MOSFET: Introduction

Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) is widely
used to implement digital designs
• High integration density
• Relatively simple manufacturing process
It is therefore possible to realize 106-7 transistors on an Integrated Circuit
(IC) economically

The MOS Transistor
Gate Oxide





(SiO2 )
p+ stopper

Heavily doped n-type source and drain regions are implanted
(diffused) into a lightly doped p-type substrate (body)
A thin layer (approx. 50 A0) of silicon dioxide (SiO2) is grown
over the region between source and drain and is called thin or
gate oxide

• Gate oxide is covered by a conductive material, often polycrystalline
silicon (polysilicon) and forms the gate of the transistor
• MOS transistors are insulated from each other by thick oxide
(SiO2) and reverse biased p-n+ diode
• Adding p+ field implant (channel stop implant) makes sure a
parasitic MOS transistor is not formed
MOS Transistor as a switch
Vin > VT : a conducting channel is formed between source and
drain and current flows
Vin <VT : the channel does not form and switch is said to be
Vin >VT : current is a function of gate voltage

current is carried by electrons (from source. through an n-type channel to the drain Different than diode where both holes and electrons contribute to the total current Therefore. PMOS. MOS transistor is also known as unipolar device Another MOS device can be formed by having p+ source and drain and n-substrate (PMOS) Current is carried by holes through a p-type channel A technology that uses NMOS (PMOS) transistors only is called NMOS (PMOS) technology In NMOS or PMOS technologies. substrate is common and is connected to +ve voltage.NMOS. and CMOS Technology In an NMOS transistor. GND (NMOS) or VDD (PMOS) .

if 4th terminal is not shown it is assumed to be connected to appropriate voltage .In a complementary MOS (CMOS) technology.. both PMOS and NMOS transistors are used NMOS and PMOS devices are fabricated in isolated region from each other (i. no common substrate for all devices) MOS transistor is a 4 terminal device.e.

Static Behavior Only the NMOS transistor is discussed. however. arguments are valid for PMOS transistor as well The threshold voltage Consider the case where Vgs = 0 and drain. source and bulk are connected to ground .

Static Behavior Under these conditions (no channel). (ii) accumulation of -ve charge (inversion) . high resistance between source and drain (107 Ω) If now the gate voltage (VGS) is increased. gate and substrate form plates of a capacitor with oxide as dielectric +ve gate voltage causes +ve charge on gate and -ve charge on the substrate side In substrate it occurs in two steps (i) depletion of mobile holes. source and drain are connected by back to back diodes having 0 V bias (no conduction) Hence.

where surface inverts to n-type (start of strong inversion) Further VGS increase does not increase the depletion width but increases electrons in the inversion layer Threshold Voltage where VT = VT 0 + γ [ − 2ΦF + VSB − − 2ΦF ] where γ = 2qεsiNA COX VT is +ve for NMOS and -ve for PMOS devices . potential at the interface reaches a critical value.At certain Vgs.

the voltage is V(x) and gate to channel voltage at that point is VGS -V(x) .Current-Voltage Relationship When VGS >VT Let at any point along the channel.

If the Vgs -V(x) >VT for all x. the induced channel charge per unit area at x Qi ( x) = −COX [Vgs − V ( x) − VT ] Current is given by I D = − υ ( x ) Q i ( x )W The electron velocity is given by υ n = − µ nE ( x ) = µ n Therefore. dV dx IDdx = µnCOXW (Vgs − V − VT )dV Integrating the equation over the length L yields 2 W Vds ] ID = K ' n [(Vgs − VT )Vds − 2 L 2 Vds ] ID = Kn[(Vgs − VT )Vds − 2 or .

VDS ≤ VT Under these conditions. then transistors is said to be in triode or linear region Replacing Vds by Vgs -VT in the current equation we get. the pinched-off condition in the vicinity of drain is VGS . then at some x. transistor is in the saturation region If a complete channel exists between source and drain.K’n is known as the process trans-conductance parameter and equals K ' n = µnCOX = µn εox tox If the VGS is further increased.V(x) <VT and that point the channel disappears and transistor is said to be pinched-off Close to drain no channel exists. Vgs . MOS current-voltage relationship in saturation region K'n W ID = (Vgs − VT ) 2 2 L .

a more accurate equation is given as ID = K'n W (Vgs − VT ) 2 [1 + λVds ] 2 L ID (mA) 2 Triode VGS = 5V Saturation VGS = 4V 1 VGS = 3V VGS = 2V VGS = 1V 0.0 3.0 2.010 Subthreshold Current 0.0 0.0 1.0 2. the position of pinch-off point and hence the effective channel length is a function of Vds.0 VGS (V) (b) √ID as a function of V GS (for VDS = 5V).020 ÷ √ID VDS = V GS-VT Square Dependence where is an empirical constant parameter called channel length modulation factor 0.0 VT1. 3.0 VDS (V) (a) ID as a function of V DS 5.0 .This equation is not entirely correct.0 4.

Dynamic Behavior G CGS CGD D S CGB CSB B CDB .

L. therefore. the tox From current equation it is apparent that Cox should be high or gate oxide thickness should be small Gate capacitance consists of several components Source and drain diffusions extend below the thin oxide (lateral diffusion) giving rise to overlap capacitance . W and length. its dynamic response is determined by time to (dis)charge various capacitances MOS capacitances Gate oxide capacitance: COX = per unit area.Dynamic Behavior MOS transistor is a unipolar (majority carrier) device. εox gate = C WL for a transistor of width.

MOS Overlap Capacitance ❍ Source and drain diffusions extend below the thin oxide (lateral diffusion) giving rise to overlap capacitance ❍ Xd is constant for a technology and this capacitance is linear and has a fixed value CgsO = CgdO = CoxXdW = CoW .

Average Gate Capacitance Different distributions of gate capacitance for varying operating conditions Most important regions in digital design: saturation and cut-off .

Diffusion Capacitance .

The Sub-Micron MOS Transistor Short Channel Effects • Threshold Variations • Parasitic Resistances • Velocity Sauturation and Mobility Degradation • Subthreshold Conduction • Latchup .

Threshold Variations VT VT Long-channel threshold L Threshold as a function of the length (for low VDS ) Low VDS threshold VDS Drain-induced barrier lowering (for low L) .

Parasitic Resistances Polysilicon gate LD G Drain contact D S RS W VGS.eff RD Drain With transistor scaling. junctions are made shallower & contacts windows are made smaller while their depth is increased Technology and design objective is to reduce source-drain resistance Often source drain regions are covered by titanium or tungsten (silicidation) to reduce the resistance .

5 E (V/ µm) (a) Velocity saturation µn (cm2 /Vs) υn (cm/sec) Variation in I-V Characteristics 700 µn0 250 0 Et (V/ µm) 100 (b) Mobility degradation .υsat = 107 constant velocity Constant mobility (slope = µ) Esat = 1.

as transistor scales. the carrier velocity saturates. Evertical can not be ignored Carrier mobility is decreased as vertical electric field is increased . 104/micron). as a consequence IDSAT = υsatCoxW (Vgs − VDsat − VT ) ■ In long channel MOSFET we also assumed that there is no vertical electric field However.Variation in I-V Characteristics ■ While developing the I-V equation we assumed that carrier velocity is proportional to E However. as E = Esat (approx.

0 1.0 ID (mA) VG S = 4 1.5 VG S = 2 VG S = 1 0.5 ID (mA) VG S = 3 0.Variation in I-V Characteristics 1.0 VDS (V) 4.0 2.0 (a) ID a s a function of V DS 5.0 Line a r De p e n d e n c e VG S = 5 0 0.5 0.0 V G S (V) (b) ID a s a function of V G S (for VDS = 5 V).0 1.0 2.0 3.0 . Line ar De pe ndence o n VGS 3.

Sub-Threshold Conduction 10−2 ln(ID) (A) 10−4 Linear region 10−6 10−8 10−10 10−120.0 VGS (V) 2.0 3.0 .0 Subthreshold exponential region VT 1.

Latchup VDD + p + n + n + p Rnwell + p n-well Rpsubs + VD D n p-source Rnwell p-substrate (a) Origin of latchup n-source Rpsubs (b) Equivalent circuit .

Very Simple Level 2: Physical Model .SPICE MODELS Level 1: Long Channel Equations .Simple and Popular .Based on curve fitting to measured devices Level 4 (BSIM): Emperical .Includes Velocity Saturation and Threshold Variations Level 3: Semi-Emperical .


SPICE Parameters for Parasitics .

8 micron ❍ However for lower geometries. higher electric field resulted in poor device reliability .. VDD) after the scaling is same as before ❍ This method of scaling is followed till 0.Technology Scaling & CMOS Ever since ICs were invented. dimensions are scaled to ❍ Integrated more transistors in the same area ❍ Allow higher operational speed ■ Scaling has profound impact on many aspects of ICs ■ Constant Voltage Scaling ❍ All device dimensions are scaled by a factor S ❍ Voltage (i.e.

Technology Evolution .

Process Variations Devices parameters vary between runs and even on the same die! Variations in the process parameters. These are caused by nonuniform conditions during the deposition and/or the diffusion of the impurities. oxide thicknesses. mainly resulting from the limited resolution of the photolithographic process. and diffusion depths. This causes (W/L) variations in MOS transistors and mismatches in the emitter areas of bipolar devices. . such as impurity concentration densities. Variations in the dimensions of the devices. This introduces variations in the sheet resistances and transistor parameters such as the threshold voltage.

90 1.Impact of Device Variations 2.30 1.10 2.50 –0.50 1.70 1.80 –0.90 –0.10 Delay (nsec) Delay (nsec) 1.20 1.70 –0.70 1.40 1.50 1.90 1.60 –0.50 VTp (V) Delay of Adder circuit as a function of variations in L and VT .10 1.60 Leff (in mm) 1.