A HAZOP survey is one of the most common and widely accepted methods of systematic
qualitative hazard analysis. It is used for both new or existing facilities and can be applied
to a whole plant, a production unit, or a piece of equipment It uses as its database the
usual sort of plant and process information and relies on the judgment of engineering and
safety experts in the areas with which they are most familiar. The end result is, therefore
reliable in terms of engineering and operational expectations, but it is not quantitative and
may not consider the consequences of complex sequences of human errors.
The objectives of a HAZOP study can be summarized as follows:

To identify (areas of the design that may possess a significant hazard potential.


To identify and study features of the design that influence the probability of a
hazardous incident occurring.


To familiarize the study team with the design information available.


To ensure that a systematic study is made of the areas of significant hazard


To identify pertinent design information not currently available to the team.


To provide a mechanism for feedback to the client of the study team's detailed

Production of Acrylonitrile


For example. objective. As many other experts should be included in the team to cover all aspects of design. The team leader should be skilled in HAZOP and in interpersonal techniques to facilitate successful group interaction. and scope is very important and should be precisely set down so that it will be clear. what was and was not included in the study. Given the purpose and the circumstances of the study. process chemistry. and safety. while now the scope usually includes toxic release. These decisions need to be made by an appropriate level of responsible management. The scope of the study is the boundaries of the physical unit. now and in the future.HAZOP STUDY A HAZOP study is conducted in the following steps: 1) Specify the purpose. and environmental end-points. and also the range of events and variables considered. solutions to problems are a separate effort. The purpose may he the analysis of a yet to be built plant or a review of the risk of un existing unit. Production of Acrylonitrile 143 . objectives. The team leader should instruct the team in the HAZOP procedure and should emphasize that the end objective of a HAZOP survey is hazard identification. The initial establishment of purpose. at one time HAZOP's were mainly focused on fire and explosion endpoints. and scope of the study. 3) Collect data. physical and toxicological properties of all raw materials. Theodore16 has listed the following materials that are usually needed:  Process description  Process flow sheets  Data on the chemical. and products. offensive odor. the objectives listed above can he made more specific. operation. intermediates. 2) Select the HAZOP study team..

piping.HAZOP STUDY  Piping and instrument diagrams (P&IDs)  Equipment. and instrument specifications  Process control logic diagrams  Layout drawings  Operating procedures  Maintenance procedures  Emergency response procedures  Safety and training manuals Production of Acrylonitrile 144 .

HAZOP STUDY Production of Acrylonitrile 145 .

When the nodes are identified and the parameters are identified.2: HAZOP Guide Words and Meanings 4) Guide Words No Meaning Negation of design intent Less Quantitative decrease More Quantitative increase Part of Qualitative decrease As well as Qualitative Increase Reverse Logical opposite of the intent Other than Complete substitution Conduct the study. the unit is divided into study "nodes" and the sequence diagrammed in Figure . temperature. Nodes are points in the process where process parameters (pressure. is followed for each node. which considers how and why each parameter might vary from the intended and the consequence.1).) have known and intended values. Using the information collected. etc. heat exchanges. These values change between nodes as a result of the operation of various pieces of equipment' such as distillation columns. Production of Acrylonitrile 146 . or pumps. composition. They are listed in Table (11. is the substance of the HAZOP study. each node is studied by applying the specialized guide words to each parameter. Repeated cycling through this process. Various forms and work sheets have been developed to help organize the node process parameters and control logic information.HAZOP STUDY Table-11. These guide words and their meanings are key elements of the HAZOP procedure.

appropriate follow-up action is needed. HAZOP Study of Storage Tank for Propylene A HAZOP study is to be conducted on Propylene storage tank. and even the future of the enterprise that may result from a major release.2). Still. property.HAZOP STUDY 5) Write the report. although risk reduction action is not a part of the HAZOP. As much detail about events and their consequence as is uncovered by the study should be recorded. Obviously. propylene is unloaded from tank trucks into a storage tank maintained under a slight positive pressure until it is transferred to the process.2) along with a listing of consequences that results from process deviation. Just getting the P & ID's up to date on an older plant may be a major engineering effort. the HAZOP may trigger the need for such action. if the HAZOP identifies a not improbable sequence of events that would result in a disaster. In this scheme. Application of the guide words to the storage tank is shown in Table (10. Some of the consequences identified with these process deviations have raised additional questions that need resolution to determine whether or not a hazard exist. for processes with significant risk. they are cost effective when balanced against the potential loss of life. The HAZOP studies are time consuming and expensive. Production of Acrylonitrile 147 . Thus. business. as presented by the piping and instrumentation diagram show in fig (10.

HAZOP STUDY Propylene Storage Tank Production of Acrylonitrile 148 .

2: Piping and instrumentation diagram Deviations from operating conditions Level: Less What event could cause this deviation Tank runs dry Consequences of this deviation on item of Process equipment under indications consideration Pump cavitates LIA-1 FICA-1 More Rupture of discharge line Reagent released LIA-1.HAZOP STUDY Figure-11. V-3 open or broken FICA-1 V-1 open or broken Reagent released LIA-1 Tank rupture (busting of Reagent released LIA-1 vessel) Reagent released LIA-1 Unload too much from Tank overfills LIA-1 Tank overfills LIA-1 column Reverse flow from process Temperature: Less Temperature of inlet is Possible vacuum colder than normal More Temperature of inlet is Region released hotter than normal External fire Production of Acrylonitrile Tank fails 149 .