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Service Training

SESV1638-01
January 1994

Meeting Guide 638

TECHNICAL PRESENTATION

350/375 HYDRAULIC EXCAVATORS


PUMPS AND PUMP CONTROLS

350/375 HYDRAULIC EXCAVATORS


PUMPS AND PUMP CONTROLS
MEETING GUIDE 638

SLIDES AND SCRIPT

AUDIENCE
Level II - Service personnel who understand the principles of machine systems operation, diagnostic
equipment, and procedures for testing and adjusting.

CONTENT
This presentation contains the information and visuals necessary to develop a Level II course of
instruction on the hydraulic pumps and pump controls for the 350 and 375 Hydraulic Excavators.

OBJECTIVES
After learning the information in this presentation, the serviceman will be able to:
1.
2.
3.
4.

locate and identify the major components in the hydraulic pumps and pump controls;
explain the operation of each component in the hydraulic pumps;
trace the flow of oil through the pumps and pump controls;
locate and identify the test and adjust locations for the margin pressure, constant horsepower
control group, and minimum and maximum angles on the main pumps; and
5. locate and identify the test and adjust locations for the positive flow control, power control, and
minimum and maximum flow rates on the swing pump.

REFERENCES
350 Excavator Hydraulic Systems Operation
350 Excavator Hydraulic and Electronic Systems Testing and Adjusting
375 Excavator Hydraulic Systems Operation
375 Excavator Hydraulic and Electronic Systems Testing and Adjusting
350 Excavator Parts Book
375 Excavator Parts Book

SENR6116
SENR6117
SENR6024
SENR6033
SEBP2250
SEBP2213

PREREQUISITES
Interactive Video Course "Fundamentals of Mobile Hydraulics"
STMG 546 "Graphic Fluid Power Symbols"
STMG 585 "E/EL300B Excavator--Introduction and System Operation"

TEVR9001
SESV1546
SESV1585

SUPPLEMENTARY TRAINING MATERIAL


STMG 639 "350/375 Hydraulic Excavators--Hydraulic Systems Operation"
STMG 640 "375 Hydraulic Excavator--Electronic Control Unit"
STMG 649 "350 Hydraulic Excavator--Electronic Control Unit"

SESV1639-01
SESV1640
SESV1649

Estimated Time: 2 Hours


Visuals: 33 (2 X 2) Slides
Serviceman Handouts: 5 line drawings
Form: SESV1638-01
Date: 1/94
1994 Caterpillar Inc.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................5
PUMP CONTROL GROUPS .................................................................................................9
P-Q Curve Description......................................................................................................9
Graphic Color Codes.......................................................................................................11
350 PUMP GROUP ..............................................................................................................13
Component Identification ...............................................................................................14
Component Location and Function.................................................................................15
350 PUMP CONTROL GROUP .........................................................................................17
Load Sensing Control .....................................................................................................17
Horsepower Control Group.............................................................................................18
Standby ...........................................................................................................................19
Flow Increase .................................................................................................................21
Flow Decrease.................................................................................................................23
375 PUMP GROUP ..............................................................................................................25
Component Location and Function.................................................................................26
Internal Components.......................................................................................................29
Main Pump Regulator .....................................................................................................30
375 PUMP CONTROL GROUP ..........................................................................................31
Standby ...........................................................................................................................31
Flow Increase .................................................................................................................33
Flow Decrease.................................................................................................................35
SWING PUMP GROUP .......................................................................................................37
Component Location and Function.................................................................................37
Internal Components.......................................................................................................40
Swing Pump Regulator ...................................................................................................41
SWING PUMP CONTROL OPERATION ..........................................................................42
P-Q CURVE DESCRIPTION...............................................................................................42
Standby ...........................................................................................................................44
Flow Increase ..................................................................................................................46
Flow Decrease.................................................................................................................49
CONCLUSION.....................................................................................................................51
SLIDE LIST..........................................................................................................................52
SERVICEMAN'S HANDOUTS...........................................................................................53

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INSTRUCTOR NOTES

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INTRODUCTION
350 pumps similar to
375 pumps

Three signal
pressures regulate
pump flow

The 350 and 375 Hydraulic Excavators are equipped with three
swashplate design, flow on demand hydraulic pumps--two for the main
hydraulic system and one separate pump for the swing system. The two
main hydraulic pumps are load sensing pumps that receive three signal
pressures to regulate pump flow. The three signal pressures are:
a. Load sensing pressure from the main control valve
b. Power shift pressure signal from the PRV
c. Hydraulic system pressure

Flow on demand
system

The two main hydraulic pumps on each machine operate similarly but the
pump groups are mechanically and physically different. When all
hydraulic control valves are returned to NEUTRAL, the load sensing
pressure decreases and pump flow is reduced to minimum. When one or
more hydraulic control valves are activated, the load sensing pressure
increases and pump flow is regulated in direct proportion to the amount of
pilot control valve (joystick) movement.

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Swing pump has dual


power setting

The swing pump on each machine is identical in operation and physical


appearance. The swing pumps differ from the main hydraulic pumps
because the swing pump is not a load sensing pump, but is a positive
flow pump with dual power settings. In low power, the swing pump
flow output is less. In high power, the swing pump flow output is
increased to provide a more aggressive swing system. The power
settings are controlled automatically. When the power mode selector is
in Power Mode III and the governor speed dial is at 10, the pumps are in
HIGH power. When the power mode selector or the governor speed
dial is in any other position, the swing pump is in LOW power setting.

Pump flow controlled


by ECU

The two main hydraulic pumps are also controlled by an Electronic


Control Unit (ECU), or controller, as on the 325. Input signals from a
power mode switch (located on the monitor panel in the cab) and an
engine speed pickup (located on the engine flywheel housing) are sent
to the controller. The controller processes these input signals and then
sends an electrical signal to a Proportional Reducing Valve (PRV). The
PRV is a solenoid operated pressure reducing valve that sends a
hydraulic signal, called Power Shift (PS) pressure, to both pumps to
help regulate their output. PS pressure works with system pressure to
regulate pump flow. A decrease in PS pressure causes the pumps to
destroke at a lower system pressure, and an increase in PS pressure
causes the pumps to destroke at a higher system pressure.

ECU signals PRV


PRV sends PS signal
to both pumps
PS signal decrease
destrokes pumps
PS signal increase
upstrokes pumps

NOTE TO THE INSTRUCTOR: Only the pumps and pump


controls for the 350 and 375 Hydraulic Excavators are discussed in
this presentation. For additional information on the 350 and 375,
refer to STMG 639 "350/375 Hydraulic Excavators--Hydraulic
Systems Operation" (Form SESV1639-01), STMG 649 "350
Hydraulic Excavator--Electronic Control Unit" (Form SESV1649)
and STMG 640 "375 Hydraulic Excavator--Electronic Control
Unit" (Form SESV1640).

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HYDRAULIC PUMP FEATURES


Independent Pump Controls
Constant Horsepower Control
Maximum Angle Stop
Minimum Angle Stop
No Negative Flow Control

2
Hydraulic pump
features

This slide shows the features of the three hydraulic pumps on the 350 and
375 Hydraulic Excavators. The 350 and 375 main pump groups are
swashplate design, load sensing hydraulic pumps. The pump groups have
the following features:
Independent pump controls
Constant horsepower control
Maximum angle stop
Minimum angle stop
No negative flow control

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HYDRAULIC PUMP DIFFERENCES

Horsepower Control Follow-up Sleeve in


Constant Horsepower Control Group
Two Springs in the Horsepower Control Group

3
Pump differences

The 350 main pump groups are different from the 375 main pump groups.
The major differences are:
Addition of the horsepower control follow-up sleeve in the
constant horsepower control group
Two springs in the horsepower control group
These differences will be explained later in this presentation.

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MAIN PUMP P-Q CURVE


Constant Horsepower Control
Load Sensing Control

Power Mode III

FLOW (Q)

Power Mode II

Power Mode I

LS (P-Q)

PRESSURE (P)

4
PUMP CONTROL GROUPS
P-Q Curve Description
350 and 375 have
three Power Modes

The 350 and 375 main pumps operate within three power levels as shown
on this P-Q curve. The operator selects the power level with the Power
Mode switch on the monitor panel. The controller establishes the correct
power mode by electronically modulating a pilot signal which is directed
to the pump controls. In Power Mode III, the system operates with
maximum hydraulic horsepower as shown by the upper P-Q curve. Power
Mode II provides medium hydraulic horsepower as shown by the center
curve. Power Mode I provides low hydraulic horsepower as shown by the
lower portion of the curve.

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Main pumps contain
load sensing controls

- 10 -

The main pumps also contain load sensing controls which allow the
pumps to operate at flow rates less than the constant horsepower control
range. The load sensing region on the P-Q curve is illustrated by the
shaded gray area below the constant horsepower control lines. The point
LS (P-Q) illustrates one of the possible pressure and flow rate
combinations during load sensing control.
While pump flow is regulated by the load sensing control, pump flow is
controlled in direct proportion to the amount of implement or travel
function demand. Load sensing control is accomplished through the load
signal signal generated in the main control valve.
The implement load signal generated in the control valves is directed to
the load sensing control valve in the pumps. The load sensing control
valve uses the load signal pressure to regulate pump system pressure to
1960 kPa (285 psi) more than the load signal pressure.
The flow rate from the pumps is determined by the control valve
movement as long as system pressure is less than the constant horsepower
regulation pressure.

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350 PUMP CONTROLS

POWER SHIFT
PRESSURE

COLOR CODES

CONTROL
VALVE

LOAD SENSING
CONTROL
ADJUSTMENT

HORSEPOWER
CONTROL
ADJUSTMENT

HYDRAULIC
PUMP AND
CHARGE
PUMP

PILOT
PUMP

MINIMUM
ANGLE STOP

SERVO PISTON

SWASHPLATE

SERVO
PISTON

MAXIMUM
ANGLE STOP

5
Graphic Color Codes

Color codes

The graphic symbol and sectional view schematics that follow show
different signal pressures, pump system pressures, and conditions. The
color codes for the various pressures are as follows:
Red

Main pump system


pressure (system pressure
between the main pump and
the control valve)

Red and White Stripes

Load sensing signal


pressure

Red Dots

Constant horsepower control


pressure or pressure directed
to the destroke servo piston

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Orange

Pilot pump system pressure

Orange and White Stripes

Reduced pilot pump system


pressure (power shift
pressure from the
proportional reducing valve)

Green

Suction, return, and case


drain oil

Yellow

Moving parts and activated


valve envelopes

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2
1
3

350 PUMP GROUP


Component locations:
1. Main pumps
2. Swing pump
3. Pilot pump

Flow from main


pumps regulated by
load sensing control
Independent pump
operation

The main pump group consists of two main hydraulic system pumps (1),
mounted in tandem, which supply flow to all of the implement and travel
circuits. The pumps are identical in performance. This discussion refers
to the pumps as the front pump (nearest the engine) and the rear pump
(farthest from the engine). The front pump is driven by a flexible
flywheel coupling and the rear pump is driven off the rear of the front
pump. The swing pump (2) is mounted at the top and is driven off the
pump drive group. The pilot pump (3) is located on the rear of the swing
pump and is driven off the swing pump drive shaft.
The flow from the main hydraulic pumps is controlled by the load sensing
signal pressure from the hydraulic control valve. The load sensing signal
pressure enters the load sensing control valve on the pump controls. Each
of the pumps has a separate pump control that operates independently.

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3
1
2

7
Component Identification
Four adjustment
locations
Three adjustment
locations shown:
1. Minimum angle
adjustment screw
2. Horsepower control
adjustment screws
3. Load sensing
control adjustment
screw

This slide shows the main hydraulic pump groups as viewed from the right
rear corner of the machine. Each pump has four adjustment locations to
control flow during different operating conditions:
a.
b.
c.
d.

Load sensing control adjustment


Constant horsepower control adjustment
Minimum angle adjustment
Maximum angle adjustment

Three different adjustment locations are shown on the rear pump: The
minimum angle adjustment screw (1) controls the minimum angle of the
swashplate. Turning the screw in (CW) increases the minimum flow and
turning the screw out (CCW) decreases the minimum flow. The maximum
angle adjustment screws are not visible in this slide, but they are located
between the two pump control groups directly in line with the minimum
angle adjustment screw.
The constant horsepower control adjustment screw (2) adjusts the point
where the pump starts to destroke. Turning the adjustment screw in (CW)
causes the pump to start destroking at a higher system pressure. The load
sensing control adjustment screw (3) adjusts the margin pressure of the
pumps. Margin pressure is the difference between pump supply pressure
and implement pressure. Turning the screw in (CW) decreases the margin
pressure while turning the screw out (CCW) increases the margin pressure.

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PUMP AND PUMP CONTROL GROUP


MAXIMUM ANGLE
ADJUSTMENT SCREWS

LOAD SENSING
ADJUSTMENT SCREW

PUMP CONTROL
GROUP

HORSEPOWER
ADJUSTMENT SCREW

SERVO PISTON
MINIMUM ANGLE
ADJUSTMENT SCREW

MINIMUM ANGLE
ADJUSTMENT SCREW

FRONT
PUMP

CHARGE
PUMP

REAR
PUMP

SWASHPLATE

8
Component Location and Function
Pump components

Two sections of pump


control group
Load sensing
regulator group

Constant horsepower
regulator group

This sectional view shows the components of the main hydraulic pump
group. The front and the rear pumps operate identically. The front pump
is driven off the engine flywheel through a flexible coupling. The rear
pump is driven off the front pump.
Each pump control group consists of two separate sections. The load
sensing regulator group uses the load sensing signal pressure from the
hydraulic system to regulate margin pressure. Margin pressure is the
difference in pressure between pump system pressure and the load or
working pressure of the hydraulic system.
The constant horsepower regulator group works with the load sensing
regulator group to control the pump swashplate angle. The horsepower
regulator group uses a load signal pressure, system pressure and power
shift pressure to regulate the pump swashplate angle. Power shift pressure
is generated by a proportional reducing valve as in the 325 excavator.

STMG 638
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System pressure
upstrokes pumps
Horsepower control
group directs signal
pressure to minimum
angle end of servo
Servo piston
connected to
swashplate
Servo piston
connected to
horsepower control
sleeve

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The system pressure is constantly pushing on the maximum angle servo


piston to upstroke the pumps. To regulate the pump flow, the constant
horsepower control group directs a signal pressure (generated from the
system pressure) to and from the minimum angle end of the servo piston.
The servo piston is connected to the swashplate with a pin. The servo
piston is also connected to the horsepower control sleeve with a lever and
two pins. The movement of the servo piston moves the swashplate. The
lever then moves the horsepower sleeve in a follow-up arrangement.
The slides that follow show the pumps and pump controls during
operation.

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350 LOAD SENSING CONTROL


STANDBY
LOAD SENSING
PRESSURE SIGNAL
CONTROL
VALVE

LOAD SENSING
CONTROL
ADJUSTMENT

LOAD SENSING
PRESSURE
PISTON

LOAD
SENSING
SPOOL

LOAD
SENSING
SLEEVE

SYSTEM
PRESSURE
PISTON

9
350 PUMP CONTROL GROUP
Load Sensing Control
Load sensing control
regulates margin
pressure

Load sensing control


and horsepower
control group regulate
pump flow

The pump control group consists of two separate control groups. The load
sensing control group regulates the margin pressure while the constant
horsepower control group regulates the point that the pump starts to
destroke.
This sectional view shows the components of the load sensing portion of
the pump control group. The load sensing control valve maintains the
margin pressure [2000 kPa (285 psi)] difference between the system
pressure and the implement load pressure. The system pressure enters the
control on the right side. The load sensing pressure signal is generated in
the main control valve and enters the control on the left side. The load
sensing control valve works in conjunction with the constant horsepower
control valve to regulate pump flow.
The load sensing control adjustment screw adjusts the margin pressure.

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350 HORSEPOWER CONTROL GROUP


STANDBY

HORSEPOWER
CONTROL
ADJUSTMENT

POWER SHIFT
PRESSURE
PISTON

POWER SHIFT
PRESSURE

CONTROL
VALVE

TORQUE
CONTROL PISTON
LEVER

HORSEPOWER
CONTROL
SPOOL

HORSEPOWER
CONTROL
SLEEVE

HYDRAULIC
PUMP AND
CHARGE PUMP

10
Horsepower Control Group
Power shift and
system pressures
regulate pump flow

Horsepower control
sleeve and servo
piston mechanically
connected

This sectional view shows the components of the horsepower control


portion of the pump controls. The horsepower control group uses the
power shift pressure and system pressure to upstroke or destroke the pump
after a specific system pressure is reached. The horsepower control
adjustment screw adjusts the point that the pump starts to destroke.
The lever in the control is pinned at the top and pivots on the pin. The
lower end of the lever is connected to the servo piston. The horsepower
control sleeve is pinned to the lever. When the servo piston moves, the
sleeve moves in a follow-up arrangement.
In this control, the power shift pressure works against system pressure
during flow regulation. An increase in the power shift pressure means the
system pressure must also increase to destroke the pumps.

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350 PUMP CONTROLS

POWER SHIFT
PRESSURE

CONTROL
VALVE

STANDBY
LOAD SENSING
CONTROL

HORSEPOWER
CONTROL

HYDRAULIC
PUMP AND
CHARGE
PUMP

PILOT
PUMP

MINIMUM
ANGLE STOP

SERVO PISTON

SWASHPLATE

SERVO
PISTON

MAXIMUM
ANGLE STOP

11
Standby
Pump controls
regulate flow
Load sensing control
regulates flow during
STANDBY

This slide shows the components of the pump control group during
STANDBY. The controls work together to regulate the pump flow
according to the demand and hydraulic horsepower requirements. The
pump servo pistons are connected to the swashplate. Pump system
pressure is directed to the maximum angle end of the servo piston at all
times. The load sensing control directs pilot pressure to the minimum
angle servo piston to move the swashplate to the minimum angle for
decreased pump flow.
The minimum angle stop screw adjusts the minimum angle of the
swashplate while the maximum angle stop screw adjusts the maximum
angle.

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Standby pressure
moves load sensing
spool to the left

- 20 -

When all hydraulic control valves are in NEUTRAL, no signal pressure is


directed to the left side of the load sensing control group. With no signal
pressure on the left end of the load sensing control, standby pressure
moves the load sensing spool to the left.
With the implement and travel controls in NEUTRAL, the electronic
controller sets the power shift pressure to a standby value of
approximately 1725 kPa (250 psi). The controller also energizes the
neutral bypass solenoid valves on the main control valve which allow the
small amount of flow generated by the pumps to return to the tank.

Pilot pressure directed


to minimum angle end
of servo piston
Servo piston moves
swashplate to
minimum angle

The increased power shift pressure works with the horsepower control
spring to move the horsepower control spool to the right. The left land on
the horsepower control spool blocks the passage to drain. The pilot
pressure is directed around the load sensing spool, through the load
sensing sleeve to the minimum angle servo piston. The servo piston
moves the swashplate to minimum angle.
NOTE: Throughout the discussion of the pump controls operation, it
is assumed that the power shift pressure remains constant. Changes
in power shift pressure can cause an upstroke or destroke of the
pumps.

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350 PUMP CONTROLS


LOAD SENSING PRESSURE INCREASE
START OF UPSTROKE
POWER SHIFT
LOAD SENSING
SIGNAL PRESSURE

PRESSURE

CONTROL
VALVE

LOAD SENSING
CONTROL
ADJUSTMENT

HORSEPOWER
CONTROL
ADJUSTMENT

HYDRAULIC
PUMP AND
CHARGE
PUMP

PILOT
PUMP

MINIMUM
ANGLE STOP

SERVO PISTON

SWASHPLATE

SERVO
PISTON

MAXIMUM
ANGLE STOP

12
Flow Increase
Load sensing spool
drains minimum angle
end of servo piston

System pressure
upstrokes swashplate
Pump upstrokes
according to flow
demand

This slide shows the pump controls at the start of an upstroke condition
that is caused by an increase in the load sensing pressure. When one or
more of the hydraulic control valves are ACTIVATED, a load sensing
pressure signal equal to the implement system pressure is directed to the
left end of the load sensing control group. The signal pressure moves the
load sensing control spool to the right to drain the minimum angle end of
the servo piston.
System pressure on the maximum angle end of the servo piston moves the
piston to the right. The servo piston moves the swashplate toward
maximum angle to increase pump flow. The pumps upstroke in direct
relation to the amount of the load sensing pressure signal from the control
valve. The signal pressure is controlled by the amount of the pilot control
valve (joystick) movement.
NOTE TO THE INSTRUCTOR: For more information on the
generation of the load sensing pressure signal, see STMG 639
"350/375 Hydraulic Excavators--Hydraulic Systems Operation"
(Form SESV1639-01).

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350 PUMP CONTROLS


LOAD SENSING PRESSURE INCREASE
END OF UPSTROKE
POWER SHIFT
PRESSURE

CONTROL
VALVE

LOAD SENSING
CONTROL
ADJUSTMENT

HORSEPOWER
CONTROL
ADJUSTMENT

HYDRAULIC
PUMP AND
CHARGE
PUMP

PILOT
PUMP

MINIMUM
ANGLE STOP

SERVO PISTON

SWASHPLATE

SERVO
PISTON

MAXIMUM
ANGLE STOP

13
Horsepower control
sleeve meters flow to
and from minimum
angle end of servo

This slide shows the pump controls at the end of UPSTROKE caused by
an increase in the load sensing pressure signal. As the servo piston moves
toward the upstroke position, the lever turns counterclockwise with the
upper pin as the pivot point. The lever moves the horsepower control
sleeve to the right until the horsepower control spool meters flow to and
from the minimum angle end of the servo piston. The horsepower control
spool maintains the pump flow until one or more of the signal pressures
change.

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350 PUMP CONTROLS


SYSTEM PRESSURE INCREASE
START OF DESTROKE POWER SHIFT
PRESSURE

CONTROL
VALVE

LOAD SENSING
CONTROL
ADJUSTMENT

HORSEPOWER
CONTROL
ADJUSTMENT

HYDRAULIC
PUMP AND
CHARGE
PUMP

PILOT
PUMP

MINIMUM
ANGLE STOP

SERVO PISTON

SWASHPLATE

SERVO
PISTON

MAXIMUM
ANGLE STOP

14
Flow Decrease
Three conditions
cause pumps to
destroke:
a. Load sensing
pressure increase
b. Power shift
pressure decrease
c. System pressure
increase
System pressure
moves servo to
destroke pump

This slide shows the pump controls at the start of DESTROKE caused by
an increase in system pressure.
Three conditions that cause the pumps to destroke are:
a. Load sensing pressure increase
b. Power shift pressure decrease
c. System pressure increase
When system pressure increases, it pushes on the shoulder area of the
torque control piston to move the piston to the left. The power shift
pressure spool and the horsepower control spool also move to the left.
System pressure is directed through the check valve to the right orifice in
the horsepower control sleeve. System pressure goes around the
horsepower control spool, through the center orifice in the horsepower
control sleeve and around the load sensing spool to the minimum angle
end of the servo piston. The increase in system pressure moves the servo
piston and the swashplate toward the destroke position.

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350 PUMP CONTROLS


SYSTEM PRESSURE INCREASE / END OF DESTROKE
POWER SHIFT
PRESSURE

CONTROL
VALVE

LOAD SENSING
CONTROL
ADJUSTMENT

HORSEPOWER
CONTROL
ADJUSTMENT

HYDRAULIC
PUMP AND
CHARGE
PUMP

PILOT
PUMP

MINIMUM
ANGLE STOP

SERVO PISTON

SWASHPLATE

SERVO
PISTON

MAXIMUM
ANGLE STOP

15
Servo piston moves
horsepower control
sleeve to left
Horsepower control
sleeve meters flow to
and from minimum
angle piston

This slide shows the pump controls at the end of DESTROKE caused by
an increase in system pressure. When the servo piston moves to the left,
the lever moves the horsepower control sleeve to the left. The
horsepower sleeve moves to the left until the sleeve reaches a metering
position. The pump flow will remain constant until one of the three signal
pressures going to the pump controls changes.

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16

375 PUMP GROUP


Component locations:
1. Main pump (front)
2. Main pump (rear)
3. Swing pump
4. Pilot pump

The 375 main hydraulic pumps are located behind an access door on the
right rear of the machine. The main pumps, front (1) and rear (2), are
mounted in tandem and driven through a coupling directly off the engine
flywheel. The swing pump (3) is driven by a gear located in the rear gear
group of the engine. The pilot pump (4) is mounted in tandem with the
swing pump and is driven by a coupling connected to the swing pump
drive shaft.

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2
7

3
1

6
4

17

Component Location and Function


Component locations:

This slide shows the main hydraulic pumps on the 375. The major
components visible in this view are:

1. Regulator groups

Regulator groups (1): Contain a load sensing control spool and a


horsepower control spool which are used to control the flow rate of the
pumps. Each main pump has one regulator group which functions
independently.

2. Pump outlet

Pump outlet (2): The front pump (closest to the engine) outlet supplies
oil to the boom and both travel control valves. The rear pump (farthest
from the engine) outlet supplies oil to the stick, bucket and attachment
control valves.

3. Minimum angle stop


adjustment screw

Minimum angle stop adjustment screw (3): The minimum angle stop
adjustment screw for the rear pump is shown. The minimum angle stop
for the front pump is in the same location on the front pump.

4. Load signal
pressure tap

Load signal pressure tap (4): The load signal (cylinder or travel
pressure) is supplied by the main control valve and is used by the load
sensing control to establish the correct flow rate depending on demand.
The load sensing control regulates pump flow so that pump output
pressure is held constant at 1960 kPa (285 psi) above the load signal
pressure. This difference between the load signal pressure and the pump
output pressure is called "margin pressure."

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5. Margin pressure
adjustment screw

Margin pressure adjustment screw (5): The margin pressure


adjustment screw is used to adjust the margin pressure. The margin
pressure adjustment screw is in the same location on the front pump.

6. Power shift
pressure tap

Power shift pressure tap (6): The power shift pressure can be measured
at this location.

7. Pilot pressure tap

Pilot pressure tap (7): The pilot pressure can be measured at this tap
(partially visible). Pilot pressure is supplied to the regulator of the main
pumps to destroke the pumps when main system pressure decreases below
pilot system pressure (standby).
Horsepower control adjustment screws: The horsepower adjustment
screws (not visible) for each pump are located on the rear of the regulator
below the power shift pressure test port.
NOTE TO THE INSTRUCTOR: The unpainted valve visible below
the rear pump outlet hose is called the "differential pressure relief
valve." This valve drains the load signal to the tank to destroke the
pump if the difference between the pump output pressure and the
load signal pressure is too high. For more information on the
differential pressure relief valve and the generation of the load
sensing signal, see STMG 639 "350/375 Hydraulic Excavators-Hydraulic Systems Operation" (Form SESV1639-01). For more
information on the power shift pressure signal and the underspeed
control, see STMG 640 "375 Hydraulic Excavator--Electronic
Control Unit" (Form SESV1640) and STMG 649 "350 Hydraulic
Excavator--Electronic Control Unit" (Form SESV1649).

STMG 638
1/94

- 28 -

18

Maximum angle
adjustment screws
(arrows)

The maximum angle adjustment screws (arrows) are visible in this slide.

STMG 638
1/94

- 29 -

MAIN PUMP
INTERNAL COMPONENTS

REGULATOR

MINIMUM ANGLE STOP

DRIVE
SHAFT
UPSTROKE
SERVO

SWASHPLATE

CHARGE
PUMP

MAXIMUM
ANGLE STOP

ROTARY
GROUP

DESTROKE
SERVO

19
Internal Components
Internal components

This slide shows the internal components of the front main pump. The
pump contains a centrifugal charge pump which pressurizes the suction
side of the rotary group to reduce the possibility of cavitation. The pump
generates flow when the pistons in the rotary group (which is connected
by splines to the drive shaft) ride on the inclined surface of the
swashplate. The minimum and maximum angle stops determine the
minimum and maximum pump flows. The regulator controls the amount
of pump flow by regulating the oil pressure supplied to the minimum
angle servo and the maximum angle servo.
NOTE: The 375 main hydraulic pumps are similar in operation to
the 994 Wheel Loader steering pump.

STMG 638
1/94

- 30 -

CONSTANT HORSEPOWER CONTROL SPOOL


POWER SHIFT
PRESSURE SIGNAL

MAIN
CONTROL
VALVE

LEVER
ACTUATOR PISTON

MAXIMUM ANGLE SERVO


LOAD SENSING SIGNAL

MAIN PUMP
REGULATOR

LOAD SENSING CONTROL SPOOL

COMPONENTS

PILOT
PUMP
MINIMUM
ANGLE SERVO

MARGIN PRESSURE
ADJUSTMENT

SLOW RETURN CHECK VALVE

SECTION A-A

CONSTANT HORSEPOWER
CONTROL SPOOL

20
Main Pump Regulator
Two views of main
pump regulator group
shown

This slide shows two sectional views of the main pump regulator. The
upper view shows the regulator looking from the side and the lower view
shows the regulator group from the top.
The upper view shows the maximum angle servo which contains a piston
that acts on a pinned lever. The pinned lever acts on the left end of the
constant horsepower control spool. The constant horsepower control
spool limits the maximum horsepower available from the pump.
In the lower view (Section A-A), the constant horsepower control spool is
shown from a different angle and the load sensing control spool is visible.
A slow return check valve is located between the constant horsepower
control spool and the load sensing control spool. The slow return check
valve allows the pump to destroke freely but restricts the flow of signal oil
to upstroke the pump. The charge pump, main pump and minimum angle
servo are shown as graphic symbols.

STMG 638
1/94

- 31 -

CONSTANT HORSEPOWER CONTROL SPOOL

SIDE VIEW

POWER SHIFT
PRESSURE SIGNAL

NEUTRAL BYPASS
SOLENOID VALVE

LEVER
ACTUATOR PISTON

MAIN CONTROL
VALVE

MAXIMUM ANGLE SERVO

LOAD SENSING
CONTROL SPOOL

LOAD SENSING
PRESSURE
SIGNAL LINE

MAIN PUMP
REGULATOR
STANDBY

MINIMUM ANGLE
SERVO

SLOW RETURN CHECK VALVE

SECTION A-A

TOP VIEW

CONSTANT HORSEPOWER
CONTROL SPOOL

21
375 PUMP CONTROL GROUP
Standby
Pump controls
regulate flow
Load sensing control
regulates flow during
STANDBY

This slide shows the components of the pump control group during
STANDBY. The controls work together to regulate the pump flow
according to the demand and hydraulic horsepower requirements. The
pump servo pistons are connected to the swashplate. Pump system
pressure is directed to the maximum angle end of the servo piston at all
times. The load sensing control directs pilot pressure to the minimum
angle servo piston to move the swashplate to the minimum angle for
decreased pump flow.
The minimum angle stop screw adjusts the minimum angle of the
swashplate while the maximum angle stop screw adjusts the maximum
angle.

STMG 638
1/94
Standby pressure
moves load sensing
spool to the right

- 32 -

When all hydraulic control valves are in NEUTRAL, no signal pressure is


directed to the right side of the load sensing control group. With no signal
pressure on the right end of the load sensing control, standby pressure
moves the load sensing spool to the right.
With the implement and travel controls in NEUTRAL, the electronic
controller sets the power shift pressure to a standby value of
approximately 1300 kPa (190 psi). The controller also energizes the
neutral bypass solenoid valves on the main control valve which allow the
small amount of flow generated by the pumps to return to the tank.

Pilot pressure directed


to minimum angle end
of servo piston
Servo piston moves
swashplate to
minimum angle

The increased power shift pressure moves the horsepower control spool to
the left until the center land on the horsepower control spool moves past
the passage to the minimum angle piston. Pilot pressure is directed
around the load sensing spool and around the horsepower control spool to
the minimum angle servo piston. The servo piston moves the swashplate
to minimum angle.
NOTE: Throughout the discussion of the pump controls operation, it
is assumed that the power shift pressure remains constant. Changes
in power shift pressure can cause an upstroke or destroke of the
pumps.

STMG 638
1/94

- 33 -

CONSTANT HORSEPOWER CONTROL SPOOL

SIDE VIEW

POWER SHIFT
PRESSURE SIGNAL

NEUTRAL BYPASS
SOLENOID VALVE

LEVER
ACTUATOR PISTON

MAIN CONTROL
VALVE

MAXIMUM ANGLE SERVO

LOAD SENSING
CONTROL SPOOL

LOAD SENSING
PRESSURE
SIGNAL LINE

MAIN PUMP
REGULATOR
UPSTROKE

MINIMUM ANGLE
SERVO

SLOW RETURN CHECK VALVE

SECTION A-A

TOP VIEW

CONSTANT HORSEPOWER
CONTROL SPOOL

22
Flow Increase
Increase in flow due to
increased signal
pressure

Three conditions that can cause an increase in flow from main pumps are:
1. An increase in the load sensing signal
2. An increase in power shift pressure
3. A decrease in pump output pressure
This slide shows a pump flow increase due to an increase in the load
sensing signal pressure. When the load signal increases, the load signal
pressure plus the spring force on the right end of the load sensing spool
exceed the force of the pump output pressure on the left end of spool. The
combined forces on the right end of the spool move the load sensing spool
to the left, connecting the passage from the slow return check valve to the
tank.

STMG 638
1/94

- 34 -

Balanced pumps

When the pump is in balance, the horsepower control spool is positioned


so that the passage to the slow return check valve is slightly open to the
passage to the minimum angle servo. Since these passages are connected,
shifting the load sensing control spool to the left allows the oil in the
minimum angle servo to return to the tank through the slow return check
valve and load sensing control spool.

Minimum angle servo


open to tank

With the minimum angle servo open to the tank, pump output pressure (or
pilot pressure, whichever is higher) acting on the maximum angle servo
rotates the swashplate counterclockwise to upstroke the pump. When the
maximum angle servo shifts to the left, the mechanical advantage of the
actuator piston against the lever increases and the lever rotates clockwise.
When the lever rotates clockwise, the horsepower control spool shifts
back to the right, which restricts the oil in the minimum angle servo from
returning to the tank and stops the swashplate from moving.

Full operation of
implement or travel

When implement or travel circuit approaches full operation and the


difference between the load signal pressure and the pump output pressure
decreases below the margin pressure setting, the load sensing spool then
becomes disabled (remains fully shifted to the left). When the load
sensing spool is disabled, the horsepower control spool regulates pump
flow by alternately pressurizing the oil in the minimum angle servo or
returning the oil to the tank. With the load sensing regulator disabled,
either an increase in power shift pressure or a decrease in pump output
pressure will upstroke the pump.

Load sensing spool


disabled when system
pressure is lower than
margin pressure

STMG 638
1/94

- 35 -

CONSTANT HORSEPOWER CONTROL SPOOL

SIDE VIEW

POWER SHIFT
PRESSURE SIGNAL

NEUTRAL BYPASS
SOLENOID VALVE

LEVER
ACTUATOR PISTON

MAIN CONTROL
VALVE

MAXIMUM ANGLE SERVO

LOAD SENSING
CONTROL SPOOL

LOAD SENSING
PRESSURE
SIGNAL LINE

MAIN PUMP
REGULATOR
DESTROKE

MINIMUM ANGLE
SERVO

SLOW RETURN CHECK VALVE

SECTION A-A

TOP VIEW

CONSTANT HORSEPOWER
CONTROL SPOOL

23
Flow Decrease
Three conditions that can cause a decrease in the main pump flow are:
1. An increase in the system pressure
2. A decrease in the load sensing control pressure
3. A decrease in the power shift control signal pressure
This slide shows a decrease in flow due to an increase in system pressure.

STMG 638
1/94
Lever rotates
clockwise
Horsepower control
spool moves to the
right
System pressure
directed to minimum
angle servo
Mechanical advantage
changes as actuator
piston moves toward
lever pivot point

- 36 -

When system pressure increases, the upward force on the shoulder area of
the actuator piston increases and the piston rotates the lever clockwise.
The lever forces the horsepower control spool to the right against the
force of the horsepower control spring and the power shift pressure.
Shifting the horsepower control spool to the right connects the minimum
angle servo to system pressure in the internal passage to the left of the
horsepower control spool. Since the area of the minimum angle servo is
larger than the maximum angle servo, the swashplate rotates clockwise to
destroke the pump. When the swashplate rotates clockwise, the
maximum angle servo moves to the right. Moving the servo to the right
decreases the mechanical advantage of the actuator piston on the lever.
The reduction in mechanical advantage allows the horsepower control
spool to shift back to the left, blocking the maximum angle servo
connection to system pressure. At this point, the swashplate stops
rotating and balances.
If the power shift signal pressure decreases, moving the horsepower
control spool to the right becomes easier and the pump begins to destroke
at a lower system pressure. If the power shift signal pressure increases,
moving the horsepower control spool to the right becomes more difficult
and the pump begins to destroke at a higher system pressure.

STMG 638
1/94

- 37 -

3
2

24

SWING PUMP GROUP


350 swing pump
components:

Component Location and Function


This slide shows the swing pump on the 350. The major components
visible in this view are:

1. Regulator group

Regulator group (1): The regulator group contains the positive flow
control and horsepower control spools.

2. Swing power
control signal line

Swing power control signal line (2): The swing power control solenoid
valve provides a pilot pressure signal during swing operation in Power
Mode III for maximum swing horsepower. In Power Modes II and I, the
swing power control solenoid allows oil in this signal line to return to the
tank.

3. Horsepower control
adjustment

Horsepower control adjustment (3): The horsepower control regulates


swing pump flow according to swing output pressure. The adjustment
screw is located behind the fitting where the swing power control pilot
signal hose is connected to the regulator group.

STMG 638
1/94

- 38 -

4. Positive flow
control signal line

Positive flow control signal line (4): Swing pilot control pressure is
directed to the swing pump through this line (near the drive end of the
pump). The positive flow control function reduces swing pump flow to
minimum when the swing circuit is not operating. During fine swing
operation, the positive flow control system increases fine swing
controllability by increasing the swing pump flow in direct proportion to
swing pilot lever movement. The positive flow control adjustment screw
is on the rear of the regulator group and is not visible in this slide.

5. Pump outlet

Pump outlet (5): Swing pump flow is directed through this line to the
swing control valve on the rear swing motor.

6. Maximum angle
adjustment

Maximum angle adjustment (6): The maximum angle adjustment


screw is located on top of the swing pump and is not visible in this slide.
The maximum flow rate from the swing pump can be adjusted with this
screw. The minimum flow rate adjustment screw is on the bottom of the
pump and is also not visible in this slide.

STMG 638
1/94

- 39 -

5
6

4
2

25

375 Swing pump


components:
1. Regulator group
2. Swing power
control signal line
3. Horsepower control
adjustment
4. Positive flow
control signal line
5. Pump outlet
6. Maximum angle
adjustment

This slide shows the swing pump on the 375. The major components
have the same functions as previously described for the 350.

STMG 638
1/94

- 40 -

SWING PUMP
INTERNAL COMPONENTS
MAXIMUM ANGLE SERVO
MINIMUM ANGLE STOP

REGULATOR

COUPLING
DRIVE
SHAFT

SWASHPLATE

CHARGE PUMP

MAXIMUM ANGLE STOP

ROTARY GROUP

MINIMUM ANGLE SERVO

26
Internal Components
Swing pumps on 350
and 375 are similiar
Swing pump different
from main pumps

The internal components of the swing pumps used on the 350 and 375 are
very similar. The swing pump has a coupling on the rear end of the drive
shaft that is used to drive the pilot pump. The swing pump and the swing
pump regulator are completely different from the main hydraulic pumps
and the pump regulator groups.

STMG 638
1/94

- 41 -

LEVER

POSITIVE FLOW CONTROL


SPOOL

A
HORSEPOWER CONTROL SPOOL

SIDE VIEW

ACTUATOR PISTON

A
SWING CONTROL
VALVE

MAXIMUM ANGLE
SERVO

SWING PUMP
REGULATOR
COMPONENTS
MINIMUN ANGLE SERVO
POSITIVE FLOW CONTROL
PILOT PORT

TOP VIEW

SECTION A-A
SWING POWER CONTROL
PILOT PORT

POSITIVE FLOW CONTROL SPOOL

HORSEPOWER CONTROL SPOOL

27
Swing Pump Regulator
Positive flow control
and horsepower
control spools shown
Pilot pressure directed
to both servo pistons
Swashplate moves to
minimum angle

This slide shows the components of the swing pump regulator group. The
upper view shows the regulator from the side. The lower view (Section
A-A) shows the regulator from the top. The positive flow control and
horsepower control spools are visible in both views.
In STANDBY, pilot system pressure is directed to the maximum angle and
minimum angle servo pistons. Since the minimum angle servo piston is
larger than the maximum angle servo, the mechanical advantage pushes
the swashplate to minimum angle.
NOTE: The adjustment screw above the swing horsepower control
adjustment is turned completely in and is not functional on the swing
pump regulator group.

STMG 638
1/94

- 42 -

SWING PUMP P-Q CURVES


POSITVE FLOW CONTROL

CONSTANT HP CONTROL

POWER MODE III

FLOW (Q)

FLOW (Q)

POWER MODES
I AND II

PFC SIGNAL PRESSURE (P)

SYSTEM PRESSURE (P)

28
SWING PUMP CONTROL OPERATION
P-Q Curve Description
Graph on left shows
positive flow control
characteristics
Graph on right shows
horsepower control
flow characteristics
Swing pump
upstrokes in
proportion to swing
pilot pressure

This slide shows the P-Q curves for the swing pump. The graph on the
left shows the flow characteristics of the positive flow control function
and the graph on the right shows the flow characteristics of the
horsepower control.
The vertical axis on the positive flow control curve is swing pump flow.
The horizontal axis is the positive flow control pilot signal pressure
(swing pilot pressure). The curve shows when the swing pilot controls are
in NEUTRAL and the swing pilot pressure is at STANDBY pressure
[approximately 400 kPa (60 psi)], the swing pump flow is reduced to
minimum. When the swing pilot control pressure increases to
approximately 900 kPa (130 psi), the swing pump starts to upstroke. As
the swing pilot pressure increases to more than 900 kPa (130 psi), the
swing pump upstrokes proportionally until the swing pilot pressure
increases to approximately 1760 kPa (255 psi). At this pressure, the
swing pump flow is maximum.

STMG 638
1/94
Two power levels for
swing pump

- 43 -

The vertical axis on the constant horsepower control curve is the swing
pump flow. The horizontal axis is the swing pump system pressure. The
curve shows two separate power levels for the swing pump. The upper
power level curve is obtained in Power Mode III, while the lower power
level curve is for Power Modes I and II.
The following slides illustrate how the swing pump regulator controls the
swing pump flow.

STMG 638
1/94

- 44 -

LEVER

POSITIVE FLOW CONTROL


SPOOL

A
HORSEPOWER CONTROL SPOOL

SIDE VIEW

ACTUATOR PISTON

A
SWING CONTROL
VALVE

MAXIMUM ANGLE
SERVO

SWING PUMP
REGULATOR
STANDBY
MINIMUN ANGLE SERVO
POSITIVE FLOW CONTROL
PILOT PORT

TOP VIEW
SECTION A-A
SWING POWER CONTROL
PILOT PORT

POSITIVE FLOW CONTROL SPOOL

HORSEPOWER CONTROL SPOOL

29
Standby
STANDBY condition
Pilot pressure more
than swing system
pressure
In STANDBY pilot
pressure controls
swing pump flow

This slide shows the swing pump regulator in the STANDBY position
when the swing pilot control valve (joystick) is in NEUTRAL.
In STANDBY, the pilot system pressure is more than the swing system
pressure. Pilot pressure is directed through the resolver to the end of the
maximum angle servo piston. The pilot pressure flows through the center
of the maximum angle piston to the center section of the actuator piston.
The pilot pressure pushes up on the shoulder area of the actuator piston,
but the force is not enough to compress the spring on the horsepower
control spool. The spring force holds the horsepower control spool to the
left.

STMG 638
1/94
Positive flow control
signal line open to
tank

Pilot pressure holds


swashplate at
minimum angle

- 45 -

When the swing pilot controls are in NEUTRAL, the positive flow control
signal line is open to the tank. The force of the spring on the right end of
the positive flow control spool shifts the spool to the left. With the spool
shifted to the left, the pilot pressure flows through the internal passages,
around the positive flow control spool and around the horsepower control
spool to the minimum angle servo piston. The minimum angle piston is
larger than the maximum angle piston. The mechanical advantage of the
minimum angle piston moves the swashplate to the minimum angle to
reduce pump flow.

STMG 638
1/94

- 46 -

SIDE VIEW

LEVER

POSITIVE FLOW CONTROL


SPOOL

PILOT PRESSURE
FROM SWING
POWER CONTROL
SOLENOID

HORSEPOWER CONTROL SPOOL


ACTUATOR
PISTON

A
MAXIMUM ANGLE
SERVO

SWING CONTROL
VALVE

SWING PUMP REGULATOR


UPSTROKE
HIGH POWER MODE
MINIMUN ANGLE SERVO

PILOT PRESSURE
FROM SWING
CONTROL VALVE

SWING POWER CONTROL


PILOT PORT

POSITIVE FLOW CONTROL


PILOT PORT
PILOT PRESSURE
FROM SWING
POWER CONTROL
SOLENOID

SECTION A-A
POSITIVE FLOW CONTROL SPOOL

TOP VIEW
HORSEPOWER CONTROL SPOOL

30
Flow Increase
Conditions that
increase pump flow:
1. Positive flow
control pressure
increase
2. Swing system
pressure decrease
3. Swing power
control pressure
increase
Increase in pilot
activation pressure
upstrokes pump

Three conditions which cause an increase in flow are:


1. An increase in the positive flow control pilot pressure
2. A decrease in the swing system pressure
3. An increase in the swing power control pressure
This slide shows an increase in pump flow caused by an increase in the
positive flow control pilot pressure when the swing power control is in the
LOW power mode. When the swing pilot control valve is activated, the
pilot pressure is directed to shift the swing control valve. The same pilot
signal pressure is directed to the positive flow control signal port in the
swing pump regulator group. The increase in the pilot pressure pushes the
positive flow control spool to the right. When the positive flow control
spool moves to the right, the minimum angle servo piston is opened to
case drain through the horsepower control spool and the positive flow
control spool. The system pressure oil pushes the maximum angle servo
to the left to upstroke the pump.

STMG 638
1/94

- 47 -

Swing pilot pressure


determines amount of
positive flow control
spool movement

When the servo moves to the left, the actuator piston housing increases
the spring force on the right end of the positive flow control spool. The
positive flow control spool shifts to the left closing the passage from the
minimum angle servo to the tank. The swashplate stops rotating. The
amount of positive flow control spool movement to the right is in direct
proportion to the amount of swing system pilot activation pressure on the
left end of the spool.

Positive flow control


spool fully shifted at
255 psi pilot pressure

When the swing pilot pressure exceeds approximately 3100 kPa (255 psi),
the positive flow control spool is fully shifted to the right allowing the oil
in the minimum angle servo piston to drain (depending on the horsepower
control spool position). In this condition, the pump is free to upstroke to
maximum flow.

Pump flow regulated


by constant
horsepower control

When the positive flow control spool is fully shifted to the right, the pump
flow is regulated by the horsepower control spool. If the system pressure
decreases, the force from the actuator piston pushing up on the lever
decreases. The spring force pushes the horsepower control spool to the
left, rotating the lever counterclockwise. When the horsepower control
spool shifts to the left, the oil from the minimum angle servo drains
through the positive flow control spool. The system pressure acting on
the maximum angle servo then forces the servo to the left to upstroke the
pump.

Actuator piston moves


along lower side of
lever changing
mechanical advantage

When the servo moves to the left, the actuator piston moves along the
lower side of the lever. This movement changes the mechanical
advantage of the actuator piston acting on the lever. The lever then
rotates clockwise pushing the horsepower control spool back to the right.
The center land on the horsepower control spool meters flow to and from
the minimum angle servo piston. The swashplate is balanced at this
position until one or more of the separate control pressures changes.

Swashplate reaches
balance point

STMG 638
1/94

- 48 -

LEVER

POSITIVE FLOW CONTROL


SPOOL

A
HORSEPOWER CONTROL SPOOL
ACTUATOR
PISTON

SIDE VIEW

MAXIMUM ANGLE
SERVO

SWING CONTROL
VALVE

SWING PUMP
REGULATOR
UPSTROKE
LOW POWER MODE

MINIMUN ANGLE SERVO

PILOT PRESSURE
FROM SWING
CONTROL VALVE

SWING POWER CONTROL


PILOT PORT

POSITIVE FLOW CONTROL


PILOT PORT

SECTION A-A

TOP VIEW

POSITIVE FLOW CONTROL SPOOL

HORSEPOWER CONTROL SPOOL

31
HIGH power mode
Increase in power
control pressure
increases system
pressure
Swing power control
pilot pressure equal to
positive flow pilot
pressure

This slide shows the swing pump regulator in the HIGH power mode
during upstroke. While the swing pump flow is being regulated by the
horsepower control, an increase in the swing power control signal
pressure will increase the spring force on the horsepower control spool,
push the horsepower control spool to the left, and upstroke the pump as
previously described.
The pilot pressure from the swing power control solenoid is equal to the
pilot pressure going to the positive flow control pilot port. When swing
pilot activation pressure increases to approximately 3100 kPa (255 psi),
the positive flow control spool is fully shifted to the right and the swing
power control mechanism is fully shifted to the left. The swing system
pressure must then increase before the pump starts to destroke.

STMG 638
1/94

- 49 -

LEVER

POSITIVE FLOW CONTROL


SPOOL

A
HORSEPOWER CONTROL SPOOL
ACTUATOR
PISTON

SIDE VIEW

MAXIMUM ANGLE
SERVO

SWING CONTROL
VALVE

SWING PUMP
REGULATOR
DESTROKE
MINIMUN ANGLE SERVO

POSITIVE FLOW CONTROL


PILOT PORT

SWING POWER CONTROL


PILOT PORT

SECTION A-A

TOP VIEW

POSITIVE FLOW CONTROL SPOOL

HORSEPOWER CONTROL SPOOL

32
Flow Decrease
Conditions that
decrease pump flow:
1. Increase in system
pressure
2. Decrease in swing
power control
pressure
3. Decrease in positive
flow control signal
pressure
Positive flow control
spool shifted to right

Three conditions which cause a decrease in swing pump flow are:


1. An increase in the system pressure
2. A decrease in the swing power control pressure
3. A decrease in the positive flow control signal pressure
This slide shows a decrease in flow due to an increase in the swing system
pressure. The pilot control pressure is more than 1760 kPa (255 psi) and
the positive flow control spool is fully shifted to the right.

STMG 638
1/94
Actuator piston
rotates lever
clockwise
Horsepower control
spool directs system
pressure to minimum
angle piston
Mechanical advantage
changes as actuator
piston moves along
lever
Swashplate reaches a
balance point
Less power control
signal destrokes
pump sooner
Pump flow decreases
as swing pilot
pressure decreases

- 50 -

As the swing system pressure increases, the upward force on the actuator
piston increases and rotates the lever clockwise. The horsepower control
spool moves to the right against the force of the horsepower control
spring and the swing power control signal pressure. The horsepower
control spool connects the minimum angle servo to the system pressure.
Since the area of the minimum angle servo is larger than the area of the
maximum angle servo, the swashplate rotates clockwise to destroke the
pump. When the swashplate rotates clockwise, the maximum angle servo
moves to the right. Moving the servo to the right decreases the
mechanical advantage of the actuator piston on the lever. The reduction
in the mechanical advantage allows the horsepower control spool to shift
back to the left, blocking the maximum angle servo connection to the
system pressure. At this point, the swashplate stops rotating and balances.
If the swing power control signal pressure decreases, moving the
horsepower control spool to the right becomes easier and the pump begins
to destroke at a lower pressure.
During positive flow control, pump flow will decrease when the positive
flow control signal pressure (swing pilot pressure) decreases. Destroking
the pump by positive flow control occurs when the positive flow control
spool shifts to the left due to a decrease in swing pilot pressure. When
shifted to the left, the spool connects the left internal passage above the
spool to the system pressure in the right internal passage. System
pressure pushes on the minimum angle servo and horsepower control
spool as previously described.

STMG 638
1/94

- 51 -

33

CONCLUSION
This presentation has discussed the operation of the pumps and pump
controls for the 350 and 375 Hydraulic Excavators. When used in
conjunction with the Service Manual, the information in this package
should permit the serviceman to do a thorough job of analyzing problems
in these pumps and pump controls.

STMG 638
1/94

- 52 -

SLIDE LIST
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

Model View
Pump Similarities to 375
Pump Differences from 375
Pump P-Q Curve
Graphic Color Codes
350 Pump Group
350 Pump Group Close View
350 Pump Group Sectional View
350 Load Sensing Control Sectional
View
350 Horsepower Control Sectional
View
350 Pump Controls (Standby)
350 Pump Controls (Start of Upstroke)
350 Pump Controls (End of Upstroke)
350 Pump Controls (Start of Destroke)
350 Pump Controls (End of Destroke)
375 Pump Group
375 Pump Components

18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.

375 Pump Max. Angle Screws


375 Pump Internal Components
375 Pump Regulator
375 Pump Controls (Standby)
375 Pump Controls (Upstroke)
375 Pump Controls (Destroke)
350 Swing Pump View
375 Swing Pump View
Swing Pump Sectional View
Swing Pump Regulator Components
Swing Pump P-Q Curves
Swing Pump Controls (Standby)
Swing Pump Controls (Upstroke) Low
Power
31. Swing Pump Controls (Upstroke)
High Power
32. Swing Pump Controls (Destroke)
33. Model View

MINIMUM ANGLE
ADJUSTMENT
SCREW

HORSEPOWER
ADJUSTMENT
SCREW

LOAD SENSING
ADJUSTMENT
SCREW

FRONT
PUMP

CHARGE
PUMP

MAXIMUM ANGLE
ADJUSTMENT
SCREWS

REAR
PUMP

- 53 -

SWASHPLATE

MINIMUM ANGLE
ADJUSTMENT
SCREW

SERVO PISTON

PUMP
CONTROL
GROUP

350 PUMP AND PUMP CONTROL GROUP

STMG 638
1/94
Serviceman's Handout No. 1

MINIMUM
ANGLE
STOP

SERVO
PISTON

SWASHPLATE

POWER SHIFT
PRESSURE

MAXIMUM
ANGLE
STOP

HYDRAULIC
PUMP AND
CHARGE
PUMP

CONTROL
VALVE

- 54 -

PILOT
PUMP

HORSEPOWER
CONTROL

LOAD SENSING
CONTROL

STANDBY

350 PUMP CONTROLS

STMG 638
1/94
Serviceman's Handout No. 2

ROTARY GROUP

DESTROKE SERVO

CHARGE PUMP

UPSTROKE SERVO

REGULATOR

- 55 -

MAXIMUM ANGLE STOP

SWASHPLATE

DRIVE SHAFT

MINIMUM ANGLE STOP

INTERNAL COMPONENTS

375 MAIN PUMP

STMG 638
1/94
Serviceman's Handout No. 3

CONSTANT HORSEPOWER
CONTROL SPOOL

TOP VIEW

SLOW RETURN CHECK VALVE

LOAD SENSING CONTROL SPOOL

MAXIMUM ANGLE SERVO

ACTUATOR PISTON

LEVER

POWER SHIFT
PRESSURE SIGNAL

CONSTANT HORSEPOWER CONTROL SPOOL

- 56 -

SECTION A-A

MINIMUM ANGLE
SERVO

LOAD SENSING
PRESSURE
SIGNAL LINE

MAIN HYDRAULIC
CONTROL
VALVE

NEUTRAL BYPASS
SOLENOID VALVE

SIDE VIEW

STANDBY

MAIN PUMP REGULATOR

STMG 638
1/94
Serviceman's Handout No. 4

SECTION A-A

POSITIVE FLOW CONTROL SPOOL


HORSEPOWER CONTROL SPOOL

SWING POWER CONTROL


PILOT PORT

TOP VIEW

MAXIMUM ANGLE SERVO

ACTUATOR PISTON

HORSEPOWER CONTROL SPOOL

- 57 -

POSITIVE FLOW CONTROL


PILOT PORT

MINIMUN ANGLE SERVO

SWING CONTROL
VALVE

SIDE VIEW

POSITIVE FLOW CONTROL


SPOOL

LEVER

STANDBY

SWING PUMP REGULATOR

STMG 638
1/94
Serviceman's Handout No. 5

STMG 638
1/94

- 58 -

INSTRUCTOR NOTES

STMG 638
1/94

- 59 -

INSTRUCTOR NOTES

SESV1638-01
1/94

Printed in U.S.A.