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Introduction to FinFET technology Part I

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Introduction to FinFET technology Part I
by ChipGuy
Published on 04-18-2012 05:00 PM

7 Comments

This is the first of a multi-part series, to introduce FinFET technology to
SemiWiki readers. These articles will highlight the technology's key
characteristics, and describe some of the advantages, disadvantages, and
challenges associated with this transition. Topics in this series will include
FinFET fabrication, modeling, and the resulting impact upon existing EDA
tools and flows. (And, of course, feedback from SemiWiki readers will
certainly help influence subsequent topics, as well.)
Scaling of planar FET's has continued to provide performance, power, and
circuit density improvements, up to the 22/20nm process node. Although
active research on FinFET devices has been ongoing for more than a
decade, their use by a production fab has only recently gained adoption.
The basic cross-section of a single FinFET is shown in Figure 1. The key
dimensional parameters are the height and thickness of the fin. As with
planar devices, the drawn gate length (not shown) separating the source
and drain nodes is a “critical design dimension”. As will be described in the
next installment in this series, the h_fin and t_fin measures are defined by
the fabrication process, and are not design parameters.

Figure 1. FinFET cross-section, with gate dielectric on fin sidewalls and top,
and bulk silicon substrate
The FinFET cross-section depicts the gate spanning both sides and the top
of the fin. For simplicity, a single gate dielectric layer is shown, abstracting
the complex multi-layer dielectrics used to realize an “effective” oxide
thickness (EOT). Similarly, a simple gate layer is shown, abstracting the
multiple materials comprising the (metal) gate.
In the research literature, FinFET's have also been fabricated with a thick
dielectric layer on top, limiting the gate's electrostatic control on the fin
silicon to just the sidewalls. Some researchers have even fabricated
independent gate signals, one for each fin sidewall – in this case, one gate
is the device input and the other provides the equivalent of FET “back bias”
control.
For the remainder of this series, the discussion will focus on the gate
configuration shown, with a thin gate dielectric on three sides. (Intel denotes
this as “Tri-Gate” in their recent IvyBridge product announcements.) Due to
the more complex fabrication steps (and costs) of “dual-gate” and
“independent-gate” devices, the expectation is that these alternatives will
not reach high volume production, despite some of their unique electrical
characteristics.
Another fabrication alternative is to provide an SOI substrate for the fin,
rather than the bulk silicon substrate shown in the figure. In this series, the
focus will be on bulk FinFET's, although differences between bulk and SOI
substrate fabrication will be highlighted in several examples.

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In a planar technology.e. The underlying bulk silicon substrate from which the fin is fabricated is typically undoped (i. by adding another fin in parallel. and custom circuit optimization algorithms typically support “snapping” to a fixed set of available width values. Modern chip designs expect to have multiple Vt device offerings available – e. where high layout density and robust readability/writeability criteria both need to be satisfied. performance. the manufacturing variation in planar device Vt's due to “channel random dopant fluctuation” (RDF) from the implants is high. FinFET's introduce other sources of variation. not present with 2 of 3 2/3/2015 9:49 PM .g. improving the carrier mobility and device current. The quantization of device width in FinFET circuit design is definitely different than the continuous values available with planar technology. Although the silicon fin impurity concentration is effectively undoped. at the expense of higher power.. the local fin spacing (s_fin). and statistical variation comparisons will come up on several occasions in this series of articles. common gate input Figure 2 illustrates a cross-section of multiple fins connected in parallel. a “high” Vt. In practice. the delay of an SVT-based logic circuit path could be improved by selectively introducing LVT-based cells. and thus. and (undoped) silicon materials. and a “low” Vt – to enable cell-swap optimizations that trade-off performance versus (leakage) power. which result in behavior that differs from the simple (2*h + t) channel surface current width multiplier. The use of parallel fins to provide higher drive current introduces a third parameter. using a set of threshold-adjusting impurity implants into masked channel regions. with a continuous gate material spanning the fins.Introduction to FinFET technology Part I http://www. without substantially perturbing the (undoped) concentration in the fin volume itself. the cost of additional threshold offerings is relatively low. However. due to the unique means by which fins are patterned. dielectric. The goal of the fabrication process would be to enable a small fin spacing. The Source and Drain nodes of the parallel fins are not visible in this cross-section – subsequent figures will show the layout and cross-section view of parallel S/D connections. In planar fabrication technologies.. an aspect ratio of (h_fin/t_fin ~2:1) is more realistic. For example. the total measure of the gate's electrostatic control over the silicon channel. as will be discussed in the next installment in this series. Actually.) The low impurity concentration in the fin also results in less channel scattering when the device is active. different device thresholds would be provided by an alternative gate metallurgy. no impurity introduction into the channel is required. The optimum means of introducing the punchthrough-stop impurity region below the fin. most logic cells already use limited device widths anyway. Multiple fins in parallel spaced s_fin apart.semiwiki. multiple Vt device offerings are readily available. the process needs to introduce impurities under the fin as a channel stop. little RDF-based variation is measured. with different workfunction potentials.com/forum/content/1180-introduction-finfet-tech. The availability of multiple (nFET and pFET) device thresholds is a good example of the tradeoffs between FinFET's and planar devices. One immediate consequence of FinFET circuit design is that the increments of device width are limited to (2h + t). For FinFET's. Simplistically. (Cost.. the effective device width of a single fin is: (2*h_fin + t_fin).com . to block “punchthrough” current between source and drain nodes from carriers not controlled electrostatically by the gate input. However. the cost of additional gate metallurgy processing for multiple Vt's is higher – yet. as the cost of an additional masking step and implant is straightforward. In FinFET technologies. so that the FinFET exceeds the device width that a planar FET process would otherwise provide: s_fin < (2*h_fin + t_fin) Subsequent discussions in this series will review some of the unique characteristics of FinFET's. The switching input threshold voltage of the FinFET device (Vt) is set by the workfunction potential differences between the gate. a “standard” Vt. Figure 2. Conversely. The ideal topology of a “tall. narrow” fin for optimum circuit density is mitigated by the difficulties and variations associated with fabricating a high aspect ratio fin. a common device width increment will be (2*(2h+t)). a very low impurity concentration per cm**3)..SemiWiki. is an active area of process development. SRAM arrays and analog circuits are the most impacted by the quantized widths of FinFET's – especially SRAM bit cells.

layout.js" type="text/javascript"></script> <script type="IN/Share" data-counter="right"></script> Share 74 Like 28 Tweet 11 Categories: Semiconductor Manufacturers. as shown in Figure 3. (Chemical etch steps that are selective to the specific silicon crystal surface orientation of the fin sidewall are used to help reduce roughness. Gate edge roughness over the fin is highlighted in the expanded inset picture. v. SEM cross-section of multiple fins.SemiWiki.. The next entry in this series will discuss some of the unique fabrication steps for FinFET's. semiconductor. The fin edge “roughness” will result in variation in device Vt and drive current. tsmc 20nm All times are GMT -7. May 2008. et al. Legal / Sponsor Disclosure 3 of 3 2/3/2015 9:49 PM .com/forum/content/1180-introduction-finfet-tech. and how these steps influence design. planar devices.linkedin. The fabrication of the gate traversing the topology over and between fins will increase the GER variation for FinFET devices..com/in. and Design for Manufacturability: Introduction to FinFET technology Part II <script src="//platform. finfet. Figure 3. soi. Intel.com . “Impact of Line Edge Roughness and Random Dopant Fluctuation on FinFET Matching Performance”. as well. TSMC Tags: eda. The time now is 08:56 AM.) The characteristics of both planar and FinFET devices depend upon Gate Edge Roughness. From Baravelli.7(3). All rights reserved. intel 22nm. IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology.com. Copyright © 2014 SemiWiki.semiwiki. tri-gate.Introduction to FinFET technology Part I http://www.