# Phase Relations

N. Sivakugan
Duration: 6 min 31 s

SIVA

1

Notation M = mass or weight V = volume s = soil grains w = water a = air v = voids t = total SIVA Vv Va air Vw water Ma=0 Mw Mt Vt Vs soil Ms Phase Diagram 2 .Copyright©2001 Objectives To compute the masses (or weights) and volumes of the three different phases.

SIVA Vv Va air Vw water Ma=0 Mw Mt Vt Vs soil Ms Phase Diagram 3 .Copyright©2001 Definitions Water content (w) is a measure of the water present in the soil. Range = 0 – 100+%. MW w MS X 100% Expressed as percentage.

VV e VS Vv Va air Vw water Mw Mt Vt Vs SIVA Ma=0 soil Ms Phase Diagram 4 .Copyright©2001 Definitions Void ratio (e) is a measure of the void volume.

Copyright©2001 Definitions Porosity (n) is also a measure of the void volume. VV n VT Theoretical range: 0 – 100% SIVA Vv X 100% Va air Vw water Ma=0 Mw Mt Vt Vs soil Ms Phase Diagram 5 . expressed as a percentage.

Copyright©2001 Definitions Degree of saturation (S) is the percentage of the void volume filled by water. VW S VV X 100% Range: 0 – 100% Dr Saturate y d SIVA Vv Va air Vw water Ma=0 Mw Mt Vt Vs soil Ms Phase Diagram 6 .

Copyright©2001 A Simple Example In this illustration. e=1 air n = 50% water S = 50% soil SIVA 7 .

kg/m3 Vv Va air Vw water Mw Mt Vt Vs SIVA Ma=0 soil Ms Phase Diagram 8 . g/ml.Copyright©2001 Definitions Bulk density (m) is the density of the soil in the current state. MT m  VT Units: t/m3.

Copyright©2001 Definitions Saturated density (sat) is the density of the soil when the voids are filled with water. ’ = sat . Submerged density (’) is the effective density of the soil when it is submerged.w SIVA 9 .

MS d  VT Units: t/m3. g/ml.Copyright©2001 Definitions Dry density (d) is the density of the soil in dry state. kg/m3 Vv Va air Vw water Mw Vt Vs SIVA Ma=0 soil Ms Phase Diagram 10 Mt .

use weight (kN) instead of mass (kg).  = g N/m3 kg/m3 m/s2 Specific gravity of the soil grains (Gs) typically varies between 2.6 and 2. Here.8. SIVA 11 . dry and submerged unit weights () are defined in a similar manner. saturated.Copyright©2001 Definitions Bulk.

Copyright©2001 Phase Relations Consider a fraction of the soil where Vs = 1. The other volumes can be obtained from the previous definitions. The masses can be obtained from: Mass = Density x Volume SIVA air e Se 1 volumes water Se w soil Gs  w masses Phase Diagram .

M W Se w  M S GS VV e n  VT 1  e air e Se 1 SIVA water soil Se w Gs  w Phase Diagram 13 .Copyright©2001 Phase Relations From the previous definitions.

Copyright©2001 Phase Relations M T GS  Se m   W VT 1 e  sat M T GS  e   W VT 1 e MS GS d   W VT 1 e SIVA air e Se 1 water soil Se w Gs  w Phase Diagram 14 .

and develop the relations from the phase diagram with VS = 1.8) when not given. Their mass and volume remain the same at any void ratio. Do not mix densities and unit weights. Assume GS (2. Soil grains are incompressible. Understand the definitions. SIVA 15 .Copyright©2001 Try not to memorise the equations.6-2.

Copyright©2001 If you can remember one thing in phase relations.. that should be .A Suggestion.. air e SIVA Se water Se w 1 soil Gs w 16 .

Copyright©2001 Testing Times… State whether the following are true or false? (a) Dry density is greater than submerged density True (b) In unsaturated soils. True SIVA 17 . water content is always less False than 100%. larger the porosity. (c) Larger the void ratio.