial durability studies were conducted in collaboration with Craig A.S. were detected in concentrations typical of Mozambique rubies (GIT-GTL. titanium. Sizes and Appearance The supply of treated rubies from Mozambique is quite large as are their sizes. As this treatment was first acquired in Bangkok by wholesalers and manufacturers. with a pinkishred to saturated red color and obvious inclusions reducing transparency. and Thailand (figure 1). www. the rubies where cleaned in a solution of Potassium Hydroxide for 1. Many of the samples possessed fis44 InColor | Spring 2010 Figure 2: The Mozambique rubies treated by this method possessed internal features revealing thermal alteration. Gemological Findings All of the standard gemological properties were consistent with ruby in general. yet another “new” ruby heat treatment has been entering the global marketplace. rhodium plating. Pardieu et al. 2010. Microscopic examination revealed the presence of several naturally-occurring inclusions that showed evidence of heat treatment (figure 2). Right: A heavily altered crystal has created a halo of orange color as a result of heating. Hong Kong. repair. vanadium. Higher quality. for 1.GEMO LO GY AGL Discusses the Latest “New” Ruby Heat Treatment Coming out of Thailand By Christopher P. Prior to rhodium plating.. Chemical analyses were conducted using an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (ED-XRF). Smith. as well as ones that possessed a combination of fissure healing and in-filling were exposed to conditions that would be typically encountered at the work-bench of manufacturers and retailers. The findings indicate this latest treatment is essentially the same as the more traditional flux-assisted heating of rubies. Several of the stones also possessed glass-filled cavities. For the rhodium plating process. rubies treated by this new method in excess of 40 to 50 carats are also available. No lead or bismuth was detected. and gallium. another new heat treatment for Mozambique rubies has been on the Thai market. 2009. Stones that had primarily fissures healed during the heating process. ranging in size from below 1 ct to over 50 cts. issues arose as how to properly represent and disclose this treatment. Both features were readily evident when the stones were viewed with a standard jeweler’s loupe or a microscope. Of concern for the industry was whether it had to be disclosed similarly to the lead-glass treated ruby. AGL president F or more than a year. sizing. Left: A whitish crystal has gone through thermal shock. more transparent treated rubies are also encountered. In larger stones (generally 10 carats or more). iron. with some additional features. Rubies treated by this method are found in large quantities.. the rubies were immersed in a solution of sulfuric acid standard for plating white gold jewelry.5 minutes.org . Rubies were immersed in a standard jeweler’s pickle (warmed Sparex) for 20 minutes. The author has examined hundreds of faceted rubies below 1 to more than 5 carats in the U. The lower luster of the glass compared to the host ruby was evident (figure 5). known as Composite Ruby (AGL 2007). faceted stones tend to be shallow due to the tabular shape of the original rough.gemstone. Standard bench jeweler practices were employed during the re-tipping of prongs. sures where little to no healing had taken place. then distributed through other markets across the world. Although these sizes are Figure 1: For more than a year. Figure 3: Shown here are the typical constituents and patterns of heating residues present as a result of induced healing of fissures by the adding of fluxing agents during heating. the fissures were in-filled with a solid. however. Arizona. 2010). All of the stones possessed thermally induced healed fissures with heating residues that ranged from faint or minor to prominent (figure 3).5 minutes. Following its initial investigations. glass-like or vitreous material (figure 4).

. glass in-filled fissures and cavities encountered. 2006. as well as other potential elements to raise the refractive InColor | Spring 2010 45 . Hakimi 2010. has taken place and is Re-tipping caused some areas present in these particular of the in-filled fissures to bubble rubies. 2000). and their extent will be indicated collectively. This topic eventually died down as treaters focused more of the treatment process on fissure healing and the use of acids to remove the larger masses of glass at the surface of the stones. Therefore. similar to the more traditional heating of ruby that results in fissure healing and heating residues (B. Ancillary fiber-optic lighting reflects off the in-filled fissures. Although the extent of this treatment may be significant. however. McClure et al. AGL was told that a selection of the rough material suitable for the Composite Ruby treatment is made.. its disclosure information. AGL will expand while others were left unaffected. This contrasts to the very low relief of the leadglass filling of a Composite Ruby. ally heated rubies. match of the lead-glass to the ruby (right). immersion in the pickling solution and rhodium plating produced no discernible damage. For those stones that possess a combination Figure 6: This ruby. it was clear that virtually all rubies possessed fissures that had been healed. Lynch. 2010). The heat of re-tipping and/or sizing.I. Concluding Comments When the rubies from the Mong Hsu area of Burma (Myanmar) first came to the market in the early 1990s.GE MOLOGY Discussion For this treatment. 2010). there was great controversy surrounding the extent of fissure healing and glass in-filling in many of these stones (McClure and Smith. The lower luster of the glass made them easy to distinguish (left).gemstone. the traditional disclosure nomenclature addressing the quantity of heating residues will be applied (figure 7). The lead-glass filled cavities present in a Composite Ruby are more difficult to detect due to the close R. An expanded description will also be provided under the comments section (figure 8). 2005. could cause the glass to bubble at the surface (figure 6). Figure 5: Glass-filled cavities were a common feature of the heated Mozambique rubies. AGL has decided to address these stones within the context of disclosure already existent for such rubies. From our durability studies. As a result. making them readily visible. Pardieu et al. The lead-glass of a Composite Ruby does not participate in the healing of fissures. Many of the stones also possessed fissures that had been in-filled with a glass-like or vitreous material. to better represent filled. For those stones where the majority of what is taking place involves the healing of fissures. this latest treatment of Mozambique rubies parallels the early Mong Hsu material. The glass infused into the Composite Ruby material contains lead and/or bismuth.org Disclosure wording will address both heating residues and in-filling. there are several differences between this and the material AGL classifies as Composite Ruby. with both of fissure healing and infissures that were healed and infilling. During the course of microscopic investigations. Heating residues are quantified. and the golden color of the lead-glass further augments the color of rubies treated by that method. This sub-group of rough is then treated using various chemicals or fluxing agents.. Figure 7: The dominant feature resulting from this latest treatment is the healing of fissures. The results are in contrast to the etching that occurs with Composite Rubies (Smith et al. Figure 4: Many of the treated Mozambique rubies had unhealed fissures in-filled with a glass-like or vitreous material. Report Disclosure Terminology The overall investigation of this latest ruby heat treatment has shown that it is similar to the more traditionwww. was exposed to common the dual nature of what procedures of a bench jeweler. Neither is the case with this new treatment. less often were unhealed. Today. These results are similar to those of the more traditionally heated rubies possessing induced healed fissures and heating residues (as performed by the author previously).

• Smith C.pdf • LMHC Information sheet #3: Corundum with glass filled fractures and/or cavities enhancing the clarity. index of the glass to that of the host ruby..Gem testing Laboratory: 2009).. Jacquat S. • McClure S. (2006) Identification and durability of lead glass-filled rubies.P.giathai.pdf • GIT-GTL (Gem and Jewelry Institute of Thailand .F. http://www.F. E-mail _____________________ 255.Gem testing Laboratory: 2010). Some characteristics of “Mozambique” ruby. Professional bench jewelers should already be familiar with the proper handling of a heated ruby.org www. 336-359.A. 3-5.. • McClure S.00 Mail this form along with your check or Credit Card details to: International Colored Gemstone Association 19 West 21st Street. In contrast. Vol.. Special care required. http://www. Gems & Jewellery. 42. November.aglgemlab. 1. This treatment has made these stones an interesting low-cost alternative for those who don’t want to work with Composite Rubies yet are having difficulties in obtaining heated rubies of nonBurmese origin since rubies from Burma (Myanmar) are banned in the U. Country ___________________ (2005) Some characteristics of lead-glass-filled Tel _______________________ corundum. Composite Ruby carries with it certain intrinsic special care requirements that must be conveyed to bench jewelers and consumers. It was developed to represent the compound nature of what happens to the fluxing agents used during a more traditional heating procedure. 1. Hall M. http://www.. New ruby deposits in Mozambique. Jewellery News Asia. pp. pp. Thirangoon K. Du Toit ___________________________ G. 46.GEMO LO GY Figure 8: This stone possessed the combination of healed fissures and in-filled fissures.B. http://www.. http://www. (2000) Gemstone enhancement and detection in the 1990’s.. Wang W.S.pdf • Lynch C. in order to avoid inadvertent damage to the stones. Suite #705 New York.pdf • GIT-GTL (Gem and Jewelry Institute of Thailand . and tiny voids (contraction bubbles).gemstone. 79-84. (2010) Is that really a ruby? Private publication Ouellet & Lynch. Upon cooling. Vol.pdf • AGL (3 May 2010) AGL Will Not Be Classifying New Ruby Treatment As Composite Ruby.org 46 InColor | Spring 2010 commercial household products.Q&RORU 1 year . Company ___________________ net/pdf/Niassa_Mozambique_Ruby_SeptemAddress ____________________ ber13_2009. Mozambique has become an important source of rubies of all three types: Unheated. a vitreous melt (glass).com/News/composite%20ruby. References: • AGL (13 November 2007) AGL modifies its disclosure policy on lead-glass filled rubies.or.git. Heating residues and in-filling are quantified collectively..4 issues $50.th/eng/testing_center_en/ lab_notes_en/glab_en/2009/GIT_article_ruby_mozambique_web. Senoble J.pdf Zip _______________________ • Smith C.or.. http://www. • Pardieu V. Heated. Initial durability tests indicate that these stones have fewer special-care requirements than Composite Rubies and that their characteristics more closely resemble those of traditionally heated rubies with heating residues when exposed to conditions in a jeweler’s workshop or Three types of ruby currently available in the market Unheated Ruby: A ruby that possesses the intrinsic quality endowed by nature. No.F.org . Hall M. pp. www. pp.pdf ___________________________ • Pardieu V. http://www. For the treatment discussed here.P. Over the past two years. 36.net/pdf/IS3_18012010.P. 22-34..A. pp. This makes it quite difficult to ascertain the true extent of the treatment without partially dissolving the glass. Gems & Gemology. Tel: [1] (212) 620-0900 Fax: [1] (212) 352-9054 ica@gemstone. A combination of these three components defines heating residues. and Composite (see sidebar). (2010) FAPFH/GFF Treated Ruby from Mozambique. fissures are healed and what remains along the traces of these previous open fissures is re-grown (synthetic) corundum. 6XEVFULEHWR .. Gems & Gemology.aglgemlab. (2010) Mozambique Rubies.. 19. Potential additional enhancements: Clarity – Fissure healing* Clarity – Fissure healing* and In-filling Diffusion – Beryllium diffusion Composite Ruby: An amalgam of natural ruby and glass. Smith C.git. Smith C. and elsewhere.P.S. NY 10010 U. Vol. Potential additional enhancements: Clarity – Oiling of fissures Heated Ruby: A stable enhancement method.net/ City _______________________ pdf/Flux_heated_and_glass_filled_rubies_from_ State ______________________ Mozambique. McClure S.. (2009) Rubies from First Name __________________ the Niassa and Cabo Delgado regions of Last Name __________________ Northern Mozambique.gemstone.com/News/New%20Ruby%20TreatmentMay%202010-AGL. Thanachakaphad J. Wang W. Bryl L..giathai. 4. Saesaew S.th/eng/testing_center_en/ lab_notes_en/glab_en/2010/new_ruby_deposits_mozambique. No.P. No. Sturman N. the features are readily visible permitting the true extent of the healing and in-filling to be determined. *Heating residues is a term used when describing a healed fissure.. No.giathai.

similar to quality analysis ratings used in ratings guides for hotels and restaurants. founders of the Asian Institute of Gemological Sciences. trends. type. AIGS also developed a clarity scale not dissimilar to concepts used in the diamond industry to describe the purity of cut diamonds.GE MOLOGY AIGS Lab Launches Master Gemstone Report T he Asian Institute of Gemological SciencesAIGS Laboratory has launched a new Master Gemstone Report (MG Report). The AIGS Ruby and Sapphire Grading system was launched over 30 years ago by Robert Weiser and Henry Ho. proportions. taking into account its symmetry. The MG Report is based on a proprietary star-based system. and color present in the stone. “This document assures the consumer that the gemstone has been prequalified. Ho. and will assist them in making better decisions in determining the quality of the gemstone. The AIGS Master Color Chart for Ruby and Sapphire is being updated and will be reproduced this year. Henry Ho. involving not only gem identification and theoretical knowledge but also to give an understanding about qualities. possessing attributes of excellence and distinction. The Daylight 99 was very popular among gemstone dealers in Thailand and used in many offices and factories. and sources. factors in an overall grade given to color.” which possesses the highest color rendering index of 99. and cut as well as additional attributes such as the degree of color shift. and polish. the MG Report evolved from the concept of quality branding. market history. location. and other optical phenomenon.org the number of inclusions. Asia’s first professional gemological school and gem-testing laboratory. The AIGS Ruby and Sapphire Grading System. A key objective of the AIGS Ruby and Sapphire System is to “speak the language of the trade” and to translate and introduce that “language” internationally. According to AIGS president. color change. The cutting of a gemstone also plays an important role in determining the gem’s quality.” said Mr.gemstone. pleochroism. its size. AIGS incorporated the grading system into the AIGS Accredited Gemologist program to provide students a complete education. prices. The clarity grade is based upon www. used for the MG Report. AIGS uses master stones for color comparison and is a pioneer in introducing “a standard lighting and viewing environment” by engaging Mitsubishi Lighting Corporation in the late 1970’s to produce a desk lamp named “Daylight 99. especially in the quality and sorting department. InColor | Spring 2010 47 . clarity. fluorescence.

In 2009. To do so. The identity of the gems must be determined. are also included in the training.gemstone. The FEEG diploma becomes essential in gemological vital skills and knowledge. The objective of the FEEG is to develop a high level of gemological knowledge in the European Union. The courses end with a two-part examination. 48 InColor | Spring 2010 such as mineralogy.G. Numerous domains are taught. physics. eight gemological institutes founded the Federation for European Education in Gemology (F. The diplomas were given to them at a joint gathering to which all members of the institutes’ members were invited. synthetic or natural. when possible. etc. sinhalite. chemistry. including ING-France. Today. National Institute of Gemology. All new treatments and syntheses are discussed with identification criteria in order to prepare the students for the realities of the trade. Scientific identification techniques are detailed such as UV-Visible and infrared spectroscopy. LA-ICPMS.E D U C AT I O N Federation for European Education in Gemology By Aurélien Delaunay. Collection gemstones such as ekanite. Students learn how to identify gem material whether treated or not. Q Gemmologische Akademie Linz (Austria) Q Österreichische Gemmologische Gesellschaft (Austria) Q Academie voor Mineralogie (Belgium) Q Société Belge de Gemmologie (Belgium) Q Institut National de Gemmologie (ING) (France) Q Deutsche Gemmologische Gesellschaft (Germany) Q Gem-A (Great Britain) Q Istituto Gemmologico Italiano (Italy) Q Dutch Gemmological Institute (Netherlands) Q Netherlands Gemmological Laboratory (Netherlands) Q Escola de Gemmologia de la Universitat de Barcelona (Spain) Q Instituto Gemológico Español (Spain) . This science is in constant evolution as new treatments.E.). the gemological institutes share important amounts of information to remain on top of current developments. The two-week training program is given in the language of each member institute. along with the indication as to whether they are treated or synthetic. The first part is a theoretical multiple-choice questionnaire of 100 questions about all the subjects taught during the two weeks. etc. cuprite.E. it acquires an important international importance that increases from year to year.org Photos ©ING I n 1996. By grouping many institutions. syntheses. for example. FEEG diploma regroups twelve institutes in eight countries. www. prehnite. optics. This day was also a time of knowledge sharing through conferences and discussions on gemological topics. geology. or gems are discovered and/or developed. 38 students took part in FEEG workshops in all the institutes and the success rate was close to 70 percent. ING France Gemology has become a key discipline for people working in the gem and jewelry trade. X-radiography. The second part is a practical exercise during which students have to identify twelve gemstones in four hours.

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academic adviser for the Gem and Jewelry Institute of Thailand presented GIT’s extensive work on establishing colored stone grading standards and how their work supports the Thai government’s mandate to sustain the growth of the Thai gem and jewelry industry through numerous projects. A discussion on the findings of the Gemological Institute of America on “Radioactive Uranium Mineral as Inclusions in Turquoise. and Disclosures. Sushil Goyal. ICA vice president Jean Claude Michelou began a discussion on fair trade and ethical mining as it applies to colored gemstones. Also in attendance were members of the trade from the wholesale and retail sectors. At this time. Dr. ICA director. one of which was opened with a presentation on nomenclature for glass-filled rubies by Christopher P. Smith.) A forum for GILC was launched in April and is open for general discussion. Chief Gemologist. This topic was opened with a presentation aptly titled. and leaders from major international organizations who provided valuable insight and perspective to the discussions. revealing a concrete proposal for a simplified concept of certification for gemstone-producing countries based on poverty reduction. He suggested the committee work on developing an acceptable commercial name with proper disclosure for this product. The GILC agenda was planned with a few hot topics of debate. A committee was formed to look into this subject further and give recommendations to regulate the import of this product in accordance with the U. Gubelin Gem Lab. Association of All Japan who has visited andesine mines in Tibet and Mongolia. The subject opened the discussion for the participation of gem labs and their roles in the domain of ethical gemstones and fair-trading processes.org .gemstone.S. including many members of the LMHC and CIBJO. and value addition.org. Pornsawat Wathanakul. ICA vice president Jean Claude Michelou (left) began a discussion on fair trade and ethical mining at the GILC. from the artisanal miners’ supply chain to the market. GILC chairman. president of American Gemological Laboratories. Another important discussion centered on treatments applied to emeralds.” A GILC committee was formed to address issues specifically related to emeralds. A taskforce was quickly assembled whose first action was to set up a trip to the andesine mines with a large group of gemologists and gem experts.” presented by Shane McClure. The ensuing discussion demonstrated that there was a variety of opinion among attendees. the International Colored Gemstone Association (ICA). GILC chairman Sushil Goyal moved to form a committee within GILC to discuss the issue further.” by Dr. Dr. www. ICA president. capacity building. ICA is making plans to move the 2011 event in Tucson to a larger venue. Many attendees were looking forward to a debate on andesine. Nuclear Regulatory Commission guidelines. as well as closed committee discussions at www. “Controversies on Origins.IND UST RY N E WS GILC Opens Discussion on Key Issues T he Gemstone Industry and Laboratory Conference (GILC) returned to Tucson in February 2010. The next tentative date is set for September 2010 in Hong Kong. Treatments. addressed the topic “Emerald Treatments Detection and Laboratory Reports. Lore Kiefert.gilcforum. The scheduling of future meetings will be posted on the forum. caught many attendees by surprise. Ahmadjan Abduriyim of the Gemological 50 InColor | Spring 2010 This year’s Gemstone Industry and Laboratory Conference (GILC) in Tucson attracted nearly double the participants as expected. Participation in the GILC was nearly double the expectations of the organizer. bringing together experts from laboratories around the world. (Complete details on Thailand’s initiatives can be found in the Cover Story in this issue of InColor. and Edward Boehm. Also shown left to right: Wilson Yuen. and generated a flurry of questions.

500) representing more than 500 different minerals and is “devoted to scholars and artists. the collection is open to the public. Today. A selection of 151 specimens starts with native elements. sulfates. by Editions Le Pommier. US$125.5 x 2. presents the best specimens of this collection with full-scale color reproductions. United States. These sections contain interesting perspectives on mineralogy and the evolution and history of the discipline itself as well as trends in mineral collections. a rare feature for such work. Some specimens are totems—defined as exceptional and masterpiece—known to the entire mineralogical community.org Verdelite Elbaite.” and is located at 4 Place Jussieu in the heart of Paris’ Latin Quarter. The last section explains the objective and subjective criteria for evaluating specimens and the various goals of today’s private and public collections. then halides. totems are often very photogenic. Madagascar. Paris. Brazil. Ikalamavony. 21 x 16 x 14 cm. curator and author of texts. they are not showy or over-lighted but rather are a Cover of Minéraux remarqua. collector. deserve a special comment. Minéraux remarquables de la Collection UPMC – La Sorbonne: Edited by Jean Claude Boulliard.2 x 2. sulfides.. 7. This is followed by various interesting sections on: Photographing Mineral Art.” Since 1971. taken on a black background. a beautiful coffee table book. and the Sorbonne. and the large family of silicates. Bevaondrano. www. Some specimens are icons—spectacular and unique pieces. photographer of the collection. It also offers interesting insights into a curator’s mind. Minéraux remarquables de la Collection UPMC – La Sorbonne. A must-have for gemologists and aficionados alike. Each mineral is described in detail as well as how it was obtained. Clinically precise. Rutile can often be found in quartz as beautiful. and attract visitors to a museum. Colorado. phosphates. oxides. publ. 255 pp. Mineral Collections Throughout History.gemstone. and Collection Minerals. A History of the Mineral Collection from the Sorbonne to UPMC. soughtafter inclusions. The Sorbonne Collection is more precisely called the “Collection UPMC – La Sorbonne.good depiction of what one bles de la Collection UPMC – La would see when visiting Sorbonne. the Ecole des Mines. Ibitiara. illus.BOOK RE VIE W The Stunning Mineral Collection of the Sorbonne University in Paris Review by Delphine Leblanc F rance was on the cutting edge of mineralogy in the 18th century. written in French and English. Lake George. The pictures. carbonates. 29 x 27 x 26 cm. Steve Smale. InColor | Spring 2010 51 . Needless to say.. Bahia. it goes further by giving readers a broader understanding of minerals and collections.000 exhibited specimens (of a total of some 13.S. Paris hosts three famous mineral collections located in: the Museum d’Histoire Naturelle. An elongated tourmaline crystal showing an incredible natural green color. 2009.3 cm. organic compounds. Microcline (amazonite) and morion quartz. is a preface by Jean Claude Boulliard. It assembles more than 1.00 Boulliard. While the book is a well-documented overview of the Sorbonne Collection. and the creation of specialized universities in the 19th century laid the foundation for building vast mineral collections. Edited by Jean Claude the collection. Rutile on hematite. After a foreword by famous U. and Orso Martinelli.

Along with rare natural Cushion-cut 20. one of the highlights was the high-end show at the Westward Look resort held February 5 to 8. Some other dealers were showing very high quality emeralds with diversified allure. A group of three imposing heliodor crystals from Ukraine was exhibited at TGMS. with many exhibitors in Tucson reporting that buyers seemed committed to restocking their inventory in a wide variety of gemstones and pearls. High-end emerald gemstones were also presented such as this high quality 20-carat square cushion cut emerald at the GJX. gemstone courtesy of sensation of the show. these beautiful long emerald crystals in their quartz matrix were back in Tucson this year. Many gemstone dealers presented beautiful imperial topaz in strong colors.TRADE SHOWS Full Steam Ahead for Color in Tucson The 56th edition of the largest and most popular event in the gem world took place in Tucson.gemstone. 52 InColor | Spring 2010 Renowned for their bluish green hue and clean crystals.67-carat orange Imperial topaz from Brazil. Several exhibitors at the GJX presented very fine gemstones in vivid hues such as this 20. time in Denver in 2009. Rough and cut Imperial topaz from Ouro Preto. By Delphine Leblanc.00-carat emrubies. Imperial topaz from Brazil (20. Zambian emeralds are not new to gemstones connoisseurs. These samples were unsurpassed in color and quality and were beautiful examples of rough and cut stones. Brazil. nor as many gemmy minerals among dealers. With a delicate peach hue. Minas Gerais in Brazil. Presented for the first gemstone courtesy of Constantin Wild. such as a 10. Some Joseph Menzie Inc. they are an affordable alternative to Padparadsha sapphire.67 cts). the TGMS (Tucson Gem and Mineral Show) during February 11 to 14 was a mineral extravaganza. GG T he mood was definitely upbeat compared to last year. This mineral comes in huge crystals and the market seems to appreciate more and more its unusual greenish-yellow color. Another rare emmineral courtesy of Collector’s Edge. the minerals from the Kafubu mining district have been extracted and sold in the rough. red spinels were the erald. Heliodor beryls were very present in the show. erald came from eastern Madagascar. Several trends were seen for minerals and gemstones. Later.org . such as rare trapiche emerald caboEmerald on quartz from Zambia. For minerals.01-carat oval specimen. Nobody had ever seen so many gemstones in the exhibition displays this year. Arizona in February 2010. The AGTA GemFair also reported a seven percent increase in buyer traffic. Since last year. www. which included colorful imperial topazes from Ouro Preto. The stone was certified untreated. Several beautiful minerals were shown at TGMS. chons. A profusion of high quality topaz was evident.

visitors and dealers in Tucson this year seemed pleasantly surprised by the level of attendance and number of transactions. a must-see. The peachy orange. These stones also come in a variety of materials including the very rare. there were several remarkable gemstones such as this superb 25. 0. color trends. gemstone courtesy of Henn GmbH. less flamboyant clusters of multicolor minerals bursting out like fireworks. A sign of the times. It comes from Mahenge in Tanzania. cut and facetted locally. Gemstones seem to have recovered and sold better than minerals this Six Torus-ring™ cut Paraiba tourmalines by year. Spinels were still very strong. The Tourmaline carving of a plume. gemstones courtesy than last year with of Gem 2000. gemstone firm this recovery and these courtesy of Nebert. Shown here is the only stone over 20 carats with a unique pure red hue.81 shorter and smaller carats and 0.org of the best dealers had masterfully cut them into fancy cuts over 20 carats. such as this set of Paraiba tourmalines in various shades of blue. or any gemstone downplaying Padparadsha sapphire. Cat’s eye chrysoberyl (25. Some bracelet sets in orange and pink hues were also shown. The minerals Glenn Lehrer (from left to right: 2. www. What was new in opals? Found at the GJX: Ethiopian opals.10 carats. gemstones courtesy of Opalinda. blue. the branded Torus-ring™ cut was presented at a show. and pink hues. The stone exhibited a strong “milk and honey effect” allied with an exceptional transparency. The Idar-Oberstein Group Pavilion at the GJX is always Three Ethiopian pear-shape drop opals.84 carats. As for gems with special effects. For the first time. In conclusion.gemstone. unless otherwise indicated. Gem carvers inspired by contemporary shapes showcased their newest creations.41 carats.03-carat cat’s eye chrysoberyl.03 carats) from Sri Lanka.80 carats) from Mahenge.5 cm wide. Oval-cut spinel (20.01 carats. red. There was no real new find or new gemstones for this Tucson edition. 2.TRADE SHOWS Heliodor beryl sculpture representing a frog (3555 carats). red.rest of the year will conria flower. however. gem carving courtesy of Henn GmbH. were still very much in demand along with green gemstones. adding diversity to the gemstones presented. 3. one could also admire the blossoming flowers made out of tourmaline from Madagascar with incredible texture and realistic details. In a more whimsical figurative style. 1.84 carats. seemed somehow 2. known for magnificent red spinels. new cuts and new styles offered a novelty. Tanzania. were translucent with yellow body color and showing all the rainbow color of opals. InColor | Spring 2010 53 . some dealers had put together calibrated spinels set for highend necklaces including all shades of pink. gemstone courtesy of Dudley Blauwet Gems. Cutting of these gemstones takes five times longer than for a classical shape. and violet. All photos courtesy of Delphine Leblanc.

Renewed Hope With optimism that the economic crisis may be over. Add to that the private by-invitationonly Centurion show and the whole range of jewelry was represented in the desert city of Tucson.and most exhibitors lite. The hallways were crowded. Diamond and sapphire pendant by Gumuchian. Earrings in aquamarine. store attendance surged by 14 percent to 206 retail operations. was busy for all of the three show days. expectations at all the shows were hopeful yet realistic. “Economic times have dictated a change for jewelers who may not have considered color before to now take a second look as they search for products in a range of price points that offer a good turn on margins. Howard Hauben. the ambiance was very upbeat. Show president.” Increased attendance and optimism was also seen at the AGTA (American Gem Trade Association) GemFair. a few of the beautiful colored gemstone pieces are shown here. faction at the results. This year. and gold by Julieli Pure Jewelry. in a complete mood turnaround from the doldrums of last year. Officials reported a total of 8. at all price points.TREN D S Color in the Desert The annual February pilgrimage to the Arizona desert for gem and jewelry dealers ended on an optimistic note this year. diamonds. the AGTA. with designs ranging from small and simple to stunning and sophisticated. and GJX attracted thousands of dealers and buyers for both gemstones and jewelry from around the world.org . featuring more than 100 salons.” said AGTA CEO Douglas Hucker. smoky quartz.gemstone.” And color there was. and six tanza. two golden beryls. Gold ring with center 4. by Gordon Aatlo.expressed great satisnites by Julia Behrends. Ring in blackened gold with uvarovite. GLDA. as jewelers at Centurion and at the various other venues showcased a wide range of colorful gemstone pieces. “We were encouraged to see an increase in the number of buyers at GemFair and the enthusiasm they brought to the show floor. providing a marked contrast to Spessartite and diamond ring the 2009 show. All photos are courtesy of the individual designers. and cobalto by Noam Carver. “The sold-out Collection Floor. The Centurion show was the first on the jewelry calendar and.176 registered buyers at the event. explained. www. By Cynthia Unninayar L ike an alphabet soup for the gemstone industry. All colors were represented. Since photos speak more than words. 54 InColor | Spring 2010 Tanzanite and diamond pendant by Paula Crevoshay. an increase of 7 percent over last year. the booths were busy.34-ct rubel.

org InColor | Spring 2010 55 . A story to be followed… A 3. the discoverer of tsavorite.TRE NDS Tribute to Campbell Bridges The best-attended event during the Tucson shows was a special tribute to the late Campbell Bridges during the annual International Colored Gemstone Association (ICA) reception on February 3. Bruce Bridges’ during the ICA reception in Tucson. The Bridges family. co-sponsored by GIA and AGTA. including Campbell’s wife Judith and their children. emotional remembrance of his legendary father included the tragic details of the last moments of his life when Campbell was slain—and Bruce was seriously wounded—by a group of illegal miners who attacked them near the Bridges’ famous tsavorite Scorpion mine in Kenya. Bruce and Laura. as well as many family members and friends flew into Laura. www.gemstone. one of whom was arrested the day after the ICA reception.95-ct heart-shaped tsavorite set with diamonds in gold by the late Campbell Bridges. and Judith Campbell at Tucson to attend the the tribute to Campbell Bridges held tribute. Bruce. GIA’s Robert Weldon gave a moving presentation of the life of this well-loved and respected discoverer of tsavorite in photos and in words. Bruce also thanked the ICA for its collective efforts to rally support of the international gemstone community in efforts to seek justice for Campbell and prosecution of the known perpetrators.

both as in Peacock bangle in multi-colored the form of the white metal gemstones. while “contemporary” metals such as titanium. drew a very positive conclusion from Pearl and gemstone the results. Australian brand Autore. Without being euphoric. 100. According to show officials. and even all mixes of colors. apparent in a wide range of price points and qualities. BaselWorld 2011 will be held March 24 to 31.700 trade professionals attended the show—a seven percent increase over last year. and rubies with less expensive stones for a bigger look at a more reasonable price. By Cynthia Unninayar B aselWorld 2010 opened on an upbeat note on March 18 and the mood continued throughout the eight-day show. very large role in fine jewelry. and 18K alone or with diamonds and gold by Thai brand Zorab Atelier colored gemstones. Color continues to play a de Création. president of the Exhibitors’ Committee. With “affordable luxury” on everyone’s lips.MARKE T T R EN D S BaselWorld 2010 – Looking Ahead The optimism at the 2010 edition of BaselWorld could be clearly seen as brands look ahead with renewed hope.org . and bronze are now mainstream for upscale designers. many designers are pairing the traditional sapphires.” From a design point of view. not too surprising given the economic situation. “We are delighted earrings in 18K gold by with this year’s BaselWorld. steel. it was evident that most jewellery brands have faced the challenges of the downturn with new and innovative products. 56 designs are very popular. TTF Studio. emeralds. diamonds. lightweight and lacy Multi-colored gemstone and diamond “Fairy Tales” brooch in 18K gold by Russian brand Jewellery Theatre. Pendant in a variety of colored gems and diamonds set in 18K gold by French brand. with all colors. Even watches are taking on color as in this timepiece set with sapphires and diamonds by Italian brand Damiani. Hollow.gemstone. we can optimistically look ahead this year. Jacques J. and its use in designer pieces continues unabated. Mathon Paris. www. Silver has been promoted once again to the status of a precious metal. Exhibitors were down very slightly at 1915. Rings in 18K gold set with a variety of gemstones by British brand Rodney Rayner. Duchêne. Tibetan andesine ring with diamonds in 18K gold by Chinese brand. InColor | Spring 2010 Photos courtesy of individual brands.

org Thai’ in their minds as the country’s quality gems and jewelry brand.” said Somchai. The next edition of the Bangkok Gems & Jewelry Fair. Overall results. “When people think of diamonds. frequented by leading gemstone buyers from around the globe.” The star business category of the fair was claimed once again by the silver jewelry sector. This is to be expected. “Ploi is the Thai word for colored gemstones. The 45th Bangkok Gems & Jewelry Fair showcased the world-class skills of Thailand’s home-grown artisans.gemstone. I want people around the world to think of Thailand when they talk about gems and jewelry.T R A D E FA I R S Positive Optimism Marks the 45th Bangkok Gems & Jewelry Fair T he 45th Bangkok Gems and Jewelry Fair has turned out to be one of the best in recent years. vice president of TGJTA and CEO of the Bangkok Gems & Jewelry Fair. Friday February 26th. This was despite the uncertain local political situation that dampened the mood of the fair’s opening day. thereby encouraging industry links with traders from around the globe and offering participants the chance of being at the center of the gem industry. they think of Belgium. will run September 7 to 11. in order to further promote Thailand as a gemstone and jewelry hub.bangkokgemsfair.com) InColor | Spring 2010 57 . The ‘Ploi Thai’ initiative is spearheaded by Somchai Phornchindarak. It was clear that more serious buyers were attending the fair. When they think of watches. were far better than expected. and it goes hand in hand with the TGJTA’s push to make Thailand the world’s gems and jewelry hub by 2014. but the fair proceeded as planned over the following four days. A Ploi Thai Pavilion featuring gem-studded jewelry manufactured in Thailand was a new edition to the fair. supported by the Thai government. because economic strictures doubtless discourage many visitors who go just to view and admire. The BGJF is internationally recognized as one of the top five gems and jewelry exhibitions in the world. and have ‘Ploi www. This year. it’s Switzerland. it is left for the single-minded trader to carry the corporate flag to the international fairs. which did very well. The gemstone section was satisfactory overall with many vendors reporting brisk sales. When times are hard. in terms of sales and orders reported by exhibitors. the 46th. 2010 at the Impact Challenger venue. Gold jewelry did well too. the Thai Gem & Jewelry Traders Association (TGJTA) launched a successful ‘Ploi Thai’ branding campaign. Silver is clearly recovering much of the market share that it lost in previous years. but the ‘Ploi Thai’ branding applies to all kinds of gemstones and jewelry produced in Thailand. (www.

Exhibitors reported seeing a noticeable increase in the number of buyers from mainland China and seemed to agree that Buyer Attendance: the biggest buyers were from Mature Markets Asian countries. This year’s HKTDC Hong Kong International Jewellery Show featured more than 2. the 32. France: +30% where the demand for colored South Korea: +43% gemstones remains strong. especially green and pink Chinese mainland: +21% tourmaline.” said Ma. “The buyer attendance figures tell us that the retail market is in recovery. and pink sapphire Russia: +96% held their market share.org . a new record.T R A D E FA I R S More Buyers. www. “We saw encouraging figures and a strong response to the jewelry show this year. Official figures from the HKTDC confirm exhibitor comments regarding buyers at the show.S. not only from mature markets such as Europe and the U. reported a 28 percent increase in overseas buyer attendance.” After a four-year wait. through its worldwide offices. fueling hopes that consumer confidence is growing and the retail sector is bouncing back.. Chairman of the HKTDC Hong Kong 58 InColor | Spring 2010 International Jewellery Show.000 buyers who converged on the Hong Kong Exhibition & Convention Centre for this five-day show represented a nine percent increase over last year’s show attendance during the same time period. held in early March. More Buying Power in Hong Kong T he organizer of the Hong Kong International Jewellery Show. Other exhibitors commented that bold beautiful color in larger size stones also got quite a bit of attention from Chinese buyers.600 exhibitors from 44 countries and regions. Overall. but also from emerging markets such as Eastern Europe and India.gemstone. Lawrence Ma. the ICA Pavilion was expanded to 396 square meters allowing 42 member companies to participate in this popular show. reported that the Hong Kong Trade Development Council. while ruby. blue India: +117% sapphire. and up more than 13 percent over last year. recruited buyers from 123 countries and regions. Chinese buyers continue Buyer Attendance: to favor emerald and tourmaEmerging Markets line. A great numUnited States: +38% ber of exhibitors noted a draItaly: +20% matic increase in the number United Kingdom: +22% of buyers from Russia as well.

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