82
Section 8
Paraxial Raytracing
YNU Raytrace
Refraction (or reflection) occurs at an interface between two optical spaces. The transfer
distance t' allows the ray height y' to be determined at any plane within an optical space
(including virtual segments).
t
n
n n C
Refraction or Reflection:
nu nu y
Transfer:
y y u t
y y
nu
This type of raytrace is called a YNU raytrace. All rays propagate from object space to
image space.
A reverse raytrace allows the ray properties to be determined in the optical space
upstream of a known ray segment. A ray can then be worked back to its origins in object
space.
Refraction or Reflection (reverse):
nu nu y
Transfer (reverse):
y y ut
y y
84
nu nu y
y
83
1
fE
Refraction at an optical system effectively occurs at the principal planes of the system. The
ray emerges from the rear principal plane at the same height, but with a different angle.
Transfer:
y y u t
y y
u
P
The transfer distance t allows the ray height y to be determined at any plane within
an optical space (including virtual segments).
The raytrace equations can be applied to a single surface or to an entire system (by
using the principal planes).
nu nu y
y y u t
h
y
R
t1
t1 = t 2
n n
y ut1
nu nu y
n n
z z
CC
y 0 y u t1
y
t2 t1
u
m
h z / n
t / n nu
h
z/n
t1 / n nu
A raytrace spacing is the distance from the current surface to the next surface.
u u y
y y u t
h
y
u
P
t1
t1 = t 2
85
y y u t1 0
y
t2 t1
u
y ut1
u u y
1 1
z z
h z
t
u
2
h z
t1 u
Transfer:
y j 1 y j u j t j
Refract:
nj uj n j u j y j j
y j 1 y j j j
u j 1 u j
j j y j j
Refraction occurs at each surface. The amount of ray deviation depends on the surface
power and the ray height.
Transfer occurs between surfaces. The ray height change depends on the ray angle and
the spacing between surfaces.
The image location is found by solving for a ray height of zero in image space.
n1
h
u1
y1
n1 n2
n2 n3
nk
nk
u1 u2
u2 u3
uk
uk
yk
y2
yk+1
uk
t1 t 2
t1
t2 t 3
tk
tk
86
General Raytrace Equations
n1
h
u1
Transfer:
y j 1 y j u j t j
Refract:
nj uj n j u j y j j
n1 n2
n2 n3
nk
nk
u1 u2
u2 u3
uk
uk
y1
yk
y2
87
yk+1
uk
z
t1 t 2
t1
t2 t 3
yk 1 yk uk tk
yk yk 1 uk 1tk 1
n2 u2 n2u2 y22
n2u2 n1u1
y2 y1 u1t1
y1 u1t1
tk
tk
nk uk nk uk ykk
n3u3 n2 u2
tk
yk 1 0
yk
uk
h n1u1 1
h nk uk k
u1 u2
u3
y2
y1
P1
t1
u2 u3
P1
y3
P2
P2
t1 t 2
P3
P3
t2 t 3
y4
u3
t3 t 4
y j 1 y j u j t j
u j u j y j j
u j 1 u j
Each element or component refracts the ray, and the principal planes are the locations
of effective refraction.
Transfer occurs between the rear principal plane of one component and the front
principal plane of the next.
Image location and magnification:
y4 0
t4 t3
y3
u3
h u1
h u3
88
u1
Paraxial Raytrace
Series of Surfaces
u1
h 10 mm
u1
u2
u2
y2
y1
u1
1 2 0.02 mm1
u3
z
t1 t 2 25 mm
t1 40 mm
y0 0
u1 0.1 (Arbitrary)
y1 u1t1 4.0 mm
t2 t 3 ?
y2 y1 u1t1
y3 y2 u2 t2 0
y2 4.5 mm
t2 t3 64.286 mm
u2 u1 0.02
u2 u2 y22
u2 0.07
u1 u1 y11
u1 0.02
h ?
u3 u2 0.07
h u
0.1
m 1
1.429
h u3 0.07
h 14.29 mm
h 10 mm
u1
u2
u1
1 2 0.02 mm1
y1
u2
y2
z
t1 t 2 25 mm
t1 40 mm
y0 h 10.0
t2 t 3 64.286 mm
y3 y2 u2 t2
h y3 14.29 mm
y2 y1 u1t1
u1 0.1 (Arbitrary)
y1 y0 u1t1 14.0 mm
u1 u1 y11
u1 0.18
y2 9.5 mm
u2 u1 0.18
u2 u2 y22
u2 0.37
h ?
810
u1
89
If the arbitrary initial angle of the second ray is chosen to be zero, the
location of the rear focal point of the system can also be determined.
1
u1
h 10 mm
1 2 0.02 mm1
u2
y1
u2
y2
z
F
t1 t 2 25 mm
t1 40 mm
t2 t 3 64.286 mm
h ?
BFD
y0 h 10.0
y3 y2 u2 t2
h y3 14.29 mm
y2 y1 u1t1
u1 0
y2 5.0 mm
y1 y0 u1t1 10.0 mm
u2 u1 0.2
u2 u2 y22
u2 0.3
u1 u1 y11
u1 0.2
811
The Gaussian properties of an optical system can be determined using a paraxial raytrace
with particular rays.
Rear cardinal points: Trace a ray parallel to the axis in object space. This ray must go
through the rear focal point of the system. The kth surface is the final surface in the system.
n
u1 1 0
n
y1
y1
yk
P
uk
V
BFD
fR
k 1 y1
System:
k y1
k
y1
k nuk
nuk
y1
BFD V F
As transfers:
yk
ny
k
uk
k
yk 1 0 yk uk BFD
fE
f R
d V P
y1 yk
uk
yk 1 y1 yk uk d
d BFD f R
812
A ray from an axial object at infinity can be used to determine the rear
cardinal points.
1
1 2 0.02 mm1
u1
u2
y1
u2
y2
F
u2 u1 0.02
u2 u2 y22
u2 0.03
y3 y2 u2 BFD 0
V
d
t1 t 2 25 mm
u1 0
2
y1
f f R
y2 y1 u1t1
u1 u1 y11
u1 0.02
y1 1.0
y2 0.5 mm
BFD
nu2
u
2 0.03 mm 1
y1
y1
d V P
BFD
y2
16.666 mm
u2
y1 y2
16.666 mm
u2
or
33.333 mm
Trace a ray from the system front focal point that emerges parallel to the axis in image space.
The reverse raytrace equations are used to work from image space back to object space.
n
n
u1
yk
y1
V
FFD
uk k =0
yk
fF
k 1 yk 0
1
yk
nu1
yk
FFD VF
fE
y1
ny
1
1
u1
fF
d VP
yk y1
u1
d FFD f F
814
System:
813
816
C1 = 0.02/mm
C2 = 0.01/mm
t = 10 mm
n = 1.5
815
n1 = 1
n3 = 1
C2
C1
= 0.01/mm
= 0.005/mm
= 0.01467/mm
fE = 68.16 mm
f F 68.16 mm
f R 68.16 mm
d = 2.27 mm
d' = 4.54 mm
PP 3.19mm
There are several different spreadsheet forms that can be used to facilitate the raytrace.
Object
Surface
C
t
n

t/n
y
nu
u
y
nu
u
Space 1
Surface 1
Space 2
Surface 2
Space 3
Image
Surface
First, trace a ray parallel to the axis in object space to determine the rear focal point and
rear principal plane.
F'
Object
Surface
Space 1
Space 2
Surface 2
1.0

t/n
10
1.5
63.63
1
=
0
0
Solve to obtain
y = 0 at F'
.005
6.667
Image
Surface
?
1.0
.01
Ray
parallel
to axis
Space 3
0.01
0.02
C
t
n
y
nu
u
Surface 1
*
.9333
=
=
.01
*
=
.01467
.01467
817
y
nu
u
y1 arbitrarily chosen
to equal 1
.01467 3 .9333 0
y y
V F
V F 63.63 mm
n3
u .01467
y1 1
y1
.01467 / mm
f E 68.16 mm
f R 68.16 mm
BFD V F 63.63 mm
d BFD f R 4.54 mm
y1
fR
818
Now, trace a ray from the front focal point that emerges parallel to the axis in image space
to determine the front focal point and front principal plane.
F
Object
Surface
Space 1
Surface 1
Space 2
Surface 2
?
1.0

t/n
FV
0
1.0
10
1.5
.01
y
nu
u
.005
6.667
b
a
Image
Surface
0.01
0.02
C
t
n
Space 3
Ray
parallel
to axis
y
nu a FV b
u
.01b a c
FV 65.89
a .01467
6.667 c b 1
c .005
.005 c 0
b .9667
Space 2
?
1.0

t/n
65.89
1.0
=
.005
*
y y
1
=
y
nu
u
Image
Surface
.005
6.667
* +
.9667
.01467
.01467
Space 3
10
1.5
.01
Surface 2
0.01
0.02
C
t
n
y
nu
u
Surface 1
1
0
Ray
parallel
to axis
820
Object
Surface
819
FV
FV 65.89 mm
n1
u .01467
y2 1
y2
.01467 / mm
f E 68.16 mm
y2
f F 68.16 mm
fF
FFD VF FV 65.89 mm
821
d FFD f F 2.27 mm
PP t d d 10.0 2.27 4.54 3.19 mm
h 1
s OV 200
OV 200
Object
Surface
Space 1
C
t
n
200
1.0

t/n
200
Surface 1
Space 2
y
nu
u
20
* arbitrary
19.33
.1966
.1966
nu
.1
.51
nu .1966
Image
Location
.51
.9333
.01
Image
Size
.01467
.01467
h .51mm
s V I 98.30 mm
.51
m
.51
1
98.30
.1
1
0*
0
Solve
.005
6.667
.1*
.1
Image
Surface
?
1.0
10
1.5
.01
Space 3
0.01
0.02
y
nu
u
Surface 2
d 4.54 mm
f E 68.16 mm
z s d 202.27 mm
s V I z d 98.3 mm
z 102.8 mm
822
824
Surface
C
t
n
823

t/n
y
nu
u
y
nu
u
y
nu
u

t/n
.02
.01
/?/200
10
?//?
1.0
1.5
1.0
.01
/?/200
y
nu
u
y
nu
u
y
nu
u
?//?
63.63
.9333
.01
.01467
0
65.89
.01467
.9667
.01467
.005
.01467
0
98.30
20
.1
.005
6.667
.1
19.33
.1
.1966
.1966
0
z
R1 73.8950
R2 51.7840
R3 162.2252
C1 .0135327
C2 .0193110
C3 .00616427
Surface
C
t
n
n2 1.649
t2 4.0
10.5
4.0
1.0
1.517
1.649
1.0
V F
V F BFD 112.85
n'
u .01667

t/n
y
nu
u
n1 1.517
t1 10.5
.00700
.00255
6.92
2
0
.00400
2.43
1.903
.01400
112.85
1.881
.00914
d BFD f R 7.15
t 80 mm
R2 50 mm
R1
V
n2 1
n3 n 1
WD
BFD
C1 .005
C2 .02
1 .01/ mm
2 .04 / mm
1 n2 n1 C1
fR
Gaussian Reduction:
1 2 12
t
80 mm
1
n2
80
)
1
f E f R 500 mm
n1 n 1
F z
f F 500 mm
Both principal planes are well in
front of the system.
2 (n3 n2 )C2
1
.01 80
400 mm
.002 1
.04 80
d 2
1600 mm
.002 1
d
BFD f R d 100 mm
FFD f F d 2100 mm
WD BFD t 20 mm
826
R1 200 mm
R2
.008333
y1
f R 120.0
.01667
y1 2
f E 120.0
.01667
825
Cemented Doublet
Surface
C
t
n

t/n
.005
.02
/?
80
?/
1.0
1.0
1.0
.01
/?
y
nu
u
y
nu
u
u u2 .002
80
.002 / mm
y1
y1
d BFD f R 400 mm
?/
100
WD BFD t 20 mm
.20
.01
.002
0
2100
.01
.002
4.2
y1 1
f E f R 500 mm
.04
BFD V F 100 mm
FV 2100 mm
1
.002
.04
.002
.04
827
FFD FV 2100 mm
u .002
y2 1
.002 / mm
y2 y2
f F 500 mm
f E 500 mm
d FFD f F 1600 mm
The principal planes of a thin lens are both located in the plane of the lens.
1
f
Power:
Refraction:
u u y
Transfer:
y y ut
n n 1
828
829
830
u u y
u u u y
u
Surface
f

t
y
u
y
u
y
u
u u y
y y t u
831
832
1 .01/ mm
f1 100mm
t 50mm
2 .01333/ mm
f 2 75 mm
1 2 12t
t < f1
.00333/ mm
BFD << f
f1
f f E 300 mm
f2
BFD
f F 300 mm
d
F z
f R 300 mm
1
t 150 mm
BFD f R d 150 mm
d 2 t 200 mm
FFD f F d 500 mm
Surface
f

t
y
u
y
u
100
75
.01
.01333
/?
50
1
u u2 .00333
.01
500
1.667
.01333
f E f R 300 mm
d BFD f R 150 mm
.00333
1
y1 1
u
.00333/ mm
y1
?/
150
.5
.00333
BFD V F 150 mm
1
0
FV 500 mm
FFD FV 500 mm
u .00333
y2 1
u
.00333/ mm
y2
f F 300 mm
f E 300 mm
d FFD f F 200 mm
833
834
Raytrace Comments
In a paraxial raytrace, t is the directed distance from the current surface to the next
surface. As a result, real objects will usually have a positive distance to the first surface,
as opposed to the typical negative Gaussian object distance z.
Surfaces are raytraced in optical order, not physical order. All planes of interest in an
optical space must be analyzed before transferring to a reflective or refractive surface and
entering the next optical space. Within an optical space, transfers move back or forth
along the ray in that space without changing the ray angle. Real and virtual segments of
the space can be accessed.
Surface
C
t
n

t/n
y
nu
u
y
nu
u
y
nu
u
836
Surface
f

t
835
y
u
y
u
y
u
A second lens is now placed between the first lens and its image. The original image no
longer exists, but it now serves as a virtual object for the second lens. A final system
image is formed by the second lens working with the first lens.
z
t1
Once again, determining the ray heights and angles in the system image space is
straightforward. Transfer from the first lens to the second lens and refract.
A common situation is to be given the size and location of the virtual object for a lens or
system without any information about the optical system (lens 1, from above) used to
produce it. Rays must be created corresponding to this intermediate image (the virtual
object). These rays exist in the optical space corresponding to the virtual object, which is
the object space of the optical system.
Once the intermediate space rays are
defined, these rays are transferred by t1
back to the entry vertex of the optical
system. The ray heights and angles are
now known at the first vertex of the
optical system, and they are in the
system object space. These constructed
rays can then be propagated through the
system to the system image space.
Pick two rays, one through the top of the
virtual object, the other through the axial
object point. The angles are arbitrary.
Constructed Rays in
Object Space
y1
u1
Virtual
Object
h0
y1
u1
t1
When transferring back to the front vertex, these rays are not refracted by the optical system.
They are already in object space. The negative thickness t1 transfers to the left along the
rays. Regardless of the physical order, rays are traced in optical order: from object space to
image space. The thicknesses are the directed distances as defined by the sign conventions.
837