8-1

OPTI-502 Optical Design and Instrumentation I
© Copyright 2012 John E. Greivenkamp

8-2

OPTI-502 Optical Design and Instrumentation I
© Copyright 2012 John E. Greivenkamp

Section 8
Paraxial Raytracing

YNU Raytrace
Refraction (or reflection) occurs at an interface between two optical spaces. The transfer
distance t' allows the ray height y' to be determined at any plane within an optical space
(including virtual segments).

t
n

   n  n  C

 

Refraction or Reflection:

nu  nu  y

     y

Transfer:

y  y  u t 

y  y    

  nu

This type of raytrace is called a YNU raytrace. All rays propagate from object space to
image space.
A reverse raytrace allows the ray properties to be determined in the optical space
upstream of a known ray segment. A ray can then be worked back to its origins in object
space.
Refraction or Reflection (reverse):

nu  nu   y

     y

Transfer (reverse):

y  y   ut 

y  y    

System 1 fE Refraction at an optical system effectively occurs at the principal planes of the system. Paraxial Raytrace – Single Surface nu   nu  y y   y  u t  Paraxial refraction occurs at the vertex plane of the surface. . Greivenkamp Paraxial Raytrace Equations . The ray emerges from the rear principal plane at the same height. n n u h y R u t1 t1 = t 2 z z  n  n  y  ut1 R nu   nu  y n n   z z z CC V  y u h y  0  y  u t1 y t2  t1   u m h z  / n t / n nu   2  h z/n t1 / n nu A raytrace spacing is the distance from the current surface to the next surface. Greivenkamp  nu   nu  y      y Paraxial refraction equation: 8-3 OPTI-502 Optical Design and Instrumentation I © Copyright 2012 John E. The surface sag is ignored. Transfer: y  y  u t  y  y      u u y y u P z t P′ The transfer distance t’ allows the ray height y’ to be determined at any plane within an optical space (including virtual segments). The image location is found by solving for a ray height of zero. The raytrace equations can be applied to a single surface or to an entire system (by using the principal planes). but with a different angle.8-4 OPTI-502 Optical Design and Instrumentation I © Copyright 2012 John E.

Greivenkamp 8-5 Paraxial Raytrace – Single Component (in air) y  y  u t1  0 y t2  t1   u y  ut1 u   u  y 1 1   z z m h z  t u   2  h z t1 u These relationships also apply to a thin lens in air. The image location is found by solving for a ray height of zero in image space. Transfer occurs between surfaces. Transfer: y j 1  y j  u j t j Refract: nj uj  n j u j  y j j y j 1  y j   j j u j 1  u j  j   j  y j j Refraction occurs at each surface.u   u  y y   y  u t  The principal planes are the locations of effective refraction. n1 h u1 y1 n1  n2 n2  n3 nk nk u1  u2 u2  u3 uk uk yk y2 yk+1 uk z t1  t 2 t1 1 t2  t 3 2 tk tk k h OPTI-502 Optical Design and Instrumentation I © Copyright 2012 John E. h y u y u z P P t1 t1 = t 2  h z z OPTI-502 Optical Design and Instrumentation I © Copyright 2012 John E. Greivenkamp 8-6 General Raytrace Equations . The amount of ray deviation depends on the surface power and the ray height. The ray height change depends on the ray angle and the spacing between surfaces.

n1 h u1 Transfer: y j 1  y j  u j t j Refract: nj uj  n j u j  y j j n1  n2 n2  n3 nk nk u1  u2 u2  u3 uk uk y1 yk y2 8-7 yk+1 uk z t1  t 2 t1 1 t2  t 3 2 n1u1  n1u1  y11 yk 1  yk  uk tk yk  yk 1  uk 1tk 1 n2 u2  n2u2  y22 n2u2  n1u1 h k y2  y1  u1t1 y1  u1t1 tk tk nk uk  nk uk  ykk n3u3  n2 u2 Image Location and Magnification: tk   yk 1  0 yk uk m h n1u1 1   h nk uk k 3 2 1 u1  u2 h u3 y2 y1 P1 t1 u2  u3 P1 y3 P2 P2 t1  t 2 P3 P3 z t2  t 3 The general raytrace equations hold (in air): y4 u3 t3  t 4 y j 1  y j  u j t j u j  u j  y j j h u j 1  u j Each element or component refracts the ray. Greivenkamp Paraxial Raytrace – Series of Surfaces . Greivenkamp 8-8 Paraxial Raytrace – Series of Components (in air) u1 OPTI-502 Optical Design and Instrumentation I © Copyright 2012 John E. Transfer occurs between the rear principal plane of one component and the front principal plane of the next. Image location and magnification: y4  0 t4  t3   y3 u3 m h u1  h u3 OPTI-502 Optical Design and Instrumentation I © Copyright 2012 John E. and the principal planes are the locations of effective refraction.

286 mm y3  y2  u2 t2 h  y3  14.5 mm u2  u1  0. Greivenkamp 8-10 Raytrace Example (Continued)– Two Separated Thin Lenses in Air u1 OPTI-502 Optical Design and Instrumentation I © Copyright 2012 John E.02 h  ? u3  u2  0.5 mm t2  t3  64.07 h  14.429 h u3 0.02 u2  u2  y22 u2  0.02 mm-1 y1 u2 y2 z t1  t 2  25 mm t1  40 mm y0  h  10. Greivenkamp 8-9 Raytrace Example – Two Separated Thin Lenses in Air . 1 2 u1 h  10 mm u1 u2 u2 y2 y1 u1 1  2  0.07 u1  u1  y11 u1  0.0 mm t2  t 3  ? y2  y1  u1t1 y3  y2  u2 t2  0 y2  4.37 h  ? OPTI-502 Optical Design and Instrumentation I © Copyright 2012 John E.29 mm y2  y1  u1t1 u1  0. A 10 mm high object is 40 mm to the left of the first lens.0 t2  t 3  64.29 mm A second ray can be traced to determine the image size.02 mm-1 u3 z t1  t 2  25 mm t1  40 mm y0  0 u1  0.0 mm u1  u1  y11 u1  0.Two 50 mm focal length lenses are separated by 25 mm.18 u2  u2  y22 u2  0. h  10 mm 1 2 u1 u2 u1 1  2  0.07 h u 0.1 m  1   1.1 (Arbitrary) y1  u1t1  4.286 mm u2  u1  0.1 (Arbitrary) y1  y0  u1t1  14.18 y2  9.

Rear cardinal points: Trace a ray parallel to the axis in object space.2 OPTI-502 Optical Design and Instrumentation I © Copyright 2012 John E. Greivenkamp 8-11 Raytrace Example (Continued)– Two Separated Thin Lenses in Air BFD (transfer to y3 = 0): y3  y2  u2 BFD  0 BFD  16. This ray must go through the rear focal point of the system. The kth surface is the final surface in the system.02 mm-1 2 u2 y1 u2 y2 z F t1  t 2  25 mm t1  40 mm t2  t 3  64.If the arbitrary initial angle of the second ray is chosen to be zero.286 mm h  ? BFD y0  h  10.2 u2  u2  y22 u2  0.0 mm u2  u1  0.29 mm y2  y1  u1t1 u1  0 y2  5. n u1  1  0 n y1  y1 yk P V uk V d F z BFD fR k  1  y1  System: k   y1    k y1  k  nuk nuk y1 BFD  V F    As transfers: yk ny  k uk k yk 1  0  yk  uk BFD fE  1 f R   d   V P  n  y1  yk uk yk 1  y1  yk  uk d  d   BFD  f R OPTI-502 Optical Design and Instrumentation I © Copyright 2012 John E.67 mm The Gaussian properties of an optical system can be determined using a paraxial raytrace with particular rays. the location of the rear focal point of the system can also be determined.0 y3  y2  u2 t2 h  y3  14. Greivenkamp 8-12 Cardinal Points from a Raytrace – Rear Points .0 mm y1  y0  u1t1  10. 1 u1 h  10 mm 1  2  0.3 u1  u1  y11 u1  0.

02 mm-1 2 u1 u2 y1 u2 y2 F z u2  u1  0. n n u1 yk y1 F V FFD  uk  k =0 yk z V P d fF k  1  yk   0  1 yk  nu1 yk FFD  VF   fE  y1 ny  1 1 u1 1  fF   d  VP  n  yk  y1 u1 d  FFD  f F OPTI-502 Optical Design and Instrumentation I © Copyright 2012 John E. The reverse raytrace equations are used to work from image space back to object space.666 mm Trace a ray from the system front focal point that emerges parallel to the axis in image space. 1 1  2  0.333 mm d   BFD  f R  BFD  f  16.03 mm 1 y1 y1 d   V P  BFD   y2  16. Greivenkamp 8-14 Cardinal Points from a Raytrace – Front Points System: OPTI-502 Optical Design and Instrumentation I © Copyright 2012 John E.5 mm BFD nu2 u   2  0.02 u2  u2  y22 u2  0.666 mm u2 or  33.A ray from an axial object at infinity can be used to determine the rear cardinal points.0  1  y2  0.03 y3  y2  u2 BFD  0 P V d t1  t 2  25 mm u1  0   2 y1 f  f R  y2  y1  u1t1 u1  u1  y11 u1  0. Greivenkamp 8-13 Raytrace Example (Continued)– Two Separated Thin Lenses in Air .02 y1  1.666 mm u2 y1  y2  16.

Greivenkamp C1 = 0.16 mm V P P z d t f F  68.8-16 OPTI-502 Optical Design and Instrumentation I © Copyright 2012 John E.5 8-15 OPTI-502 Optical Design and Instrumentation I © Copyright 2012 John E.19mm There are several different spreadsheet forms that can be used to facilitate the raytrace.01467/mm fE = 68.16 mm f R  68.01/mm t = 10 mm n = 1.02/mm C2 = -0.54 mm PP  3. Greivenkamp Example – Thick Lens in Air R1 = 50 mm R2 = -100 mm n2 = n n1 = 1 n3 = 1 C2 C1 From Gaussian optics (for comparison): V = 0.01/mm = 0.005/mm d  = 0.27 mm d' = -4.16 mm d = 2. Raytrace Example – Forward Ray Object Surface C t n - t/n y nu u y nu u Space 1 Surface 1 Space 2 Surface 2 Space 3 Image Surface .

005 6.02 C t n y nu u Surface 1 * .54 mm y1 u fR z OPTI-502 Optical Design and Instrumentation I © Copyright 2012 John E.667 + Image Surface ? 1.0 -.63 + * 1 = 0 0 Solve to obtain y = 0 at F' -. Greivenkamp 8-18 Raytrace Example – From the Trace of the Forward Ray .16 mm BFD  V F   63.01 0. Greivenkamp 8-17 Raytrace Example – Forward Ray 0 y nu u      y y1 arbitrarily chosen to equal 1 .63 mm d   BFD  f R  4.9333 = = -.01467 / mm f E  68.9333  0 y  y     V F   V F   63.16 mm f R  68.01 + * = -.63 mm n3    u  . F' Object Surface Space 1 Space 2 Surface 2 ∞ 1.5 * + 63.01467 OPTI-502 Optical Design and Instrumentation I © Copyright 2012 John E.First.01467 y1  1    y1  .01 Ray parallel to axis Space 3 -0.0 - t/n ∞ 10 1. trace a ray parallel to the axis in object space to determine the rear focal point and rear principal plane.01467 3  .01467 -.

5 -.0 - t/n FV 0 ∞ 1.01 0 Surface 2 -0.02 C t n Space 3 1 Ray parallel to axis 1 c 0 y nu a FV  b u .01467 Space 3 10 1.01467 1  0 1 0 Ray parallel to axis OPTI-502 Optical Design and Instrumentation I © Copyright 2012 John E.Now.9667  .0 = .667 ∞ b a Image Surface -0. F Object Surface Space 1 Surface 1 Space 2 Surface 2 ? 1.005 6.0 - t/n 65.01b  a  c FV  65.01 0.005 6. Greivenkamp 8-20 Raytrace Example – Reverse Ray Object Surface OPTI-502 Optical Design and Instrumentation I © Copyright 2012 John E.89 ∞ 1. Greivenkamp 8-19 Raytrace Example – Front Properties . trace a ray from the front focal point that emerges parallel to the axis in image space to determine the front focal point and front principal plane.667 c  b  1 c  .5 -.005 + -* y  y     ∞ 1 = y nu u      y Image Surface -.9667 Use the reverse raytrace equations.01 y nu u -.01 0.01467 6. F Space 1 Space 2 ? 1.667 -* + .0 10 1.005  c  0 b  .89 a  .9667 .02 C t n y nu u Surface 1 Solve for t1: .01467 .005 .

1966 Image Location -.89 mm OPTI-502 Optical Design and Instrumentation I © Copyright 2012 John E.02 y nu u Surface 2 d   4.3 mm z   102.51 .51 nu  .51 m  .30 mm .27  4.0 10 1.01 0. Greivenkamp 8-22 Raytrace Example – For a Finite Object .FV  FV  65.27 mm s  V I  z   d   98.30 -.51 1 98.16 mm y2 u f F  68.54  3.89 mm n1   u  . Greivenkamp 8-21 Raytrace Example – From the Trace of the Reverse Ray d  FFD  f F  2.1* .9333 -.01 Image Size -.01467 h  .1 Image Surface ? 1.1966 -.19 mm h 1 s  OV  200 OV  200 Object Surface Space 1 C t n 200 1.0 - t/n 200 Surface 1 Space 2 y nu u 1 20 * arbitrary 0 19.33 -.01 0 Space 3 -0.8 mm OPTI-502 Optical Design and Instrumentation I © Copyright 2012 John E.667 .54 mm f E  68.01467 y2  1   y2  .01467 Gaussian check: d  2.5 -.1 1 0* 0 Solve -.01467 / mm f E  68.1966 m nu .16 mm z fF FFD  VF   FV  65.1   .27 mm   .01467 -.51mm s  V I  98.27 mm PP  t  d  d   10.16 mm z  s  d  202.0  2.005 6.

5 1.01467 .0 1.33 -.89 z -. powers and ray heights are associated with optical surfaces.01 ∞/?/200 y nu u 1 y nu u 0 y nu u 0 3 1 ?/∞/? 63.1 Thicknesses.01467 0 65. indices and angles are associated with optical spaces.63 .02 -.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8-24 OPTI-502 Optical Design and Instrumentation I © Copyright 2012 John E.1966 -.005 . -. Greivenkamp YNU Raytrace Form 7 - t/n y nu u y nu u y nu u Raytrace Example – YNU Raytrace Form Surface C t n 0 - t/n 1 2 .01467 0 z 0 98.1966 0 z .667 0 .01 ∞/?/200 10 ?/∞/? 1.01 0 -.01467 1 1 .9333 -.1 Curvatures.9667 .30 20 .1 -. Greivenkamp Surface C t n 8-23 OPTI-502 Optical Design and Instrumentation I © Copyright 2012 John E. 19.005 6.0 -.

019311 -.7840 R3  162.649 1.008333 y1 f R  120.2252 C1  .0 1.00400 2.00914 0 d   BFD  f R  7.04  (.006164 ∞ 10.005 C2  .0193110 C3  .01400  112.0 V F   V F   BFD  112.01  . 2  (n3  n2 )C2 1 .881 -.85 1.92 2 2 0 -.517 t1  10. Greivenkamp 8-26 R1  200 mm R2 t   .00255 6.903 -.00616427 Surface C t n n2  1.01)(.04  80  d   2     1600 mm  .0 0 -.04)(   .R1  73.517 1.0 -.5 4.0 0 1 2 3 4 .04 / mm 1   n2  n1  C1 fR Gaussian Reduction:    1  2  12 t 80 mm  1 n2 80 ) 1 f E  f R  500 mm   .002/ mm n1  n  1 F z f F  500 mm Both principal planes are well in front of the system. Greivenkamp 8-25 Cemented Doublet .85 n'   u   .01667 - t/n y nu u n1  1.013533 -.0135327 C2  .002  1  d   BFD  f R  d   100 mm FFD  f F  d  2100 mm WD  BFD  t  20 mm OPTI-502 Optical Design and Instrumentation I © Copyright 2012 John E.00700 ∞ .15 t  80 mm R2  50 mm R1 V d n2  1 n3  n  1 WD BFD d C1  .43 1.01  80       400 mm  .0 ? 1.5 -.01667 P OPTI-502 Optical Design and Instrumentation I © Copyright 2012 John E.01667 Mirror System – Cassegrain Telescope V y1  2 f E  120.02 1  .01/ mm 2  .002  1   .649 t2  4.8950 R2  51.

002 / mm y1 y1 d   BFD  f R  400 mm ?/∞ 100 WD  BFD  t  20 mm .01 -.0 1.002 4.2 y1  1 f E  f R  500 mm .002 -.01 ∞/? y nu u 1 y nu u 0 3   u   u2  .04 0 OPTI-502 Optical Design and Instrumentation I © Copyright 2012 John E.02 ∞/? -80 ?/∞ 1.002 / mm y2 y2 f F  500 mm f E  500 mm d  FFD  f F  1600 mm The principal planes of a thin lens are both located in the plane of the lens.002 . Greivenkamp 8-27 Mirror System – Cassegrain Telescope – Raytrace FFD   FV  2100 mm   u  .04 0 .04 1 BFD  V F   100 mm 1 FV  2100 mm 1 .0 -.  u u y y u t 1 f Power:  Refraction: u   u  y Transfer: y  y  ut  z n  n  1 OPTI-502 Optical Design and Instrumentation I © Copyright 2012 John E.005 -.002 0 2100 . Greivenkamp 8-28 Paraxial Raytrace – Thin Lens in Air .002  80 u     .01 -.Surface C t n 0 - t/n 1 2 -.0 -1.002  y2  1  u   .20 0 0 -.

Remember that paraxial angles are actually ray slopes. It depends only on the ray height at the lens and the lens power or focal length: u   u  y u  u   u   y u Thin Lens YU Raytrace Surface f - t 0 1 y u y u y u u   u  y y  y  t u  2 3 4 5 6 7 .8-29 OPTI-502 Optical Design and Instrumentation I © Copyright 2012 John E. Greivenkamp 8-30 OPTI-502 Optical Design and Instrumentation I © Copyright 2012 John E. Greivenkamp Ray Deviation – Thin Lens in Air The paraxial ray deviation introduced by a thin lens is independent of the object-image conjugates.

01 .01 500 1.00333  y2  1 u  .01333/ mm f 2  75 mm   1  2  12t t < f1   .00333/ mm y1 ?/∞ 150 .8-31 OPTI-502 Optical Design and Instrumentation I © Copyright 2012 John E.00333 1 y1  1 u     . Greivenkamp 8-32 OPTI-502 Optical Design and Instrumentation I © Copyright 2012 John E.Raytrace Surface f - t 0 y u 1 y u 0 1 2 100 -75 -.5 0 .01333 0 f E  f R  300 mm d   BFD  f R  150 mm -.01/ mm f1  100mm t  50mm 2  .01333 ∞/? 50 1 u   u2  .00333/ mm y2 f F  300 mm f E  300 mm d  FFD  f F  200 mm .667 -. Greivenkamp Thin Lens Telephoto Lens 1  .00333 BFD  V F   150 mm 1 0 FV  500 mm FFD   FV  500 mm u  .00333/ mm BFD << f f1 f  f E  300 mm f2 BFD f F  300 mm d   F z P f R  300 mm f 1 t  150 mm  BFD  f R  d   150 mm  d  2 t  200 mm  FFD  f F  d  500 mm Thin Lens Telephoto Lens .00333 -.

t is the directed distance from the current surface to the next surface. Real and virtual segments of the space can be accessed. not physical order.8-33 OPTI-502 Optical Design and Instrumentation I © Copyright 2012 John E. transfers move back or forth along the ray in that space without changing the ray angle. YNU Raytrace Form Surface C t n - t/n y nu u y nu u y nu u 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 . real objects will usually have a positive distance to the first surface. Surfaces are raytraced in optical order. As a result. Greivenkamp 8-34 OPTI-502 Optical Design and Instrumentation I © Copyright 2012 John E. Greivenkamp Raytrace Comments In a paraxial raytrace. All planes of interest in an optical space must be analyzed before transferring to a reflective or refractive surface and entering the next optical space. as opposed to the typical negative Gaussian object distance z. Within an optical space.

Greivenkamp Thin Lens YU Raytrace Form 7 y u y u y u Virtual Objects and Raytraces Consider an optical system or projector forming a real image. z A second lens is now placed between the first lens and its image. Transfer from the first lens to the second lens and refract. The original image no longer exists. determining the ray heights and angles in the system image space is straightforward. The ray heights and angles at the image are easy to determine. z t1 Once again. A final system image is formed by the second lens working with the first lens.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8-36 OPTI-502 Optical Design and Instrumentation I © Copyright 2012 John E. but it now serves as a virtual object for the second lens. Greivenkamp Surface f - t 8-35 OPTI-502 Optical Design and Instrumentation I © Copyright 2012 John E. .

Pick two rays. which is the object space of the optical system. Rays must be created corresponding to this intermediate image (the virtual object). Once the intermediate space rays are defined. Constructed Rays in Object Space y1 u1 Virtual Object h0 y1 u1 z t1 When transferring back to the front vertex. one through the top of the virtual object. The negative thickness t1 transfers to the left along the rays. The thicknesses are the directed distances as defined by the sign conventions. rays are traced in optical order: from object space to image space. Regardless of the physical order.A common situation is to be given the size and location of the virtual object for a lens or system without any information about the optical system (lens 1. The ray heights and angles are now known at the first vertex of the optical system. They are already in object space. these rays are transferred by t1 back to the entry vertex of the optical system. OPTI-502 Optical Design and Instrumentation I © Copyright 2012 John E. and they are in the system object space. from above) used to produce it. These rays exist in the optical space corresponding to the virtual object. These constructed rays can then be propagated through the system to the system image space. these rays are not refracted by the optical system. Greivenkamp 8-37 Virtual Objects and Raytraces . The angles are arbitrary. the other through the axial object point.