What is blood
made up of?
• An adult human has about 4–6 liters of blood
circulating in the body.
• The red blood cells contain hemoglobin, a protein that binds
oxygen. Red blood cells transport oxygen to, and remove carbon
dioxide from, the body tissues.
• The white blood cells fight infection.
• The platelets help the blood to clot, if you get a wound.
• The plasma contains salts and various kinds of proteins.

Functions of the blood
• Blood performs two major functions:
1) transport through the body of

oxygen and carbon dioxide
food molecules (glucose, lipids, amino acids)
ions (e.g., Na+, Ca2+, HCO3−)
wastes (e.g., urea)

2) defense of the body against infections and
other foreign materials. All the WBCs participate
in these defenses.

 the red cells settle to the bottom  the white cells settle on top of them forming the "buffy coat". .IF one takes a sample of blood. treats it with an agent to prevent clotting. and spins it in a centrifuge.

• Plasma. . hormones. mineral ions. glucose. which comprises 55% of blood fluid. • Plasma is a pale yellowish fluid with a total volume of 2-3 liters in a normal adult. and contains dissolved proteins. is mostly water (90% by volume). carbon dioxide .BLOOD PLASMA • Blood is a liquid tissue.platelets and blood cells themselves.

COMPONENTS OF BLOOD PLASMA • Water • Plasma protein . lipid and amino acid • Waste products • Gases .Globulins • Plasma electrolytes . Ca + ….NA + . • Nutrients . Cl.Albumins .Fibrinogen .Glucose..

BLOOD CELLS • Three types of blood cells: 1) red blood cell (RBCs) or erythrocytes 2) platelets or thrombocytes 3) white blood cells (WBCs) or leukocytes .

which gives it the red color.RED BLOOD CELL (erythrocytes ) • Produced by the bone marrow and have a lifespan of 3-4 months • The production of red blood cells is stimulated by the hormone erythropoietin • Have a bi-concave shape with a flattened center. transport gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide. . • Hemoglobin contains iron. do not have a nucleus • Contain a protein chemical known as hemoglobin. • Red blood cells are highly elastic. _and_crenation.QUIZ ONLINE n_breakdown.html .mcgrawhill.html http://highered.

 250 million red blood cells in every drop of blood  Males the range is is 4.4 million cells per micro liter .2-5.1 million cells per micro liter  Females the range is 4.RED BLOOD CELL (erythrocytes )  A single drop of blood contains millions of red blood cells.7-6.

exe . • Break down to release oxygen when there is low concentration of oxygen in the surroundings.FUNCTIONS OF RED BLOOD CELL • Important in the process of respiration • Carrying O2 and CO2 around the body • O2 combines with hemoglobin to form oxyhemoglobin in the lungs where there is high concentration of O2. • Carry part of the CO2 waste from the cells I:\EXTRA NOTE PHYSIOLOGY\alveolus.

000 (average 7. • White blood cells formed from the stem cell of the bone marrow.000) WBCs per microliter of blood. . • In a normal adult body there are 4. • Much bigger in size than RBCs.WHITE BLOOD CELLS (Leucocytes ) • Immune system and help our bodies fight infection. • It has a life-span of a couple of days to a few weeks • Colorless without hemoglobin.000 to 10. • It contains a nucleus and has an irregular shape.

WHITE BLOOD CELLS (Leucocytes )  ½ a million white blood cells in every drop of human blood  5 different types of white blood cells 1) Neutrophils – 58% 2) Eosinophils – 2% 3) Basophils – 1% 4) Monocytes – 4% 5) Lymphocytes – 4%  Neutrophils. . eosinophils and basophils are also called granulocytes.

which includes harmful germs and bacteria. • White blood cells fight infections and protect our body from foreign particles.FUNCTIONS OF WHITE BLOOD CELL • White blood cells are responsible for the defense system in the body. .

• They have a segmented nuclei and it is said to be ‘C’ shaped.Neutrophils • Neutrophils make up 55%-70% of the total white blood count in the bloodstream. . • Neutrophils can be found near sites of infection or injury where they will stick to the walls of the blood vessels and engulf any foreign particles that try to enter the bloodstream.

• Also responsible for allergic response within the blood .Eosinophils • Eosinophils make up 2%-5% of the total blood count • Mainly attacks parasites and any antigen complexes.

• They are known to have phagocytory features. • They secrete anti-coagulant and antibodies. immediate immune reaction against external germs and diseases .Basophils • Basophils make up less than 1% of the total white blood count..

the largest of the 5 types of WBCs. • They act as tissue macrophages and remove foreign particles and prevent the invasion of germs which cannot be effectively dealt with by the neutrophils. • They have been known to have phagocytic functions .Monocytes • Monocytes only 5%-8% in the total white blood count.

• These antibodies will be excreted into the plasma to kill bacteria in the blood • These anti-bodies will cause the foreign particles to cluster together. rendering them easily engulfed by the phagocytes.Lymphocytes • Lymphocytes produce anti-bodies against toxins secreted by bacteria and infecting germs. .

harmful disease of WBCs. 4) Leukopenia .Opposite of lymphocytopia .An abnormally low blood count in the bloodstream .Aa type of cancer that infects the bone marrow and blood-forming tissues all over the body. 3) Leukemia . 2) Eosinophilia .Reduction in the number of blood neutrophils .an over-production in the number of white blood cells present in the bloodstream.White Blood Cells Disorders 1) Lmphocytopenia .A lack of lymphocytes would correspond to a decrease in the efficiency of the immune system and coagulation of foreign particles.

PLATELETS • Blood Platelets are granular non-nucleated fragments of cytoplasm in the form of oval discs. • It consists of two parts. . a clear outer ground susbstance occupying the greater part of the platelet and a central part that contains granules.


• Accumulating at sites of injury sticking together to plug gaps in broken blood vessels. . • Activates some proteins in the form of fibers as a network.FUNCTIONS OF PLATELETS • Secrete a hormone . • This network traps the escaping RBCs and forms a clot that will seal the cut blood vessels and so bleeding is stopped.serotonin which constricts torn blood vessels.

. • Blood clotting is necessary to a) prevent serious blood loss when a person is injured a) maintain blood pressure b) maintain the circulation of blood in a closed circulatory system.BLOOD CLOTTING • Blood clotting is a body mechanism to stop or minimise blood loss from damaged blood vessels.

• A blood clot consists of 1. I:\EXTRA NOTE PHYSIOLOGY\Blood clotting. a plug of platelets enmeshed in a 2. network of insoluble fibrin molecules.exe .

Mechanisms of Blood Clotting .

BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS • Blood transfusions . • But if a person who is going to receive blood has antibodies matching the donor blood's antigens.the transfer of blood or blood components into a person's blood stream • Mixing blood from two individuals can lead to blood clumping or agglutination. • The clumped red cells can crack and cause toxic reactions • Blood clumping . .immunological reaction • Transfusion will work if a person who is going to receive blood has a blood group that doesn't have any antibodies against the donor blood's antigens. the red blood cells in the donated blood will clump.

.BLOOD GROUP • A blood type (also called a blood group) is a classification of blood based on the presence or absence of antigenic substances on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs).

. type O blood donors can give to A. B and AB.RBC Compatibility chart In addition to donating to the same blood group. blood donors of types A and B can give to AB.

you have B antigens on the surface of your red blood cells and A antibodies in your blood plasma. Blood Group B • If you belong to the blood group B. . you have A antigens on the surface of your red blood cells and B antibodies in your blood plasma.ABO BLOOD GROUPING SYSTEM Blood Group A • If you belong to the blood group A.

you have neither A or B antigens on the surface of your red blood cells but you have both A and B antibodies in your blood plasma. you have both A and B antigens on the surface of your red blood cells and no A or B antibodies at all in your blood plasma. .ABO BLOOD GROUPING SYSTEM Blood Group AB Blood Group O • If you belong to the blood group AB. • If you belong to the blood group 0 (null).

RH FACTORS • If your blood does contain the protein. • If your blood does not contain the protein. . • It connected to your blood type. • Expectant mothers must know their blood's Rh factor • Baby's life could be in great danger if the mother's Rh negative blood attacks the baby's Rh positive blood. your blood is said to be Rh negative (Rh-). your blood is said to be Rh positive (Rh+).

. • If you have Rh-negative blood. • If you have Rh-positive blood. you can get Rhpositive or Rh-negative blood • Haven't are called Rh-. you should only get Rh-negative • blood.Rh Factor Blood Grouping System Rh Positive Rh Negative • Have antigen are called Rh+.

To prevent transfusion reactions the blood is typed and a cross match is made .

. •Its reduces the ability of the blood to transport O2. resulting from a decreased number of RBCs or decreased amount of haemoglobin. •Suffer lack of energy and feel excessively tired and intolerant cold. skin appears pale. •Is a deficiency of normal haemoglobin in the blood. •It is can also be the result of abnormal hemoglobin production.DISORDER OF THE BLOOD CELL 1) ANEMIA •Is a condition in which the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood is reduced.

•Treatment of hemophilia is injection of the missing clotting factor taken from donated blood or produced by genetic engineering. . •Most often found in people from northern Europe and occurs almost in males.2) Hemophilia •Is a genetic disorder in which clotting is abnormal or absent. •Inherited deficiency of clotting in which bleeding may occur spontaneously or after only minor trauma.

radiation. . •Treatment options included chemotherapy. interferon and blood transfusion. liver and spleen. •The cancerous white blood cells spread to lymph nodes. stem cell transplantation. WBCs and platelets. an individual is more susceptible to infection and blood clotting is abnormal. causing them to enlarge.3) Leukemia •Is a cancer in which abnormal production of more of the white blood cell types occurs uncontrollably. •The accumulation of the cancerous WBCs in red bone marrow interferes with the production of RBCs. •As a result the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood is reduced. •It can classified as acute and chronic.