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# Subdivison Surfaces

The use of subdivision surfaces provides a promising alternative approach for modeling
shapes with arbitrary topology. The basic idea of subdivision is to define a smooth shape from a
polyhedron (or polygonal mesh) by repeatedly and infinitely adding new vertices and edges
according to certain subdivision rules. One of the advantages of subdivision surfaces is that they
can model smooth surfaces of arbitrary topology, yet can be controlled by manipulating a
polygonal surface called a control mesh. This control mesh defines the subdivision surface
through recursive refinement using linear combinations of vertices.
Subdivision techniques were first proposed for surface modeling by Catmull and Clark
and Doo and Sabin. Catmull-Clark subdivision surfaces have become a standard for representing
highly detailed, smooth and free form shapes such as animated characters in films or computer
games. To create a subdivision surface, artists construct a coarse base control mesh to
approximate the desired shape. The base mesh is refined by applying a set of rules that depend
only on the local topology of the mesh using a linear combination of vertices. Repeating this
subdivision process generates a sequence of increasingly finer meshes that converge to a smooth
limit surface.
Direct Subdivision Surface Fitting
Today, many subdivision schemes have been developed for modeling and animation.
Among others, Hoppe et al. presented an approach for automatically fitting subdivision surfaces
from a dense triangle mesh. The fitting criterion is defined such that the initial dense mesh will
be most close to a linear approximation of the final fitted subdivision surface, which provides
sufficient approximation for practical applications. Both smooth and sharp models can be
handled. This approach produces high quality visual models. However, it may need extensive
computing time due to the large amount of data to be processed and a procedure involved for
mesh optimization.

All of the above fitting approaches are built upon schemes for limit surface query. A network of boundary curves is first interactively defined for topological modeling. Theoretically. local and sharp features are not observed with the reported implementation. Parameterization of Subdivision Surfaces However. In literature. The procedure is repeated until the number of control vertices of the fitted subdivision surface exceeds a userdefined number. The final positions of the control vertices are then inversely solved following the relationship between the control vertices and the corresponding limit positions through an iterative local approximation method. A set of base surfaces is then defined from the topological model for sample data parameterization. Ma and Zhao also reported a parameterization-based approach for fitting Catmull–Clark subdivision surfaces. A Catmull–Clark surface is finally obtained through linear least squares fitting. A new subdivision surface is then fitted from the corresponding refined limit positions. Apart from the parameterization procedure. With this approach. normal vectors and other . the fitting process alone is pretty fast. one can also find a scheme interpolating a set of surface limit positions with fairness conditions and a systematic study on various interpolation constraints. all interpolation schemes can be extended as a fitting scheme if the number of known surface conditions. Since only a subset of vertices of the initial dense mesh is involved in the fitting procedure. The topological structure of the control mesh is further subdivided and a refined mesh of limit positions is obtained. the fitting criterion is defined such that the resulting subdivision surface interpolates the corresponding limit positions of the current control mesh. the computing speed is extremely fast. a corresponding limit position is obtained from the initial dense mesh. The approach makes use of all known sample points and the fitting criterion ensures best fitting condition between the input data and the final fitted subdivision surface. A set of observation equations is obtained based on ordinary B-splines for regular surface patches and an evaluation scheme of Stam for extraordinary surface patches. either at discrete positions or at arbitrary parameters.The method of Suzuki et al for subdivision surface fitting starts from an interactively defined initial control mesh. such as limit positions. For each of the control vertices.

The fitting process starts from an initial approximate generic model defined as a subdivision surface of the same type. At the parts level. so the midpoint subdivision to a copy of the initial control polyhedron can be applied. a change in dimension value can be automatically propagated to all parts affected. In order to vary part size or shape for exploring better design alternatives. Parts affected must be rebuilt successfully. they will have to maintain proper position and orientation with respect to one another without violating any assembly mates or revealing part penetration or excessive gaps. are more than that of the unknown control vertices of the subdivision surface. as shown in Figure. Simple construction that allows one to use the initial control mesh. Subdivision surfaces as functions defined on some parametric domain with values in R3. the corresponding polygonal complex. the parts and assembly must be adequately parameterized to capture design intents. Intuitively. design parameterization involves defining assembly mates and relating dimensions across parts. This means that the old vertices leaved. Suppose each time. and no new vertices inserted by midpoint subdivision can possibly coincide. When an assembly is fully parameterized.constraints. One of the common approaches for searching for design alternatives is to vary the part size or shape of the mechanical system. Each control point that was inserted in the mesh using subdivision corresponds to a point in the midpoint subdivided polyhedron. the subdivision surface is the limit of this sequence. design parameterization implies creating solid features and relating dimensions so that when a dimension value is changed the part can be rebuilt properly and the rebuilt part revealed design intents. as the domain for the surface. and at the same time. One can also find an approach for adaptively fitting a Catmull–Clark subdivision surface to a given shape through a fast local adaptation procedure. Another important fact is that midpoint subdivision does not alter the control polyhedron regarded as a set of points. and then insert the new vertices splitting each edge in two. . The subdivision process produces a sequence of polyhedra with increasing numbers of faces and vertices. apply the subdivision rules to compute the finer control mesh. At the assembly level.

Figure: Natural parameterization of the subdivision surfaces .