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P`

ESP syllabus for waiters

Presented to:

Madam farheen
Subject Name:

ESP/business writing
Submitted by:

Usman Rasheed
Roll # 12133
M.A ELT 3rd semester

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English for specific purposes

English for waiters

Content
1. Introduction
1.1.The ABC
1.2.Reading rules
1.3 Speaking activity
2. At work: place and time
2.1. Describing work place: Present Simple Tense, there is/ are, prepositions
2.2. Indicating Time: prepositions, ordinal and cardinal numerals
3. Kitchenware. Crockery and cutlery
3.1. Kitchenware
3.2. Crockery and cutlery
4. Food
4.1. Vocabulary. Names of food
4.2. Indicating likes and dislikes
5. Drinks
5.1. Vocabulary. Names of drinks
5.2. Indicating likes and dislikes
5.3. Do you like and would you like
6. Breakfast. Second breakfast. Elevens. Brunch
6.1. Meals of the day
6.2. Continental Breakfast and English Breakfast
6.3. Past Simple Tense
7. Lunch and Tiffin
7.1. Lunch
7.2. Tiffin
7.3. Future Simple Tense
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8. Tea. Dinner. Supper
8.1. Tea
8.2. Dinner
8.3. Supper
9. Healthy food. Dietary and vegetarian food
9.1. Healthy food
9.2. Dietary food.
10. National food and cuisine
10.1. National food and cuisine
10.2. Present Continuous Tense
10.3. Past Continuous Tense
11. Methods of cooking/ preparing food
11.1. Methods of cooking and preparing food
11.2. Present perfect Tense
12. Serving the client
13. Orders on the phone

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Introduction of the course

The core purpose of this course is to give hotel employees a good commend on English language, which is
also main objective of ESP for different professionals. This course deals with in the four language sub skills
and provide a great opportunity to grasp the language for the improvement.
This is a six month course, and four classes in a week and each lecture is consist of one hour including
practice session.

The most important thing about this course, that needs to be highlighted is, importance is given to each subskills on the base of its need for the profession. According to need analysis form, this has been found, that
most important is speaking skill and 45% importance is given to it on the other hand second ranked skill is
listening and it’s on 20 %.Second last is writing skill round about 20 %.

Last but not least 15% preferences are given to reading. This comprehensive course is geared towards
training of waiters, head waiters and chefs etc... The scope of this course is limited to the use of ESP and
technical jargons in restaurant industry.

Like all other ESP fields this course have different methodology according to the need of learners, all the
example, practice material and term which are used in the syllabus are related to hotel industry.

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Need Analysis Feedback

Language sub-skills
Speaking

Listening

Reading

Writing

20%

45%
15%

20%

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Lesson 1

Introduction of English phonetics
1.1. The ABC

There are 26 letters in the English Alphabet.
Remember that this type of pronunciation is valid for sole letters in the ABC only. Letters will
be pronounced in a different way when standing in syllables.
Pronounce the ABC letters.

Aa

Bb

[ei]

[bi:] [si:]

Nn

Oo

[en] [əu]
Xx

Yy

Cc

Dd

Ee

[di:]

[i:] [ef] [d3i:] [eit∫ ] [ai] [d3ei] [kei] [el] [em]

Pp Qq Rr
[pi:]

Ff Gg

Hh

Ii Jj

Kk

Ll Mm

Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww

[kju:] [a:(r)] [es] [ti:] [ju:]

[vi:] [d٨blju:]

Zz

[eks] [wai] [zed]

1.2. Reading rules
Pronunciation of vowels mostly depends on the kind of the syllable they appear in – an open syllable ends
with a vowel while a closed one – with a consonant (e.g. “name” – open; “stop” – closed). Vowels standing
in an open syllable are usually pronounced in the same way as in the ABC and they are shortened in closed
syllables.

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Vowel

Open syllable

Closed syllable

Aa

ei

٨, ə, e:, o:

Ee

i:

e

Ii

ai

i

Oo

au

o

Uu

ju:

u, ٨

Yy

wai

i

(not pronounced if the word ends with “e”)

PRACTICE 1. Pronounce the following words correctly:

Make, cake, cut, salad, fat, no, my, five, bit, ten, pot, dot, nut, put, fall, lady.

Different sound structures:
Combinations vowel + vowel , vowel + consonant , consonant + vowel, consonant + consonant etc. make

ar [a:(r)] – bar, far
ck [k] – bucket, luck
ur/ ear [з:] – blur, turn,
burn ea [i:] – tea, sea
Our [o:] – pour, four ou [u] –
could
ue, oo [u:] – blue, food ow,
ou [əu] – now, out er, air
[eə] – where, air ear, er [ie]
– dear, here oy, oi [oi] –
boy, join ur, our [uə] – pure,
tour
y at the beginning [j] – yes
ng[η] – sing,bring
gh is usually silent
light, bright
ch [t∫] – catch, match th
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[θ] – think, both
th [ ] – that

PRACTICE 2. Pronounce the given words and transcribe them.

Blanch

Boil

Braise

Minced

Chill

Poach

Chop

Roast

Deep-fry

Sear

Dice

Simmer

Dry-fry

Stock

Grill

Steam

Stew

Stir-fry

Sweat

Marinade

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Activity : One Question Survey

Duration: 10–20 min

Aim:

Summary: Each student receives a different question, and conducts a survey of their classmates.

Speaking and listening practice

Procedure

This activity can be introduced with a demonstration. Explain that each person will receive a different
question. Then choose one question and ask it to 3 or 4 students, writing their names and answers on the
blackboard. Afterwards, calculate your statistics and present a report to the class: "I surveyed 3 people on
the topic of spicy food and I found that 67% enjoy spicy food while the remaining 33% do not."
Explain that the students should try to interview as many classmates as possible, until you tell them to stop.
Make it clear that they should write the names and answers on a piece of paper.
Distribute one question to each student. After they have spoken to people nearby, encourage them to leave
their seats and find more people to interview.
After 10–15 minutes, ask students to return to their seats and calculate their results. Then get them to form
groups (of about four students) and report their results.
Finally, select some students to report to the class. Since everybody has a different question, this can
continue for quite a long time if you wish it to. Also, you can encourage class discussion on the more
interesting questions and results.

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Questions
What do you usually eat for breakfast?
What’s your favourite food?

What’s your favourite hot drink?

Have you ever eaten snake?

What’s your favourite snack food?

Do you like milk?

Do you often eat between meals?

What foods do you hate?

What’s your favourite Western food?

Do you like sweet food?

What’s your favourite alcoholic drink?

Do you like spicy food?

In your family, who usually cooks?

Have you eaten dog?

Do you eat quickly or slowly?

What’s your favourite fruit?

Have you used a knife and fork?

Have you ever been on a diet?

What’s your favourite cold drink?

Have you or your family ever

Have you ever killed an animal and eaten it?

cooked outside?
What food do you eat when you’re

How many liang of rice do you usually order?

sick?
Do you often chew chewing gum?

What food do you eat when you’re unhappy?

In your opinion, what food is the

Do you eat fried rice with chopsticks or a

least healthy?

spoon?

What’s your favourite restaurant in

In your opinion, what food is the healthiest?

this town?
Which countries’ foods have you

In your opinion, which part of China has the

eaten?

best food?

What’s your favourite kind of

When you cook instant noodles , do you add

porridge ?

anything extra?

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AT WORK: PLACE AND TIME
Describing work place: Present Simple Tense, there is/ are, prepositions.

Singular

Plural

I

am, have, do, like, go, can

We

are, have, do, like, go, can

You

are, have, do, like, go, can

You

are, have, do, like, go, can

They

are, have, do, like, go, can

He, she, it is, has, does, likes, goes, can

We use the Present Simple to talk about things in general. We are not thinking only about now. We
use it to say that something happens all the time or repeatedly (sometimes, often, usually, rarely, and
seldom), or that something is true in general. Remember that we say: he/she/it -s.
I work... but He works...

They like... but my sister likes...

Auxiliar
Sent. Question y
type

word

Auxiliar
Subject

Verb/ to

y

Objec
Verb

t

Verb

Adverbial Modifier
Manner

Place

Time

Positive

be
I

love

You

make

We

bring

They

___

He, she, it

write
taste

My
brother

smell

Her friend

am

The cake

are, is

I

do not

love

me

nicely

at work

in the morning

beautiful
You

(don’t)

make

you

ly

in the kitchen in the evening
in

We

bring

him

tasty

at home

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afternoon

the

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at
They

write

Negative

He, she, it does not taste
My

(doesn’t

brother

)

smell

her

loudly

restaurant

them

precisely at school

at night

us

happily in prison

in summer

am not my

greatly

in the café

in winter

The cake

are, is

bitterly

on the table

at 8 o’clock

not
When

dog

letter

love
do

Where

does

make
I

bring

How

you

write

What

we

(kas,ką?)

they

Whom

he, she, it

(ką?)

my brother

____

taste
smell

Who

Question

(ką?)

during the day

Her friend

a

Why

the

am

her friend

are

the cake

is

____
_

PRACTICE 1. Insert given words into the gaps: bake, cook, like (2).
1. My mum __________ cakes every Saturday.

2. I often __________ soup because I like it.

3. My friend ______ ______ fish.

4. _____ you _________ fish?
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PRACTICE 2. Tell your friends and ask questions what they can see in the kitchen. Use such words as
cupboards(s), washing machine, a fridge (a refrigerator), a cooker, a dishwasher, a radio, plates, cups,
sink, a table, a chair, glasses. Do not forget prepositions near, on, next to, in front of, behind, in, under.

Describe what is there in your kitchen. Is it different from the one in the picture?

PRACTICE 3. Fill-in the gaps using a, some, any.
It’s ___ modern kitchen, nice and clean with a lot of cupboards. There’s __ washing machine, __ fridge,
and ___ cooker, but there isn’t __ dishwasher. There are _______ lovely pictures on the walls, but there
aren’t _____ photographs. There’s ___ radio next to the cooker. There are _____ flowers, but there aren’t
_____ plants. On the table there are ______ apples and oranges. And there are _______ cups and plates next
to the sink.

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Lesson 2

Tell the time using the questions and answers in the table below:

What’s the time?
What time is it?

It is (it’s) ……

Could you please tell me the time?
Do you have the time?

1.______________ 2.____________ 3._____________ 4.______________

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PRACTICE.

1. eight minutes to ten in the evening

2. forty-five minutes after midnight
_____________________________

9:52 p.m.

3. seventeen after seven in the morning

4. fifteen after two in the afternoon

_____________________________

_____________________________

twenty-four minutes after seven in the
5. morning

6. forty-seven minutes after noon

_____________________________

_____________________________
8.

7. eight-fifty in the morning
_____________________________
9. twenty minutes after ten at night
_____________________________
11. nine minutes to noon
_____________________________
13. twenty-five minutes after midnight
_____________________________

five minutes after three in the

afternoon
_____________________________
10. nine-fifteen in the evening
_____________________________
12. seven minutes to midnight
_____________________________
14. sixteen after two in the afternoon
_____________________________

15. one minutes after one in the afternoon 16. nine minutes to nine at night
_____________________________
17. seventeen minutes after noon
_____________________________
19. ten-twenty-five in the morning
_____________________________

_____________________________
18. eight minutes after six in the morning
_____________________________
20. eleven after six in the morning
_____________________________

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ACTIVITY . Read the following dialogue in pairs:
A. Good morning! Can I help you?
B. Good morning! I would like to ask what do you serve here. I cannot see any kind of tea on the menu!
A. It’s a coffee bar Madam. Would you like a cup of coffee?
B. Let me see. Well. Can I have a cup of espresso coffee?
A. Just a minute. Here you are! Anything else?
B. No, thank you. Are you open every day?
A. Yes. We work from 10 a.m. till 8 p.m. every day except weekends. At weekends we start at 11
a.m. and finish work at 10 p.m.
B. I see. And do you work on holidays? At Christmas for example? My friend is going to visit me
at Christmas and I would like to bring him to this place. I like it here very much! It’s cozy.
A. Thank you! I am glad you like this place! Yes, we work on holidays but we are open and close at
the same time as at weekends. That is from 11 a.m. to 10 p.m.
B. Well, great! I will invite my friend here!
A. Fine! Do you like your coffee, Madam?
B. It’s strong and tasty. I like it. Thank you! How much is it?
A. Its 4, 50 Lt.
B. Here you are!
A. Thank you. Have a nice day!
B. You too. Bye!
A. Good-bye! We hope to see you next time!

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ACTIVITY. Now look at the important vocabulary and its usage and make your own dialogues

words

Dialogue

KITCHENWARE. CROCKERY AND CUTLERY

Can Opener

Toaster

Countertop
Popcorn Poppers/Maker

Burner

Range

Toaster Oven

Sandwich Maker

Water Purification

Ice Cream Maker

&

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Corkscrews

Tongs

Mixer

Spatula

Kitchenware

Coffee & Hot Chocolate Blenders
Maker

&

Smoothie

Maker

Juicer

Jar opener

PRACTICE 1. Ask your friend questions:

1. about kitchenware that is commonly found in every kitchen;

2. about kitchenware he/ she can name/see in his/ her kitchen/ at his/ her workplace;

3. about kitchen equipment he/ she has at home;

4. whether the above-mentioned kitchen items are familiar to him/ her;

5. whether there are any new ones;

6. about items he/ she uses every day; the most commonly; very rarely; never.
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Crockery and cutlery

Plates

Platter

Salt-cellar,

Bowls

Salt and pepper shaker

pepper-

caster

Sugar basin

Butter dish

Teapot

Cup

Mug

Beer mug

Glass

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Table
Margarita glasses

Pitcher

spoon

spoon,

tea
Fork and knife

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PRACTICE 2. Compose word- groups from the words given in column A and B:

A.

B.

Salt and pepper

pot

Margarita

basin

Tea

shaker

Table

dish

Beer

caster

Sugar

glasses

Salt

cellar

Pepper

mug

Butter

spoon

PRACTICE 3. Insert missing letters and write the names of kitchen equipment. Remember them.

1. C _ n

O____r

2. W _ _ _ _ e M _ _ _ r
3. W _ _ _ r P _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ n
4. C _ _ _ _ e & H _ t C _ _ _ _ _ _ _ e M _ _ _ r
5. S _ _ _ _ _ _ h M _ _ _ r

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PRACTICE 4. Put the words into the right order to make sentences.

1. usually/ soup/ for/ dinner/ I / cook
2. the/ table/ some/ are/ apples/ there/ on
3. is/ in/ the/ kitchen / a /cooker/ there
4. oranges/ are/ not/ on /there/ the/ plate/ any
5. you/ cook/ are/ a
6. I/yes/ am
7. I /not/ no/ am
8. a / dishwasher/ there/is / kitchen/ in/ the/ restaurant
9. Is/ there/ in/ your/ kitchen/a/ dishwasher
10. are/ plates/ some /the/ sink/ near/ there
11. are/ not/ cups/ there/ any /next/ to/ the/ plates
12. what/ does/ time/the/ open/ café
6. you/ could /the/ time/ tell/ me
7. now/ time/ the/ is /what
8. open/ is/ café/every/ the/ day
9. it/ at / does/ work/ weekends
10. are/ mugs/ a lot of/ cups/ and/ in/ the/ there/ cupboard.
11. there/ on/ the/ cooker/ and/ a pot/ a frying/ pan/ is

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Lesson 3

PRACTICE 6. Complete sentences using is/ are and making plural forms of the words in brackets:

NOTE! In the English language there are nouns having irregular plural forms. They are such as: childchildren; foot-feet; tooth-teeth, mouse-mice; fish-fish; sheep-sheep; person-people etc.
FOOD
Vocabulary. Names of food

Meat

Poultry

Fish

Seafood

Dairy products

Confectionery

butter

chocolate

prawn/shri
Beef

chicken

cod

mp

bar
Veal

chicken broth

plaice

crab

cheese

chocolate
sandwic

Lamb

duck

herring

lobster

cheese

mutton

egg

sardine

crayfish

cheeseburger

jam

Pork

egg in its shell

trout

oyster

cream

honey

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h

ice-cream

of

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bacon
(fat/lean)

sour
hard / soft - boiled egg

salmon

caviar(e)

cream

marmalade

curds/cottage
Liver

scrambled egg (s)

carp

cheese

sweet

kidney

bacon and eggs

eel

yoghurt

biscuit

tongue

to shell an egg

pike

milk

cake

stuffed fish

skimmed milk

doughnut

white /yolk [jouk] of an
Ham

egg

whole
hamburger

goose (plgeese)

sausage (s)

omlet (te)

beefsteak;

pheasant

Chop

turkey (s)

tinned fish

milk

pie

sour milk

cornflakes
tart

Cutlet
Vegetables

Fruit

Berries

Nuts

Herbs and spices

Cereals

Aborigine

apple

cranberry

almond

parsley

corn

Tomato

apricot

currant

peanut

thyme

wheat

Cabbage

banana

black / red /

walnut

dill

rice

cauliflower

lemon

white currant; hazelnut

mint

buckwheat

cinnamo
Spinach

orange

gooseberry

n

cereal

cucumber

melon

grapes

ginger

grain

Carrot

peach

raisin

nutmeg

Garlic

pear

raspberry

pepper

Onion

pineapple

strawberry

mustard

Lettuce

plum

bilberry

vinegar

wild
Radish

cherry

Potatoes

pomegranate

Pulses

tangerine

Beans

grapefruit

Peas

watermelon

strawberry

horse radish
basil

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NOTE! A Noun can be countable or uncountable. Compare:

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PRACTICE 1. Tell your likes and dislikes. Complete the table below:

Type of food

My favorite … is

I like …

I don’t like …

Meat and poultry

Fish and seafood

Dairy products

Confectionary
Berries and nuts

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I hate …

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PRACTICE 2. Make a dialogue with your friend- ask about his/ her likes and dislikes. Get information
why your friend likes these things. Complete the table below:

Type of food

My friend’s

He/ she likes …

He/ she doesn’t

He/ she hates …

favourite … is …

because …

like … because …

because …

because …
Meat and poultry

Fish and seafood

Dairy products

Confectionary

Fruit and
vegetables
Berries and nuts

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PRACTICE 3. Group the words below under the following headings:

Cereals

Dairy products

Fish

Fruit

Herbs

Meat

Vegetables

Aubergine, bacon, barley, basil, beans, blackberry, chicken, cream, dill, flour, gooseberry, grape,
herring, yoghurt, lamb, maize, mint, mustard, mutton, onions, parsley, pear, peas, plaice, rabbit, rice, rye,
salmon, sausage, thyme, trout, veal

PRACTICE 4.

a) Find the pairs of antonyms.

1 ripe
8 stale

2 sweet

3 raw

9 fattening 10 sour

4 fresh
11 mild

5 slimming
12 cooked

6 spicy

7 tender

13 unripe

14 tough

b) Complete the sentences using some of the adjectives given above.

1. I can not eat this cake - it's too.....and I'm on a diet.

2. The curry burns my mouth, it is so......

3. Could you pass me the sugar, please, I'll put some in this lemon juice, it's too......

4. This steak is so ...... I can't even chew it!

5. I can't cut this bread, it's so......

6. These apples are green and not very....., I suppose.

7. This fish is almost....., you have to cook it for fifteen minutes more,

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PRACTICE 5. Replace the underlined words in the sentences with the words tasty, overcooked/ overdone,
undercooked/ underdone, salty, greasy, tasteless, done to a turn, sour, season, there-course meal. Make
changes if necessary.

1. My dish seems to have no flavour at all!

2. Oh, this meat was absolutely perfectly cooked !

3. This fruit is unripe! I can't eat it!

4. You know, my chips have too much oil on them!

5. I think this cake has a very good taste.

6. There's a lot of salt in this salad! I don't like it!

7. This dish has obviously been cooked too long.

8. Have you added herbs, spices, salt and pepper? The stew seems tasteless.

9. This chicken has been cooked not long enough.

10. I'm not very hungry so I don't think I could manage a meal consisting ofthree courses.

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DRINKS
Vocabulary. Names of drinks

Beverages
Drinks
Still

(alcohol)

Hot drinks

Fizzy

juice

sparkling mineral water

Beer

coffee (black, with milk )

still mineral water

soda water

cider

to make coffee

milk-shake

Coca-Cola (coke)

wine

to grind coffee

lemonade

cocktail

tea

champagne

hot chocolate

whisky

cocoa

vodka
tequila

We usually say:

A cup of

tea, coffee, cocoa, hot chocolate

A glass of

juice, mineral water, soda water, coke, lemonade, beer, wine, whisky, champagne

A mug of

tea, beer

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5.2. Indicating likes and dislikes

You can use the following expressions to indicate your likes and dislikes:

My favorite drink is orange juice.
I (really) like coffee but I don’t like tea.
I don’t like tea very much.
I don’t like vodka.
I don’t like beer at all!

I hate milk.

What is your favorite drink?
Do you like beer?

Yes, I do, but I prefer apple juice to beer.
Don’t you like milk?

Do you really hate vodka?

What cocktails do you like?

Why do you like champagne?

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PRACTICE 1. Move around the classroom and ask about your friends’ favorite drinks. Complete
the table below:

Favourite drink?

Student’s 1

Student’s 2

Student’s 3

Why?

5.3. Do you like and would you like:

Would is the same in all persons. We use would like in offers and requests:

I would like a drink.

My friend would like a cup of tea and a sandwich.

Would you like anything to eat?

Yes, please. I’d like some fish. I am hungry.

Would you like anything to drink?

No, thank you. I am not thirsty.

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Student’s 4

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PRACTICE 2. Look at the pictures and make similar conversations in pairs.

A I'm thirsty.

B Would you like some tea?
A No, thanks.
B Would you like some apple juice? A
Oh, yes, please!

A I'm hungry. Is there anything to eat?

B Would you like a biscuit?
A No, thanks. I'd like a sandwich.
B Cheese? Ham?
A Cheese and ham, please!

PRACTICE 3. Choose the correct sentence.
1) A Do you like a drink?/ Would you like a drink?

B Yes, please. Some Coke, please.

2) A Can I help you?

B Yes. I like a packet of cigarettes./ Yes. I'd like a packet of cigarettes, please.

3) A What sports do you do?

B Well, I'd like swimming very much./ Well, I like swimming very much.

4)

A

Are you ready to order your meal, sir?

B Yes. I’d like a steak, please./ Yes. I like a steak.

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Lesson 4

6. BREAKFAST

6.1. Meals of the day

breakfast; lunch; dinner; supper; snack / bite;

to have a snack

meal: the food taken at one time She eats three meals a day.

dish: food prepared for the table

course: a division or part of a meal What's the main course ? There are five meat and three fish dishes.
dessert

starter refreshments substantial meal
breakfast
lunch
dinner

NOTE! We say:

supper
To have

a meal
a snack
a bite
a drink

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6.2. Continental Breakfast and English Breakfast

As a general trend, traditional breakfasts are less substantial and less elaborate in the warmer,
more southern countries bordering the Mediterranean, while breakfasts are traditionally larger, with a
greater variety of dishes and greater prevalence of hot dishes in the cooler northern- and centralEuropean countries.
An institutional meal plan based on lighter Mediterranean breakfast traditions and served in
hotels world-wide is known as a European "Continental breakfast". It is a light snack meant to tide
one over until lunch. It consists mainly of coffee and milk (often mixed as Cappuccino or latte) with a
variety of sweet cakes such as brioche and pastries such as croissant, often with a sweet jam, cream, or
chocolate filling. It is often served with juice.

The typical German breakfast consists of bread rolls or toast with butter, honey, jam, ham or
sausage, a soft-boiled egg, and coffee. However, cereals have become popular, and regional variation is
significant.

A typical breakfast in Denmark, similar to its southern neighbor Germany, consists of bread
rolls or toast with butter and Danish slicing cheese, a buttery creamy white cheese, fruit jam, and a lot
of coffee. A bigger and fancier spread might also include cold cuts (cold, thin-sliced ham, salami), softboiled eggs, muesli and sweet rolls of all types.
A traditional Dutch breakfast consists of a combination of poached eggs, bacon, sausage,
breakfast cake, and cold sliced meat such as smoked horse or smoked beef.
In Eastern European countries with cold climates, such as Russia, breakfasts tend to be
substantial. Zavtrak may consist of hot oatmeal, eggs, cheese, cured meats or sausage, rye breads with
butter, and coffee or tea. Yoghurt or, especially in central and eastern Europe, kefir may be consumed.
In some Balkan countries such as Serbia, savory pastries are consumed with yogurt.

In France a typical domestic breakfast will consist of bowls (rather than cups or mugs) of
coffee, often café au lait, or hot chocolate with slices of baguette spread with jam - to be dunked.
Croissants are also traditional.
In Northern Greece a pastry is eaten with Greek coffee.

In Italy breakfast is simply Caffè e latte with bread or rolls, butter, and jam. It is very common
for Italians to have a quick breakfast snack during the morning (typically a bread roll).
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A distinctive breakfast of Europe is the Spanish early-morning fare of a doughnut covered in
sugar, and very thick, sweet hot chocolate drink.
A full “English breakfast”, or traditional fry-up, is a traditional breakfast meal in England.
While weekday breakfasts in England often consist of a brief meal of cereal and/or toast, the fry-up is
commonly eaten in a leisurely fashion on Saturday or Sunday mornings. Whether the fry-up is
accompanied by orange juice and usually an abundant supply of tea or coffee, or only bacon, eggs, and
toast, it is regarded as a ritual comfort and a wholly satisfying start to a day of work or leisure.
The ingredients of a fry-up vary according to region and taste. At its heart, the meal it consists
of bacon and eggs, but to earn the title of a "Full English" a number of other ingredients are expected.
The bacon and eggs are traditionally fried, but grilled bacon and poached or scrambled eggs may be
offered as alternatives. Some of the additional ingredients that might be offered as part of a Full
English breakfast include:
toast, fried bread, or bread and butter

sausages

fried, grilled or tinned tomatoes

mushrooms

black pudding

baked beans

kidneys

possibly sauté potatoes, chips, hash browns or bubble and squeak

condiments such as ketchup and brown sauce

Fry-ups are no longer an everyday occurrence in most English households, but they are offered to
tourists as traditional fare in hotels, guest houses and cafés, and occupy an important place in the
English concept of the morning meal. In British hotels and bed and breakfast establishments, a Full
English breakfast might include additional courses such as cereal, porridge, kippers, toast and jam or
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marmalade, kedgeree, or devilled kidneys. Fruit juice and dry cereal were added to the English
breakfast after 1950. The term "Full English" is used to differentiate between the larger multiple course
breakfast, and the simpler "continental breakfast" of tea, coffee and fruit juice, with croissants or
pastries. Coffee at breakfast is a Continental tradition introduced through hotel fare.

Common beverages at breakfast worldwide include fruit juices (orange juice, apple juice, grapefruit
juice, etc.), milk, tea, and coffee. Cultures around the world commonly shun or restrict alcoholic
beverages at breakfast.

PRACTICE 1. Answer the following questions:

1) What specific features of Continental breakfast can you name?
2) What were the reasons for Continental breakfast being “lighter” than English
breakfast?

3) What specific features of English breakfast can you name?

4) What were the reasons for English breakfast to become more substantial than
Continental?

5) Is the full English breakfast served in English families daily? Why?

6) Would you prefer English breakfast to Continental one? Why?

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PRACTICE 2. Compare Continental and English breakfast meals filling-in the table
below. Discuss your answers with your friend.

Meal

Continental breakfast

English breakfast

My breakfast

Yoghurt
Toast and jam
Latte
Bacon and eggs
Poached eggs
Croissant
Savory pastries
Breakfast cereal
Smoked beef
Fruit juice
Kidneys
Fry-ups

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6.3. Past Simple Tense

We use the Past Simple Tense to indicate past time events. We know the time of the event.
E.g. yesterday, last month/ year/ summer…, in 1980, on holidays, at Christmas etc.

Study this example:
My grandfather’s neighbor was a famous cook. He lived from 1922 to 1992. He opened his
first restaurant at the age of seventeen. He had five famous Italian restaurants when he was forty.
Lived/opened/had/was are all Past Simple.

Very often the Past Simple ends in -ed (regular verbs): We invited them to our party but
they decided not to come. But many verbs are irregular when the Past Simple verb does not end in
-ed.

For example:
have – had - He had five famous Italian
restaurants. see - saw - We saw Rose in town a
few days ago.
go – went - I went to the cinema three times last
week. shut – shut - It was cold, so I shut the window.

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For a list of irregular verbs, see the table below:

Infinitive

Past

Participle

be

was, were

been

become

became

become

begin

began

begun

bite

bit

bitten

break

broke

broken

bring

brought

brought

burn

burnt

burnt

buy

bought

bought

catch

caught

caught

choose

chose

chosen

come

came

come

cost

cost

cost

cut

cut

cut

do

did

done

drink

drank

drunk

eat

ate

eaten

fall

fell

fallen

feed

fed

fed

feel

felt

felt

find

found

found

freeze

froze

frozen

get

got

got

give

gave

given

go

went

gone

grind

ground

ground

have

had

had

lend

lent

lent

lose

lost

lost

make

made

made

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put

put

put

shake

shook

shaken

smell

smelt

smelt

speak

spoke

spoken

spend

spent

spent

spill

spilt/ spilled

spilt/ spilled

take

took

taken

tell

told

told

Thin

thought

thought

throw

threw

thrown

In questions and negatives we use did/didn't + infinitive (enjoy/see/go etc.):

A.: Did you go out last night?

B: Yes, I went to the cinema but I didn't enjoy the film much.

The past of be (am/is/are) is was/were.

NOTE! We do not use did in negatives and questions with was/were:
• I was angry because they were late.
• Was the weather good when you were on holiday?
• They weren't able to come because they were so busy.
• Did you go out last night or were you too tired?

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Study the table:

Auxiliar
Sent. Question y
type

word

Auxiliar
Subject

Verb/ to

Objec

y

Verb,

Verb

II f.

t

Adverbial Modifier
Manner

Place

Time

be
I

loved

You

made
brough

Positive

We
They

t
___

He, she, it

wrote
tasted
smelle

My brother

d

Her friend

was

The cake

were

I

love

me

nicely

at work

in the morning

beautifull
You

make

you

y

in the kitchen in the evening
in

We

did not

bring

him

tasty

at home
at

Negative

They

(didn’t)

afternoon
the

write

her

loudly

He, she, it

taste

them

precisely at school

at night

My brother

smell

us

happily

in prison

in summer

restaurant

during the day

my

greatly

in the café

in winter

dog

bitterly

on the table

at 8 o’clock

was
Her friend

not
were

The cake

not

a letter
When
Why

love
did

make

Where

I

bring

How

you

write

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What

we

(kas,ką?)

they

Whom

he, she, it

(ką?)

was

my brother

were

her friend

____

taste
smell

Question

Who
(ką?)

the cake

_____

PRACTICE 3. Make dialogues using the examples below:

What do you usually have for breakfast?

What is your favourite breakfast dish?

What did you have for breakfast yesterday?

What do you have for breakfast at weekends?

What did you have for breakfast on Sunday?

Do you like cooking breakfast?

And what about you?

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PRACTICE 4. In groups read the texts A-C and summarize the information given. Be ready to present your
group’s text to your friends.

A. Second breakfast

Second breakfast is a meal eaten after breakfast, but before lunch. It is traditional in Germany, more
specifically Bavaria, where special dishes are made only to be eaten during second breakfast. It is typical to

eat four to five meals a day in these locations. The second breakfast is typically a lighter meal or snack eaten
around 10:30 in the morning. It consists of coffee, pastries, or some sausages. The sausage is prepared during
the early morning to serve during the second breakfast. It is served with brazen, sweet mustard, and wheat
beer.

B. Elevenses
In the United Kingdom and Commonwealth, elevenses is a snack that is similar to afternoon tea, but eaten in
the morning. It is generally less savoury than brunch, and might consist of some cake or biscuits with a cup of
tea or coffee. In Australia, it is called morning tea (often little lunch in primary school). The name refers to the
time of day that it is taken: around 11 am. The word "elevenses" is seen as a little old fashioned, and few
people still refer to morning tea as such.
C. Brunch
Brunch is a late morning meal between breakfast and lunch, as a replacement to both meals, usually eaten
when one rises too late to eat breakfast, or as a specially-planned meal. The term is a portmanteau of breakfast
and lunch. It originated in the USA, unlike Tiffin. Brunch can be served after a morning event or prior to an
afternoon one, such as a wedding or sporting event. It is usually a more relaxed meal than breakfast or lunch,
and considered appropriate for informal celebrations. Some restaurants and hotels serve brunch, especially on
weekends and holidays. Such brunches are often serve-yourself buffets, but menu-ordered meals may be
available instead of, or with, the buffet. The meal usually involves standard breakfast foods such as eggs,
pancakes, sausages, bacon, ham, fruits, pastries, and the like. However, it can include almost any other type of
food served throughout the day. Buffets may have large roasts of meat or poultry, cold seafood like shrimp
and smoked fish, salads, soups, vegetable dishes, many types of breadstuffs, and desserts of all sorts. The dim
sum brunch is a popular meal in Chinese restaurants world-wide. It consists of a wide variety of stuffed boa
(buns), dumplings, and other savory or sweet food items which have been steamed, deep-fried, or baked.
Customers select what they want from passing carts, as the kitchen continuously produces and sends out more
freshly prepared dishes.

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7. LUNCH AND TIFFIN

7.1. Lunch

Lunch is a meal that is taken at noon or in the early afternoon. The term is short for "luncheon". Lunch is a
newer word for what was once invariably called "dinner," a word nowadays only sometimes used to mean a
noontime meal in the British Isles, and in parts of the United States, Canada and Australia. In parts of India
a light lunch is known as tiffin. Lunch food varies. In some places, one eats similar things both at lunch and
at supper - a hot meal, sometimes with more than one course. In other places, lunch is the 26

main meal of the day, supper being a smaller cold meal. German and Scandinavian lunch mostly is large and
cooked (as opposed to, say, a sandwich).

Lunch

from

Karnataka

served on a plantain leaf.

7.2. Tiffin
Tiffin is an Indian and British English dialect word meaning a light meal eaten during the day. The word
became popular in British India, deriving from tiffing, an old English dialect or slang word for taking a little
drink or sip.
In modern day India, the word mostly is used for light lunches prepared for working Indian men by
their wives after they have left for work, and forwarded to them by Dabbawalas (people who carry boxes)
who use a complex system to get thousands of tiffin-boxes to their destinations. The lunches are packed in
tin boxes, also sometimes called tiffins or tiffin-boxes. A common approach is to put rice in one box, dal in
another and yet other items in the third or fourth. The other items could be breads, such as naan, vegetable
curry and finally a sweet. In Chinese cultures, the stacked porcelain or metal round trays with handles are
called tiffin carriers. People also refer to cups of tea as "a cup of tiffin".

PRACTICE 1. Answer the following questions:
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1) What is Tiffin?

2) Where is the difference between lunch and Tiffin?

3) How can you explain the flowing: Dabbawala, Tiffin, Tiffin-boxes, a cup of Tiffin?

PRACTICE 2. Complete each sentence with one of the endings.

A

B

1) There is nothing more refreshing on a hot

a) I'm sure you would like them if you only trie

summer day

them.

2) The steak looked tender

b) it is weak coffee.

3) The smell was so bad

c) as the food and the service had been
excellent.

4) These vegetables are very tasty

d) but was afraid of making a scene.

5) I wouldn't eat those strawberries if I were you

e) if you had put more garlic in it.

6) Please put some more water in my tea

f) but it was as tough as old boots.

7) "If there is one thing I don't like,

g) as there's been yet another increase in
prices.

8) The sauce would be more tasty

h) is keeping it in a fridge.

9) We must leave now.

i) than a glass of ice-cold fruit juice.

10)My father decided to leave the waiter a big tip j) consists of some eggs and several rashers of
bacon.
11)Food is very expensive now

k) I had a second helping.

12)The customer wanted to complain to the 1) because it is too strong.
waiter
13)A good way of preserving food

m) they don't look ripe to me.

14) As the cake was delicious,

n) that it completely put us off our food.

15) A traditional English breakfast

o) Would you mind asking the waiter for the
bill?

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7.3. Future Simple Tense.

Future Simple is used to describe future actions and events. We use I'll (- I will) when we decide to do
something at the time of speaking. E.g.: Oh, I've left the door open. I'll go and shut it. What would you like
to drink? I’ll have an orange juice, please.'
In spoken English the negative of will is usually won't (- will not. E.g.: I can see you're busy, so I won't stay
long.

We often use will in these situations:

Offering to do something: That bag looks heavy. I’ll help you with it.

Agreeing to do something: A: You know that book I lent you. Can I have it back if you've finished
with it? B: Of course. I'll give it to you this afternoon.

Promising to do something: Thanks for lending me the money. I'll pay you back on Friday. I won't
tell anyone what happened. I promise.

Asking somebody to do something (Will you..-?) Will you please be quiet? I'm trying to concentrate.
Will you shut the door, please?

Shall I...? Shall we...?

Shall is used mostly in the questions shall I...? / shall we...?

We use shall I...? / shall we...? to ask somebody's opinion (especially in offers or suggestions)- Shall I
open the window? Where shall we go this evening?

We often use will ('ll) with:

probably

• I'll probably be home late this evening.

expect

• I haven't seen Carol today. I expect she'll phone this evening.

(I'm) sure

• Don't worry about the exam. I'm sure you'll pass.

(I) think

• Do you think Sarah will like the present we bought her?

(I) don't think

• I don't think the exam will be very difficult.

I wonder

• I wonder what will happen.
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I shall... / we shall...

Normally we use shall only with I and we. You can say I shall or I will (I'll), we shall or
we will (we'll): I shall be tired this evening, (or I will be...}. We shall probably go to Scotland
for our holiday, (or We will probably go...) In spoken English we normally use I'll and we'll:
We'll probably go to Scotland.

The negative of shall is shall not or shan't: I shan't be here tomorrow, (or 1 won't be...)
Do not use shall with he/she/it/you/they: She will be very angry, (not 'she shall be')

Study the table

Auxiliar
Sent. Question y
type

word

Auxiliar
Subject

Verb/ to

y

Will/

Verb

shall +

be

Positive

Objec
t

Adverbial Modifier
Manner

Place

Time

Verb
I

love

You

make

We

bring

They

___

He, she, it

write
taste

My
brother

smell

Her friend

be

The cake
You

will not

love

me

nicely

at work

in the morning

beautiful
They
He, she, it

(won’t)

make

you

ly

in the kitchen in the evening

bring

him

tasty

at home

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the

49 |

afternoon

Negative

My

at

the

brother

write

her

loudly

restaurant

during the day

Her friend

taste

them

precisely at school

at night

The cake

smell

us

happily in prison

in summer

my

greatly

in the café

in winter

dog

bitterly

on the table

at 8 o’clock

was
I

shall not not
were

We

(shan’t) not

a

Question

When

We

love

Why

shall

I

make

Where

will

you

bring

How

we

write

What

they

(kas,ką?)

he, she, it

Whom

my brother

(ką?)

her friend

____

letter

taste
smell

Who
(ką?)

the cake
_____

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PRACTICE 3. Read the situations and write sentences with I think I'll... or I don't think I'll....
1) It's a bit cold. You decide to close the window. You say: I think I’ll! close the window.

2) You are feeling tired and it's quite late. You decide to go to bed. You say: I think
…………………
.........................................................

3) A friend of yours offers you a lift in his car but you decide to walk. You say: Thank you

but.........................................................................................................................

4) You arranged to play tennis today. Now you decide that you don't want to play.
You

say:

I

don't

think.............................................................................................................................
5) You were going to go swimming. Now you decide that you don't want to go.
…………………………………………………………………………………………..

PRACTICE 4. Put in will ('ll) or won't.
1) Can you wait for me? I hope I won’t be very long.
2) There's no need to take an umbrella with you. It................................

rain.

3) If you don't eat anything now, you................................

be hungry later.

4) I'm sorry about what happened yesterday. It................................

happen again.

5) I've got some incredible news! You................................

never believe what's happened.

6) Don't ask Margaret for advice. She................................

know what to do.

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Appendix
Need Analysis Form

Date

ASLPR
LSRW

Name

address

Age

Country of origin:

Other relatives in different countries

Education:

NO. Of years:

Qualification

Why study finished:

Years of study English

Employment:

Main occupation

Other job held:

Type of work sought:
Interests:

e.g. hobbies, sports, leisure activities

Skills:

First language:

Others spoken
Others studied

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Language Learning
A. Do you like to learn English by READING
WRITING
LISTENING AND SPEAKING
OTHER
Which do you like most?

B.

Do you like to study grammar
Learn new words
Practice the sounds and pronunciation?
Which do you like most?

C.

Do you like to learn to English by:

Cassettes

Games

Talking to English speakers

Studying English books

Watching T.V

Which do you like most?

D.

Macro skills

1. Reading
a) Can you use dictionary

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b) What can you read in English?

Simple stories

Newspaper

Forms

Advertisements

Bus timetables

Maps/directories

School notes

c) What are the most important for you to learn?

2. Writing

a) Do you ever write letters?

Report writing

Fill in forms

b) Which is more important to you to learn now?

3. Listening and Speaking:

a) Who do you speak with in English?

b) How much do you understand (%) by listening someone?

c) How much can you reproduce by listening someone (%)?

d) Who is it most important for you to learn to speak with now?

e) Do you watch T.V or listen to the radio?

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f) How much do you understand (T.V & radio)? (%)

______

How do you learn best?

No

A little

Good

Best

Alone
Pairs
Small group
Class
Outside class

How much time is available for study now?
Per day
Per week

Where do you like to study?

Institution

Home

Do you want to learn in morning session or evening session?

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References:

Curriculum and syllabus design >David nunan

www.scribd.com/doc/57354358/ESP-Analysis

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_for_specific_purposes

www.manoguru.lt/nugalek-priklausomybe/.../5_padavejams_EN.pdf

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