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# Journal of Elasticity 13 (1983) 157-163

© 1983 Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, The Hague. Printed in the Netherlands

The classical pressure vessel problems for linear elastic
materials with voids
S.C. COWIN
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tulane Univeristy, New Orleans, I_,,4 70118, U.S.A.

and
P. PURI
Department of Mathematics, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, i,,4 70122, U.S.A.

Abstract
The traditional problems of the thick walled spherical and circular cylindrical shells under internal and
external pressure are solved in the context of the theory of linear elastic materials with voids. The solutions
are quasi-static. The stress distributions are those predicted by isotropic linear elasticity. The displacement
and solid volume fraction charge fields exhibit a volumetric viscoelasticity induced by a rate dependence of
the volume fraction change.

1. Introduction
The linear theory of elastic materials with voids was developed by Cowin and Nunziato
[1] as a specialization of the non-linear case presented earlier [2]. The intended
application of the theory is to linear elastic solid materials with small voids which are
distributed throughout the material. When the void volume vanishes the material is a
linear elastic solid. The theory is distinguished from linear elasticity theory by the
consideration of the void volume as an additional kinematic variable. The theory is
summarized in the following section and then applied to the classical pressure vessel
problems in the section after that.

2. Summary of the theory
The basic concept underlying this theory is that of a material for which the bulk density
p is written as the product of two fields, the density field of the matrix material 7 and
the volume fraction field p,
P=VP.

(2.1)

This representation of the bulk density of the material inti'oduces an additional degree
of kinematic freedom in the theory. It was previously employed by Goodman and
157

As is customary in linear elasticity the reference configuration is assumed to be stress free and strain free. The equations of motion governing a linear elastic continuum with voids are the balance of linear momentum pi.8) #E. a>~O.j + pb i (2. We will obtain these field equations in the special case of . here. must satisfy the following inequalities (cf. and co which all depend upon vR. t) = t) - (2. (2.i i = T~j. (2. The coefficients )~.8) into the equations of motion (2. (3X + 2/~)~ >1 121~2. t) from the reference configuration and the change in volume fraction from the reference volume fraction qffx.6) h i = otd~. that vR is spatially constant. + g + p £ .4) and (2.. Cowin and P. thus T. (2. t). k is the equilibrated inertia.158 S. In the reference configuration (1) can be written as 0R = ~/RVRand we assume. #>/0.7) g = - - (2. ~>~0. j + u j . the change in volume fraction . t) and . (2.7) and (2. Each of these term is discussed in detail in [1] and [2]. r . a.. The situation in which vR is not spatially constant is discussed in [1].i. bi is the body force vector.7 = h r i j E k . The linear theory of elastic materials with voids deals with small changes from a reference configuration of a porous body.Eij. Puri Cowin [3.5) where Tij is the symmetric stress tensor.9) The field equations governing the kinematic fields ui(x.4) and the balance of equilibrated force p k 4 = hi. + 21~Eij + flqJ3ij.4] to develop a continuum theory for flowing granular materials. The infinitesimal strain tensor Eij(x. The independent kinematic variables in the linear theory are the displacement field ui(x. #.5).i. 3h + 2~t >/O. hi is the equilibrated stress vector.2) where x is the spatial position vector in cartesian coordinates and t is time.. t) are obtained by substituting the constitutive relations (2. [1 ])./. g is the intrinsic equilibrated body force and £ is the extrinsic equilibrated body force.6). (2.C.3) where the comma followed by a lower case Latin letter indicates a partial derivative with respect to the indicated coordinate axes. ~o>~0. The constitutive equations for the linear isotropic theory of elastic materials with voids relate the stress tensor T~j. the time rate of change of the volume fraction ~ and the gradient of the change in volume fraction q~. t) is determined from the displacement field u i by the relation I E i j = ~( ui. i ) . (2.. ~./fix. the equilibrated stress vector hi and the intrinsic equilibrated body force g to the strain .

All other quantities are independent of z.~ . z are employed.4/ . (2.0) and no external body forces (i. qb and the cylindrical coordinates. (2. 0 D = 5-. ~ .o-~- - . The boundary conditions on u i are those of classical elasticity. r.. represent a system of four scalar equations in four unknowns.e. b = 0.10) and (2. In the cylindrical problem the strain in the z direction c(t) is spatially constant but can have temporal variation.flV "u = 0.e. they can be presented together in a rather concise format if certain notational conventions are observed. These two equations.11) and respectively. The boundary condition on ~ is (cf. £ = 0). 8. is denoted by D. - B. - d~ .The classical pressure vessel problems for linear elastic materials with voids 159 quasistatic motions (i. (2. (3. (3.12) where n is the unit normal to an external boundary. In this section any equation associated with only the spherical (cylindrical) problem will have an equation number followed by an S(C). The spherical coordinates r. the associated equation applies to both the spherical and cylindrical problems.1) From these assumptions it follows that the cubical dilatation or volumetric strain A is given by where u is the radial component of the displacement vector. one vector and one scalar. 3. 0. Cylindrical symmetry is assumed for the cylinder problem so that all quantities are independent of 8. If the equation number is not followed by an S or a C. (3. It also follows from these assumptions that the field equations (2.3) and aD.a = O.8) into (2.~ = O.10) ~tV2~ . ii =-0. Solution to the problems Since the solutions for the problems of the thick walled spherical and circular cylindrical shells are so similar. The derivative with respect to r. either cylindrical or spherical.7) and (2.t0~ .11) take the form ( h + 2#)DA + flDrk = 0.4) and (2. [1]) n" V ~ = 0.4.6) into (2.~q. Spherical symmetry is assumed for the spherical problem so all quantities are independent of 8 and ~b.5) yields (X + # ) V V "u + #V2u + flV. With these assumptions the substitution of (2. ¢ and the three components of u i.

.f = ~ D( r2Df ).11) is - 1 ¢p=_~rr(Ci1.~. (3.9).C.13C) . = 0.5S1 D.9) where the initial condition (3.5C) The problem is now reduced to the solution of the differential equations (3. The boundary condition of the field q~ follows from (2.6) where r 1 and r 2 are the internal and external radii.w( s ~ .f = D2f + r1D f . (3. (3. The initial condition on ~ is assumed to be 4. The Laplace transform is denoted by a superposed bar on the function and the transformed time variable is denoted by s./2(qr))_ etq1 2 [flA.S.7) where q'0 is a constant. if__ (3. Integration of (3.(r.dpo) . ./2(qr)+C2K.13S) ~p=Cil. . Puri 160 where D. .8) with respect to r gives h +B2# q~+ A.7) has been employed.4) for q~ and A. We seek a solution of these equations for all points of the body for all times between zero and infinity.~ - (3.(qr)+C2Kl(qr)_ aq1 2 [flA. When (3.3) and (3. 0) = q~0.8) fiX= O. (3.~>/0. (3. it is natural to employ the Laplace transform.9) a differential equation for qTis obtained: Dfi. Application of the Laplace transform to (3. Cowin and P.3) and (3. (Dq~) . = 0. w )~ + 2/~ (3. --~o.4) yields (x + 2 )DS+ BD = o. since the problem is linear. Since the time domain for which we seek a solution is semi-infinite and.( K=-. aD. in the case of the cylinder.11) O/ . (3. .12) The fact that K is greater than zero follows from the inequalities (2.10) where A is an arbitrary function of t. the axial strain c(t)). .10) is substituted into (3.q27 = O~ where =a(S+ K). The boundary and initial conditions on the radial displacement are obtained from the specified time history of the internal and external pressures (and.W~o].12): (Dq~) . (3.Wd?o]' (3. of an arbitrary function f is given by D. The solution to the differential equation (3.

thus. t) can now be obtained.19C) lff = ( fi' . = . the transform of the radial displacement component.2oc) The final expressions for the fields #~(r.fi2)r2r22 2/*(4_ r. ~ f.ff2)r3r23 4.~is not a function of r. ) .)./ 7 1 .(r~.18S) (3. The solution of this differential equation yields fi=~ar+ 7B. z~- fl [flA-.16S) fi = ½(z~-i) r + B .10).14) and. Since ~o is not a function of r. Kl/2.-_f=4 A---3X+2/* s+x.~. respectively.fi2r22 + /*g ) o(.] r23-r31 ~. the Laplace transforms of the boundary conditions (3. when (3.The classical pressure vessel problems for linear elastic materials with voids 161 where Ii/2.15).=r2 = -/32.r. in terms of the transform of the internal and external pressure/3] and/32.. K > K 1• (3.d) ' (3.. a simple differential equation is obtained for fi.) (3. (3. are employed: ( ~ .=) . (3.17) yields _ _ _ ~ 3 l + .~.6) require that C~ and C2 vanish.19S) B = ( P ' ..+/* ' .18C) and (3..2) is set equal to (3.2os) (3.15) This result shows that .~=1. I~ and K 1 are Bessel functions of the indicated kinds. K > KI.. where KI = l( ~0 HI = ... t) and u(r. ~.15) and B is an arbitrary function of time.- ~- 3~(=2/* ~ BE) ).oo 1 +S+K1 4--r? fl(S+gl) (3.Hl ' 4 " .._. . (3.)~'o fl(S+rl) ' )(filr?-.tOtho] +A~ aq2()t + 21.~ )k+/* ( K-. (~.17) The rather lengthy calculation indicated by (3. . In order to determine the arbitrary functions A-and B_ the conditions specifying the transform of the radial stress. thus aq1 2 [flA--t~o] (3. . from (3.16C) r where Z~is given by (3.

22) with these modified values for q~(t).15) and (3. where u ce is the classical elasticity solution for the radial displacement in the boundary value problem of the same geometry (cf. (3.r3-pzr 3 ) q~= .1 e-~.24S) (3. uCE=(p|r2-pzr2 r2z ~. thus u(r.25S) ' ( P'rlZ-p2r~ + tte). q.13) and subsequently inverting the Laplace transform.21C) The displacement field u(r. r2-r 2 q~= tO° e-~" to(X +/~) (3.t).toK. It is easy to see from (3.(t-')dz r] .24) that the steady state solution is 3fl ( p. t) = uCe u(r.(~ +/~) r23 r~ (3. uCe= 1 ( p'r~-p--2r23 ) l r23r3(p'-P2) l 3h + 2--------~ r23.14) and subsequent inversion of the Laplace transform yields eo #. Cowin and P.18) into (3.o(3x + 2.oe-~.22S) 2(X fl+/x) (3. Love [5]).r? (3.24C) and the radial displacement field is given by (3.ral-p2r23 ) r23 _ rl3 (1 .18) into (3.C. t) is obtained by substituting (3.(t))e-~"t-')d~".(X +/~) (p.23S) (3.tor. t) = uce 3h f12/~ q ' ( t ) r ' (3.22) with these values of q~ in place of q~(t).(3X+2/~) fl q~= to-K.e-K").22C) ep(t )r.S. Puri 162 Substitution of (3.25C) 7~rl 2 and the radial displacement field is given by (3.21S) and fl fot(pl(~')rZl-P2(~')r~ t-lx.) r? r (pl-p2)r2r21 2(X+/~) 2/x(r~-r?) (3. r2 r2 (3. p2(t) and e(t) are constants.23C) r" In the special case when pl(t).r~ r + 41x r23_ r3 r--Y . ( p'r2-p2r22 ~-tte)(1-e-'.(t) is given by q~(/) = too e_K. The stress fields are identical with those predicted by classical elasticity for the same .(3X + 2/x) fl *(t) --*° e-'~t . t 3fl o~x. . .

r 3 P2 r3 rE3 _ r 3 ' Pl--P2 r ~ . Cambridge.A. 72 (1979) 175.C. Love.C. A nonlinear theory of elastic materials with voids.. Nunziato and Cowin. 13 (1983) 125. 1927.. The salient feature of these solutions is the volumetric viscoelasticity introduced by the rate dependence in the volume fraction change. Rational Mech.26C) Conclusion The solutions for the traditional problems of thick walled spherical and circular cylindrical shells under internal and external pressure have been developed for the situation in which the shell material is a linear elastic material with voids. 44 (1972) 249.C. however. A continuum theory for granular materials. Arch. S. Thus.W. S. Anal. [3] M.. J.W. Goodman and Cowin.A. The stress field. Rational Mech.E.26S) (3. the radial component of normal stress is given by r3 r3_r 3 Trr = Pl r3 r~ _ r3 Tr" plr?--Pzr~ r ~ .. A variational principle for granular materials. for example.163 The classical pressure vessel p r o b l e m s f o r linear elastic materials with voids problems. [2] J. Arch. [5] A. [4] S. Cowin and Nunziato.r? r23 r 3 .C. J. M. A Treatise on the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity. Anal. ZAMM 56 (1976) 281. Linear elastic materials with voids.H. of Elasticity. Acknowledgment This research was supported by National Science Foundation grants to Tulane University. is identical with that predicted by classical elasticity. Cowin and Goodman. This rate dependence appears in the radial displacement field and its value is therefore modified from the value predicted by classical elasticity theory. References [1] S.r? r~r? r2 (3. .