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**Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
**

and Marine Technology

Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft

Notes on Linear Vibration Theory

*

**Compiled by : P.Th.L.M. van Woerkom
**

Section

: WbMT/Engineering Mechanics

Date

: 10 January 2003

E- mail address: p.vanwoerkom@wbmt.tudelft.nl

* Body Blade picture taken from: http://www.starsystems.com.au

2

LIST OF CONTENTS

3

LIST OF CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION

2. A SELECTION OF USEFUL LITERATURE

PART ONE: MATHEMATICS FOR FINITE-DIMENSIONAL SYSTEMS

**3. DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY IN ONE-DIMENSIONAL SPACE
**

3.1 Linear motion

3.2 Angular motion

**4. DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO-DIMENSIONAL SPACE
**

4.1 General motion

4.2 Special cases

**5. DECOMPOSITION OF A PERIODIC SIGNAL
**

5.1 Fourier series

5.2 Least square approximation

**6. SYSTEM OF LINEAR ALGEBRAIC EQUATIONS
**

6.1 Problem statement

6.2 Gaussian elimination procedure

6.3 Cramer's rule

6.4 Homogeneous case

6.5 Eigenproblem

6.6 Special case: symmetric matrix

**7. SINGLE SECOND-ORDER ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION
**

7.1 Problem statement

7.2 Complementary solution

7.3 Particular solution

7.4 Resonance

4

**8. SYSTEM OF SECOND-ORDER ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
**

8.1 Problem statement

8.2 Complementary solution

8.3 Particular solution

8.4 Initial conditions

8.5 Damping

8.6 Special case: non-symmetric matrices

8.7 Effect of application of an impulse

PART TWO: INFINITE-DIMENSIONAL SYSTEMS

**9. NOTES ON THE EULER-BERNOULLI BEAM
**

9.1 Pure bending

9.2 Static equilibrium under various loads

9.3 Static displacement field

**10. EQUATIONS OF MOTION OF CONTINUUM BODIES - A
**

10.1 Dynamics of a string

- direct derivation

- limit derivation

10.2 Dynamics of a rod

- direct derivation

- limit derivation

10.3 Dynamics of a shaft

- direct derivation

- influence of geometry

**11. EQUATIONS OF MOTION OF CONTINUUM BODIES - B
**

11.1 Dynamics of a beam

- direct derivation

- limit derivation

11.2 Beam design parameters

11.3 Vanishing bending stiffness

**12. SECOND-ORDER PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION
**

12.1 Problem statement

12.2 Free motion

12.3 Forced motion

12.4 Initial conditions

5

**13. FOURTH-ORDER PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION
**

13.1 Problem statement

13.2 Free motion

13.3 Forced motion

13.4 Initial conditions

13.5 More properties of mode shapes

PART THREE: FINITE ELEMENT MODELLING

**14. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL WORK
**

14.1 The Virtual Work formalism

14.2 References

14.3 Dynamics in second-order canonical from

14.4 Euler-Lagrange formalism

14.5 Hamilton's formalism

**15. FINITE ELEMENT MODELLING: SINGLE ROD ELEMENT
**

15.1 Dynamics of an infinitesimal mass element

15.2 Development of the Lagrange expression

15.3 Assumed displacement field

15.4 Evaluation of the Lagrange expression

15.5 Design parameters

15.6 On Galerkin's method

**16. FINITE ELEMENT MODELLING: SINGLE BEAM ELEMENT
**

16.1 Dynamics of an infinitesimal mass element

16.2 Development of the Lagrange expression

16.3 Assumed displacement field

16.4 Evaluation of the Lagrange expression

16.5 Design parameters

**17. FINITE ELEMENT MODELLING: STRUCTURES WITH MULTIPLE ELEMENTS
**

17.1 Structures with multiple elements

17.2 From local coordinates to global coordinates

**18. FINITE ELEMENT MODELLING: THREE-DIMENSIONAL MASSIVE BODY
**

18.1 Dynamics of a three-dimensional, infinitesimal mass element

18.2 Structure with material damping

2 Static condensation 19. CONCLUDING REMARKS -0-0-0-0-0- .3 Mass condensation 20.6 19. FINITE ELEMENT MODELLING: MODEL ORDER REDUCTION 19.1 Problem statement 19.

INTRODUCTION .7 1.

8 1. In addition they must now apply their earlier knowledge of and insight into mathematics concepts. and numerical integration. As a result. Students preparing for engagement in Dynamics projects are in the very first place expected to deeping their understanding of basic concepts in engineering mechanics. External loads produce motion. Indeed.Vibrations may be uncalled for and even be a nuisance. and in principles of Dynamics. Examples are vibrations of musical instruments. one may wish to determine the loads responsible for that motion. . mechanical vibrations as well as the resulting noise experienced by a human in an automobile or train or airplane or ship. in Stress and Strain.and nano-scale. pipes carrying liquids). steel mill. And they modify the motion. grinder. vibrations experienced by manufacturing equipment (lathe. in turn. Dynamics relies heavily on mathematics. vibrations of equipment to help improve the condition of the human body. approximation theory. Clearly: vibrations galore. These concepts concern modelling and analysis in Statics (a special case of Dynamics). the evolution of the system motion as determined by the system dynamics must be well analyzed. produces inertial loads. given a motion. one may wish to determine structural deformations experienced in structurally flexible system components. vibrations in structures leading to failure to satisfy performance criteria if not leading to catastrophic break. Mechanical vibrations are the fluctuations of a mechanical system about its equilibrium configuration. partial differential equations. INTRODUCTION Within the realm of Mechanical Engineering the subject of "Dynamics" is of considerable importance. one may wish to determine the internal loads acting in the system. . both in structural components and in devices that join those components. Conversely. Given external loads produce motion. vibrations of sensors and motors on micro. Dynamics describes the interplay between loads and motion. Given the external loads and the resulting system motion. vibrations of transportation equipment. vibrations in mechatronic equipment during heavyduty operations. Mechanical vibrations are present everywhere in daily life. Mechanical vibrations cover a large part of the entire field of Dynamics. especially those related to ordinary differential equations. Therefore the engagement in research in Dynamics requires not only good mathematical abilities but at the same time sufficient self-discipline and a burning desire towards understanding nature and technology. Also.up. to be determined.Vibrations may be sought for. wafer stepper) and by production equipment (oil-drillstrings. Examples are vibrations of chimneys and bridges and skyscrapers and high-voltage lines in the wind. . the loads within the system vary during motion. vibrations required in the operation of extremely accurate (atomic) microscopes. Motion. If the resulting system motion is to develop according to certain performance criteria.

Kelly should be mentioned. The present Course Notes on Dynamics address the following topics: . Elasticity Theory. In addition. These two books make extensive use of numerical computations with MATLAB (Student Edition.9 Vibrations must be analyzed.minded attendance of the classes. one must first attempt to understand that which one is trying to modify. in the Course Textbook. chapter 8). especially the books by D. . Of the books listed there.vibrations of systems with multiple degrees-of-freedom (discrete systems in planar translation and/or rotation) .vibrations of continuum systems (modelled as a collection of finite elements). . An attractive list of possible Course Textbooks is contained in Chapter Two.J. and were and when necessary effective measures must be taken to modify those vibrations. an approximation usually valid for small amplitudes of displacements.. These exercises can be found e. and Dynamics. . amplify.energetic development of experience in solving recommended dynamics exercises.g. and on Blackboard (worked-out exam assignments).to clarify. actively writing comments in his own course notebook.to clarify or amplify mathematical concepts already presented in earlier courses on Linear Algebra and on Differential Equations.thorough study of the relevant material in the Course Textbook. . version 5). in the book by Meriam and Kraige (Vol.clear.thorough study of the relevant material in the present Course Notes. 2. To take measures towards modification. . The course on Dynamics is best studied using a textbook as reference material. the student is to develop insight and experience by energetically trying his hand at dynamics exercises. The appropriate script files that come with those books are either to be downloaded through Internet (for Inman's book) or are contained in a CD-ROM provided with the textbook (Kelly's book). and extend the material in the Course Textbook. The Course Notes presented here serve to provide the student with a compact summary of applicable mechanical and mathematical concepts. In the present course the assiduous student will be given a helping hand to assist him in the acquisition of that understanding. However. For the present course the teacher will use Kelly's book as Course Textbook. The following activities are ESSENTIAL if the student is to master the subject: .vibrations of continuum systems (modelled exactly) . the course notes presented therefore DO NOT replace the Course Textbook. Inman and by S. Its objectives are: . In all cases treated the equations of motion will be linear.to clarify or amplify engineering mechanics concepts already presented in earlier courses on Statics. .G.vibrations of systems with a single degree-of-freedom (planar translation or rotation) .

. ordinary differential equation is developed in detail. The results obtained are fundamental to the study of the dynamics of all systems studied in these course notes. . 15.freedom systems studied in these course notes. The results obtained are fundamental for the study of the dynamics of systems with multiple degrees-of-freedom (cf.an important case of system excitation is that in which a periodic load acts on the system.in chapter 11 the equation of motion of another important continuum body is developed: the initially straight beam (displaying small transverse displacement only). In chapter 5 it is shown how a periodic signal (such as a periodically varying external load) can be decomposed into an infinite series of harmonic excitation terms (Fourier decomposition).chapters 3 and 4 develop the equations of motion (dynamics equations) for rigid bodies displaying pure linear motion and pure angular motion. the extension to excitation by more general. . For linear systems. the straight rod (or bar. linear. 14. . . ordinary differential equations is developed in detail. The results obtained are fundamental to the study of the dynamics of all multidegree-of.chapter 2 contains a list of recommended literature for background study or for further study.chapter 6 investigates the solution of a system of linear algebraic equations.in chapter 10 the equations of motion of several continuum bodies are derived. Bodies considered are the string (or cable.chapter 9 considers the bending of a slender. in some cases however also by considering the continuum body as the limit case of a collection of many very small rigid bodies connected by very stiff linear springs. periodic signals then becomes immediate. 13.in chapter 12 the solution to a second-order partial differential equation is developed. and for those rigid bodies moving in a single. inertially fixed plane (thereby displaying up to three degrees-of-freedom). 12.10 We now sketch the "landscape" surveyed in the present Course Notes: . second-order. . . The specific differential equation is the one arising in the motion of strings. The results obtained are used in chapters 10. 13. and 16). . prismatic beam. Of these. chapters 8. the book by Kelly has been selected as Course Textbook for the present course. Two outstanding books in the context of the present course are those by Inman and by Kelly. displaying small longitudinal extension only). the response to a series of excitation terms is equal to the sum of the responses of the system to each of those excitation terms separately. and shafts. and 15. second-order. displaying small transverse motion). . and the straight shaft (a straight rod displaying small torsion only). rods. .in chapter 8 the solution of a system of linear. The derivation is always carried out in a direct manner. These may also be found to constitute a source of much inspiration to the assidious reader. As the case of excitation by a single harmonic term will be worked out in detail in later chapters.in chapter 7 the solution of a single.

The specific differential equation is the one arising in the motion of beams. is introduced in chapter 18. Treatment of the subject of numerical integration is beyond the scope of the present course notes.frequency components will display relatively large numerical errors. . nominally straight rod modelled as a single finite element only. Rods deform only in the direction of their longitudinal axis. In addition. by throwing away those high. may of those high. However: in general it can be said (somewhat roughly) that numerical stability of the numerical solution increases for given numerical values for integration parameters if the maximum value of the eigenfrequencies in the system is "sufficiently low". The reason for this choice is again that in this way the amount of space dedicated in these course notes to the finite element subject remains moderate while physical insight is maximized. the possibility of including material damping is introduced. it will be seen that the application of the principle of virtual work naturally leads to a formulation that would also result from the more contrived Galerkin approach involving certain "weighting functions" (see Section 15.chapter 20 contains some concluding remarks. nominally straight beam modelled as a single finite element only.frequency components. . Moreover. ordinary type.in chapter 13 the solution to a fourth-order partial differential equation is developed. .in chapter 17 the concept of finite element modelling is applied to structures consisting of multiple rod elements and/or multiple beam elements. Parenthetically we show that the development of the latter two formalisms is not necessary and in fact rather circuitous. The general case. Little or nothing will be lost by throwing them out. Generally these differential equations are solved with the aid of numerical integration techniques.6).in chapter 14 the principle of virtual work is revisited. For tutorial reasons the discussion is restricted to a single. .in chapters 16 and 17 only simple structural components were considered. The principle of virtual work underlies various dynamics formalisms. Also. . one would like to throw away system components displaying high eigenfrequencies. beams deform only in the direction perpendicular to their longitudinal axis.Lagrange formalism and the Hamilton formalism.11 . For tutorial reasons the discussion is restricted to a single. These are idealizations.in chapter 15 the subject of finite element modelling is introduced. computational effort per integration step will be reduced. such as the Euler. Chapter 19 outlines two commonly used techniques for reducing the complexity of the system equations (mainly by throwing away the high frequency system components). . .in all cases the resulting equations of motion are of the second-order. linear. Here it is introduced with an eye to application to the analysis of the dynamics of structures obtained through finite element modelling. -0-0-0-0-0- . Therefore.in chapter 16 the subject of finite element modelling is again introduced. Furthermore. The reason for this choice is that in this way the amount of space dedicated in these course notes to the finite element subject remains moderate while physical insight is maximized. displaying deformation in three spatial directions simultaneously.

12 2. A SELECTION OF USEFUL LITERATURE .

. 1976. Prentice-Hall. R. Fagan.K... Benaroya. Lecture Notes in Engineering. N.. 1999. G. Dynamics of Continuous Elements. Englewood Cliffs. Prentice-Hall.W. Mechanical Vibration: Analysis.Theory and Practise. Craig. N.Y. Warburton.J. Wiley and Sons. Florida. N.M. Wilson.. Englewood Cliffs. 1971. H. 1997.. Clough. Clark.J. 1985. K. 6th edition. C. Elementary Differential Equations and Boundary Value Problems. Vol. Prentice-Hall. Essex.. Berlin. Brebbia. R.13 2. Harlow.. Krieger Publishing Company. 1999. Gear. N. 1993.J. P. N.L.D. Blevins. Inc. Upper Saddle River. Uncertainties. R. .C.R. Longman. M. J. J.. Tottenham. U. C. A SELECTION OF USEFUL LITERATURE Bathe. Malabar. Prentice-Hall. Finite Element Analysis .Y.. Inc. Spon.K. Applied Structural and Mechanical Vibrations: Theory. Inc. McGraw-Hill. 10.E.. Measurements and Measuring Instrumentation. S. N. Numerical Methods in Finite Element Analysis. Inc. and Control.-J. R.. E. and Wilson. 1972. 1981. J.J. and DiPrima. J. and Penzien.. Wiley and Sons.Y. V. 2nd edition. 1996. N. London.R. A.J.. Springer-Verlag.. and Wilson. W. Vibrations of Engineering Structures.W. Structural Dynamics: an Introduction to Computer Methods.L. Jr. Englewood Cliffs. and Ferraro. Gatti. 1993.B. R. Dynamics of Structures.A. Boyce. Numerical Initial Value Problems in Ordinary Differential Equations. Formulas for Natural Frequency and Mode Shape..

Computational Methods in Structural Dynamics. Wiley and Sons. 1975. Elements of Vibration Analysis.P. Linear Algebra. Mass.. 2nd edition. Nijgh & Van Ditmar. Mechanical Vibrations. 2001. J. Upper Saddle River.. G. 1999. M. Inc. UK.M. and Kraige. L. Engineering Mechanics. Inc. Boston. 4th edition. D. J.14 Géradin. N. Alphen aan de Rijn.. N. Ltd. Prentice-Hall.Y. Stanley Thornes Publishers. Meirovitch. Rijswijk. 1996. Meirovitch.edu/people/faculty/jslater/vtoolbox/vtoolbox.J. S. Gloucester.. Mechanical Vibrations: Theory and Application to Structural Dynamics. and Timoshenko. Gere. deel 2. (Remark: software for the execution of the exercises in the book may be downloaded from the website http://www. den Hartog. 4th SI edition. Mass.cs. Hofman. Mechanics of Materials. Reading.html) Kelly. Eindige Elementen Methode. McGraw-Hill International Editions. Tokyo. Fundamentals of Vibrations. J.) Meirovitch. McGraw-Hill International Edition.G. Dover Publications. (Remark: software for the execution of the exercises in the book is contained in a CD-ROM that is provided with the book.. L.. The Netherlands.L.P. Hadley.E. . Co. 1: Statics. D. Ltd. L. Addison-Wesley Publ. L. and Rixen. 1984.. Sijthoff and Noordhoff.. McGraw-Hill Kogakusha. Mass. 1980. 2000. J. 1998. G.G.. N. Boston. Inman.Y.wright. Vol. Wiley.J. Fundamentals of Mechanical Vibrations. 1994. Meriam. 1961. 2000. 2nd edition.J.. Engineering Vibration. Chichester. S. Cheltenham.

Y. S. Mechanical Vibrations. 1996..H. Princeton. 4th edition. D. and Dahleh. Principles of Vibration. Reading. M. van Nostrand Company. Co. Wiley and Sons..J. 5th edition. Young. W.. and Kraige. N.Y. Tongue. 4th edition. J. Mass. Thomson. B. J.H.2: Dynamics. Vol. Engineering Mechanics.T. L. W. Theory of Vibration with Applications. Jr. 3rd edition. Timoshenko.. D. S.H. Addison-Wesley Publ. Oxford University Press. and Young. S.15 Meriam. Vibration Problems in Engineering...L. Prentice-Hall. N. N. N. Wiley and Sons.J. 1998. D.Y. Upper Saddle River. 1955.G. Timoshenko. J. 1998. and Weaver.D. Vibration Problems in Engineering. 1974.... Inc.S. Rao. 1995. 3rd edition.. -0-0-0-0-0- . N.

2628 CD Delft Notes on Linear Vibration Theory * PART ONE: MATHEMATICS FOR FINITE-DIMENSIONAL SYSTEMS .16 Delft University of Technology Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Marine Technology Mekelweg 2.

17 3.1 Linear motion 3. DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY IN ONE-DIMENSIONAL SPACE 3.2 Angular motion .

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1 General motion 4.2 Special cases .24 4. DYNAMICS OF A RIGID BODY IN TWO-DIMENSIONAL SPACE 4.

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2 Least square approximation . DECOMPOSITION OF A PERIODIC SIGNAL 5.32 5.1 Fourier series 5.

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5 Eigenproblem 6.4 Homogeneous case 6.3 Cramer's rule 6.2 Gaussian elimination procedure 6. SYSTEM OF LINEAR ALGEBRAIC EQUATIONS 6.40 6.1 Problem statement 6.6 Special case: symmetric matrix .

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