You are on page 1of 8


7.1 QUENCHER:The word quencher means “sudden cooling”. It may be used for various purposes, e.g. for
hardening of solid surfaces, for stopping further reactions etc. In our case quenching of
the reactor product is needed for sudden cooling, for removing impurities and to avoid
side reactions. Cooling by liquid quenching is essentially accomplished by introducing
the hot gases into a liquid contacting device.
When the liquid evaporates the energy necessary to vaporize the liquid is obtained at the
expense of hot combustion gases, resulting in a reduction of gas temperature. The
temperature of the combustion gases discharge from the quencher is at the adiabatic
saturation temperature of the combustion gases if the operation is adiabatic and the gas
leaves the quencher saturated with water vapors.

Quenching is choosing in contrast to heat exchanger because:
1. If an exchanger is used large area is required.
2. Also, direct contact is more efficient than indirect contact.
3. The fine particles from the reactor will also be removed which may otherwise
erode exchanger tubes.
Quenching is different from cooling in the sense that:
1. Cooling is done in a comparatively longer time.
2. It also does not stop the side reactions completely.
3. While in quencher formation of by-products are completely stopped.

There are three types of quenchers that may be employed.
1. Spray towers
2. Venture scrubbers

Production of Acrylonitrile


Packed towers 7. The inlet gas stream usually enters the bottom of the tower and moves upward. This is an inexpensive controlled device primarily used for gas conditioning (cooling or humidification). The main advantage of spray towers over other scrubber is their completely open design. It requires very little space and only that amount of water is used that is needed to maintain the desired temperature of the gases at the discharge. Problems like plugging. 4. 4.7 SPRAY TOWERS:Spray towers or spray chambers consist of empty cylindrical vessels made of steel or plastic and nozzles that spray liquid into the vessels. A precooler is to be used when venture scrubber is used for removing particulates. It is less efficient than cooler. while liquid is sprayed downward from one or more levels. 3. 7. 3. Packing material increases the cost of the tower. 5. fouling and channeling are associated with it. 7. 2. 4. In packed tower pressure drop is higher. 2. 3. 2. There construction is not so simple. It is simple to construct. In venture scrubber contact area available for water and gases is less. Spray towers can be used for gas absorption. Their installation and operation cost are generally considered to b less than that for other cooling method.5 DEMERITS OF VENTURI SCRUBBERS: 1. Spray towers are very effective in removing pollutants (particles from reactor) if the pollutants are highly soluble. This feature eliminates many of the scale build up and plugging problems associated with other scrubbers.4 SELECTION CRITERIA: Spray tower is selected from the above mentioned types of quencher as: 1. This flow of inlet gas and liquid in the opposite direction is called Production of Acrylonitrile 91 .DESIGN OF QUENCHER 3. which removes impurities. 6. 7.6 DEMERITS OF PACKED TOWER: 1. Large amount of water is required for cooling.

In a spray tower. the smaller the droplets formed. In addition. Therefore. it is called a spray. It is a device which makes use of the pressure energy of a liquid to increase its velocity through an orifice and breaks it into drops. Although small in size.000 µm in diameter. When a liquid is dispersed as a stream of droplets (atomization). the physical size of the spray tower will limit the amount of liquid and the size of droplets that can be used. absorption can be increased by decreasing the size of the liquid droplets and/or increasing the liquid-to-gas ratio (L/G). to accomplish either of these. spray towers use nozzles to produce droplets that are usually 500 to 1. an increase in both power consumed and operating cost is required. Many nozzles are placed across the tower at different heights to spray all of the gas as it moves up through the tower. the higher the collection efficiency achieved for both gaseous and particulate pollutants. However. Countercurrent flow exposes the outlet gas with the lowest pollutant concentration to the freshest scrubbing liquid. or distribute a liquid over an area. Theoretically. Spray nozzles are used to achieve two primary functions: increase liquid surface area to enhance evaporation. Only that amount of water is used that is needed to maintain the desire temperature of the gases at the discharge. Cooling hot gases with the acidic quench is relatively simple and required very little space. However. Production of Acrylonitrile 92 . 7. these droplets are large compared to those created in the venturi scrubbers that are 10 to 50 µm in size.DESIGN OF QUENCHER countercurrent flow. the liquid droplets must be large enough to not be carried out of the scrubber by the scrubbed outlet gas stream. Each nozzle type has a specific type of characteristics and capabilities and is designed for use under certain application conditions.8 SPRAY NOZZLE:A spray nozzle is a device that facilitates the formation of spray. Their installation and operating costs are generally considered to be less than that for other cooling methods. The reasons for using many nozzles is to maximize the number of fine droplets impacting the pollutant particles and to provide a large surface area for absorbing gas.

The advantage of this process is to reduce the amount of air required to generate the droplets but the downside is that the over time the impact surface becomes eroded and effects the spray droplet size pattern. Hydraulic spray: The hydraulic spray nozzle utilizes the liquid kinetic energy as the energy source to break the liquid into droplets.DESIGN OF QUENCHER 7. The nozzle life can be very short if the liquid has impurities in it. This nozzle creates a better and optimum control on the liquid spray and in certain applications can eliminate the need of expensive compressed air. External mixing External mixing nozzles mix fluids outside the nozzle. steam or other gases can break up a liquid to form a spray. Gas (air) atomized spray: Air. This nozzle can vary the liquid flow rate at a particular droplet size and pressure. with the gas providing a source of energy. the liquid is broken into droplets by using only gas. the liquid impinges upon a surface for impact to break the liquid stream and then the air is mixed to atomize it. To overcome this situation a special hydraulic nozzle (Lechler Spillback Nozzle) has been developed. But this leads to problems in selecting a droplet size and to achieve a certain flow rate at a given pressure.9 TYPES OF SPRAY NOZZLES: Spray nozzles can be categorized into several types based on the energy input used: 1. 2. The advantage of this type is that the nozzle lasts longer but the downside is that this type of spray needs more gas to generate the same size of droplets. The internal mixed twin fluid spray can utilize two different ways for spraying liquid: In the first type. This type of spray is less energy consuming than a gas atomized or twin-fluid spray nozzle. I. As the fluid pressure increases the flow increases and the drop size decreases. In the second type. Internal mixing Internal mixing nozzles mix fluids inside the nozzle. Production of Acrylonitrile 93 . II. The gas atomized spray utilizes a gaseous source to break the liquid to the droplets.

This type of nozzle is most beneficial for a liquid which may evaporate inside the mixing chamber of an internal mix nozzle or using steam to atomize the liquid. but the mixing and atomization of liquid takes places outside the nozzle. Rotary (spinning disc): Rotary atomizers use a high speed rotating disk. If a liquid is atomized using any gas which may react with the liquid. Ultrasonic: Ultrasonic atomizers This type of spray nozzle utilizes high (20 kHz to 50 kHz) frequency vibration to produce nearly narrow drop size distribution and low velocity spray from a liquid. The vibration of a piezoelectric crystal causes capillary waves on the nozzle surface liquid film. Production of Acrylonitrile 94 . it is possible that the reaction may damage the inside of the nozzle. Spray drying and spray painting are the most common uses of this technology. The rotational speed controls the drop size.DESIGN OF QUENCHER This type of spray nozzle may require more air. 3. 4. Also this nozzle is suitable of spraying viscous fluid. cup or wheel to disperse the liquid into a hollow cone spray.

5 x 6.186 L= 2081 kg /m2 .DESIGN OF QUENCHER 7.∆ T2 ln (∆ T1/ ∆ T2) ∆ T LMTD = Rate Of Heat Transfer: q = mo Cp ∆T Production of Acrylonitrile 95 .1 oC Superficial Mass Velocities: For Gas Stream.10 DESIGN OF QUENCHER:Superficial Velocity = Vs = 0.5 m/s Gas density = ρG = 6. G = mass flow area G = 6529.186 m2 Diameter of the Quencher : A = π D2 / 4 9. For Liquid L = mass flow Area L= 19124 9.26 kg/m2 .9428 kg/ m3 Mass flow rate of gas = WG = 114798 kg/hr Area of the Quencher: Area = WG / 3600 Vs ρG Area = 114798/ 3600 x 0.419 m Log Mean Temperature Difference : ∆ T LMTD = ∆ T1 .186 = 3.1416 x D2 / 4 D = 3.9428 A = 9.

8 L0.4 x A Putting all the values.5 / 0. equation 4 Where Z= height of Quencher U = Heat Transfer Coefficient Volume of Quencher : V = q / U x ∆ T LMTD …. Z 0.DESIGN OF QUENCHER Where mo = molar flow rate of liquid stream = 4985.K ∆T = 82.5 / 0.5 …..019 m3 96 .1 oC q = 3003929.94 kmol /hr q = heat rate required to vaporize the water to discharge temperature Cp = 7.4 x ∆ T LMTD A x Z = q x Z 0.63 m Volume of Quencher: V =A x Z .43 G 0.5539 Z = 12..4 Z0.8 x L 0..131 J/hr Heat Transfer Coefficient: U = 0.5 = 3.4 x ∆ T LMTD Z 0.43 G 0. Production of Acrylonitrile V = 116.equation 6 Combining equations 4.equation 5 Calculation of Height of Quencher : V = Ax Z ….8 x L 0.43 G0.5 = q / 0.43 G 0.8 x L 0. 5 and 6 we get the height of the Quencher V = q x Z 0.53 J /kmol .

11 SPECIFICATION SHEET: Identification Item Quencher Item # Q-101 Type Spray Type No.419 m Height 12.63 m Material Carbon Steel 81 B 45 Volume 116. of item 1 Function Quenching the reactor outlet stream Design specification Gas inlet Temperature 220 oC Gas outlet Temperature 85 oC Liquid inlet Temperature 5 oC Liquid outlet Temperature 65 oC Operating Pressure 172 kPa Design Temperature 350 oC Design Pressure 200kPa Diameter 3.DESIGN OF QUENCHER 7.01 m3 Quenching mechanism Quenching media H2SO4 (30 %) Quenching Systems Nozzles Production of Acrylonitrile 97 .