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F-Xinulator: Filipino Sign Language Translator

A proposed Thesis presented to the
Faculty of the Department of Information Technology
of Far Eastern University, Makati.

In partial fulfilment of the course
Software Development

Alibusa, Paula Jodine G.
Arayata, Alden Shaun E.
Estrella, Juan Paolo M.
Matias, Mark Adrian T.
Ramirez, Karl Ivan O.

November 30, 2014

Abstract of the study

The Filipino sign language application is programed to teach
and show the basic sign language to make it possible for users
(deaf and normal people) to understand different sign languages,
to understand one another far more quickly than users of
unrelated spoken languages can. The idea was to make a mobile
app that will help people to learn the basic languages for them to
communicate well with deaf people. The program will show three
parts, these are the alphabets, numbers and basic words.
Participants will obtain the basic knowledge for learning each
signs and their meanings. The researchers provide this application
to help people who wants to learn the basic sign language in case
of communicating to deaf people, also, the researchers provide a
quiz in every end of the lesson. Instead of going to the actual
session that may cause a lack of time for the end-user to attend,
the researchers provide an easy and simple e-learning mobile
application.

Table of Contents

Title Page …………………………………………………………………………. i
Abstract …………………………………………………………………………… ii
Chapter 1 – The Problem and its Background
Background of the Study ………………………………………………………... 1
Objectives of the Study ………………………………………………………….. 2
Scope and Limitations of the Study …………………………………………….. 3
Significance of the Study ……………………………….................................... 4
Chapter 2 - Conceptual Framework
Review of Related Literature and Studies ……………………………………... 5
Conceptual Model of the Study …………………………………………………. 6
Operational Definition of Terms …………………………………………………. 7
Chapter 3 – Research Methodology
Research Design ………………………………………………………………….. 8
Project Development ……………………………………………………………… 9
Operation and Testing Procedure ……………………………………………… 10
Chapter 4 – Results and Discussions
Project Description ………………………………………………………………. 11
Project Structure …………………………………………………………………. 12
Project Capabilities and Limitations ……………………………………………. 13

Project Evaluation ………………………………………………………………... 14
Chapter 5 – Summary of Findings, Conclusions, and Recommendations
Summary of Findings ……………………………………………………………. 15
Conclusions ……………………………………………………………………… 16
Recommendations ……………………………………………………………… 17

) learn and communicate well with the special child (deaf).) with them in the same time. To give more time in learning the basic sign language in 3.) any time and location. the meaning and feelings of each signs. and . numbers and basic words. The respondents of the study were composed of deaf people. Making it easier for the friends or families who wants to 4. Scope and Limitation of the Study The study focused on Sign Language Translator. and this is commonly used by communities of deaf people. as this will be a stepping stone of learning 5. The study only focus on the alphabets. A Filipino Sign Language Translator is the easiest way to learn the basic sign language as they give the overview of each wave of its body and hands. their family and friends. but cannot physically speak. To less the avoidance and accessibility of the deaf to the normal people. Objectives of the Study 1. numbers and basic phrases. but sign language is not only for deaf but also to people who can hear.Chapter 1: The Problem and Its Background Background of the Study A sign language is a pattern which uses hands and body gesture.) palm.) To assess the knowledge level of the participant in learning the basic sign language by holding it into their 2. The researchers formulated the scope and limitations of this project to identify the boundaries of this study. Provided an alphabet.

The program will only be compatible on Android. Significance of the Study This section will provide brief description on the significances focusing on helpfulness. This shows how important the researchers’ proposed system is able to change the company’s flow and the following persons will benefit: To special child (deaf). The application also handles a quiz.people who encounter the sign language. The application is capable of showing the alphabets. so the participants can evaluate his/her knowledge after learning or seeing the demo of each words or alphabet that was presented on the application. The sign language will be translated into English since we are using the FSL (Filipino Sign Language) for this application. It will also help the respondents to be exposed in the terms of modern technology. as if ever the family have a deaf member with them. . It cannot also translate all words into action as it only uses the basic/common sign language. To family and friends. The proposed system serves as a guide for them to easily handle the new information system that is to be developed. Also. the study doesn’t handle composing sentences that may able to show the actual sign language. reliability and accurate of the application. This proposed application will make it easier for them to learn and understand the basic sign languages in the terms of communicating well with the people who are deaf. numbers and basic phrases. The study doesn’t require internet connection to access the mobile application.

His name is Mininio Buhat. you might certainly experience a little headache in trying to decipher what the deaf meant. But for those who are familiar with the Filipino deaf’s way of writing. Here is his FB post: Deaf's FB PostTo those who are natural English speakers. this is also a place where some people tend to show off to others that they are better and had experienced the finer things in life. . However. When they see someone who is not within their level in life. The proposed system will help and benefit their future studies as their guide and can possibly open new developments. Facebook has been a perfect place for people to mingle without being physically present. this would be a tad easier to understand. it triggers their senses to make their status known by giving others a piece of their mighty minds. Then his cohorts posted more insulting messages below. Now here is where the Bullies come in. It gives them (me included) a chance to be or stay informed about the whereabouts of everyone. This head bully copypasted the deaf’s post and remarked insults about his English using our Filipino language while sharing it with others. That’s when bullying comes in. Chapter 2: Conceptual Framework Review of Related Literature and Studies Local Literatures 1. Enter the Deaf.To future researchers.

The writing ability sometimes is still being developed while in college. here are the videos and articles posted by the mainstream and social media. Mr. the post caught the attention of the Defender. I saw a pattern in the misuse of English that I have seen before in my dealings with Deaf people and I immediately looked up Minino Buhat.152 likes. 34 likes and 24 shares later. As of this writing. Yes. the person who wrote it is Deaf and according to Facebook is a student of College of St Benilde which has a School for Deaf. Here is my FB status: Even though I consider this to serve primarily as a wakeup call for our deaf friends to polish their messages first before posting them in social media. the director of Dinig Sana Kita. he then turned to the “bashers” and explained his side on the issue. Mabuhay po kayo Then it went viral. I also greatly salute Director Mike E. Deaf people rarely have a mastery of English Grammar because they only understand English as used in sign language which is shorthand in nature. a story of a deaf person who was in love with a hearing felt that he needs to also say his piece about the matter. I am outraged by how people are so quick to judge others by their use of English.288 shares and 339 comments later. This is why I made the film Dinig Sana Kita. SHAME ON ALL OF YOU WHO POSTED THIS IN JEST! Just the same no one should judge people by their inability to use English. Here is what he aired in FB last August 2: OF GREAT CONCERN! PLEASE READ THIS CAPTION FIRST! I saw this posted on facebook. I was one of those who shared and posted “a piece of my miniscule mind”. Sandejas for understanding and defending them. Feel lucky that I blotted out your names lest you now be judged the same way. whether Deaf or non-Deaf. To open the eyes of hearing people to the world of the Deaf so that they will not be insulted like this. Mike Sandejas.Twenty one insults. This is where I found my actors for Dinig Sana Kita If you look at the right side of the picture you will see how people have made fun of the English this Person with Disability has used. Direk Mike received tons of praises defending the deaf. 12. . 4. Having experienced the deaf and their culture.

This study analyzes and describes the stages of faith development of deaf students enrolled in 2000-2001 at the Special Schools Studies at the De La Salle University-College of St. Fourteen out of twenty randomly selected students responded to the interview. While I am always on the defensive side whenever they are insulted. Results show that there was one student who is at Stage 2 (Mythic-Literal Faith). Manlapig.VIRAL | Film director shames FB crowd for cyberbullying a deaf user for poor English Filipino Film Director Calls on Cyberbullying They even made a news-reply from the bullied Deaf. I’m not saying that we should all be grammar policemen. Each tape was then transcribed into written English by a sign language teacher and checked and verified by two other sign language interpreters. Source: https://deafphilippines.com/category/filipinosign-language/ 2. especially in my English class that written English is the water as sign language is the oil.According to Maria Christina L. But at least our dear Deaf should also consider that they have hearing friends who read and try to understand their posts the best way they can. admit it. The Non-Language Multi-Mental Test Form A was also administered. I still find it amusing how they construct their sentences. The inter-rater reliability was established at 67%.wordpress. who is a sign language interpreter herself. The transcript was coded and scored according to Fowler's criteria for faith stage by the researcher and two (2) other scorers. The descriptive statistical analyses included means. The researcher. frequencies and percentages. I am definitely not siding with the bullies. The students were interviewed using an open-ended format adapted from Deborde's Interview Guide. Everybody can have access to your post whether you are deaf or not. I still remind them. To my deaf friends. Benilde. nine students who are at a Transition Stage 2 to 3 (Mythic- . Having been with Filipino deaf education for more than twenty years now. They should never mix the two because it would certainly won’t. conducted each interview being videotaped.

Comparing the students mean age (22) with Fowler's classification. The more the students are involved with Campus Ministry activities. the higher is the stage of faith development. and Stage 3 is usually between the ages 13 and 18. the students seem to be delayed in their faith development. However. Student’s with the higher intelligence seem to have higher faith than those with lower intelligence. the higher is their faith stage. the higher is the faith stage of faith.Literal and Synthetic-Conventional Faith) and four students are at Stage 3 (Synthetic-Conventional Faith). However. The system extracts important features from the video using multi-color tracking algorithm which is faster than existing color tracking algorithm because it did not use recursive technique. According to Fowler. Students at Transitional Stage 2 to 3 manifest concrete-literal thinking and of inductive-deductive reasoning. The frame size of the video is 640 x 480 and the speed is 15 frames per second. The feature vectors contain the position of dominant-hands . The more they use sign language. A student from School of Deaf Education and Applied Studies (SDEAS) De La Salle-College of Saint Benilde (DLS-CSB) does the Filipino Sign Language numbers with color-coded glove for dominant hand. Sign language number recognition system lays down foundation for handshape recognition which addresses real and current problems in signing in the deaf community and leads to practical applications. Furthermore. The study is limited to include only 1000 numbers in Filipino Sign Language from number 1 to 1000. Thus the students in the present study were a little bit delayed in the faith development in comparison to Fowler's categorization. 3. The input for the sign language number recognition system is Filipino Sign Language number video files. the higher is the stage of faith development. Stage 2 occurs at approximately between the ages 18 and 12. the more crises the student experienced in life. there seem to be no association between age and stage of faith development because of the small sample size of the study. This study also found that the use of sign language by parents seemed to be associated with the student's stage of faith development. Each number is recorded 5 times using web camera.According to Iwan Njoto. The older the student. they are at the same stage as grade school students who participated in Deborde's study in 1996. The colorcoded gloves uses less color compared with other color-coded gloves in the existing research.

What's important is we have strong support. Among them is House Bill (HB) 6079 which pushes for the declaration of FSL as the national sign language of the Filipino deaf. Teddy Casiño. We want to emphasize that the deaf people also need the help of the hearing community in this advocacy. Next. 4. Hidden Markov Model (HMM). on the other hand. hand tracking. De La Salle-College of Saint Benilde (DLS-CSB) Center for Education Access and Development (CEAD). through the help of Alliance of Concerned Teachers (ACT) Party List representative Antonio Tinio and Rep. pushes for the use of sign language interpretation inset in television news programs. Human Computer Interaction (HCI).52% average accuracy using the features from feature extraction module.'' shares Raphael Domingo. The system uses Hidden Markov Model (HMM) for training and testing phase. The progress has been very tremendous especially this year. Education Access for the Deaf coordinator. while HB 4631 is a bill that would give access to sign language interpreters in Philippine courts. The feature extraction could track 92. Keywords Computer vision.As the country celebrates Buwan ng Wika this month. leaders of the Filipino deaf community are optimistic about the progress they are making. MANILA. As these Bills gain traction. There's a lot of research and a lot of work to be done. in passing several relevant House bills to benefit their stakeholders. The system was evaluated in terms of training time and accuracy.3% of all objects. the system learns the Filipino Sign Language number in training phase and recognizes the Filipino Sign Language number in testing phase by transcribing Filipino Sign Language number into text. multi-color tracking. we want the same mother tongue-based instruction in education. The recognizer also could recognize Filipino sign language number with 85. a sector of society that has been lobbying for the recognition of the Filipino Sign Language (FSL) is reiterating its call. ''Yes. we have a strong advocacy. THE UNIQUE FILIPINO SIGN LANGUAGE . Sign Language Recognition (SLR). Philippines . HB 4121.thumb in x and y coordinates and the x and y coordinates of other fingers relatively to the thumb position. The Filipino deaf community is currently supporting lawmakers. The same with FSL. we are very optimistic.

there are differences and similarities between FSL and ASL. ''FSL is a unique language. STRONGER SUPPORT FOR FSL Rey Alfred Lee. the American Sign Language (ASL) was introduced to the Filipino deaf community through the School for the Deaf and Blind. But like any other language. they recorded that about 54 percent of deaf Filipinos use FSL compared to ASL. ''A lot of deaf people did not realize that they are using FSL. president of the Philippine Federation of the Deaf (PFD). movement. if they are conversing among themselves they are going to be using FSL but if a deaf person would have to communicate with a hearing person. So they would . syntax. including ASL.In 1907. Naturally. It has its own grammar. hand location. There are similarities in terms of hand shapes. says that the Filipino deaf community did not even know that FSL existed. who is also a member of the Special Education (SpEd) Council of the Department of Education (DepEd). positioning. ASL has since influenced FSL. now known as the Philippine School for the Deaf. In terms of grammar. It's also the mark of identity of deaf Filipinos. Today. a term ASL does not have because they don't experience it. the Filipino sign language. the sign language where most sign languages are derived from. structure. ''ASL has a big influence on FSL. about 60 percent of deaf Filipinos were using ASL while 40 percent used FSL. facial expression. we have a sign for flooding inside the house. But the conversation and discourse are different depending on the culture. which can be traced back to the history of the Philippines. FSL is believed to be part of the French Sign Language family. He explains that the use of FSL by deaf Filipinos has increased through the years. In 2007. sign languages differ depending on its use and the country's culture. there's an automatic switching of the language.'' explains Mackie Calbay. They know ASL but in reality they are using FSL.'' explains Domingo. and palm orientation. which is different from the spoken language. program coordinator of DLS-CSB School of Deaf Education and Applied (SDEAS) Deaf Advocacy. For example here in the Philippines.

'' Lee says. The deaf assistants will facilitate communication in the classroom. DLS-CSB SDEAS is known for its use of FSL and advocates the use of the local language in the school and community. PFD will also soon work with the Japan Ministry of Education to further enhance FSL as a language. There are many organizations that don't use FSL in their curriculum. however they are not readily accepting. The influence of the usage of FSL is slowly making waves. So that means the SpEd teachers have no choice but to learn sign language by themselves.convert signing exact English (SEE). Lee. SpEd courses in colleges and universities also do not offer FSL in their curriculums ''The Special Education Council has made a proposal to hire deaf teacher assistants for hearing teachers who do not know sign language. They are also in talks with the Professional Regulation Commission in licensing deaf teacher assistants to provide them with the recognition and right to benefits they duly deserve. in line with DepEd's K to 12 curriculum. are surprised to discover that there is an FSL. both deaf and hearing.'' Lee shares. DepEd is happy about that. . We cannot blame them because the SpEd courses do not include FSL courses in their curriculum.'' Domingo says. faculty member of the Filipino Sign Language Learning Program of SDEAS. ''The support for FSL is now stronger. says that most of his students. ''The SpEd teachers are aware of the need. it will come soon but we'll have to work double time. Domingo says that they are also now working on the curriculum for the deaf. FSL IN SCHOOLS One of the main objectives of the deaf community is to push FSL in schools and make it the medium of instruction for deaf students. Most SpEd schools today use ASL. But if a deaf person converses with another deaf person then they will use the more natural language. the Philippine Federation of the Deaf (PFD) is designing an FSL curriculum for the SpEd course in higher education. which is FSL. Although Domingo says that SpEd teachers are not to be blamed.'' Domingo says. Hopefully in terms of the usage of FSL. Currently.

Source: https://ph. other countries will look down at us. underwent sign languagetraining and intensive teacher training to prepare them for thework they will be doing with Deaf students admitted into theCollege. It's where we belong. It's part of our own language. This particular program was not only academic innature. but also included a formation component that focused onDeaf students’ emotional development.news.html 5. Hopefully. After all. We should be using a language we could understand. through that they could foster as sense of community and also promote excellence in deaf education.com/pushing-filipino-sign-language053614492. we don't want it to be propagated here. the deaf community is fighting for their language. ''ASL. it's Filipino. And they will not stop to work to further the cause of their advocacy. being a colonial language. That's how we communicate and understand each other. placed under the Educational DevelopmentDepartment (EDD) of DLS-CSB. because this is what we use.'' Calbay says. fighting for their identity.PROUD TO BE DEAF. The faculty coreof this program. FSL is best used to have better communication. ''SDEAS is advocating the use of FSL in the community. PROUD OF FSL These deaf community leaders hope that more deaf Filipinos recognize FSL. their native language. this is what we know.'' Domingo says. This is FSL. Reviewing DLS-CSB and SDEASdocuments show that the original program offered for Deaf students was a Certificate Program in Bookkeeping/Accountingfor the Hearing-Impaired that opened in 1991. If some people don't take FSL seriously. where is your own language? We're proud that this is our language.yahoo. Out of respect for the deaf Filipino culture we want FSL to be used here. DLS-CSB is just one of the 17 educational institutions under DeLa Salle Philippines and SDEAS is one of the five academicSchools under this College. The Deaf studentsenrolled at EDD were mostly scholars and as their return serviceto the institution they rendered service through officeassignments which exposed them to the College’s hearingenvironment and challenged them to interact with the hearingmembers of the institution and so from the start the greater .

At about thesame time the SLLM also needed to change directions. wasconvinced by then SSS Director Dr. culture. but the Deaf person is recognized as amember of a Deaf community that has a unique identity. and (2)the impact of having Deaf teachers teaching Deaf students. teachers .This change in name showed that SSS’ view of the Deaf personwas not rooted in the medical perspective.In 1994. Andwith these thoughts the Bachelor in Applied Deaf Studies(BAPDST) was conceptualized with the core of the program being in education with several areas of specialization fromwhich to choose from.Although it was initially intended as a tool for the developmentof self-esteem of the College’s Deaf students.and language (which is Filipino Sign Language). It was also during this year that the BAPDST programwas granted recognition by CHED and was offered by theCollege. the Sign LanguageLearning Module (SLLM) was developed with the primary purpose of building the self-esteem of the Deaf students as theymanaged sign language classes for hearing students.the Post-Secondary Education Network-International (PEN-International) makes mention that in 1993. and later on CHED.In 1996 DLS-CSB went through a restructuring and some of thechanges made paved the way for the School of Special Studies(SSS). it was nowtransforming into a program with the potential to producehearing students with sign language skills that may eventually become service providers for the Deaf Community (i.A report made by the SDEAS to one of their academic linkages.. Liza Martinez to change thename of the certificate course being offered from Certificate Program in Bookkeeping/Accounting for the HearingImpaired to Certificate Course in Bookkeeping/Accounting for the Deaf . the personnel involved with the Deaf program came torealize a number of things. including (1) a certificate program isnot enough training to get the Deaf students employed. where they werelabeled as “hearing-impaired” and anchoring their identity ontheir inability to hear.hearing population of DLS-CSB has always had someknowledge of the presence of the Deaf community among them.e. The College’s administration.

BESTMade Leadership Training and the planning sessions of Student Council and other studentorganizations) still took place and the integration of the Deaf students into the Benildean community during these events weredone with the aid of sign language interpreters. performing arts.To meet the need for skilled teachers in these areas.Admittedly this unit did not understand the needs of the Deaf student population and did not have any sign language skills. Also. Understandably the Deaf students of the Collegehad limited opportunities in these areas even if the institutionhad a unit in charge of providing such activities to the students. leadership training and involvement in studentorganizations.Student development not only happens inside the classroom butalso takes place during student activities such as sports. although a number of programs still opened its doors to the Deaf and mainstreamingin some activities (e.g. student needs. And so beginning the school year of 2001 the School of Special Studies was renamed the Schoolof Deaf Education and Applied Studies (SDEAS) and was givena new structure. aside from the academic program for the Deaf. and program direction.for the Deaf. In order to . The SLLM was nowcalled the Sign Language Learning Program or SLLP. This time.The opportunities to participate in student activities were then provided to the students of SSS through coordination withexternal agencies. DLS-CSB’sSchool of Design and Arts and School of Management andInformation Technology assigned some of their faculty practitioners to be teachers at the SDEAS.In 2000 DLS-CSB again went through an evaluation andassessment of its programs and services and SSS also wentthrough a similar process. theBAPDST Program whittled down its offering of areas of specialization to two: Multimedia Arts and Entrepreneurship. the SDEAS also housed its own student services unitin order to remain responsive to Deaf needs. sign language interpreters). Consultation meetings were held withthe Deaf students and the members of the faculty to gather andunderstand their opinion on the curriculum. In 1998 a proposal was made for the creationof the Counseling and Resource Unit for the Deaf (CRUDEAF)and the vision for this unit was not only to serve the Deaf students of the College but also to reach out to other members of the Deaf community through outreach activities in the field of guidance and counseling. Based on the results of these consultationsrecommendations were made to the greater institution and thesewere linked to the directions of the College to transform into alearner-centered institution.

It was at this time that personnel fromthe different offices providing students with academic supportservices were becoming aware of the importance of knowingsign language in order to effectively deliver their services to themembers of the College’s Deaf Community thus the rise inenrollment of DLS-CSB personnel into the FSLLP. the Office for Partnership and Development (OPD)was added to the structure of the SDEAS functioning as theemployment and advocacy arm of the School to the larger Benildean Community as well as to the external agencies thatwere looking into providing the Deaf graduates of the Collegewith employment. The process for providing access andaccommodation services at this point was still very unclear withsign language interpreters rendering free service during eventswhen the organizers could not afford to pay the interpretinghonorarium and perennial last minute requests for interpretingservices when they would realize that Deaf students were participants of an event. in a move to professionalizethe provision of interpreting services within the College. leadership trainings.In 2006. In 2007. Hard-of-Hearing. a policy was approved by the institutions Academic Council putting structure into the request of interpreting services for activities and events within the College and providing aninterpreting honorarium scheme that was fair given the servicerendered by sign language interpreters.During this time the College was starting to become truly awareof the presence of the Deaf Community of the SDEAS and Deaf students were being invited to attend various activities likeseminars and workshops. sign language interpreters were assigned to assist inthese classes. as the result of the partnership between DLS-CSB andPEN-International. the academic and formation units wereformally recognized in the organizational chart as the Office for Academics (O-AP) and the Office for Deaf Esteem andFormation (ODEAF). This wassupported by the College through their subsidy of the enrollmentfee of personnel who enrolled into the program.ensureeffective communication between the teachers and their Deaf students.Recently. and Hearing. the Center for Education Access andDevelopment (CEAD) was . In 2003. At about the same time the SLLP wasrenamed the Filipino Sign Language Learning Program(FSLLP) in line with its commitment to be an innovator in theFilipino Sign Language education for the Deaf. and other institutional programs.

She is an alumna of the School of Deaf Education and Applied Studies (SDEAS batch 2001) and the current Media Development Specialist of SDEAS' Center for Partnership and Development. hospitalitymanagement.academia. 2014. and SDA withDLSCSB’s Vice Chancellor for Academics visited the NationalTechnical Institute for the Deaf (NTID) in early 2009 for aseries of discussions on the mainstream environment that NTIDand Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) has and to conductobservations on how classes are conducted when there are anumber of Deaf persons in a largely hearing class. A team comprised of theDeans and Chairpersons of SDEAS. Ms. Joyce Dalawampu was her voice interpreter in the video above and the transcript of the sharing below was edited by Ms. St. Leah Osido shares about her life experiences.the Offices under the SDEAS were renamed Centers and arenow called the Center for Academics. Center for Deaf Esteemand Formation (C-DEAF) and the Center for Partnership andDevelopment (C-PD). and design. upon the recommendationof the human resource study that the College was undergoing. Once thegroup returned to their institution. Ms. SHRIM. relationship with God and family. and commitment to serve the Deaf community. August 5. Bea Francisco. Apart fromlearning the basic conversational signs. steps were taken to preparethese Schools for the eventual mainstreaming of Deaf learnersinto their programs and the initial step was to organize corefaculty members and academic support services personnel andenroll them in Filipino Sign Language classes. Benilde Romancon.edu/1421846/The_Use_of_Filipino_Sign_Langu age_in_Providing_Academic_Support_Services_to_Deaf_Students Local Studies 1.created with the primary purpose of setting up support structures for the mainstream set-up thatqualified Deaf students can get into with the School of Hotel. Source: http://www.Restaurant and Institution Management (SHRIM) and theSchool of Design and Arts (SDA).At the start of school year 2009-2010. these groups will alsowork with their FSLLP teachers and with members fromSDEAS in developing technical signs for the vocabulary thatone often uses in the areas of culinary arts. tourism. during the 4th Day of Novena Masses. .

by December of the same year. especially helping out in the provinces. I have received a lot of positive blessings in my life. my father who was a former OFW had a fatal stroke and passed away. I am an only child and was very close to both my parents growing up. Let me share a little about my family. I changed my lifestyle and routine and tried to appreciate the beauty of simple things. I don’t see myself being negative but other people always tell me that I was. to budget and make do with what I have. I had a lot of problems and I asked God for help to overcome them. I also learned to become independent and do things on my own. volunteering. So after some reflection. I was tasked to share my reflection on the appreciation of the individual worth. I always ask God to help me continue living and not go back to my difficult life before. The challenge for me is to continue being strong in life. I encourage other people who had the same experience to be happy and try to change their life for the better. I am Leah Osido a graduate of Benilde and now work in SDEAS’s CPD. such as the environment and people around me. I wish to be of more value to my community by sharing my experience and professional ability and serving other people. As a leader I wanted to be a good role model to other people and at the same time respect each person’s uniqueness. my friends. . In November. I listen to their problems and try to give them positive advice. In 2009. I tried to search for ways to become more positive. I always show my appreciation of life by being cheerful and smiling at everyone. I wanted to help other people who are having problems and have negative perspective in life. I decided to change my perception of life and be more positive. I learned a lot from that experience. It was a very difficult time in my life and I was afraid. and the Deaf Community. Unfortunately. I was able to get a new job.Good afternoon everyone. I learned how to save money. People used to ask me why I was always frowning or sad and I realized I wasn’t aware that I was showing a negative disposition. I believe and I am confident that I am helping my community by serving other Deaf people. I didn’t know what to do. I believe God always gives me the grace to smile despite everything. my mother. my mother lost her job after the typhoon Ondoy destroyed the factory she was working in.

and then. Source: http://deaf-studies. understand and accept the uniqueness of other people. The fundamental unit of structure is the Handshape.given. Sign languages have been demonstrated to be true languages at par with spoken languages. within communities of persons with hearing loss. Spoken languages are based on classes of sound. Palm Orientation and Nonmanual signal. How do sign languages differ from sign systems? Sign languages arise and grow naturally across time. Sign languages have no written systems and are governed by purely visually motivated grammatical devices found in the Nonmanual signals of the face and body. . one’s identity and a firm hold on one’s values and principles. set of values and culture. Movement. Sign languages are based on spoken languages. A sign language is not intrinsic to children with hearing loss but is among the set of learned behaviours within the community that is shared. along with the other parameters of Location. Signing is gesture or only pantomime. Sign languages possess their own structure distinct from spoken and written languages.com/ 2.What are sign languages? Common misconceptions: Signing is universal.blogspot. while sign languages are built from visual units. nurtured and passed on. not quickly judging them. That’s why it’s also important to have a positive perspective of one’s self. sentences and discourse. because each one has his/her own family background. These are further organized into units which carry meaning. There are over a hundred sign languages currently recognized around the world.I believe the real challenge for us is to change our perspective. Remembering that each person is unique and God.

enabling it to respond to numerous current and emerging communication needs. Artificial sign systems follow the structure and grammar of spoken and written languages. What is Filipino Sign Language (FSL)? Common misconceptions about Filipino Sign Language: It is based on Filipino. From the lexicostatistical analysis of field data by the Philippine Federation of the Deaf (PFD). It is the ordered and rule-governed visual communication which has arisen naturally and embodies the cultural identity of the Filipino community of signers. It shows internal structure distinct from spoken and written languages. Like other legitimate visual languages. as well as with Manually Coded English since the 1970s. It reflects rich regional diversity in its vocabulary and bears a historical imprint of language change over time since the early beginnings of manual communication in the 16th century in Leyte. It is the “same” as American Sign Language. It is based on English. sign linguist Liza Martinez called attention to the massive and abrupt change of the core vocabulary of FSL.Sign systems. In 2004. Bicol and Palawan varieties). The PFD historical analysis . are considered artificial since they did not arise spontaneously but were purposively created as educational tools in the development of literacy. on the other hand. which has resulted from this linguistic pressure. possible varieties have so far been proposed: an Eastern Visayas group (Leyte variety) and a Southern Luzon group (Southern Tagalog. FSL has a hierarchy of linguistic structure based on a manual signal supplemented by additional linguistic information from No manual signals of the face and body. and other visual languages. FSL bears the historical imprint of heavy language pressure from contact with American Sign Language since the start of the century. and possesses productive processes.

inflections and others Classifier predication. Distinguished sign linguist James Woodward has been at the forefront of pioneering research to protect endangered indigenous sign languages (including FSL) and stem the strong tide of influence from foreign sign languages and sign systems. How are FSL and American Sign Language related? FSL belongs to the branch of visual languages influenced by American Sign Language together with. those with other impairments such as the deafblind. Thai Sign Language and Kenyan Sign Language. internal structure (particularly on the inventory of handshapes and accompanying phonological processes) Sign formation or morphological processes (such as affixation. Who are the Filipino deaf? These are Filipinos who have hearing loss. Who are the Filipino Deaf? They are deaf Filipinos who use. 6079? The bill is known as “An Act Declaring Filipino Sign Language as the National Sign Language of the Filipino Deaf and the Official . senior citizens). including those who lost their hearing early or late in life (late-deafened adults. for example. the structure of FSL has changed significantly enough for it to be considered a distinct language from American Sign Language. numeral incorporation. grammatical features and transformational rules. unschooled deaf. deaf indigenous peoples and so on. There is substantial evidence of widespread FSL changes in the following: Overall form. those who communicate orally. lexicalization of finger spelling. However. share.in 2007 used the lexicostatistical approach and verified vocabulary elements of indigenous as well as foreign origin. the hard of hearing. nurture and promote common values (including their visual language and cultural identity) as a claim for human rights and self-determination. enabling it to generate infinite forms of surface structure from patterns of deep structure What is the legal basis for House Bill No. LGBT deaf. compounding.

Gallaudet University (Washington). first presented in the late 1980s the observation of a possibly unique sign language in the Philippines. and Mandating Its Use in Schools. conducted the first linguistic inquiry in the country. Liza Martinez. already incorporate principles of full accessibility. which invoke their right to language and communication in all aspects of their lives. Forty-four countries are reported to have various levels of formal recognition for their sign languages. as well as the signing by the Philippines of the 1994 Salamanca Statement on Special Needs Education. from constitutional status to specific legislation. the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) and the Convention on Economic. . In 1990. How much research has been done on FSL? Rosalinda Macaraig Ricasa.” The State is duty-bound internationally and domestically to legislate HB 6079 or other laws written in the same spirit. Broadcast Media and Workplaces. the K-12 bill and the Early Years Act. Department of Education (DepEd) policies include the 1997 specific guidelines on the use of FSL as the medium of instruction for students with hearing impairment. polices or guidelines.g. Is this legal recognition of a national sign language taking place only in the Philippines? No. Recent or proposed DepEd policies. Social and Cultural Rights. the second Filipino hearing sign-language linguist who trained at the same Deaf university. Since that time.Language of Government in All Transactions Involving the Deaf. the first Filipino hearing sign-language linguist who trained at the renowned Deaf institution. distinct from American Sign Language. inclusion and participation of children with disabilities. e. over 80 studies on the structure and use of FSL have been undertaken and published or presented in local and international forums. International commitments include its ratification of UN core treaties. such as those for Mother Tongue-based Multilingual Education. Sign language recognition continues to be an area of active lobbying with the government for Deaf communities worldwide.

Section 4 (1) of the bill states that the reading and writing of Filipino.e. literature and culture.These span the fields of sign language linguistics. speaking and signing at the same time). sign language interpreting. translation studies. How are deaf children taught in public schools? The National Sign Language Committee collected and evaluated videotape samples of over 150 hearing teachers in nine regions. which produced the Status Report on the Use of Sign Language in the Philippines (with principal support from the Gallaudet University Alumni Association through the Laurent Clerc Cultural Fund) and the Practical Dictionaries Project. language policy. Article 24. A fundamental principle of the UNCRPD is individual autonomy. mixed with either Filipino or Cebuano. lexicography and corpus. On education. early childhood development. including the freedom to make one’s own choices (Article 3.. Will HB 6079 hinder the development of literacy? No. other Philippine languages and English shall still also be taught. the first language (L1) is a fully accessible visual language (i. The most frequent use of the spoken language is English.e.a). Trainers for the latter project were Dr. Dr. and the second language (L2) is a written language.3 emphasizes that “States Parties shall enable persons with disabilities to learn life and social development skills to facilitate their full and equal participation in . The Philippine Federation of the Deaf was the lead for the National Sign Language Committee. James Woodward. education. Yutaka Osugi (a Deaf sign linguist from Japan) and Dr. Liza Martinez. human rights and machine intelligence/sign language recognition.. history. FSL). For a bilingual-bicultual goal in Deaf education. Shall the legal recognition of FSL as the national sign language conflict with individual autonomy? No. The data show typically Sign Supported Speech or Simultaneous Communication (i. Cambodia and Hong Kong through the support of Nippon Foundation. Philippine studies. a four-country study with Vietnam.

2.2.b.b. 30. these must satisfy the requirements for fully inclusive education and maximum development. Part (c) instructs the State to make sure that schools. and in particular children.c in no way diminish State commitment to clearly promote and protect sign language and deaf culture. and in environments which maximize academic and social development. 24.e of the UNCRPD.. This appears to give schools latitude in the choice and delivery through the use of various languages.” while also recognizing and promoting the use of sign languages (21.3. The State must. clearly demonstrate that it is carrying out its duty to facilitate and promote the linguistic and cultural identity of the community (Articles 21. deaf or deafblind. It shall also be . e. States Parties shall take appropriate measures. To this end. modes and means.3.b. offer education that is appropriate and maximizes academic and social development. Articles 21.b directs the State to guard the freedom of expression and access to information of persons with disabilities of all forms of communication “of their choice. is delivered in the most appropriate languages and modes and means of communication for the individual. Article 21. The party to the convention is the Philippine state and not any stakeholder. it is not exclusive) for the directive to promote this linguistic identity. Notable is the use of the word “including” in the first paragraph (meaning. in pursuit of their goals and mandates. who are blind. including: (b) Facilitating the learning of sign language and the promotion of the linguistic identity of the deaf community. therefore.e.e). 24.4 and 9.” Part (b) is a clear directive to facilitate and promote the linguistic identity of the community (i. FSL). What will happen if HB 6079 does not become a law? State responsibility remains clear and does not change.education and as members of the community. 30. (c) Ensuring that the education of persons.3.e).4) and provide full accessibility through sign language interpretation (Article 9. It shall still need to demonstrate how it is implementing Articles 21.b and 24. The most critical point here is State responsibility. However. e.b.

although it cannot deny that it was influenced by ASL. FSL is not gesture or pantomime. a manually coded version of spoken English.net/41909/primer-on-filipino-signlanguage w 3.inquirer. they’re communicating in Filipino Sign Language (FSL). FSL is not American Sign Language (ASL). lips purse and wiggle about. When I see deaf people “talking” on the train. and stab the air. Chances are. Not a word is spoken but a lot is said. Existing policies of the DepEd and the judiciary relating to sign language and accessibility must still be fully implemented according to the principles and obligations of the UNCRPD. Because of its fully visual nature. neither is FSL the sign equivalent of spoken Tagalog or Filipino. and NGOs. which is why members were shocked when Department of Education (DepEd) undersecretary Yolanda Quijano endorsed Signed Exact English (SEE). I can’t help myself. Noses scrunch. cheeks puff out. a “unique visual language” that has its own grammar and syntax. I’m riveted by their conversation and my eyes follow their hands as they dance in space.The Unspoken Language EAVESDROPPING is despicable but I do it all the time.” not small “d” — identity.and alphabet-/spelling-based. Artificial sign systems. Source: http://opinion. for classroom use during a forum attended by public and private school teachers. . flick. eyebrows rise and fall. shall be incomprehensible to such deaf persons. FSL is the next most efficient and effective interface in communication even with a deaf person who has been isolated and is unable to use the typical sign communication of the community. which are sound. FSL is FSL and it is a defining part of the Filipino Deaf — big “D. Will the mandatory use of FSL be a barrier to unschooled deaf Filipinos? No.accountable for the nearly two decades of neglect of its commitment to the 1994 Salamanca Statement to ensure access through a national sign language. Fingers animated by meaning slice.

not all deaf Filipinos are members of the Filipino Deaf community. a conservative estimate. culture. his hearing gradually started to weaken and by the time he turned 15.2 dB at a 2006 gig. a severely deaf person can hear only extremely loud noises — a chainsaw. a member of the World Federation of the Deaf and the national Deaf advocacy organization composed of 18 member Deaf organizations in 14 regions. In answer to an observation that he spoke well. I can’t hear myself. Inc. his world was silent. finally. which defines itself as a cultural and linguistic minority fighting for the right to use FSL. “I don’t know. Normal conversation is 60-70 dB. a moderately deaf person has difficulty following close-range conversations and has a hearing threshold of 40-60 dB. (PFD). Quijano made her controversial statement. he answered in a quiet voice. the native sign language that it knows. he shrugged and smiled.” There are several degrees of hearing loss. understands. The people in the final group have a hearing threshold of greater than 90 dB. PFD. for example — and feel the vibrations made by loud sounds. Lintag is a post-lingual Deaf person. who was present when Ms. . a person with severe hearing loss can only hear loud noises such as the racket made by a vacuum cleaner or lawn mower at close range. a mildly deaf person cannot hear whispered conversations and has a hearing threshold of 20-40 decibels (dB). Mr. At the age of nine. Filipinos with hearing loss account for 2% of the population. a level that’s around 10 to 40 decibels lower than a live rock concert (it depends on which band is playing). BusinessWorld wrote its questions and comments down. secretary of the Philippine Federation of the Deaf. Col Hatchman of Dirty Skanks holds the Guinness Book of World Records record for “loudest drummer” when he hit a peak reading of 137. The interview was conducted without the aid of an interpreter. Quijano’s endorsement of SEE. For quick reference. drafted a resolution this August claiming “the fundamental human rights to language. which means he lost his hearing after he learned to speak. and identifies with the most.” said George Lintag. representing a hearing threshold of 60-90 dB. However.“It was like a bomb. In response to Ms.

a multivolume series published in 2004 by PDRC and PFD. FSL is not simply a dialect of American Sign Language (ASL).participation and self-determination for all Deaf Filipinos. facilitate and promote all appropriate measures to guarantee the full enjoyment of these rights. because they’re related though history and development. the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights. culture. which is FSL. Ms. Taiwanese Sign . answers many of the questions a hearing person might have about a visual language.” said Mr. a hearing sign language linguist who is founder and director of Philippine Deaf Resource Center (PDRC). An Introduction to Filipino Sign Language. and institute. It’s easy to “get” FSL if you know ASL. participation and self-determination of Deaf Filipinos. Martinez cites archival documents dating back to the 16th-17th century as critical evidence that sign language existed in the Philippines before American colonization. the Salamanca Statement and Framework for Action on Special Needs Education (1994). morphology. Lintag.” “We are proud of our culture. for example.” The PFD called on the DepEd to “halt the violation of the rights to language. in accordance with the Magna Carta for Persons with Disability. FSL is one of about a hundred natural sign languages recognized to be linguistically distinct from each other at all levels of linguistic structure (phonology. and only those who know sign languages from the same branch or family will be able to understand each other right off the bat. Martinez. Separate accounts written by Jesuit priests Gregorio Lopez and Pedro Chirino describe mutes who used signs to communicate. Sign languages are as different from each other as spoken ones. Liza B. and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. syntax and discourse). FSL is a true language According to Dr. And the most important part of our culture is our language. We want to preserve our culture. though it does borrow heavily from it.

uses handshapes that are alien to FSL: the raised middle finger in the sign for “brother” and the folded pinky in the sign for “airplane. educational attainment.Language. Just as there is “swardspeak” in spoken language. meanwhile. change. their request is backed by several local and international declarations. (If the need for privacy is great. there is also gay FSL (you’ll know it when you see it. there is the whole range of human diversity in terms of signing styles. and nonmanual signals. Each individual has his or her own ‘dialect. “Particular vocabularies are distinct for certain age groups and social classes. which was already mentioned.) “As in any language. Nuances such as tone. as mentioned.) Eloquence. Handshape. you can always sign underneath your shirt so that your conversation is hidden from prying eyes. just the same as any language. location. pizzazz. . The DepEd. Hands can move rapidly or slowly. new vocabularies emerge. The other four are palm orientation. As in ASL. a smaller area. is one of them. “Shouting” entails taking up a larger area of signing space. each sign in FSL has five components. prescribed that local sign language — “Pilipino Sign Language” — be used as the language of instruction for the hearing impaired. Like other living languages. whispering. in the 1980s. Change any one of these five components and the meaning of the sign changes as well. How you sign tells a lot about who you are: your age. sarcasm.” among others.’” said Ms. The PFD’s resolution is only the latest and. is demonstrated by the wide use of vocabulary and complex sentence structure. gracefully or abruptly. and disappear. an imaginary three-dimensional region in front of the user. Martinez. movement. even your gender. or irony are conveyed through nonmanual signals such as facial expressions and body movements.” Members of the Filipino Deaf community have repeatedly said that they would rather be taught in FSL. gay signs have more….

should be recognized and provision to ensure that all deaf persons have access to education in their national sign language. We are here to teach concepts. complemented by Signed English. Finland in 1987 said that “the distinct national sign languages of indigenous deaf populations should officially be recognized as their natural language of right for direct communication” and that “teachers of the deaf learn and use the accepted indigenous sign language as the primary language of instruction. Ms. .” In 2007. which offers three levels of schooling (pre-elementary. and writing “We are not here to teach signs.” The Salamanca Statement and Framework for Action on Special Needs Education. Article 24 of the Convention states that signatories shall facilitate “the learning of sign language and the promotion of the linguistic identity of the deaf community. a “system of manual communication” that “translates” spoken English into signs. elementary. principal of PSD.” The language of instruction in PSD is English. adopted by 92 governments (the Philippines included) and 25 international organizations in 1994 read. the use of SEE in the Miriam College — Southeast Asian Institute for the Deaf (MC-SAID)? Why then. They are here to learn to read and write. reading. “Our students are here to learn the parts of the body and the parts of the plant. Quijano’s endorsement of Signed Exact English? Why then. Signed English is one of several “visual codes” for representing spoken English.” Why then.” said Yolanda Capulong. and secondary). in part: “Educational policies should take full account of individual differences and situations. the use of Signed English (a system that is simpler than SEE) in the Philippine School for the Deaf (PSD)? Visual codes. the Philippines became one 82 signatories to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD). The importance of sign language as the medium of communication among the deaf.The Formal Resolution adopted by the World Congress of the World Federation of the Deaf in Helsinki. for example.

It was established in 1907 as the School for the Deaf and the Blind by Delia Delight Rice of Columbus. the medium of instruction has always been a concern. Capulong. in turn. You have to standardize things.The history of PSD goes back more than a hundred years. she continued. “It’s okay. including the manifestation of a language. Ohio. The PSD principal made it clear that she has no problem with FSL. inside a classroom. “However. PSD believes in Simultaneous Communication — signing and speaking at the same time. will help them read and write. PSD adheres to the Total Communication Philosophy. Today. “mainstreaming” refers to becoming part of the larger. such as autism and cerebral palsy.” she said. Capulong. Where other schools are either purely oral (meaning students must lip read and undergo auditory training so that they can speak) or purely manual. will help students grasp the syntax of English.” said Ms. which means that it uses a combination of communication modes in its classes. which. how shall we teach deaf children.” she asked. To this end. Since PSD is a national school. “There are three big issues in the education of the deaf: where shall we teach deaf children.” Using Signed English.” said Ms. the School split into two entities: PSD and the Philippine School for the Blind. In the education setting. “FSL is gestural like any sign language. ranging from the mildly deaf to the severely deaf. it’s fine. How can you convert a gestural language into a written language?. PSD’s goal is to “mainstream” its deaf students. and what shall we teach deaf children?” FSL relates to the second issue. hearing society. In another sense. this means helping them join regular classes based on their skills and intellectual abilities. PSD also accepts children with other disabilities and special needs. “We’re trying to serve a very diverse population with different needs. In 1963. it has 603 students. Sign what you say Parents who were not satisfied with the education offered at PSD established the Miriam College – Southeast Asian Institute for the . “Concepts cannot be taught without a common language. you have to use a system.

an even more precise visual code for spoken English than Signed English.” The MC-SAID principal continued that seeing how well the system has worked for them just bolsters the case for SEE. that doesn’t mean that FSL cannot be used in other contexts. MC-SAID principal. As a matter of fact. “The advantages of SEE are many. everything that is said is exactly signed (hence the name).” . But unlike PSD. “I think that one of the reasons they can engage intellectually in these conversations and discussions about FSL and SEE is that they have command over both languages [FSL and SEE]. articles and prepositions are not skipped. “They can both be functional and useful for any deaf child.” said Ms.” For Ms.” She continued that the use of SEE does not exclude FSL. “But again. neither are affixes. “That they favor FSL over SEE is not really an issue with me. Ui. Basically. Diliman. “When we’re talking about classroom situation. It was a forerunner in adopting the Total Communication Philosophy. I really believe that we should use SEE. adding that literacy is reading and writing. which teaches pre-school to secondary levels. in 1974. It makes me proud as a teacher to see them engaged. knowing the rules of English (which is the closest the world has to a lingua franca). Ui. meaning there are appropriate gestures that tell you whether a verb is in the progressive form (“ing”) or the past tense (“-ed”). and.” she said. therefore. I’ve seen how the use of this sign system has helped our graduates. many Deaf leaders now advocating for the use of FSL were products of SEE. MC-SAID’s graduates are the best arguments for using SEE. who graduated cum laude from the University of the Philippines. Every morpheme in spoken English has an equivalent sign in SEE: verbs must be conjugated.Deaf (MC-SAID). College of Fine Arts last year. Not any deaf person can do [what they’re doing]. “An educator’s concern is literacy and I believe that this is what SEE can give to our deaf students. MC-SAID used and still uses Signed Exact English. There’s Jemima Ming Go.” said Carol Ui.

” “your. SEE entails signing each word — “what. who lost his hearing pre-lingually. “The problem is that teachers keep using ‘hearing’ methods to teach us. is bilingual. Mr. copy. Domingo stressed that it’s not a shortcut but a visual concept. The deaf.” .” “This is my voice. use their eyes to understand the world. He was president of the PFD from 1999-2003 and a major contributor to An Introduction to Filipino Sign Language. adding that the phrase “through an interpreter” could be used once as a compromise.” he said. “FSL is our language. the sign for “name” and a puzzled facial expression suffices. being fluent in FSL and English. There are more Deaf teachers in the school than hearing teachers. Domingo said through an interpreter.A learner-centered environment Raphael “Raphy” Domingo is a Deaf leader who works as coordinator of Education Access for the Deaf at the De La Salle College of Saint Benilde (DLS-CSB)-Center for Education Access and Development (CEAD). “It is the natural language of the Filipino Deaf community.” and “name” — plus the question mark at the end of the interrogative sentence. he used the question “What is your name?” as an example. Domingo said” in this article instead of “Mr. In FSL. They bombard the Deaf with so many written words and we just copy. these are my thoughts and not the interpreter’s. which has a Multimedia Arts track and a Business Entrepreneurship track. “Before learning English. or whatever spoken language. Tagalog. copy without understanding anything. Domingo said through an interpreter.” (Later on in the interview. It has to be more visual. the Deaf should first learn their own language. in general. Mr. Domingo requested that BusinessWorld use “Mr. Communication is one way and there’s no feedback. Domingo.” Mr. Mr.” he said. which is FSL.) To illustrate how FSL is different from SEE.” “is. DLS-CSB uses FSL in its School of Deaf Education and Applied Studies (SDEAS).

oral-based language such as English. Hearing and post-lingual deaf people already have the foundations they need in their brain to understand the rules. she continued. They have their own unique experiences. Benitez-dela Torre said. “It should not be the other way around.” said Ms.” Ms. MANILA. then we can adjust the environment so that they can access the same things hearing people have access to. Source: http://www. yes.php? section=Weekender&title=The-unspoken-language&id=37560 4.com. a visual and kinesthetic language that is the natural language of the Deaf. According to Angelo Garcia of Manila Bulletin Philippines.” said the CEAD director. “From day one. “The same is not true for the pre-lingual deaf.” “You have to see it from the view of the students. “Oral-based languages are learned in an auditory manner.ph/content. director of CEAD and dean of SDEAS from 2002-2009. a sector of society that has been lobbying for the . “Deaf people cannot hear.” she said. Philippines — as the country celebrates Buwan ng Wika this month. said that DLS-CSB uses FSL because it is “learner-centered.” Imagine a deaf infant born in a hearing world. “It’s difficult when you force an oral-based reality on those who are deaf.” One way of “adjusting the environment” is using FSL. You have to understand it from a sociocultural perspective. this baby is isolated and cut off. which has always addressed only the needs of hearing people. Benitez-dela Torre. Their identity is not their hearing ability. and use it as a bridge to a second. There is a barrier — a barrier that is not necessarily a product of his deafness but a product of his hearing environment. but that does not define their personhood.” It is better for a deaf child to learn FSL. “If we understand the context of the deaf.bworld.Theresa Christine “Techie” Benitez-dela Torre. All we want is for them to have choices and the power to make them.

De La Salle-College of Saint Benilde (DLS-CSB) Center for Education Access and Development (CEAD). leaders of the Filipino deaf community are optimistic about the progress they are making. we are very optimistic. we want the same mother tongue-based instruction in education. “FSL is a unique language. program coordinator of DLS-CSB School of Deaf Education and Applied (SDEAS) Deaf Advocacy. Education Access for the Deaf coordinator. There’s a lot of research and a lot of work to be done. The same with FSL. on the other hand. THE UNIQUE FILIPINO SIGN LANGUAGE In 1907. “Yes. syntax.” explains Mackie Calbay. It’s also the mark of identity of deaf Filipinos. Teddy Casiño. which is different from the spoken language. . The Filipino deaf community is currently supporting lawmakers. It has its own grammar. through the help of Alliance of Concerned Teachers (ACT) Party List representative Antonio Tinio and Rep. HB 4121. ASL has since influenced FSL. The progress has beenvery tremendous especially this year. structure. As these Bills gain traction.recognition of the Filipino Sign Language (FSL) is reiterating its call. What’s important is we have strong support. in passing several relevant House bills to benefit their stakeholders. 5. now known as the Philippine School for the Deaf. the American Sign Language (ASL) was introduced to the Filipino deaf community through the School for the Deaf and Blind. We want to emphasize that the deaf people also need the help of the hearing community in this advocacy. the Filipino sign language. pushes for the use of sign language interpretation inset in television news programs. Among them is House Bill (HB) 6079 which pushes for the declaration of FSL as the national sign language of the Filipino deaf.” shares Raphael Domingo. while HB 4631 is a bill that would give access to sign language interpreters in Philippine courts. we have a strong advocacy.

a term ASL does not have because they don’t experience it. they recorded that about 54 percent of deaf Filipinos use FSL compared to ASL.” explains Domingo.FSL is believed to be part of the French Sign Language family. faculty member of the Filipino Sign Language Learning Program of SDEAS. They know ASL but in reality they are using FSL. There are similarities in terms of hand shapes. there’s an automatic switching of the language. if they are conversing among themselves they are going to be using FSL but if a deaf person would have to communicate with a hearing person. But the conversation and discourse are different depending on the culture. . DLS-CSB SDEAS is known for its use of FSL and advocates the use of the local language in the school and community. Today. “A lot of deaf people did not realize that they are using FSL. are surprised to discover that there is an FSL. Lee. But if a deaf person converses with another deaf person then they will use the more natural language. In terms of grammar.” Lee says. both deaf and hearing. and palm orientation. we have a sign for flooding inside the house. president of the Philippine Federation of the Deaf (PFD). the sign language where most sign languages are derived from. there are differences and similarities between FSL and ASL. movement. facial expression. who is also a member of the Special Education (SpEd) Council of the Department of Education (DepEd). So they would convert signing exact English (SEE). which is FSL. positioning. In 2007. which can be traced back to the history of the Philippines. Naturally. says that the Filipino deaf community did not even know that FSL existed. hand location. STRONGER SUPPORT FOR FSL Rey Alfred Lee. sign languages differ depending on its use and the country’s culture. about 60 percent of deaf Filipinos were using ASL while 40 percent used FSL. says that most of his students. He explains that the use of FSL by deaf Filipinos has increased through the years. But like any other language. For example here in the Philippines. including ASL. “ASL has a big influence on FSL.

Currently. “The SpEd teachers are aware of the need. There are many organizations that don’t use FSL in their curriculum. “SDEAS is advocating the use of FSL in the community. FSL IN SCHOOLS One of the main objectives of the deaf community is to push FSL in schools and make it the medium of instruction for deaf students. The influence of the usage of FSL is slowly making waves. They are also in talks with the Professional Regulation Commission in licensing deaf teacher assistants to provide them with the recognition and right to benefits they duly deserve. SpEd courses in colleges and universities also do not offer FSL in their curriculums “The Special Education Council has made a proposal to hire deaf teacher assistants for hearing teachers who do not know sign language. through that they could foster as sense of community and also . DepEd is happy about that. So that means the SpEd teachers have no choice but to learn sign language by themselves. PFD will also soon work with the Japan Ministry of Education to further enhance FSL as a language. PROUD OF FSL These deaf community leaders hope that more deaf Filipinos recognize FSL. The deaf assistants will facilitate communication in the classroom. however they are not readily accepting. in line with DepEd’s K to 12 curriculum. Although Domingo says that SpEd teachers are not to be blamed. Hopefully in terms of the usage of FSL.“The support for FSL is now stronger. Most SpEd schools today use ASL. We cannot blame them because the SpEd courses do not include FSL courses in their curriculum. it will come soon but we’ll have to work double time. the Philippine Federation of the Deaf (PFD) is designing an FSL curriculum for the SpEd course in higher education. PROUD TO BE DEAF. Hopefully.” Domingo says. their native language.” Lee shares. Domingo says that they are also now working on the curriculum for the deaf.” Domingo says.

because this is what we use.” Calbay says. the deaf community is fighting for their language. FSL is best used to have better communication. And they will not stop to work to further the cause of their advocacy. It’s part of our own language. After all. . we don’t want it to be propagated here. It’s where we belong. where is your own language? We’re proud that this is our language.promote excellence in deaf education. fighting for their identity.” Domingo says. This is FSL. Conceptual Model of the Study Input Process Output Proposal Involvement of decision making Time Transparency Resources Planning Team Work Effective methods Review Guides/Instructi on Program Effectiveness of researching and conducting time to work on every single part of the system and coming up a helpful idea for creating and developing the said system/applicati on. other countries will look down at us. We should be using a language we could understand. being a colonial language. it’s Filipino. Out of respect for the deaf Filipino culture we want FSL to be used here. If some people don’t take FSL seriously. this is what we know. That’s how we communicate and understand each other. “ASL.

A patient with mild hearing impairment may have problems understanding speech. They share many similarities with spoken languages (sometimes called "oral languages". while those with moderate deafness may need a hearing aid. orientation and movement of the hands. as opposed to acoustically conveyed sound patterns.Operational Definition of Terms Deaf/Hearing loss: Symptoms may be mild. which is why linguists consider both to be natural languages. which depend primarily on sound). This can involve simultaneously combining hand shapes. Sign Language: A language which uses manual communication and body language to convey meaning. moderate. and facial expressions to fluidly express a speaker's thoughts. but there are also some significant differences between signed and spoken languages. especially if there is a lot of noise around. arms or body. severe or profound. Some people are severely deaf and depend on lip-reading when communicating with others. .

Chapter 3: Research Methodology Research Design  USE CASE Select a Category Tutorial Quiz Deaf Person See results .

Tutorial and quiz level design.Family and friends  Entity Relationship Diagram  Context Diagram Planning out the Tutorial layout and platform for Project Development animation for the development. and unity package Audio and sounds Logo layout Functional reviews Creating quiz . files. dummy DATA GATHERING Identifying the clients used signPRODUCTION language in the Philippines. Formulating the technical approach. Program developing Animating the dummy for visual presentation GRAPHICS/ANIMATION Images.

TESTING Function testing System tutorial/quiz testing Functionalities testing DesignWork and graphic Plan testing Novemb Decemb Janua Februar Marc Reporting of error er er ry y h issues Activity/Wor 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 k Planning the system Gathering requiremen ts Coding Designing the system Testing Fixing errors / Bugs Start End .

Maintaining the system is always the priority. when errors occurred such debugging during implementation. the programmers as well tested if the intended output meets the desired performance of the F-Xinulator application.Operation and Testing Procedure During the test of the integration of the application. Evaluation Procedure .

Having the organized interface form and also contents of the application can be easily understood to avoid difficulty on using the application. Maintainability: can be maintained easily with the use of the software by the programmers . Functionality: has different features that support the actual sign language Testability: Highly responsive and easy to use.F-Xinulator can be evaluated but only its current progress.