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UNITED STATES HISTORY

:
From 1775 to 2000
A Manual for Students in HSTAA 101

Professor Quintard Taylor
Department of History
University of Washington
Fall 2004

Not to know what happened before one was born is to always remain a child.
--Cicero

We are raising a generation of young people who are historically illiterate to a
large degree. Everything we have--our institutions, our material
advantages, our laws, our freedom, not to say our poetry...music
and...architecture--all comes to us from people who went before us. And
to not know anything about them, to be indifferent to them, which is even
worse than being ignorant...is...really...mass ingratitude.
--David McCullough

TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION.............................................................................................................
COURSE SYLLABUS......................................................................................................
Reading Assignments.........................................................................................................
Required Short Papers........................................................................................................ 11
Optional Research Paper....................................................................................................
Optional Book Review Assignment.................................................................................... 13
CHAPTER ONE: ESTABLISHING THESE UNITED STATES.............................
Terms for Week 1................................................................................................................
THE MAYFLOWER COMPACT, 1620...............................................................................
GROWTH OF A COLONY: MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY.......................................
GOVERNMENT: THE PRIVILEGES OF KINGS...............................................................
JOHN LOCKE: "CIVIL SOCIETY" CHALLENGES MONARCHY....................................
REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT: TWO VIEWS........................................................
VOTING REGULATIONS IN COLONIAL AMERICA.......................................................
RUM AND DEMOCRACY...................................................................................................
CONNECTICUT'S "BLUE LAWS".....................................................................................
DINNER IN COLONIAL AMERICA..................................................................................
PATRICK HENRY: "GIVE ME LIBERTY"........................................................................
BOSTONIANS CALL FOR INDEPENDENCE..................................................................
THE "BATTLE" OF CONCORD.........................................................................................
THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION: A LOYALIST VIEW...................................................
ABIGAIL TO JOHN ADAMS: REMEMBER THE LADIES..............................................
CAPTAIN PIPE ADDRESSES THE BRITISH...................................................................
LORD DUNMORE'S PROCLAMATION...........................................................................
COLONEL TYE: BLACK LOYALIST LEADER..................................................................
JAMES OTIS AND THOMAS JEFFERSON ON SLAVERY..............................................
YELLOW FEVER IN PHILADELPHIA..............................................................................
DEATH OF A FOUNDING FATHER.................................................................................
CHAPTER TWO: DEMOCRACY EXPANDED, DEMOCRACY TESTED...............
33
Terms for Week 2...............................................................................................................
THE MONROE DOCTRINE..............................................................................................
THE EXTENSION OF VOTING RIGHTS..........................................................................
PRESIDENTIAL VOTING, 1824-1844..............................................................................
THE LOG CABIN CANDIDATE.........................................................................................
MANIFEST DESTINY: TWO VIEWS................................................................................
THE INDIAN REMOVAL ACT..........................................................................................
INDIAN REMOVAL: AN INDIAN VIEW..........................................................................
THE TRAIL OF TEARS: ONE STATE'S APOLOGY.........................................................
WESTWARD MIGRATION: SETTLEMENT ON THE FRONTIER.................................
THE ATTRACTIONS OF FRONTIER ILLINOIS..............................................................
PUBLIC LANDS: TERMS OF SALE, 1785-1820...............................................................
WESTERN MIGRATION TO 1840....................................................................................

A FRONTIER FARM..........................................................................................................
THE FOURTH OF JULY ON THE OVERLAND TRAIL...................................................
IMMIGRATION TO THE UNITED STATES, 1820-1860.................................................
EAST FROM CHINA: THE ORIGINS OF CHINESE AMERICA.....................................
PORTLAND'S CHINATOWN............................................................................................
REV. CHARLES FINNEY ON THE OBLIGATION OF THE CHURCH...........................
HENRY DAVID THOREAU, "CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE"..................................................
HORACE MANN ON PUBLIC SCHOOLS.........................................................................
ANTI-CATHOLICISM IN AMERICA................................................................................
THE LOWELL GIRLS........................................................................................................
FACTORY REGULATIONS IN LOWELL...........................................................................
AMERICAN URBANIZATION TO 1860...........................................................................
THE GRIMKE SISTERS ON THE RIGHTS OF WOMEN................................................
THE SENECA FALLS CONVENTION...............................................................................
CHAPTER THREE: AMERICAN SLAVERY............................................................
Terms for Week 3...............................................................................................................
SLAVERY IN THE SOUTH, 1860......................................................................................
TWO VIEWS OF SLAVERY...............................................................................................
A NORTHERNER'S ATTITUDE TOWARD SLAVERY.....................................................
SLAVERY AND SOCIAL CONTROL.................................................................................
SLAVERY'S IMPACT ON RACE AND GENDER ROLES.................................................
A TEXAS SLAVE'S LETTER TO HER HUSBAND, 1862.................................................
SLAVE AND FREE BLACKS IN INDIAN TERRITORY...................................................
RUNAWAY SLAVES IN MEXICO......................................................................................
THE MORMONS AND BLACK SLAVERY........................................................................
THE DEBATE OVER CALIFORNIA..................................................................................
THE COMPROMISE OF 1850: TWO VIEWS...................................................................
ABOLITIONISTS-GARRISON AND DOUGLASS.............................................................
A FUGITIVE SLAVE RESPONDS TO HIS OWNER.........................................................
OREGON TERRITORY BANS AFRICAN AMERICANS..................................................
BRIDGET "BIDDY" MASON IN SLAVERY AND FREEDOM..........................................
BLEEDING KANSAS--ONE SOUTHERNER'S VIEW......................................................
THE DRED SCOTT DECISION..........................................................................................
JOHN BROWN'S LAST SPEECH, November 2, 1859......................................................
LINCOLN'S POLITICS.......................................................................................................
THE REPUBLICAN PARTY PLATFORM, 1860...............................................................
THE PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION OF 1860......................................................................
CHAPTER FOUR: THE CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION........................
Terms for Week 4...............................................................................................................
AMERICA'S BLOODIEST WAR........................................................................................
SECESSION--ONE PLANTER'S VIEW.............................................................................
THE SECESSION CRISIS, 1860-1861...............................................................................
A SOUTHERN WOMAN DEFENDS SECESSION...........................................................
RESOURCES OF THE UNION AND THE CONFEDERACY, 1861..................................
THE EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION........................................................................

THE NEW YORK DRAFT RIOT, AN EYEWITNESS ACCOUNT.....................................
RELUCTANT LIBERATORS: NORTHERN TROOPS IN THE SOUTH..........................
HARD TIMES IN THE CONFEDERACY..........................................................................
A SOLDIER WITH SHERMAN'S ARMY..........................................................................
A CONFEDERATE SUPPORTER DESCRIBES THE FALL OF RICHMOND.................
THE FALL OF RICHMOND: A BLACK SOLDIER'S PERSPECTIVE..............................
FELIX HAYWOOD REMEMBERS THE DAY OF JUBLIO..............................................
JUNETEENTH: BIRTH OF AN AFRICAN AMERICAN HOLIDAY................................
THE POST WAR SOUTH-A DEFEATED PLANTER LOOKS BACK...............................
"SEND ME SOME OF THE CHILDREN'S HAIR"............................................................
"IMPUDENT" FREEDWOMEN........................................................................................
PRESIDENT JOHNSON MEETS BLACK LEADERS.......................................................
RECONSTRUCTION AMENDMENTS, 1866-1870..........................................................
RECONSTRUCTION AMENDMENTS: OREGON'S RESPONSE....................................
BLACK VOTING RIGHTS: OTHER VIEWS FROM THE FAR WEST.............................
HELENA CITIZENS CELEBRATE THEIR NEW RIGHTS..............................................
THE BLACK CODES..........................................................................................................
THADDEUS STEVENS DEMANDS BLACK SUFFRAGE...............................................
READMISSION OF EX-CONFEDERATE STATES..........................................................
SOUTH CAROLINA UNDER BLACK GOVERNMENT...................................................
A DEBATE OVER PUBLIC SCHOOLS.............................................................................
BEN TILLMAN JUSTIFIES RECONSTRUCTION VIOLENCE.......................................
CHAPTER FIVE: INDUSTRIALIZING AMERICA................................................
Terms for Week 5...............................................................................................................
RAILROADS AND WESTERN LANDS: San Luis Obispo...............................................
ROCKEFELLER JUSTIFIES RAILROAD REBATES......................................................
ROCKEFELLER BREAKS A COMPETITOR....................................................................
WILLIAM GRAHAM SUMNER ON TRADE UNIONS....................................................
THE ROAD TO BUSINESS SUCCESS..............................................................................
CARNEGIE AND MORGAN: A CONVERSATION ABOUT STEEL.................................
CHANGING WORLD INDUSTRIAL BALANCE, 1860-1980...........................................
THE SHERMAN ANTI-TRUST ACT, 1890.......................................................................
NUMBER OF TRUSTS FORMED, 1891-1903..................................................................
MAJOR INDUSTRIAL TRUSTS, 1904..............................................................................
J. P. MORGAN DENIES A MONEY TRUST.....................................................................
THE TRUSTS: A CRITICAL VIEW....................................................................................
WORK AND POVERTY......................................................................................................
HENRY WARD BEECHER: THE WORKER'S STANDARD OF LIVING........................
DOMESTIC SERVICE--ONE WOMAN'S ACCOUNT.......................................................
WOMEN'S WORK AND WORKING WOMEN, 1900.......................................................
CHILD LABOR IN 19TH CENTURY AMERICA..............................................................
AMERICAN URBANIZATION, 1860-1900......................................................................
A LETTER FROM ELLIS ISLAND....................................................................................
FOREIGN-BORN POPULATION OF THE U. S., 1870-1900..........................................
FOREIGN-BORN IN THE TWENTY LARGEST CITIES, 1900.......................................
TWO VIEWS OF URBAN AMERICA................................................................................

.................................. RUMBLES OF REVOLUTION.............................. 1917.......................... JAPANESE FASCISM: ONE INSIDER'S VIEW.................................. MAJOR NEW DEAL AGENCIES..................................................................... A DISCONTENTED WIFE...... HENRY CLEWS OPPOSES THE ORGANIZATION OF LABOR.......... CHAPTER SEVEN: THE GREAT DEPRESSION AND THE NEW DEAL ................................................................ WILLIAM JENNINGS BRYAN'S CROSS OF GOLD SPEECH....................................... THE NEW DEAL: OPPOSING VIEWS................ OATH OF THE AMERICAN PROTECTIVE ASSOCIATION................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. CALIFORNIA DREAMING IN THE DEPRESSION.................................... THE NEW DEAL: THE FIRST HUNDRED DAYS................ MARY ELLEN LEASE RALLIES KANSAS............................... ADVERTISING AND CONSUMER SOCIETY............................................................................................................ PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT'S SECOND INAUGURAL ADDRESS............................................................ Terms for Week 7................................................................................................................................................... ................................................... THE POPULIST PARTY PLATFORM........................................................................ FREDERICK DOUGLAS DESCRIBES THE "COMPOSITE NATION"................................................................................ BOSS RULE IN PHILADELPHIA................................................................................... THOMAS WATSON AND BLACK VOTERS................................................................................... 2002.................................................................................. SAMUEL GOMPERS DESCRIBES TRADE UNIONS........................................................................................................................................... THE UNEMPLOYMENT CRISIS........... Terms for Week 6....................................................................... BOSS PLUNKITT DEFENDS HONEST GRAFT.................................................................................. MAJOR PROGRESSIVE ACHIEVEMENTS......... EIGHT DEAD AT REPUBLIC STEEL....... THE FIRST RED SCARE................................................................................................................................................... CHAPTER SIX: INDUSTRIALIZATION'S CRITICS..... WARTIME HYSTERIA........ A FARMER'S GRIEVANCE.......... MAJOR U....................... HITLER AND THE JEWS........... "THE WAVE OF THE FUTURE": AN AMERICAN SUPPORTS ISOLATION.................................................................................................. HUEY LONG: AMERICAN DICTATOR................... CORPORATIONS.................................................................................................................................................................................................. POWDERLY AND THE KNIGHTS OF LABOR.................................................................................... LOUIS BRANDEIS INDICTS INTERLOCKING DIRECTORATES................. 1900-1920......... HITLER'S VIEWS: TERROR...................................................S............................................................................ AND THE MASTER RACE................ COLLEGE STUDENTS AND THE GREAT DEPRESSION............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... THE STOCK MARKET CRASH.............................. ORGANIZING A FILIPINO UNION........................................................................ 1890........................................ THE "REAL" JUNGLE.....TENEMENT LIFE IN NEW YORK CITY..................................... GERMANY UNDER THE NAZIS.................................................................... WHAT FARM PROBLEM?........................ TERENCE V.. BOSSES AND POLITICAL MACHINES...

................. BLACKS......................................................................................................................................... THE INTERNMENT OF THE JAPANESE................................................................................................ WASHINGTON............................. ONE SOLDIER'S STORY: WALTER HIGGANS IN EUROPE............................................................................................................................................................................................................... CHINA............................................................ Terms for Week 9.............................................................................................................................. McCARTHYISM............................................................................................................................ MARTIAN INVASION.................. TEENAGE OPINIONS IN THE 1950s.. STALIN CALLS FOR A SECOND FRONT................... JOHN F............................................................................................................................................... CAMP HARMONY................................................. INCIDENT IN THE GULF OF TONKIN................... TERROR AND THE COLD WAR...................................... TOTALITARIANISM: IDEALISM................. MURDER IN MISSISSIPPI. PRESIDENT EISENHOWER SENDS TROOPS TO LITTLE ROCK............................................ROOSEVELT ON THE THREAT OF WAR................................................................................................... BROWN V... SOVIET-AMERICAN TENSION IN WORLD WAR II. MONICA SONE DESCRIBES THE EVACUATION....................... LEVITTOWN: UP FROM THE POTATO FIELDS.................... WORLD WAR II: SEATTLE'S ECONOMY TRANSFORMED................... WHITES................ NISEI SOLDIERS IN EUROPE....................... ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... SOVIET-AMERICAN RELATIONS: A DISSENTING VIEW........................................... 1950.... 1989: TIANANMEN SQUARE IN PERSPECTIVE................. KENNEDY AND THE COLD WAR.. A SENATOR SPEAKS UP (1950)..................... THE RED SCARE: THE TRUMAN ADMINISTRATION LOYALTY OATH................................................................................................................................................................................................... LYN CHILDS CONFRONTS A RACIST ACT.................................................... HIROSHIMA: DAY ONE OF THE NUCLEAR AGE........................................................................ VIETNAM-A PROTESTER'S VIEW.............................. WEST COAST SHIPYARDS.......................................................................................................................................................... 1938..... LETTER FROM A BIRMINGHAM JAIL.................................................... 1957.................................................................................... BILLY JOEL'S "LENINGRAD"......................................................................................... ASIANS IN WORLD WAR II HAWAII................................................................................................................... BOEING AND THE LIBERATION OF INEZ SAUER.......... LETTERS FROM MISSISSIPPI................ CHAPTER EIGHT: WORLD WAR TWO AND THE COLD WAR.. HANFORD AND THE BOMB................................................ DISILLUSIONMENT................................................ THE ZOOT SUIT RIOT............. TOPEKA BOARD OF EDUCATION............................................. Terms for Week 8........................................................................................ CHAPTER NINE: THE RISE AND FALL OF LIBERALISM........................................................................ RED SCARE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON.............................................................................. THE WORLD THE SECOND WORLD WAR CREATED............... COMPROMISE............... VIETNAM--A SOLDIER'S VIEW............................. THE END OF THE COLD WAR.............................. SEGREGATION IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS................................... LETTER FROM YUGOSLAVIA.....................................................

. 9/11 247 APPENDIX....... THE E-MAIL "REVOLUTION" BEGINS..................................... These aids include vignettes which are usually statements by important historical figures or commentary by observers of critical events and episodes in the history of African American people in the United States.......................................... These terms reflect some critical event or development for a particular period of United States History or refer to a concept which .................................................................................................................................. or which explain and clarify the organization and requirements of the course...................................................................................... 1967......................................... AND IMPEACHMENT............... AND THE POLITICS OF OIL..................... THE WEST........................................... 1940-1979..................................................................................................................... 1788-2000................................249 INTRODUCTION I have assembled in this booklet instructional aids which will help enhance your understanding of the lectures and readings for this course................... AMERICAN AND JAPANESE AUTOS IN THE 1990s...... THE WHITE BACKLASH.................... NATIONAL BACKGROUNDS OF IMMIGRANTS.............................................. United States History............. 1775-2000......................................................................249 GROWTH OF THE FEDERAL UNION.............................................................................................. THE UW BLACK STUDENT UNION........................... LIES........BERKELEY: THE FREE SPEECH MOVEMENT............................................... SEX.................................................................... statistical tables and information sheets............................................................................................................................................................... WATERGATE.............................................................. OPEC... THE EQUAL RIGHTS AMENDMENT AND ROE V............................... "TIO TACO IS DEAD"................. MARTIN LUTHER KING AND THE FBI....... STOKLEY CARMICHAEL ON BLACK LIBERATION................................... DREAMS OF PROSPERITY: NEWPORT AND LATINO IMMIGRATION.............................................................. THE INTERNET.............. HOSTAGE CRISIS IN IRAN...................................................... THE IMMIGRATION ACT OF 1965........ WADE.. IMMIGRATION TO THE UNITED STATES....... AMERICAN URBANIZATION....................................................................................... TERRORISM IN THE 1990s....................... 1790-2000............... THE COMPUTER AGE ARRIVES................................................................................. NOW'S CALL FOR ACTION.................... PRESIDENT JOHNSON PROPOSES THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT.......................................................................................................................................... ASIAN AMERICAN POLITICAL ACTIVISM SINCE 1965.......................................................................................... "GREED IS GOOD": THE 1980s..........................................................249 POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES..................................................... Also included are lists of weekly terms introduced and emphasized during the lectures or discussed in the assigned readings.................... 1980-2000. GAY RIGHTS: FROM STONEWALL TO SAN FRANCISCO.......... 1820-1979.......................................................... CHANGING ATTITUDES TOWARD GOVERNMENT.....

washington. If you have any questions about any of the information presented in this manual please contact me during my office hours which are listed on your course syllabus. Mr. when those themes have been . opportunity.edu. COURSE SYLLABUS UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON Department of History Fall. The teaching assistants for this class are Mr. and Mr. justice and equality. 10:30-11:30 Email: qtaylor@u.washington.will help you better understand the historical process. however. Since I will randomly choose some of the terms for your midterm and final exams you should learn the definition and historical significance of each of them. Quintard Taylor Office: Smith 316-A Phone: (206) 543-5698 Office Hours: MTuWTh. My email address is qtaylor@u.edu UNITED STATES HISTORY HSTAA 101 COURSE REQUIREMENTS The history of United States has been a paradox of triumph and tragedy as Americans over three centuries have continuously confronted each other over the meaning of democracy. the 1830s.edu.edu. All of the instructional materials are arranged in the approximate order in which they will be discussed during the quarter. One final note: you should view the materials in this manual not simply as additional information you will have to learn for the exams but as data that will help you better comprehend and assimilate the varied issues addressed in the lectures and textbook reading assignments. My office hours for Winter 2003 are 10:30-11:30 MTuWTh. the era of industrialization.washington. It will. Joseph Wycoff jwycoff@u. World War II and the 1960s.washington. Due to its ten week duration. My office is Smith 316-A and my office phone number is (206) 543-5698.washington. They will provide you with their office hours and office phone numbers.edu. Brian Barnes bribarne@u. the Civil War and Reconstruction. identify and examine critical periods such as the revolutionary era. Fred Brown fbrown@u. 2004 Instructor: Prof. Those terms not specifically discussed in class will be explained in your textbooks or the manual so it is particularly important that you do all of the assigned reading. this course cannot possibly present a detailed examination of the American historical experience.

All readings other than those from purchased texts are on reserve. However you must notify your Teaching Assistant of your intentions by the end of the second week of the term.washington. 6th.edu fbrown@u. Ca. UNITED STATES HISTORY from 1775 to 2000: A Manual for Students in HSTAA 101 This manual is online at http://faculty. The schedule for the short papers appears in the weekly assignment section below.washington. Research on Pacific Northwest history topics is especially encouraged. Johnson. Those students who perform poorly on the midterm exam (69 or below) have the option of writing a book review to offset that grade. and 9th weeks of the term. The room will be announced later. James M. The completed research paper should be handed in by Wednesday of final exam week. Paul E. on the last Friday of instruction during the quarter.washington. The challenges continue through this day. However we can take full advantage of our current vantage point to examine how this nation's past has prepared all of us in varied ways for our contemporary world. The optional paper must be supported by research in primary sources.challenged and tested. Murrin.m. we shall try to answer that question during this quarter. As the need arises I may add other articles to the reserve room holdings.edu/qtaylor/ Teaching Assistants: Brian Barnes Fred Brown Joseph Wycoff bribarne@u. In that case I ask them to take a makeup exam scheduled for 5:00-6:00 p. Power: A History of the American People (Belmont. ______________________________________________________ Required Textbook: John M.washington. Emily S. Equality.: Wadsworth/Thomson.edu jwycoff@u. The midterm is scheduled for the end of the fifth week. Since the makeup exam will be penalized 10 points on a 100 point exercise. Is the battle for democracy. Liberty. You also have the option of writing a 10 page research paper in lieu of the three short papers. Rosenberg and Norman Rosenberg. Gary Gerstle. Some students will be unable to take the midterm exam with the rest of the class. McPherson. These papers will be due by Friday at noon of the 3rd. 2004) Quintard Taylor. justice and equality over? Using a variety of historians and history sources. Should you choose to write the . a final examination (40%) and three short papers of 4-5 pages (10% each) describing and assessing a crucial period in United States history. Examinations/Grading: Your course grade is based on three exercises: a midterm exam (30%).edu Supplemental Readings: I have placed on reserve in Odegaard Undergraduate Library additional readings which will help explain the history of the United States. all students should make every effort to take the exam at its scheduled time.

explained why. Chapters 15-17 Taylor. Chapter 3 First Short Paper Due Week 4: The Civil War and Reconstruction Murrin. Please read the page titled Optional Book Review Assignment in the manual before initiating your review. Chapter 6 Second Short Paper Due Week 7: The Great Depression and the New Deal Murrin. Chapter 7 Week 8: World War II and the Cold War World . Chapter 21 Taylor. Thus if your overall average is 76 your course grade will be the numerical equivalent of a "C" in the UW grading system. Chapter 5 MIDTERM EXAM Week 6: Industrialization's Critics Murrin. your grade will be lowered accordingly. and you have not. Chapter 11 Taylor. "C"=75. Chapters 5-6 Taylor. "C+"=78. Chapter 25 Taylor. handed in an assigned paper or otherwise met the course requirements. I do not issue "incompletes" to students who by the end of the quarter have not taken an exam. Reading Assignments Week 1: Establishing these United States Murrin. etc. Chapter 4 Week 5: Industrializing America Murrin. I will also assign a numerical score for your research paper.review. Chapter 1 Week 2: Democracy Expanded. Chapter 2 Week 3: American Slavery Murrin. Democracy Tested Murrin. Your numerical scores will then be averaged to determine your course grade. Since each exam is worth up to 100 points I will average your numerical score. If you have not completed all of the course requirements by the end of exam week. 19-20 Taylor. My grading procedures are simple. by that point. it can be handed in no later than the Friday of the eighth week of the term. Chapters 13-14 Taylor.

Chapter 8 Week 9: The Rise and Fall of Liberalism. 1775-2000 As indicated above each student in HISTAA 101 will write three short papers describing and assessing episodes or events in United States history that reflected one of the themes of the course. A paper on Reconstruction or the New Deal could explore the meaning of democracy in America. Wednesday.Murrin. December 15 Required Short Papers United States History. Your papers will be due by Friday at noon of the 3rd. answer that question. actually illustrated the opportunity sought. Final Examination is scheduled for 8:30-10:20 a. 1775-2000 Your research paper should explore in depth some important issue or topic in American History between 1775 and 2000.m. The arguments you advance in your short papers must be supported by evidence from the textbook. opportunity.S. Similarly one could take the examples of the 19th Century debates over women's suffrage or business monopoly or the 20th Century conflict over affirmative action or federal subsidies to agriculture (or business) to explore themes of justice or equality. Chapters 26-27 Taylor. 31 Taylor. pose a question and. Optional Research Paper United States History. 1960-1990 Murrin. For example. Chapter 9 Third Short Paper Due Week 10: The United States into the 21st Century No reading assignment. prepare for the final exam. When you use this evidence be sure to cite it in footnotes or endnotes. For example a brief paper on 19th Century Irish immigration or 20th Century Filipino immigration to the United States could analyze the theme of opportunity. Avoid describing some individual or episode. Instead. 6th. justice and equality. Chapters 28. Thus you should not simply write a paper on Abraham Lincoln's Presidency as much as you should focus on a particular historical problem related to the individual and the era. democracy. manual and other scholarly sources in United States history. and 9th weeks of the term. Here your paper should not simply "celebrate" the concept but should critically analyze both its meaning for the newcomers and whether the historical experiences of the immigrants in the U. could Lincoln have prevented Southern secession? How did . given the resources at your disposal.

Suggested Topic Areas Loyalists and the American Revolution Antebellum Industrialization: Pittsburgh and Lowell Compared The Jeffersonian Ideal Henry Grady and the New South The Civil Rights Movement.Lincoln's racial beliefs affect his emancipation policy? Your paper should be no more than ten typewritten pages including bibliography and it should conform to Turabian's.S. Foreign Policy since 1950 John D. The completed paper should be handed in by the last regularly scheduled class meeting of the Quarter. I will not accept research papers presented to me after that date. 1954-1965 Populism and Progressivism Compared Women in the American Revolution Andrew Carnegie and the Gospel of Wealth The Abortion Debate The Rise and Decline of Organized Labor in America The Cuban Missile Crisis Elizabeth Cady Stanton and the 19th Century Feminist Movement 19th and 20th Century Immigration Compared The CIA and U. Rockefeller and Bill Gates Compared The Reagan Revolution and Modern Conservatism The West and the Civil War The End of the Cold War . You should include at least ten sources in your bibliography and each source should have a corresponding footnote or endnote in the text. A Manual for Writers (latest edition). Please give me a one page outline which includes your major research question and a selected bibliography showing the books and articles you have already consulted by the seventh Friday of the Quarter.

I recommend that you devote the first three pages to a review of the book itself and the remaining two pages to respond to the four guidelines.Hollywood and History in Washington The Women’s Suffrage Campaign Boeing Aircraft Company and the Cold War Revolution Women and the American Optional Book Review Assignment United States History. 3. As with most standard book "reviews. 4." you will describe the book's major thesis or argument. I will not accept untyped book reviews submitted as an email attachment or faxed document. 2. Remember. and include specific reasons for your decision. Also not eligible are regularly assigned textbooks for any other history courses you are currently taking. collectively they are as important to your overall review grade as the report on the contents of the work. 1994) You may choose almost any book on United States history except the ones that are primarily textbooks. Describe how the book reinforced or challenged ideas about American history that you have learned from the assigned readings. State whether you would recommend the book to others. and the discussions. Your review should be approximately five typewritten pages. 1775-2000 As I indicated on the first day of class. Discuss the most important new information you learned about American history from the book. The Forging of a Black Community: Seattle's Central District from 1870 through the Civil Rights Era (Seattle: University of Washington Press. 1. . 1.500 words for those of you who use computers. The first page of each review should have information on the book which appears as follows: Quintard Taylor. Assess whether you were convinced by the author's argument. my lectures. you have the option of writing a book review to offset a low midterm exam grade. But I also request that you follow these guidelines in your assignment. Please number your pages.

Unless prior permission has been granted. no book review will be accepted after the due date.You should present your choice either via email or on a sheet of paper to one of the Teaching Assistants by the eighth Friday of the term: Friday. The completed book review should be handed in by Friday. November 18. December 9. CHAPTER ONE: ESTABLISHING THESE UNITED STATES Terms for Week 1 creed of political equality patriarchy Bacon's Rebellion deference John Locke "tyranny of the majority" "blue laws" Bill of Rights Boston Massacre Loyalists Shay’s Rebellion Colonel Tye Abigail Adams Captain Pipe Stamp Act Crisis The Philadelphia Convention Common Sense Lord Dunmore's Proclamation .

Watertown. GROWTH OF A COLONY: MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY The following account describes the rapid development of the Massachusetts Bay Colony in the 17th Century. 1620 The Mayflower Compact was the first instrument of government drawn up in the English Colonies and as such reflected the tentative origins of the campaign for self-government that culminated in the American Revolution 156 years later." Source: Richard Current. Massachusetts Bay grew rapidly. Constitutions. 17. Roxbury. and Boston. and Advancement of the Christian Faith.000. the Loyal Subjects of our dread Sovereign Lord King James. By 1700. and Furtherance of the Ends aforesaid. The organization of towns was an important way for Puritan leaders to keep control of the rapidly growing population. Amen. &c. We. the deputy governor. and after that by natural increase. And by Virtue hereof do enact. which included the governor. making it one of Great Britain's most populous North American possessions. Within the first year of settlement. King. there were twenty-two. all elected annually by the freemen to organize new towns. Instead. Unlike settlers in the middle and southern colonies.THE MAYFLOWER COMPACT. This rapid population growth forced the government of Massachusetts Bay (called the General Court. Founded in 1630 by Puritans from England. to approximately 188.000 immigrants from England. for our better Ordering and Preservation. aided in its first decade by 15. of Great Britain. Acts. constitute. Charlestown. By the time Middlesex County (west of Boston) was organized in 1643. 1961). (New York: Knopf. a group of men who wanted to establish a town had to apply to the General Court for a land grant for the entire town. solemnly and mutually in the Presence of God and one another. as shall be though most meet and convenient for the general Good of the Colony.000 and by 1750. unto which we promise all due Submission and Obedience. Do by these presents. a Voyage to plant the first colony in the northern Parts of Virginia.000 to 20. such just and equal Laws. from time to time. and the Honour of our King and Country. Massachusetts Bay's population had risen to almost 56. Newtown (now Cambridge). colonists in Massachusetts Bay could not simply travel to an uninhabited area. p. and frame. Ordinances. covenant and combine ourselves together into a civil Body Politick. France and Ireland. American History: A Survey. all on the Charles River. Defender of the Faith. whose names are underwritten. select a parcel of land. Having undertaken for the Glory of God. by the Grace of God. In the name of God. and the representatives. Leaders of the prospective new town were then . and receive individual title to the land from the colonial governor. and by 1700. and Offices. the six original towns of Massachusetts Bay were laid out-Dorchester. the executive council of assistants. there were eight towns in that county alone.

529—531. to judge all.so is it sedition in subjects. but just kings will ever be willing to declare what they will do. and to make high things low at His pleasure. Source: James I. or destroy. and make of their subjects like men at the chess..selected. or down any of their subjects. And to the king is due both the affection of the soul and the service of the body of his subjects. a pawn to take a bishop or a knight. King James I. and to God are both soul and body due. if they will not incur the curse of God. p. 1 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. Kings are justly called gods. and to cry up.. NJ: 1966) JOHN LOCKE: "CIVIL SOCIETY" CHALLENGES MONARCHY . vol. GOVERNMENT: THE PRIVILEGES OF KINGS In the following account originally published in 1616. Discovering the American Past: A Look as the Evidence. Arthur S. and of death: judges over all their subjects. and the single church was organized. of England describes how royal power is divinely conveyed. eds.. or unmake at His pleasure. Works (London. but even by God himself they are called gods. eds. and to be judged nor accountable to none: to raise low things. for that they exercise a manner or resemblance of Divine power upon earth: for if you will consider the attributes to God. and abase high things. with this axiom of divinity. 1999). I will not be content that my power be disputed upon: but I shall ever be willing to make the reason appear of all my doings. In this way. and rule my actions according to my laws. make. They have power to exalt low things.. the new town's leaders apportioned the available land among the male heads of households who were church members. Becker. Source: William Bruce Wheeler and Susan D. is blasphemy. that as to dispute what God may do. I conclude then this point touching the power of kings. Link and Stanley Corbin. and casting down: of life. to give life. 1616). the Puritan leadership retained control of the fast-growing population. and yet accountable to none but God only. Leopold.. 51-52. as they do their money. you shall see how they agree in the person of a king. Having received the grant from the General Court. And the like power have kings: they make and unmake their subjects: they have power of raising. and in all causes. God hath power to create. and sit upon God's throne. reprinted in Richard W. and guaranteed that large numbers of dissenters--men and women who might divert the colony from its "holy mission" in the wilderness-would not be attracted to Massachusetts Bay. holding in common some land for grazing and other uses (hence the "town common"). ensured Puritan economic and religious domination. Problems in American History (Englewood Cliffs. The state of monarchy is the supremest thing upon earth: for kings are not only God’s lieutenants upon earth. to dispute what a king may do in the height of his power. or send death.

..by nature all free. as the public good of the society shall require. eds. to the execution whereof his own assistance. Men being. with authority to decide controversies between them and punish offenders. and there only.. and to resign it to the public. his life. there.. It simply said that anyone believing in Christianity would not be molested by the colonial government or individuals in the practice of his or her faith. Those who are united into one body. ESTABLISHING FREEDOM OF RELIGION. However taken against the backdrop of state sanctioned or favored religion in most nations and in the rest of . Man being born. which is done by agreeing with other men to join and unite into a community.between the individuals that enter into or make up a commonwealth. And this is done wherever any number of men. It did not extend that protection to non-Christians. 106-107. And thus that which. hath by nature a power not only to preserve his property—that is... For the Record: A Documentary History of America (Mew York.. equally with any other man or number of men in the world. 1649 The first act establishing freedom of religion was passed by the overwhelmingly Catholic Maryland Colonial Legislature at the request of Lord Baltimore. Source: John Locke.[gives] beginning to any lawful government in the world. in the state of nature. 1999). and independent. or else when any one joins himself to. pp. derived from English political philosopher John Locke (1632-1704)......agreeing to unite into one political society. Whosoever therefore out of a state of nature unite into a community must be understood to give up all the power necessary to the ends for which they unite into society. are in civil society one with another. no one can be put out of this estate.. and an uncontrolled enjoyment of all the rights and privileges of the law of nature. one amongst another. And this is done by. to make laws for him. one body politic under one supreme government. and peaceable living. equal.is due. or which is all one. enter into society to make one people. In 1689 Locke wrote "The Second Treatise on Civil Government" which describes the then radical concept of the right of individuals to govern themselves.. the legislative thereof. to the majority of the community. as to quit every one his executive power of the law of nature. is a political.... and subjected to the political power of another. By today’s standards the measure was limited. but to judge and punish the breaches of that law in others.. without his own consent. and have a common established law and judicature to appeal to. for their comfortable..Ironically most of the ideas which Americans eventually used to challenge the power of the British King over them. and incorporates with.actually constitutes any political society is nothing but the consent of any number of freemen capable of a majority to unite and incorporate into such a society. And this... any number of men so unite into one society. The Second Treatise of Civil Government reprinted in David E Shi and Holly A Mayer. any government already made. safe. For hereby he authorizes the society. liberty.. therefore.with a title to perfect freedom. and estate—against the injuries and attempts of other men. Wherever. or civil society.. in a secure enjoyment of their properties and a greater security against any that are not of it.

The American View: To infer. but these Descriptions comprehend only a very small Part of the Land.the colonies.” REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT: TWO VIEWS British and American political thinkers harbored vastly differing views on representative government. however his own Borough may be affected by general Dispositions. for the Right of Election is annexed to certain Species of Property. the very declaration that anyone was free to worship in the Christian faith. The Regulations Lately Made published in 1765 and the second is from the Providence Gazette. May 11. but as it is. or whether they had or had not particular Representatives there. which are denied to Birmingham and to Manchester. Their Rights and their Interests. have an equal Share in the general Representation of the Commons of Great Britain. “From Revolution to Reconstruction. but as one of that august Assembly by which all the Commons of Great Britain are represented. and are bound by the Consent of the Majority of that House. they and the Colonies and all British Subjects whatever. whether their own particular Representatives consented to or opposed the Measures there taken. shall from henceforth bee any waies troubled in the free exercise thereof…or in any way compelled to the beliefe or exercise of any other religion against his or her consent… Source: Website. ought to be the great Objects of his Attention. And for the more quiet and peaceable government of this Province. that the British members [of Parliament] . the Property. was considered a major statement of religious tolerance and the first step toward the religious freedom guaranteed by the U. and the only Rules for his Conduct. and to sacrifice these to a partial Advantage in favour of the Place where he was chosen. Be it Therefore…Ordeyned and enacted…that noe person or persons whatsoever in this Province…professing to belieive in Jesus Christ. neither are Nine Tenths of the People of Britain Electors. regardless of denomination. would be a Departure from his Duty. Documents: The Maryland Toleration Act. my lord. Old Sarum would enjoy Privileges essential to Liberty. all are virtually represented in Parliament. Part of the statute appears below: And whereas the inforceing of the conscience in matters of Religion hath frequently fallen out to be of dangerous Consequence in those commonwealths where it hath been practiced. The first is from Thomas Whately.S. and the better to preserve mutuall Love and amity amongst the inhabitants thereof. The Colonies are in exactly the same Situation: All British Subjects are really in the same. 1765) The British View: The Fact is. and to Inhabitancy in some particular Places. not as Representative of his own Constituents. and the People of this Island. that the Inhabitants of the Colonies are represented in Parliament: they do not indeed choose the Members of that Assembly. Those differences are outlined in the two passages below.. none are actually.. for every Member of Parliament sits in the House. to peculiar Franchises. if it were otherwise. Constitituion. 1649.

or the major part of them. Suppose none of the 558 members were chosen by the people. pp. and their names shall be enrolled in the roll of freemen in the Town-Clerk’s office of that town wherein they are admitted. they are not our representatives.. Is there no difference between a country's having a privilege to choose 558 members to represent them in parliament. or forty pounds personal estate in the general list of estates in that year wherein they desire to be admitted freemen. who shall stand disfranchised till by his good behavior the said Superior Court shall see cause to restore him to his franchisement or freedom again: which the said Court is empowered [sic] to do. or commit any scandalous offence. And that if any freeman of this corporation shall walk scandalously. as aforesaid.. to certify that the said persons are qualified as above said. And all such persons admitted and sworn.. and the rest of the true and absolute Lords and Proprietors of this Province. by an ocean of immense breadth. 1989). and civil conversation. by and with the advice and consent of the rest of the members of the General Assembly. and also are persons of a quiet and peaceable behavior. who are not permitted to do the least act towards their appointment.--if the Americans only had leave to send members to parliament.. as aforesaid. Connecticut: That all such inhabitants in this Colony as have accomplished the age of twenty-one years.. could such sophistry ever persuade the people of Britain that they were represented and had a share in the national councils?. on their procuring the selectmen of the town wherein such persons inhabit. and not having liberty to choose any? To turn the tables. on complaint thereof to them made. shall be freemen of this corporation. VOTING REGULATIONS IN COLONIAL AMERICA The following vignettes describe the voting laws of Connecticut and South Carolina. 90. should be represented by the British members. be admitted and made free of this corporation. Source: John M. although every man in the kingdom. Blum. could the common people be said to share in the national councils? If we are not their constituents. in case they take the oath provided by law for freemen: which oath any one assistant or justice of the peace is hereby empowered to administer in said freemen’s meeting. South Carolina: Be it enacted by his Excellency John Lord Carteret. and which is so extensive and populous. which cannot be avoided. may if they desire it. It is really a piece of mockery to tell us that a country. and have the possession of freehold estate to the value of forty shillings per annum. to disfranchise such freeman.91. who hath certain legal qualifications can vote for some one to represent him. The National Experience: A History of the United States (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. now met at .actually represent the colonies. it shall be in the power of the Superior Court in this Colony. though in unequal proportions to the several districts. Palatine. but enjoyed the right of sitting in parliament by hereditary descent. detached from Britain. or that we can have any interest in the house of commons.. because Britain is unequally represented. is such a piece of sophistry that I had half a mind to pass by the cobweb without blowing it to pieces.

for the sum of fifty pounds currant money. Candidates frequently arranged for treats to be given in their names by someone else. Leopold.Charlestown for the south and west part of this Province. 1838). 46 gallons of beer. Leopold. reprinted in Richard W. Virginia Colony in 1758. Link and Stanley Corbin. and hath been a resident and an inhabitant of the parish for which he votes for a representative for the space of six months before the date of the writs for the election that he offers to give in his vote at. Washington reflected an acceptable attitude when he wrote while arranging for the payment of large bills for liquor consumed during a Frederick County election: I hope no Exception were taken to any that voted against me but that all were alike treated and all had enough. it is what I much desired. If a candidate’s campaign was under investigation. Problems in . p. gallons of rum punch. shall be deemed a person qualified to vote for. Source: Acts and Laws of His Majesty's English Colony of Connecticut in New England (New Haven.. Freeman calculated that during a July election day in Frederick County in the year 1758.. and by the authority of the same. or shall be Able to pay taxes to the support of this government. Arthur S. that every white man (and no other) professing the Christian religion. ed. 1769). which Washington had not been able to attend. On election day the flow of liquor reached high tide. Problems in American History (Englewood Cliffs. (Columbia. and may be capable of electing a representative or representatives to serve as a member or members of the Commons House of Assembly for the parish or precinct wherein he actually is a resident. eds. 34 gallons of wine. eds. NJ: 1966). Lieutenant Charles Smith managed this business for George Washington during a campaign in Frederick County in 1758... Source: Richard W. RUM AND DEMOCRACY Influencing voters through various "enticements" is a practice older than the nation as we see in this vignette which describes George Washington's liberal distribution of rum to influence the voters of Frederick County. who has attained to the age of one and twenty years. Arthur S. 80-81. Douglas S. it was much in his favor if he could show that among his guests were some who had clearly said that they did not intend to vote for him. An itemized list of the refreshments included 28 gallons of rum. To avoid the reality as well as the appearance of corruption. III.. and hath a freehold of at least fifty acres of land. and Stanley Corbin.. 2-3. Although in this instance Washington encouraged the rum to be distributed to those inclined to vote against him as well. George Washington’s agent supplied 160 gallons to 391 voters and unnumbered hangers-on. the candidates usually made a point of having it understood that the refreshments were equally free to men of every political opinion. The Statutes at Large of South Carolina. Smith sent him receipts for itemized accounts that he had paid to five persons who had supplied refreshments for the voters. Thomas Cooper. and 2 gallons of cider royal.. 33-34. Link. Two days after the election. This amounted to more than a quart and a half a voter.

or if he be found in his hand. sixteen years of age. after legal conviction. he shall be put to death. Here are some laws from the Connecticut colony enacted in 1672 to insure proper respect for God. or so provoked them by extreme and cruel correction that they have been forced thereunto to preserve themselves from death or maiming. 106-107. 11. has or consults with a familiar spirit. CONNECTICUT'S "BLUE LAWS" By any 21st Century measure. 14. or shall curse in the like manner. If any person rise up by false witness wittingly and of purpose to take away any man's life. 10.. 1865). unless it can be sufficiently testified that the parents have been very unchristianly negligent in the education of such children. eds. 3. or highhanded blasphemy.. lay hold on him and bring him to the magistrates assembled in court. the Father. being his natural parents. pp. and will not obey their voice and chastisement. hatred. 9-10. he shall be put to death. colonial laws. were strict and severe so as to prevent any resistance to authority. and testify unto them that their son is stubborn and rebellious. nor by casualty [accident] against his will. committed upon malice. family and the Christian commonwealth. 15. or Holy Ghost. or cruelty. . he or they shall be put to death. shall have or worship any other God but the Lord God. that is. If any person shall commit any willful murder. he or she shall be put to death.. of sufficient understanding and years.such a son shall be put to death. viz. they shall be put to death. 48. 1. If any man or woman. express. For the Record: A Documentary History of America (New York. 4.American History (Englewood Cliffs. p. presumptuous. pp. he shall be put to death. enacted even in a limited democratic setting. The Laws of Connecticut (Hartford. not in a man's just and necessary defense. 2. Shi and Holly A Mayer. Son. then may his father or mother. he will not harken unto them. he shall be put to death. which will not obey the voice of his father or the voice of his mother and that when they have chastened him. ed. If any person within this colony shall blaspheme the name of God. reprinted in David E. If any man steals a man or mankind and sell him. shall curse or smite their natural father or mother. If any child or children above sixteen years old and of sufficient understanding. NJ: 1966). If any man have a stubborn or rebellious son. with direct. If any man or woman be a witch. Source: George Brinley. 1999).

my bag sleeve catched hold of the handle of the bed pan and unfortunately overset the clams. but I found that it was used by way of a chaffing dish to warm our dish of clams. but I told them I had no stomach. 2003). Inventing America: A History of the United States. and the dish began to cool before we had eat enough. and reaching over for a mug of beer that stood on the opposite side of the table. I dined upon what I never had eat in my life before-a dish of fryed clams. John's Church in Richmond [The House of Burgesses had earlier been Virginia's Royal Governor. They used neither knife. cramming down skins. or napkin because. described two meals he had on a 1744 journey from Maryland to New York." but I suppose she swore. PATRICK HENRY: "GIVE ME LIBERTY" Perhaps the most famous speech to emerge from the Revolutionary War Era is Patrick Henry's "Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death" oration before 122 delegates of the Virginia House of Burgesses who met illegally in St. The second is of a "Dutch" family in New York.. 1744 reprinted in Pauline Maier. They had no cloth upon the table..before the mechanic arts had supplied them with instruments for the luxury and elegance of life. and their mess was in a dirty. Source Gentleman's Progress: The Itinerarium of Dr. I drank some of their cider. The family said grace. President: ..muttered a scrape of Dutch of which I understood not a word except "mynheer. I stared att the novelty for some time. I suppose. fork. I looked upon this as a picture of that primitive simplicity practiced by our forefathers. The first is a dinner with a ferryboat and his family on the Susquehanna River. Henry called for armed resistance to the British. plate. Mr. at which the landlady. they had none to use. The landlady spoke both Dutch and English. The descriptions provide a glimpse into the home life of many colonial families. The landlady called for the bed pan. Lord Dunmore] on March 23. Alexander Hamilton.DINNER IN COLONIAL AMERICA Alexander Hamilton.... deep. 136. which was very good. [I] dined att one Corson's. of which shell fish there is abundance in these parts. They took such a deal of chawing that we were long at dinner. Note the numerous references to the potential political enslavement of the colonists by the British Empire. 1775. wooden dish which they evacuated with their hands. for she uttered her speech with an emphasis.stuff down the fryed clams with rye-bread and butter. I could not guess what she intended to do with it unless it was to warm her bed to go to sleep after dinner. land all. They ate a homely dish of fish without any kind of sauce. p. spoon. They desired me to eat. scales. an Annapolis physician. One day att two o'clock. 1 (New York. an inn across the Narrows from New York's Long Island. then we began to. vol.

the active. or peace so sweet. and that is the lamp of experience. we are not weak. it is to the vigilant. or give me death! Source: William Safire. sir. I have but one lamp by which my feet are guided. and in proportion to the magnitude of the subject ought to be the freedom of the debate. sir. and when a British guard shall be stationed in every house. we shall not fight our battles alone..No man thinks more highly than I do of the patriotism. we must fight! An appeal to arms and to the God of Hosts is all that is left us! They tell us. .. The question before the House is one of awful moment to this country. sir. to justify those hopes with which gentlemen have been pleased to solace themselves and the House? Sir. if. Besides. and. For my own part I consider it as nothing less than a question of freedom or slavery. But when shall we be stronger? Will it be the next week. we have remonstrated. Lend Me Your Ears: Great Speeches in History (New York. that we are weak—unable to cope with so formidable an adversary. as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery? Forbid it. let it come! Gentlemen may cry. or the next year? Will it be when we are totally disarmed. we have done everything that could be done to avert the storm which is now coming on. are invincible by any force which our enemy can send against us.. and have implored its interposition to arrest the tyrannical hands of the ministry and Parliament.. with contempt. armed in the holy cause of liberty. our remonstrances have produced additional violence and insult. therefore.. Three millions of people. 89-91. our supplications have been disregarded. sir..? Is life so dear.we must fight! I repeat it. give me liberty.. Almighty God! I know not what course others may take. if we make a proper use of the means which the God of nature hath placed in our power. but as for me. is not to the strong alone. The war is actually begun! The next gale that sweeps from the north will bring to our ears the clash of resounding arms! Our brethren are already in the field! Why stand we here idle. the brave.. This is no time for ceremony. There is no retreat but in submission and slavery! Our chains are forged! Their clanking may be heard on the plains of Boston! The war is inevitable— and let it come! I repeat it. and in such a country as that which we possess. after these things. entertaining as I do opinions of a character very opposite to theirs. we have prostrated ourselves before the throne.. There is no longer any room for hope. There is a just God who presides over the destinies of nations. 1997). from the foot of the throne. may we indulge the fond hope of peace and reconciliation. and who will raise up to fight our battles for us. as well as abilities. ‘Peace! Peace!”—but there is no peace. Our petitions have been slighted. If we wish to be free. In vain. The battle. and we have been spurned. I know of no way of judging of the future but by the past. I wish to know what there has been in the conduct of the British ministry for the last ten years. we have supplicated. I shall speak forth my sentiments freely and without reserve. p. And judging by the past.. of the very worthy gentlemen who have just addressed the House. I hope that it will not be thought disrespectful to those gentlemen.? Sir. We have petitioned. But different men often see the same subject in different lights. sir.

. Source: Stanley I. we are convinced that it is the fixed and settled determination of the King. to burn our houses. Massachusetts Colony from the perspective of Charles Hudson.W. The Prince. Loyalty to him is now treason to our country. without endangering the very existence of the state.. The hopes we placed on their exertions have long since failed. as to pass over the most pathetic and earnest appeals to their justice with an unfeeling indifference. not many years since. THE "BATTLE" OF CONCORD The account below describes the first confrontation of American militia and British soldiers at Concord. We therefore think it absolutely impracticable for these Colonies to be ever again subject to or dependant upon Great Britain. . we would most cheerfully have extended life and fortune. Kutler. 1776. and to spill our blood. for liberty. Norton and Company.I. (New York: W. April 19. Such statements at the local level paved the way for the Declaration of Independence. death. to conquer and subjugate the Colonies. He has licensed the instruments of his hostile oppressions to rob us of our property. The recollection of past injuries will perpetually keep alive the flame of jealousy. we received intelligence by express. a patriot supporter. it is not easy to appease. at Boston. He has invited every barbarous nation whom he could hope to influence. that they have never hesitated to enforce his arbitrary requisitions with the most sanguinary laws. . which will stimulate to new impositions on the one side. Esq. he has tendered the sword. We have seen his venal Parliament so basely prostituted to his designs. 1776 Between the hours of twelve and one. For the prayer of peace. in support of whose Crown and dignity.BOSTONIANS CALL FOR INDEPENDENCE On May 23. and the whole body-politick will be constantly subject to civil commotions.. to assist him in prosecuting these inhuman purposes. from the Honorable Joseph Warren. and consequent resistance on the other. 1979). In this statement they describe why a political reconciliation with Great Britain was now impossible. A spirit of resentment once raised. . We have seen the people of Great Britain so lost to every sense of virtue and honour. Looking for America: The People's History Vol. on the morning of the nineteenth of April. Ministry. we are now constrained to consider as the worst of tyrants. and for safety. and that the people there have no disposition to oppose them. p. the people of Boston called on their representatives to make preparations for independence.. 110. A reconciliation with them appears to us to be as dangerous as it is absurd..We have seen the humble petitions of these Colonies to the King of Great Britain repeatedly rejected with disdain. therefore. In short. chains. and Parliament of that Island.

were on the parade. disperse!"--or words to this effect. and gone over to ]and on Lechmere's Point (so called) in Cambridge. having seized and held prisoners several persons whom they met unarmed upon die road. and coming within 5 or 6 rods of the militia. The rest of the company. brandishing his sword and then pointing towards them. and the command was given to prime and load.. no sooner did they come in sight of our company. in sight of our militia (collecting as aforesaid) who were about 12 or 13 rods distant. "Fire! By God. and not to fire. huzza'd. "Lay down your arms! Damn you. but one of them. and that it was shrewdly suspected that they were ordered to seize and destroy the stores belonging to the colony. they halted. upon this alarming occasion. they marched on till they came up to the east end of said meeting-house. supposed to be an officer of rank. Upon this. dispersing. about half an hour after four o'clock. Immediately upon their appearing so suddenly and so nigh. or possibly more. 1: . History of The Town of Lexington. not having the most distant idea of such brutal barbarity and more than savage cruelty from the troops of a British king." Upon this intelligence. was heard to say to the troops. through divine goodness. and the drums beat to arms. About the same time. fire!"--which was instantly followed by a discharge of arms from the said troops. alarm guns were fired. with a loud voice said to the troops. who was within a few yards of our men. ye Rebels. to prevent any intelligence of their approach. who commanded the militia company. succeeded by a very heavy and close fire upon our party. (Boston. Accordingly.. in case overt acts of violence or open hostilities should be committed by this mercenary band of armed and blood-thirsty oppressors. Some. Capt. why don't you lay down your arms?" The second of these officers. and the militia were collecting together. fired a pistol towards the militia as they were dispersing. then deposited at Concord. but to consult what might be done for our own and the people's safety. to the number of about 50 or 60.. three officers (supposed to be Col. In the mean time. not with any design of commencing hostilities upon the king's troops.. Parker. others were coming towards it. which being done. the troops having thus stolen a march upon us and. The foremost. Smith. One of them (whether the same or not is not easily determined) said. as they immediately experienced! For.. were (to a miracle) preserved unhurt in this murderous action! Source: Charles Hudson. as also upon information of the conduct of the officers as above-mentioned. "Ye villains. seemed to come determined for murder and bloodshed-and that whether provoked to it or not! When within about half a quarter of a mile of the meetinghouse. one of them cried out. disperse! Damn you. "Damn them! We will have them!" Upon which the troops shouted aloud. and rushed furiously towards our men. the militia of this town were alarmed and ordered to meet on the usual place of parade.. ordered the men to disperse and take care of themselves.."that a large body of the king's troops (supposed to be a brigade of about 12 or 1500) were embarked in boats from Boston. about this time. 1913). and also to be ready for whatever service providence might call us out to. so long as any of them were within reach. Eight were left dead upon the ground! Ten were wounded. our men dispersed-but many of them not so speedily as they might have done. Major Pitcairn and another officer) advanced on horse back to the front of the body.

etc. With great esteem. a New York loyalist describes his bitterness at being forced to leave North America and take refuge in England. "Blessed is he (saith Pope) that expecteth nothing. Six vessels laden with refugees are arrived from Halifax. though significant.530. 1979). would gladly enter into a business connection anywhere consistently with decency and integrity. Charles Russell. June 10. Treasurer Gray. To Dr. and to starve is stupid. 1 (New York. and am of opinion that the happiness of it depends on restraining the violences and outrages of profligate and unprincipled men. In the following letter. 1776 Dear Sir: I congratulate you on your retreat from the land of oppression and tyranny. To beg is a meanness I wish never to be reduced to. Samuel Curwen. It is surprising what little seeming effect the loss of American orders has on the manufactories. and beyond that their hopes are vain.. little did I expect from affluence to be reduced to such rigid economy as prudence now exacts.526. THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION: A LOYALIST VIEW Loyalists deplored the American Revolution partly because they believed the political differences with Britain. or supply for present support. reprinted Stanley I. who run riot against all the laws of justice. Vassal. they have been in full employ ever since the dispute arose. did not warrant an independence movement. the latter may be kept from starving. stocks are not one jot lessened.. S. Those who bring property here may do well enough. and partly because they feared the American political Revolution might evolve into a social revolution. ed. Kutler. truth and religion. p. which I would fain preserve. one comfort. amongst whom are R. Col.. I sincerely wish well to my native country. Looking for America: The People’s History. Antigua London. will find to their cost the hand of charity very cold. the people in general little moved by it. I. nor a more interesting truth was ever uttered. vol.. business and amusements so totally engross all ranks and orders here that Administration finds no difficulty on the score to pursue their plans. old as I am. but for those who expect reimbursement for losses. I find my finances so visibly lessening that I wish I could remove from this expensive country (being heartily tired of it) and. The general disapprobation of that folly of independence which America now evidently aims at makes it a difficult part for her friends to act. The use of the property I left behind me I fear I shall never be the better for. for he shall never be disappointed". Curwen . Lechmere. etc. 97-99. as I am fast declining into the vale of life: my miseries cannot probably be of long continuance. Oliver.

Regard us then as Beings placed by providence under your protection and in imitation of the Supreme Being make use of that power only for our happiness. Remember all Men would be tyrants if they could. Kutler. which would compleatly subject Us to the Despotism of the Peticoat. but such of you as wish to be happy willingly give up the harsh title of Master for the more tender and endearing one of Friend. 1979). John to Abigail Adams: Ap. That Children and Apprentices were disobedient—that schools and Colleges were grown turbulent—that Indians slighted their Guardians and Negroes grew insolent to their Masters. We have been told that our Struggle has loosened the bands of Government every where. If particular care and attention is not paid to the Ladies we are determined to foment a Rebellion. and rather than give up this. Norton and Company. fathers. Why then. Read our Privateering Laws. illustrates that the calls for political freedom from Great Britain prompted some women to consider the constraints on their freedom imposed by their husbands. or Representation. ABIGAIL TO JOHN ADAMS: REMEMBER THE LADIES This remarkable exchange of letters between one of the most famous Revolutionary Era couples.W. 115-116. We are obliged to go fair. But your Letter was the first Intimation that another Tribe more numerous and powerful than all the rest were grown discontented. be patient. I hope General . What signifies a Word. you know they are little more than Theory. Altho they are in full Force. and softly. (New York: W. March 31 1776 I long to hear that you have declared an independancy—and by the way in the new Code of Laws which I suppose it will be necessary for you to make I desire you would Remember the Ladies. I wont blot it out. brothers and sons. Abigail to John Adams Braintree. 14.Source: Stanley I. pp. Do not put such unlimited power into the hands of the Husbands. Depend upon it. We dare not exert our Power in its full Latitude. not put it out of the power of the vicious and the Lawless to use us with cruelty and indignity with impunity. Abigail and to John Adams. —This is rather too coarse a Compliment but you are so saucy. 1776 As to Declarations of Independency. Looking For America: The People's History Vol. and be more generous and favorable to them than your ancestors. Men of Sense in all Ages abhor those customs which treat us only as the vassals of your Sex. That your Sex are Naturally Tyrannical is a Truth so thoroughly established as to admit of no dispute.I. and will not hold ourselves bound by any Laws in which we have no voice. As to your extraordinary Code of Laws. We have only the Name of Masters. and our Commercial Laws. I cannot but laugh. and in Practice you know We are the subjects. We know better than to repeal our Masculine systems.

Canadians. But as this name is imposed upon us. and all our brave Heroes would fight. May 7 1776 I can not say that I think you very generous to the Ladies. Abigail to John: Braintree.. Hessians. turned round to the audience with a most sarcastic look. Bigots. Monarchy. Oligarchy. Hanoverians. Heath. After stirring up Tories. very liable to be broken—and notwithstanding all your wise Laws and Maxims we have it in our power not only to free our selves but to subdue our Masters. Butterfield et al.' Father--At the time when you gave me this weapon. Irish Roman Catholicks. when he responded to British calls to attack frontier settlers who supported the American Revolution.I have considered the English only as brothers. Revolutionary soldiers attacked and killed over 200 members of the tribe during the infamous Harrisburg Massacre in 1782. as long as he would against Despotism..C. I am sure every good Politician would plot. But you must remember that Arbitrary power is like most other things which are very hard. and without violence throw both your natural and legal authority at our feet— "Charm by accepting. 'take this weapon and try it on the heads of my enemies. H. and he paused. Emancipating all Nations. the Long-Knives [Revolutionaries]. as addressing them. you would withhold from me the necessaries of life.. saying. I knew that if I did not obey you. or Ochlocracy." Source: Abigail and John Adams. you insist upon retaining an absolute power over Wives. Indians.. p. "Father!" he began.. Aristocracy. eds. though indeed I do not know why I should call him so. I begin to think the Ministry as deep as they are wicked. CAPTAIN PIPE ADDRESSES THE BRITISH This vignette includes part of a 1781 speech made by Captain Pipe. which I could procure nowhere but here. for whilst you are proclaiming peace and good will to Men. Major Problems in American Women’s History (Lexington: D. Landjobbers. 1975). in L. by submitting sway Yet have our Humour most when we obey. Russians.—A fine Story indeed. a leader of the Delaware Indians. and then proceeded in a lower tone. Negroes. 127 reprinted in Mary Beth Norton. 1989). I had neither cause nor wish to go to war against a foe who had done me no injury. Scotch Renegades. Trimmers.--"I have said father. . But. at last they have stimulated the to demand new Privileges and threaten to rebell. Although the Delaware refused to be brought into the war. Empire. 120-22.Washington. 83-84.. letters 1776. I shall make use of it and say-"Father"--fixing his eyes again on the Commandant--"Some time ago you put a war-hatchet into my hands. p.in obedience to you I received the hatchet. The Book of Abigail and John (Cambridge: Harvard University Press. and let me know afterwards if it was sharp and good.

unlawfully assembled. to expose themselves to danger for your sake. A PROCLAMATION As I have ever entertained hopes that an accommodation might have taken place between Great Britain and this Colony. 1775. with the bloody destructive weapon you gave me. Father--Pay attention to what I am going to say. LORD DUNMORE'S PROCLAMATION In November.. much in the same manner as a hunter sets his dog on the game. that you may have them at your service. I may. but your house.Father--You may perhaps think me a fool. and that the peace and good . the Indians--This you have often told them. is always full. and indeed it is your interest to say so to them. Source: Wayne Moquin. keep what I have said in remembrance. before long. But. Who of us can believe that you can love a people of a different colour from your own. issued the following proclamation promising freedom to all slaves and servants who supported the Crown. better than those who have a white skin. and his cabin is always empty. the Indians. Father. 127-128.. after it became apparent that a reconciliation between the British and the rebellious colonists was impossible. I may then see him laugh at my folly for having obeyed his orders. while I am in the act of rushing on that enemy of yours. the Royal Governor of Virginia. like yourselves.. happen to look back to the place from whence you started me. Father. Lord Dunmore. and that all such traitors and their abettors may be brought to justice. Father--Many lives have already been lost on your account--The tribes have suffered. and yet I am now risking my life at his command! Father.. yes with the very people he now calls his enemies. conclude a peace with them. Great Documents in American Indian History (New York. are setting me on your enemy. For it is your cause. without being compelled by my duty to this most disagreeable.although you now pretend to keep up a perpetual enmity to the LongKnives. Father. and destroy the well-disposed subjects of this Colony: To defeat such treasonable purposes. and what shall I see? Perhaps I may see my father shaking hands with the Long-Knives. Father--You say you love your children.. While you. ed. 1973) pp. and the formation of an Army. and been weakened--Children have lost parents and brothers--Wives have lost husbands--It is not known how many more may perish before your war will be at an end. but now absolutely necessary step. and that Army now on the march to attack His Majesty's Troops. Father. firing on His Majesty's Tenders. perchance. and not mine--you have raised a quarrel among yourselves--and you ought to fight it out--It is your concern to fight the Long-Knives--You should not compel your children. Father. The warrior is poor. You. you may. for risking my life at your bidding-and that in a cause in which I have no prospect of gaining any thing. have the means of preserving that which would perish with us from want. rendered so by a body of armed men.

it often granted such titles out of respect. I do further order and require all His Majesty's liege subjects to retain their quit-rents. A Documentary History of the American Colonies. Given under my hand. 1837-1853). confiscation of lands... 4. And to the end that peace and good order may the sooner be restored. or that may become due. and thereby become liable to the penalty the law inflicts upon such offenses--such as forfeiture of life.. The vignette below relates his activities. DUNMORE GOD Save the King Source: Peter Force. particularly in Jamaica and other West Indian islands. determine to execute martial law. off Norfolk.. 1385.. that are able and willing to bear arms.. which the ordinary course of the civil law is unable to effect. most unhappy Country. ed. &c. Tye's title is noteworthy. Colonel Tye comported himself gallantly in his first know military venture. 1778. ser. Washington.. hereby declaring. formerly known in Monmouth County as John Corlies's slave Titus. that until the aforesaid good purposes can be obtained. they joining His Majesty's Troops. The most famous of these bands was led by a Monmouth County slave known as Titus but who became "Colonel Tye" during the revolutionary struggle. British strongholds protected raiders and offered safe refuse to escaping blacks. in the sixteenth year of His Majesty's reign. I do require every person capable of bearing arms to resort to His Majesty's standard. as son as may be. (appertaining to Rebels.) free. Negroes. or demanded of them for their former salutary purposes. capturing Elisha Shepard. by officers properly authorized to receive the same. or others. 94th ser. the Battle of Monmouth proved indecisive militarily but pivotal for New Jersey's black Loyalists in that it marked the first known appearance of an African American who would become one of the war's most feared Loyalists. American Archives. and clause the same to be executed throughout this Colony. 6 vols. I have thought fit to issue this my Proclamation. The British concentrated their military efforts on small but effective raids into New Jersey from Staten Island. for the more speedily reducing this Colony to a proper sense of their duty to His Majesty's crown and dignity. white or black--Colonel Tye. on board the Ship William. and removing him to imprisonment at the Sugar House in New York City. at present. &c. the 7th day of November. III. p. or any other taxes due. will such time as peace may be again restored to this.at the beginning of 1778. in their own custody. Although the British army did not formally commission black officers. a captain in the Monmouth militia. COLONEL TYE: BLACK LOYALIST LEADER Both the Loyalists and Patriot forces in New Jersey created guerrilla bands which included African Americans. or be looked upon as traitors to His Majesty's crown and Government. Fought near Freehold on June 28. The transformation of the . and I do hereby further declare all indented [sic] servants.. I do.order of this Colony may be again restored. in virtue of the power and authority to me given by His Majesty.

This action established a pattern that was to be repeated over the next year. After a stiff battle Tye and his men captured Smock and twelve other Patriots. destroyed their cannon. where slavery was a family affair and owners were not distant patricians.. and carry off sliver. Combining banditry. two of the inhabitants.that black were planning massacres of whites in Elizabethtown and in Somerset County. a foe detested by local Tories... On July 15. Tye and his men captured a Captain Warner. known to Patriots as a "motley crew. at times aided by white refugees known as "cow-boys." would disappear again into nearby swamps. enmities between slaves and masters could understandably become prolonged and intense.. he now had to be reckoned an important military force. Tye's familiarity with Monmouth's swamps. kidnap soldiers and officers. In response the governor invoked martial law in the county. while the main body of British troops was attacking Washington's forces. about 20 horses and a quantity of wearing apparel and household furniture. Murray.and his men murdered Private Joseph Murray of the Monmouth militia at his home in Colt's Neck. Tye and his interracial band. before killing him and wounding his young son.. sometimes receiving five gold guineas. In the space of one week he and his men carried off much of the officer corps of the Monmouth militia. these raids served the aims of local black rebellion quite intentionally.Tory John Moody... who purchased his freed for "two half joes. reprisal. In a raid on March 30. and flaunted their ability to strike at will against a weakened Patriot population. clothing and badly needed cattle for British troops in Staten Island and New York City. and commissioned assistance to the British Army. Colonel Tye and "about fifty negroes and refugees landed at Shrewsbury and plundered the inhabitants of nearly 80 heard of cattle. New York City. whom Tye took to. often being aimed directly at former masters and their friends. 1780. Local Patriots wrote anguished letters to Governor William Livingston. a leader of the Monmouth militia. If before Tye had been seen in Monmouth County as a bandit in the service of the British." Less lucky were Captain James Green and Ensign John Morris. accompanied by. Colonel Tye. The effects of Tye's incursions upon the general population of Monmouth County were exacerbated by reports. For these accomplishments Tye and his men were paid handsomely. During the second week of June 1780. and there .servant Titus into the warrior Tye was evidently overseen by soldiers who had served in the Caribbean. In the same raid Tye and his men looted and burned the home of John Russell. 1779. In Monmouth County.. Using a six-pound cannon to warn residents of the raid. Tye himself spiked Smock's cannon--a symbolically disheartening action for the Patriots--before spiriting the prisoners back to [New York] Tye's June incursions inspired great fear among New Jerseyans. rivers and inlets allowed him to move undetected until it was too late. But a law is only as effective as its enforcement. They also took off William Brindley and Elisha Cook. In a typical raid Tye and his men. had been personally responsible for several of their summary executions. After a raid... begging for help against the ravages of Colonel Tye and his raiders.. Three days later Tye led a large band of self-emancipated blacks and refugee whites in a daring attack on the home of Barnes Smock. Smock summoned a number of men around his house to fight Tye." would surprise Patriots in their homes.. a fierce Patriot associated with raids on Staten Island.

1997).. 1665-1865 (Madison. In a singe day Tye had captured eight militiamen. Does it follow that it is right to enslave a man because he is black? Will short curled hair..were few able-bodied men to police. The New Jersey Journal noted that "twenty-nine Negroes of both sexes deserted from Bergen County in early June 1780. instead of Christian hair... himself a slaveowner torn over the issue of slavery in a political revolution dedicated to liberty. It was a stunning blow to the Patriots.. as the foundation of that cruel slavery exercised over the poor Ethiopians. Fifteen years later Thomas Jefferson. During the battle Colonel Tye received a bullet in the wrist. as indeed all men are. Tye died.: Madison House Publishers. JAMES OTIS AND THOMAS JEFFERSON ON SLAVERY Colonial era Americans were much more troubled by slavery than would be most of their 19th Century descendants. moving in and out of Monmouth County with impunity despite martial law and the presence of several militias--all without any reported casualties.." There were more raids to come. second major in the Monmouth militia's second regiment [and] Captain James Johnson of the Hunterdon militia as well as several privates. James Otis. New Jersey" The invaders. "Tye with thirty blacks. be drawn from a flat nose. While the New Jersey Patriots were distracted by Tye and his men. Within days lockjaw set in.. thirtysix Queen's Rangers and thirty refugees landed at Conascung. as it is called by those whose hearts are as hard as the millstone. 96-104. than such as baron Montesquieu has humorously given. Slavery and Freedom in the Rural North: African Americans in Monmouth County. help the argument? Can any logical inference in favor of slavery. a long or short face? Nothing better can be said in favour of a trade. plundered their homes and taken his captives to New York. for enslaving those of any colour. wrote a paragraph into one of the early drafts of the Declaration of Independence denouncing King George III for promoting slavery. and makes every dealer .. a Boston attorney and later patriot leader in 1761 wrote an anti-British pamphlet which condemned slavery and warned his fellow colonists against denying liberty to anyone. other blacks were quick to take advantage. Tye attempted to capture Captain Josiah Huddy..and despised by Loyalists for his quick executions of captured Tories. No better reasons can be given.. The paragraph is reprinted below: ____________________________________________________________ ______________ Otis: The Colonist are by the law of nature free born.. Wi. famed for his leadership in raids on British positions in Staten Island. white or black. 1780... like wool.captured James Mott.. has a direct tendency to diminish the idea of the inestimable value of liberty. and lacking proper medical attention. On June 22. which threatens one day to reduce both Europe and America to the ignorance and barbarity of the darkest ages. that is the most shocking violation of the law of nature. New Jersey. On September 1.. 1780. Source: Graham Russell Hodges.

But from whatever fountain we trace this poisoned stream. Hence it was generally supposed to have been imported and not generated in the city. from the director of an Africa company to the petty chapman in needles and pins on the unhappy coast. and to purchase that liberty of which HE deprived them. the dead amounted to upwards of 2. or to incur miserable death in their transport thither. 43-44. that those who every day barter away other men’s liberty. which . by murdering the people upon whom He also obtruded them.000-a dreadful number. Before the disorder became so terrible. 71. the opprobrium of infidel powers. This was the opinion of Doctors Currie. and terror was depicted on every countenance.in it a tyrant. From the 17th to the 30th the mortality gradually decreased. and for a few weeks seemed entirely confined to that vicinity.. (Nashville. Benjamin Rush. This piratical warfare. it has destroyed the lives of many thousands-and many of those of the most distinguished worth. he has prostituted his negative for suppressing every legislative attempt to prohibit or restrain this execrable commerce. 1971). captivating and carrying them into slavery in another hemisphere.. and that this assemblage of horror might want no face of distinguished die. It was however combated by Dr. he is now exciting those very people to rise in arms among us.400 fell victims to the tremendous malady. Sources: James Otis. flight became general. It is a clear truth. Vol.. In the whole month. with crimes which he urges them to commit against the lives of another. The garlic. Lerone Bennett. Jefferson: He [King George] has waged cruel war against human nature itself. however. violating its most sacred rights of life and liberty in the persons of a distant people who never offended him. In this month 1.. I.400 more were added to the list of mortality. who asserts that the contagion was generated from the stench of a cargo of damaged coffee. The disease had then reached the central streets of the city and began to spread on all sides with the greatest rapidity. From the 1st to the 17th upwards of 1. The contagion was still progressive and towards the end of the month 90 & 100 died daily. During the month of August the funerals amounted to upwards of three hundred. The Rights of the British Colonies Asserted and Proved (London. in a lodging house in North Water Street. Determined to keep open a market were MEN should be bought and sold. the appearance of Philadelphia must to a stranger have seemed very extraordinary. This disorder made its first appearance toward the latter end of July. pp. p. Fear pervaded the stoutest heart. Ebony Pictorial History of Black America. plus paying off former crimes committed against the liberty of one people. YELLOW FEVER IN PHILADELPHIA In the following account Philadelphia resident James Hardie describes the yellow fever epidemic that struck the city in 1794. is the warfare of the Christian king of Great Britain. if we consider that at this time near one half of the inhabitants had fled. Until the middle of October the mighty destroyer went on with increasing havoc. Cathrall and many others. In September its malignance increased amazingly. 1776). will soon care little for their own.

and most of the others were sick at different times. The General.. His feet were also soaked in warm water. let me go off quietly. 'don't be afraid. it was stop'd after about half a pint was taken from him. the general told his physicians. &c.. "I feel myself going.. They put a blister of cantharides on the throat &. might be sent for to bleed him before the doctors could arrive. DEATH OF A FOUNDING FATHER The vignette below describes the death of former President George Washington in December. [1799] the General [George Washington] rode out to his farms. but when the.m.. whilst other[s] hoped to avoid infection by a recourse to smelling bottles.. A heavy fall of snow took place on Friday. 1999).... I cannot last long.and had some Vinegar & hot water put into a Teapot.' and after the incision was made. 1 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.. camphor bags. Mrs. They also administered calomil & tarter but without any effect. They also gave him sage tea and Vinegar to be mixed for a Gargle. A mixture of Molasses. but he could not swallow a drop. he observed 'the orifice is not large enough. The Philadelphia Directory and Register (Philadelphia. Mr. In the afternoon. pp. A piece of flannel was then put round his neck. which prevented the General from riding out as usual.. several doctors arrived. Washington & told her he was very unwell. This. general 'held back his head to let it run down [his throat].." Two hours later. 1794. Vinegar & butter was prepared. I found him breathing with difficulty-and hardly able to utter a word intelligibly. Finding that no relief was obtain'd.. Decr. Rawlins came in soon after sunrise and prepared to bleed him.uneasy lest too much blood should be taken. Washington said.and did not produce any symptoms of fainting. 111-112. vol." In the meantime. Source: James Hardie. said. 12th. he was bled again.. the doctors applied blisters to his legs. During this melancholy period the city lost ten of her most valuable physicians. "I am ... W being. as well as he could speak.] could be smelled at several yards distance.took more blood. eds.chewed as a preventative[. About 10. The number of deaths in all amounted to 4041.... but went out without a ray of hope. Becker. Soon after he went out. handkerchiefs dipped in vinegar.. it put him into great distress and almost produced suffocation. gave no relief. however. to try its effect in the throat. "On. and had [fever].) reprinted in William Bruce Wheeler and Susan D.. one of the overseers who was used to bleeding the people.he desired that Mr Rawlins.. I proposed bathing the throat externally with Salvalaltita. observing that Rawlins appeared to be agitated.. for the General to draw in steam from the nozel. 1799. Around 6 p. About two or three o'clk Saturday Morning he awoke Mrs.. Thursday. She observed that he could scarcely speak. with great difficulty. He had taken cold (undoubtedly from being so much exposed the day before) and complained of having a sore throat.. As soon as the day appeared. the weather became very bad. Discovering the American Past: A Look as the Evidence. and the blood ran slowly.

1 (New York. he expired without a struggle or a Sigh! Source: Tobias Lear's journal entry on the death of George Washington at Mount Vernon.just going. 1799 reprinted in Pauline Maier. 1823 Lowell Girls Elizabeth Cady Stanton Sarah and Angelina Grimke Women's Rights Convention Rev. Massachusetts. vol." I bowed assent. CHAPTER TWO: DEMOCRACY EXPANDED. 278. Have me decently buried. 2003). Inventing America: A History of the United States. and do not let my body be put into the Vault in less than two days after I am dead. DEMOCRACY TESTED Terms for Week 2 prohibition Democratic racism Indian Removal Manifest Destiny Monroe Doctrine Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Magdalen Society Female Moral Reform Society Anti-Catholicism Boston Associates Lowell. Charles Finney Horace Mann . December 15. p. A little while later.

on great consideration and on just principles. by any European power in any other light than as the manifestation of an unfriendly disposition toward the United States. was the first major assertion of American foreign policy. therefore. and whose independence we have. a . It is only when our rights are invaded or seriously menaced that we resent injuries or make preparation for our defense. or controlling in any other manner their destiny.. we could not view any interposition for the purpose of oppressing them. Part of the document is presented below: In the wars of the European powers in matters relating to themselves we have never taken any part. But with the governments who have declared their independence and maintained it. December 2. Source: President James Monroe's Message to Congress. proposed in the President's annual message to Congress on December 2. 1823. to candor and to the amicable relations existing between the United States and those powers to declare that we should consider any attempt on their part to extend their system to any portion of this hemisphere as dangerous to our peace and safety. With the movements in this hemisphere we are of necessity more immediately connected. nor does it comport with our policy so to do. and by causes which must be obvious to all enlightened and impartial observers. We owe it. acknowledged. 1823.. In the first vignette James Kent.Democratic Party Portland’s Chinatown Whig Party Andrew Jackson The Spoils System universal suffrage THE MONROE DOCTRINE The Monroe Doctrine. The political system of the allied powers is essentially different in this respect from that of America. With the existing colonies or dependencies of any European power we have not interfered and shall not interfere. THE EXTENSION OF VOTING RIGHTS The passages below reflect the transformation of the American political system as a consequence of the expansion of voting rights.

violence. and trample down their rights. in the indolent and profligate to cast the whole burdens of society upon the industrious and the virtuous. injustice. The anti-Jackson factions became the Whig party in 1834. led respectively by Andrew Jackson and by John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay emerged shortly after.9 2. and tyranny. By the report before us. The Jackson partisans become the Democrats.in the poor to covet a share in the plunder of the rich.405 80 46.861 79 50. in the majority to tyrannize over the minority.9 2.. That extreme democratic principle.0 1.. argues in vain for preserving property requirements.1 1844 49. is no dream of the imagination.3 356.7 *There were no political parties in 1824. ancient and modern. The tendency of universal suffrage is to jeopardize the rights of property and the principles of liberty. has been regarded with terror... because in every European republic. all those property distinctions and to bow before the idol of universal suffrage.350 58 56. in which it has been tried. by the wise men of every age. Two groups. The apprehended danger from the experiment of universal suffrage applied to the whole legislative department. when applied to the legislative and executive departments of the government.505.278 58 50.5 1836 49.conservative delegate to the 1821 New York state constitutional convention which extended voting rights to all white males. it has terminated disastrously.402.250.700.799 55 56. at one stroke. in the debtor to relax or avoid the obligation of contracts.1 1840 53.038 27 * 1.0 1832 43. It is too mighty an excitement for the moral constitution of men to endure. The chart shows the dramatic increase in the number and percentages of Americans voting in presidential elections between 1824 and 1844. 1824-1844 PERCENTAGE OF ELIGIBLE VOTERS WHO DEMOCRATIC CAST BALLOTS VOTE WHIG TOTAL VOTERS VOTE 1824 * 1828 44. we propose to annihilate. and been productive of corruption. . and there is a tendency in ambitious and wicked men to inflame those combustible materials.9 1.155. There is a constant tendency. PRESIDENTIAL VOTING.

. Illinois. Within a week.... the Democratic standard bearer." Pennsylvania Congressman Charles Ogle described the Van Buren White House "as splendid as that of the Caesars. a newspaper correspondent printed his own facetious answer to a. heralded a new era in American politics with emphasis on symbols rather than substance. THE LOG CABIN CANDIDATE The 1840 presidential contest between General William Henry Harrison.was designed to resemble an Amazon's bosom..400.opposite. The following vignette describes the campaign. Now the Whigs could turn the tables." This was the opening the Whigs had been waiting for. [that] it would be difficult to say from his personal appearance whether he was a man or woman. which has sometimes surprised folks. the Whig candidate.. American History: A Survey. given to extravagant. the Log Cabin. such as women wear. image manipulation. (New York.also meant recasting Van Buren as the.he will sit the remainder of his days in his log cabin. p. but for his large red and gray whiskers. 1989). [the Whig Congressman from Tennessee] they pinned a coonskin cap on the wall.question about how to "get rid of Harrison. the New York Daily Whig replied that only "pampered office-holders" who "sneer at the idea of making a poor man president" would consider "log cabin candidate" a term with which to "reproach" General Harrison. aristocratic tastes. Stephan Thernstrom." The reporter (himself a Democrat) printed this answer. and as richly adorned as the proudest Asiatic mansion. 1961). 256. 1839. and President Martin Van Buren. Recasting Harrison as a homespun farmer. 327.Source: Richard Current. The Democrats had won elections by presenting themselves as the party of. political slogans.the common man.. The Whig managers openly presented Harrison to the rally as "The Log-Cabin Candidate. and "negative campaign" ads. told his readers that "Gen.." They prepared a huge transparency of what was purportedly [Harrison's] log cabin (his original "cabin" had long since been expanded into an impressive sixteen room house) and placed it next to a barrel of cider and a woodpile.. The editor of the Whig paper in Galena.. Davy Crockett portrayed Van Buren as so "laced up in corsets." But those who live in log cabins "have a way of taking care of themselves when insulted. other Whig papers joined in.... and settle a pension of two thousand a year on him. as the 'Log cabin' candidate.. with a miniature knoll on its apex. I. effeminate dandy. to denote the nipple." "The landscaping. Harrison is sneered at by the Eastern officeholders' pimps. The Whigs ridiculed the president as a foppish. In early January 1840. A History of the American People.. a Harrisburg. p. rally took the next step in the transformation of the Whig campaign. The Whigs cloaked their champion in familiar heroic garb as an Indian fighter and victorious general in the War of 1812. Pennsylvania. while condemning the Whigs as aristocrats and friends of wealth and privilege." Ogle ridiculed the four mirrors Van Buren purchased for the White House as a cost of $2. "Give him a barrel of hard cider.. Vol. (New York: Knopf.." On January 20. and. On December 11. "What would frugal and honest . Borrowing from Davy Crockett. But almost immediately they grafted a new and very different kind of symbol onto the campaign.

. Mexico never can exert any real governmental authority over such a country. it would feel the necessity of laying an immediate curb on its passion for extended territory. the spontaneous working of principles. virtue.. it is time for us to stop in the career of acquisition and conquest. and the mixed. by a process perfectly legitimate on its own part. pp. we cannot advance without imminent peril to our institutions. 342-345.. We are a restless people. All this without agency of our government. Already the advance guard of the irresistible army of Anglo-Saxon emigration has begun to pour down upon it. and the adaptation of the tendencies and wants of the human race to the elemental circumstances in the midst of which they find themselves placed. prone to encroachment. A population will soon be in actual occupation of California. Already endangered by our greatness. probably.. that... mills and meeting houses. prosperity. without responsibility of our people-in the natural flow of events. in an 1837 letter to Henry Clay. Democratic Review: Texas has been absorbed into the Union in the inevitable fulfillment of the general law which is rolling our population westward. union.. and peace.. California. July 1845. (Belmont. It is sometimes said. Imbecile and distracted. Mexico.. or were it disposed to profit by self-knowledge.. MANIFEST DESTINY: TWO VIEWS During the 1830s and 1840s. California will. Not surprisingly many Americans such as those writing in the Democratic Review. The Pursuit of Liberty. vast enough for the growth of ages. in full court costume. nine feet high and four feet wide? Source: R. that nations are swayed by laws. over which it will be idle for Mexico to dream of dominion.. blameless on our. forgetting that..... We boast of our rapid growth. Jackson Wilson. disgraced race of Mexico must melt before the Anglo-Saxon.. noble growths are slow. American nationalists spoke of the nation's divinely inspired mission to control most of the North American continent.. throughout nature. embraced the concept with religious zeal. It is full time that we should lay on ourselves serious.Hoosiers think of a democratic peacock.the Indians have melted before the white man. armed with the plough and the rifle and marking its trail with schools and colleges. Possessed of a domain... strutting by the hour before golden-framed mirrors. William Ellery Channing. Away . courts and representative halls.. impatient of the ordinary laws of progress. however expressed the doubts of many Americans about the inevitability of American expansion.. resolute restraint. [Its] incorporation into the Union was not only inevitable. 1990). but the most natural. Channing: Did this country know itself. It was disintegrated from Mexico in the natural course of events. that they have their destinies.... next fall away from. as unfailing as those which govern matter. a period of rapid territorial expansion.. that their character and position carry them forward irresistibly to their goal. The Anglo-Saxon foot is already on its borders. right and proper thing in the world.

in plunder. at their new resident. or from any other person or persons whatever. And be it further enacted. Green.. and this progress consists in the substitution of reason and moral principle for the sway of brute force. and if they prefer it.. And be it further enacted.. it shall and may be lawful for the President solemnly to assure the tribe or nation with which the exchange is made. any more than to justify gamblers and robbers.. We boast of the progress of society. So did the late conqueror of Europe [Napoleon]. The Indian Removal Act set the stage for the Trail of Tears. (New York. against all interruption or disturbance from any other tribe or nation of Indians. There is no fate to justify rapacious nations.. and destiny consigned him to a lonely rock in the ocean. and to which the Indian title has been extinguished.. that the United States will cause a patent or grant to be made and executed to them for the same: Provided always. That such lands shall revert to the United States. if the Indians become extinct. for the reception of such tribes or nations of Indians as may choose to exchange the lands where they now reside. that the United States will forever secure and guaranty to them. the country so exchanged with them. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America. Source: John M. Blum. 116-17. as to be easily distinguished for every other. 255. not included in any state or organized territory. eds. in Congress assembled. or abandon the same. 1985). and for their removal west of the river Mississippi. That it shall and may be lawful for the President of the United States to cause so much of any territory belonging to the United States. That in the making of any such exchange or exchanges. The Cherokee Removal: A Brief History with Documents (Boston. Source: Theda Perdue and Michael D. the prey of an ambition which destroyed no peace but his own. as he may judge necessary. to be divided unto a suitable number of districts. We talk of accomplishing our destiny.with this vile sophistry! There is no necessity to crime. The National Experience. pp. That it shall and may be lawful for the President to cause such tribe or nation to be protected. west of the river Mississippi. INDIAN REMOVAL: AN INDIAN VIEW . and their heirs or successors.. An Act to provide for an exchange of lands with the Indians residing in any of the states or territories. and to cause each of said districts to be so described by natural or artificial marks. THE INDIAN REMOVAL ACT The passage below is from the Indian Removal Act of 1830 which authorized President Andrew Jackson to move Indians residing east of the Mississippi to lands in the West. and remover there. p. 1995).

you are too near me. it is very kind. 149-150. Great Documents in American Indian History. ed. but said. describes his response to the proposal to remove his people to Indian Territory. there you may remain while the grass grows or the water runs. and filled himself with the Indian's hominy. tread on you..S. Officials on Wednesday will formally pardon tow missionaries jailed when the fought the state's seizure of Cherokee Indian land.In the brief passage below Speckled Snake. and protected his head from the scalping knife. A legislator and Cherokee descendant called the pardon a sign that Georgia finally realizes the scope of its mistreatment of the Cherokee. "It was a miscarriage of justice. He loved his red children. Source: Wayne Moquin." Brothers! Will not our great father come there also? He loves his red children. go beyond the Mississippi. pp. spokeswoman for the state Board of Pardons and Paroles. their young men drew the tomahawk. He said much. but it's something that we could do something about. "It shall be yours forever. 1973). Then he became our great father. and when the pale faces of the south made war on him. "Get a little farther. "If we ever had political prisoners in this state or this nation. he became very large. More than 160 years after Georgia officials ignored a direct order from the U. lest I should." said Marsha Bailey. But when the white man had warmed himself before the Indian's fire. and his tongue is not forked. by accident. these two were the best examples. he said. the state is admitting it made a mistake. and with the other he trampled down the graves of his fathers. "You must move a little farther." He also said. THE TRAIL OF TEARS: ONE STATE'S APOLOGY The following vignette appeared as part of a 1992 Oregonian article on the apology of the state of Georgia for its role in Indian Removal 160 years earlier. "This is one of many injustices done." With one foot he pushed the red man over the Oconee. and he soon made them another talk." Now he says. a Cherokee. and kindled him a fire to make him comfortable. there is game." said state Rep. But our great father still loved his red children. (New York. His hands grasped the eastern and the western sea." I have heard a great many talks from our great father. he stopped not for the mountain tops. and they all begun and ended the same." The pardon says it "acts to remove a stain on the history of criminal justice in Georgia" land acknowledges the state usurped Cherokee sovereignty and ignored the Supreme Court. He says he loves his red children. Brothers! When he made us a talk on a former occasion. Supreme Court to stop actions leading up to the infamous Trail of Tears. Brothers! We have heard the talk of our great father. the Muscogees gave him land. go beyond the Oconee and the Okmulgee. and his feet covered the plains and the valleys. but "move a little farther. "The land you live on is not yours. but it all meant nothing. Brothers! When the white man first came to these shores. there is a pleasant country. .

There was nothing I could compare with the plains of Illinois. But Georgia ignored the ruling. THE ATTRACTIONS OF FRONTIER ILLINOIS Come all you good farmers that on your plow depend. gold was discovered in Dahlonega and Georgia seized much of the land and abolished Cherokee sovereignty. said Dover. Samuel Austin Worcester and Elihu Butler were sentenced to four years in jail in 1831 for residing in the Cherokee Nation without a license. Dover said. you enterprising boys: Come travel west and settle on the plains of Illinois. Illinois. chief executive of the Georgia Tribe of Eastern Cherokee. But in 1829. and a frontier farmer's description of community life at the edge of settlement in 1836. The state repealed its Cherokee laws in 1979. the Cherokee Nation was considered a sovereign foreign country. leave your fields of childhood." The missionaries appealed to the U. 1992. Supreme Court. it is as fine country as ever has been seen. perhaps he would say the same.S. Worcester and Butler refused and were convicted of "high misdemeanor. Thousands died of cold and starvation during the march. Come listen to a story. Chief Justice John Marshall declared Georgia had no constitutional right to extend any state laws over the Cherokee. November 23. If old Adam had traveled over that. come listen to a friend: Oh. Until 1828." . who lived at the Cherokee capital of New Echota. explain the both the lure of the frontier and the impact of the migratory tendencies of Americans on attitudes toward the land and patterns of social organization. A law was enacted to try to stop the two from protesting the state's seizure of Cherokee land in northwest Georgia. when I was but a boy.Bill Dover. They were released in time to join the Trail of Tears. The missionaries spend 16 months doing hard labor as part of a chain gang. and must release the missionaries. WESTWARD MIGRATION: SETTLEMENT ON THE FRONTIER The passages below. Source: The Portland Oregonian. In 1832. with its land off limits to settlers." Dover said. the state required all white men living on Cherokee land to obtain a state license. attracted national attention to the American Indians' cause. but the missionaries made it to Oklahoma and continued their work among Cherokee there. when Georgia forced up to 17. "It's been a sore place in the side of the Indian people for all these generations that these two wonderful Christian gentlemen were sent to prison because they believe in God and they believed in the Cherokee Nation.000 Cherokees to move west. including seizing their land. but until now never formally admitted the actions were wrong. "All in the garden of Eden. To muzzle them. a poem extolling the attractions of frontier Illinois in the 1820s. Worcester and Butler.

Allowed a minimum purchase of 640 acres and set a minimum price of $ 1 an acre.) . to build "for posterity and the immortal gods. 309. Act of 1800. pp. Reduced the minimum purchase from 640 to 320 acres and extended credit to four years. Raised the minimum price to $2 an acre but allowed a year's credit on half of the amount due. and the wonderful exuberance of Kentucky. 1785-1820 The various public land laws encouraged settlement of the American frontier and provided the major source of revenue to the United States treasury prior to the Civil War. Vol. that appertain to the most absolute necessity than the assembled family about the winter fire begin to talk about the prevailing events. in short achieved the first rough improvements. Act of 1796. Listed below are the most important land laws enacted between 1785 and 1820 which promoted westward expansion.Perhaps you have a few acres that near your friends' adjoin. Come travel west and settle on the plains of Illinois. PUBLIC LANDS: TERMS OF SALE. in consonance with these feelings. Indian wars. and move away. I have spoken of the moveable part of the community. the favorite topic is new countries. I have every where noted the operation of this impediment in the way of those permanent and noble improvements which grow out of a love for that appropriated spot where we are born. They offer their farm for sale. Next to hunting. Act of 1804 Further reduced the minimum purchase to 160 acres. (Now a man with as little as $80 on hand could obtain a farm from the government. They have a fatal effect upon their exertions. (New York. it constitutes too great a proportion of the whole community. Scarcely has a family fixed itself. 300. Source: Stephan Thernstrom. 1989). as a point of immigration. leave your friends of childhood. Your family is growing large. They have not motive. Ordinance of 1785. Made no provision for credit. and where we expect to die. and enclosed a plantation with the universal fence--split rails--reared a suitable number of log buildings. and unfortunately for the western country. They are attached to the associations connected with such conversations. Come.--some country that has become the rage. for them you must provide. with a down payment of one fourth of the whole amount and three later installments. A History of the American People. They talk of them. although he would still owe $240 to be paid within four years." They only make such improvements as they can leave without reluctance and without loss. you enterprising boys. I.

519. It was a partial clearing in the very heart of the forest.845 1. so steep that a high ladder was necessary to enter the front door.352 12. 1961). 1810 Ohio (1803) Louisiana (1812) Indiana (1816) Mississippi (1817) Illinois (1818) Alabama (1819) Missouri (1821) Arkansas (1836) Michigan (1837) 230. but abolished the credit system.574 212. The National Experience: A History of the United States.467 352. p.267 *Part of Mississippi Sources: Richard Current. giving accommodation to . A FRONTIER FARM This brief description of a frontier farm in southwest Ohio in 1830 by British writer Frances Trollope provides a glimpse into early 19th Century agricultural life and illustrates the independence and self-sufficiency that necessarily comes with settlement in isolated settings. while the back one opened against the hill side: at the foot of this sudden eminence ran a clear stream.Act of 1820. whose bed had been deepened into a little reservoir. Reduced the minimum purchase still further. p. and a few half-cleared acres. and the minimum price to $1.760 76. 1989). Harcourt Brace.520 40.282 * 20.702 97.756 383. Blum.183 590. with a shed or two upon them.762 1840 1. to 80 acres. 189. WESTERN MIGRATION TO 1840 The following table shows the growth of the population of the states between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River.556 24. occupied the other.651 476.25 an acre. and from the entire dependence of the inhabitants upon their own resources. (New York. A noble field of Indian corn stretched away into the forest on one side. *Note: Most public lands were sold at auctions and much of it sold for more than the minimum price.411 685.866 375. John M. “We visited the farm which interested us particularly from its wild and lonely situation. The date of admission to the Union is listed next to the state. American History: A Survey. just opposite the house. 219.062 4.(New York: Knopf. The house was built on the side of a hill.

cows, horses, pigs, and chickens innumerable. Immediately before the house was a
small potato-garden, with a few peach and apple trees. The house was built of logs, and
consisted of two rooms, besides a little shanty or lean-to, that was used as a kitchen.
Both rooms were comfortably furnished with good beds, drawers, etc. The farmer's
wife, and a young woman who looked like her sister, were spinning, and three little
children were playing about. The woman told me that they spun and wove all the cotton
and woolen garments of the family, and knit all the stockings; her husband, though not
a shoemaker by trade, made all the shoes. She manufactured all the soap and candies
they used, and prepared her sugar from the sugar-trees on their farm. All she wanted
with money, she said, was to buy coffee, tea, and whiskey, and she could 'get enough any
day by sending a batch of butter and chicken to market.' They used no wheat, nor sold
any of their corn, which, though it appeared a very large quantity, was not more than
they required to make their bread and cakes of various kinds, and to feed all their live
stock during the winter. She did not look in health, and said they had all had ague
[fever] in 'the fall'; but she seemed contented and proud of her independence; though it
was in somewhat mournful accent that she said: 'Tis strange to us to see company. set a
hundred times, I expect the sun may rise and before I shall see another human that does
not belong to the family.’
Source: Frances Trollope, Domestic Manners of the Americans reprinted in Pauline
Maier, Inventing America: A History of the United States, vol. 1. ( New York,
2003), p. 377.
THE FOURTH OF JULY ON THE OVERLAND TRAIL
The Fourth of July in 19th Century America was a time of widespread celebration.
Even as wagon trains traveled west on Overland Trail to Oregon and California,
travelers took time off to celebrate. The following vignette comes from the diary of
William Swain, a 27-year-old farmer from western New York who, like thousands of
others in 1849, was headed to the California gold fields to strike it rich.
July 4. [At sunrise a salute of thirteen guns was fired.] We lay in bed late this
morning and after a late breakfast set about getting fuel for cooking our celebration
dinner.
Our celebration of the day was very good, much better than I anticipated. We
had previously invited Mr. Sexton of the Plymouth company...to deliver an address, and
we had appointed Mr. Pratt to read the Declaration of Independence. We had one of the
tents pitched at a short distance from the camp, in which was placed a table with seats
for the officers of the day and the orators. The table was spread with a blanket.
At twelve o'clock we formed a procession and walked to the stand to the tune of
'The Star Spangled Banner.' The President of the day called the meeting to order. We
listened to a prayer by Rev. Mr. Hobart, then remarks and the reading of the Declaration
of Independence by Mr. Pratt, and then the address by Mr. Sexton. We then listened to
'Hail Columbia.' This celebration was very pleasing, especially the address, which was
well delivered and good enough for any assembly at home.
We then marched to the 'hall,' which was formed by running the wagons in two

rows close enough together for the wagon covers to reach from one to the other, thus
forming a fine hall roofed by the covers and a comfortable place for the dinner table,
which was set down the center.
Dinner consisted of ham, beans, boiled and baked, biscuits, john cake, apple pie,
sweet cake, rice pudding, pickles, vinegar, pepper sauce and mustard coffee, sugar, and
milk. All enjoyed it well.
After dinner the toasting commenced. The boys had raked and scraped together
all the brandy they' could, and they toasted, hurrayed, and drank till reason was out and
brandy was in. I stayed till the five regular toasts were drunk; and then, being disgusted
with their conduct, I went to our tent in which I enjoyed myself better than those who
were drinking, carousing, and hallooing all around the camp.
Source: J. S. Holliday, The World Rushed In: The California Gold Rush Experience
(New York, 1981), pp. 167-168.
IMMIGRATION TO THE UNITED STATES, 1820-1860
Country of Origin
Ireland
German States
Great Britain
(excluding Ireland)
British Canada
China

1821- 1830

1831- 1840

1841- 1850

1851- 1860

51,000
6,800
25,000

207,000
152,000
76,000

781,000
433,000
267,000

914,000
952,000
424,000

2,300
2

14,000
8

42,000
35

59,000
41,000

Total Number of Immigrants
1820-1824...................................................38,689
1825-1829....................................................89,813
1830-1834.................................................230,442
1835-1839.................................................307,939
1840-1844.................................................400,031
1845-1849..............................................1,027,306
1850-1854................................................1,917,527
1855-1859..................................................897,027
Total......................................................4,908,774
Percentage of Immigrants By Country of Origin
Ireland..........................................................38.9%
Germany......................................................30.4%
Great Britain.................................................15.6%
France, Switzerland & Low Countries...........5.5%
Canada...........................................................2.3%

Other...............................................................7.3%
Sources: Lewis Todd and Merle Curti, Rise of the American Nation, (New York, 1982),
p. 286; John M. Blum, The National Experience, (New York, 1985), p. 313.
EAST FROM CHINA: THE ORIGINS OF CHINESE AMERICA
In the passage below historian Shih-shan Henry Tsai describes the push factors that
prompted Chinese emigration to the United States beginning in the 1840s.
Almost all of the Chinese who emigrated to the United States in the nineteenth
century were natives of Kwangtung, a southern Chinese province of about eighty
thousand square miles, approximately the area of the state of Oregon. In this hilly
province only 16% of the land was cultivated as late as 1955, and, in the eighteenth and
nineteenth centuries, much of this cultivated land was used to grow such commercial
crops as fruit, sugarcane, indigo, and tobacco instead of rice, the staple food of the
Chinese. Consequently, the common folk suffered from the ever-rising price of rice.
This situation was further aggravated by the increase in population throughout
the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.... In 1787 the population of Kwangtung
numbered 16 million; by 1850 it had increased to 28 million. But during the 1850s and
1860s Kwangtung was devastated by the Taipings and the Triad-led rebels. Fighting
also broke out between Punti (Cantonese speaking) and Hakka (Guest Settlers) people
in the region southwest of the Pearl River Delta. These conflicts resulted in political
disorder, social chaos, and economic dislocations. The Hsin-ning hsien-chih (Gazetteer
of the Hsin-ning district) graphically described the situation. "The fields in the four
directions were choked with weeds. Small families found it difficult to make a living
and often drowned their girl babies because of the impossibility of looking after them."
Emigration was very much in evidence.
The largest portion of the Chinese in America come from Kwangtung's most
populous prefecture, Kwangchou, which contains the city of Canton, and from the
colony of Macao. The Cantonese were more venturesome than most Chinese because of
their early contact with foreigners, and because British Hong Kong served as a
steppingstone for their adventures. Emigrant ships that carried Chinese to California
seldom sailed directly from any other port in China. More than nine-tenths of the
Chinese emigrants embarked from San Francisco at Hong Kong. The emigrants traveled
in junks, lorchas, or rafts over the waterways of the Pearl River Delta from their native
villages to Hong Kong. The officials at Canton normally did not interfere with their
countrymen going to Hong Kong, nor did the British authorities try to detain them.
Chinese emigrants obtained the money to pay their passage in various ways.
Some had saved money, others sold their property, including land or hogs, to secure
passage. Some borrowed money from friends and relatives. Some pledged their families
as security for the loan. They came at their own option, and when the arrived in
California they were free to go where they pleased and to engage in any occupation they
liked.
Source: Shih-shan Henry Tsai, China and the Overseas Chinese in the United States,

1868-1911 (Fayetteville, 1983), pp. 14, 16.
PORTLAND'S CHINATOWN
The following is Nelson Chia-chi Ho's description of Portland's Chinese community in
the late 19th Century.
The Chinese have been in Portland almost since its beginning and have grown up
with the city. Direct trade between Portland and China began in 1851, when the brig
Emma Preston became the first vessel from Oregon to sail to Canton, China... In the
spring of 1857 [additional] Chinese arrived on the steamer Columbia. They became
cooks in restaurants, or private homes, obtained employment in laundries or worked as
gardeners and servants for wealthy Portland residents...
By the mid-1870s, the Chinese had become the largest ethnic group in
Portland.... In 1890, with a population of 5,184 in a city of 46,385, Portland's Chinatown
was a well-established part of the city. In the late 1880s Chinatown stretched along
S.W. Second Avenue from Pine Street to Taylor Street and into some adjacent areas.
The center of the community was at the intersection of Second Avenue and Alder Street.
The buildings people occupied were mainly of solid brick, built by whites initially, but
on long leases to the Chinese at enormous rates. The bottom story of each building
usually served as a business of some sort. Store windows displayed a variety of foods,
including dried shark's fins, aged eggs, geese and ducks (live or preserved in oil), fruits
and confections. The drug stores carried an assortment of products; dried reptiles,
preserved snakes, elk horn, ginseng, peppermint, licorice, and a large inventory of
medicinal herbs. Others conducted business on the sidewalks with vegetables stalls,
fruit stands, and chicken coops. Laundry vendors with poles and baskets squeezed
through the maze of activities. Here pipes were smoked and the mother tongue was
spoken.
The upper floors frequently had wrought-iron balconies with moon-like
windows. These were the crowded living quarters where some 20 persons could sleep in
a 12-by-20 foot room in bunks stacked from floor to ceiling...
The Chinese did not erect temples in Portland's Chinatown, but had a common
meeting place known as the Chinese Joss House, which was in the upper floor of a
building on Second Avenue. Many whites...resented the presence of the Chinese....on
one occasion a [Chinese man] was once used to demonstrate the power of electricity.
This drew a large crowd, which greatly enjoyed the sight of a Chinese being electrically
shocked...
Before 1906, in the absence of consular representatives, the residents of
Portland's Chinatown enjoyed a measure of civil autonomy. The merchant class soon
became the ruling elite. Because commercial success was so closely tied to social
acceptance in America, this elite enjoyed good relations with public officials. The
president of the Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association was popularly deemed as
the "Mayor of Chinatown," and was the semi-official representative of the Chinese
government. Finally, on October 2, 1906, in recognition of Portland's large Chinese
population and the importance of this city's trade with China, Moy Back Hin, a Chinese
millionaire in Portland, was name the consul for...Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and

Montana, with headquarters in Portland. The consul was the fourth to be appointed to
represent the Chinese government in the United States. The other three were in San
Francisco, Boston, and New York.
Source: Nelson Chia-chi Ho, Portland's Chinatown: The History of An Urban Ethnic
District, (Portland, 1981), pp. 9-17.
REV. CHARLES FINNEY ON THE OBLIGATION OF THE CHURCH
Rev. Charles Finney, a New York City Presbyterian minister who moved in the 1830s
and later was President of Oberlin College from 1851 to 1866, was one of the nation's
leading revivalists. He was also an advocate of reform and encouraged the Church to
lead that effort. In this 1835 lecture he explains the relationship between revivalism
and reform.
There should be great and deep repentings on the part of ministers. We, my
brethren, must humble ourselves before God. It will not do for us to suppose that it is
enough to call on the people to repent. We must repent, we must take the lead in
repentance, and then call on the church to follow.
The church must take right ground in regard to politics. Do not suppose, now,
that I am going to preach a political sermon, or that I wish to have you join and get up a
Christian party in politics....But the time has come that Christians must vote for honest
men, and take consistent ground in politics, or the Lord will curse them.
...And if [every man] will give his vote only for honest men, the country will be
obliged to have upright rulers. All parties will be compelled to put up honest men as
candidates...As on the subjects of slavery and temperance, so on this subject, the church
must act right, or the country will be ruined...
The church must take the right ground on the subject of slavery... Christians can
no more take neutral ground on this subject...than they can take neutral ground on the
subject of sanctification of the Sabbath. It is a great national sin...
There are those in the churches who are standing aloof from the subject of moral
reform, and who are as much afraid to have anything said in the pulpit against
lewdness, as if a thousand devils had got up into the pulpit. On this subject, the church
need not expect to be permitted to take neutral ground. In the providence of God, it is
up for discussion. The evils have been exhibited; the call has been made for reform
And what is to reform mankind but the truth? And who shall present the truth if not
the church and the ministry? Away with the idea, that Christians can remain neutral,
and yet enjoy the approbation and blessing of God.
Source: Richard N. Current and John A. Garraty, ed., Words that Made American
History, Vol. I, (Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1965), pp. 386- 387, 392.
HENRY DAVID THOREAU, "CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE"
Henry David Thoreau wrote "Civil Disobedience" after spending a night in a
Massachusetts jail for refusing to pay his taxes in protest of the Mexican War and

Literature: The American Experience. was the nation's leading proponent of taxpayer.slavery. and that will be one step toward obtaining it. but each instant losing some of its integrity? It has not the vitality and force of a single living man. to speak practically and as a citizen. It does not educate. It is excellent. the work of comparatively a few individuals using the standing government as their tool. Source: Roger Babusci and others. and. p. he describes why public education should be supported. is equally liable to be abused and perverted before the people can act through it. HORACE MANN ON PUBLIC SCHOOLS Horace Mann..supported public schools. and hear its din. but at once a better government. for in the outset. though a recent one. N. which is only the mode which the people have chosen to execute their will.. Witness the present Mexican war.. He calls on others to resist governmental policies which they feel are unjust. I heartily accept the motto. (Englewood Cliffs. I ask for. it finally amounts to this. it will surely split. Let every man make known what kind of government would command his respect. the people would not have consented to this measure. Government is at best but an expedient. even impose on themselves. Carried out. to satisfy that idea of government which they have. and all governments are sometimes. Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education for 12 years beginning in 1837. we must all allow yet this government never of itself furthered any enterprise. if the government had not sometimes got in its way." and I should like to see it acted up to more rapidly and systematically. endeavoring to transmit itself unimpaired to posterity. but by the alacrity with which it got out of its way. for a single man can bend it to his will. which also I believe: "That government is best which governs not at all:" and when men are prepared for it. not at once no government. The government itself. for the people must have some complicated machinery or other.J. inexpedient. . It is a sort of wooden gun to the people themselves. It does not keep the country free. and they are many and weighty. The objections which have been brought against a standing army. and deserve to prevail. and it would have done somewhat more. unlike those who call themselves nogovernment men. But. The standing army is only an arm of the standing government. In his 1849 report of the Board of Education to the state legislature.. that will be the kind of government which they will have. Here are excerpts from his influential essay. if ever they should use it in earnest as a real one against each other. Governments show thus how successfully men can be imposed on. The character inherent in the American people has done all that has been accomplished. for their own advantage. "That government is best which governs least. For government is an expedient by which men would fain succeed in letting one another alone. This American government--what is it but a tradition.: 1989). but most governments are usually.. It does not settle the West. 290. But it is not the less necessary for this. may also at last be brought against a standing government.

p. But if education be equably diffused.. men are divided into classes. while the residue of society is ignorant and poor. But education creates or develops new treasures. NJ: 1966). Problems in American History (Englewood Cliffs. Beyond the power of diffusing old wealth. William G. It is a thousand times more lucrative than fraud. 42-43. the former to the grossest inequalities. Knaves and robbers can obtain only what was before possessed by others. Twelfth Annual Report.—some to toil and earn. then.. the balance-wheel of the social machinery. It gives each man the independence and the means. Source: Massachusetts Board of Education. will be the servile dependents and subjects of the former. It has a higher function. is the great equalizer of the conditions of men.never before possessed or dreamed of by any one. as the intellectual constituency. side by side. (Boston. Now. the latter. Americanism Contrasted with Foreignism. and equal security in the enjoyment of what they earn.. even though it should peaceably abolish all the miseries that spring from the coexistence. eds. According to the European theory.. beyond all other devices of human origin. it will draw property after it. 55. Foreign in its support. The latter tends to equality of condition. and never can happen. altogether of Foreign origin. then. The number of improvers will increase.. if I may so call it. it has the prerogative of creating new. increases. intelligence is the grand condition. But the beneficent power of education would not be exhausted. and a wealthy nation. and contributions. It does better than to disarm the poor of their hostility towards the rich. Brownlow.. and Bogus Democracy Popery is a system of mere human policy.Nothing) Party advanced his fears of Roman Catholicism in an 1856 election pamphlet. ANTI-CATHOLICISM IN AMERICA Rev.. importing Foreign vassals and paupers by multiplied thousands. reprinted in Richard W.. If one class possesses all the wealth and the education. Link and Stanley Corbin. all are to have an equal chance for earning. it prevents being poor. 67-68. for such a thing never did happen...As the child is father to the man. of enormous wealth and squalid want.. For the creation of wealth. will be sure to follow.. by the strongest of all attractions. in fact and in truth. Romanism. 59-60. surely. 57. and . According to the Massachusetts theory. 1849). by which he can resist the selfishness of other men. others to seize and enjoy. and of inestimable value. and adds a thousand fold more to a nation's resources than the most successful conquests. nothing but Universal Education can counterwork this tendency to the domination of capital and the servility of labor. so may the training of the schoolroom expand into the institutions and fortunes of the State. Arthur S. 307-308. it matters not by what name the relation between them may be called. Leopold. as that an intelligent and practical body of men should be permanently poor.. for the existence of a wealthy people. Let this development precede. a leader of the American (Know. Education. numberless.

. though you wonder that we do not have to hold our breath in such noise. the rooms were so light. are willing to act the part of traitors to our laws and Constitution. but I have not got used to "looking two ways of a Sunday" yet. and you . At first the hours seemed very long. It is this aggressive policy and corrupting tendency of the Romish Church... all mingled together in strange discord.sending into every State and Territory in this Union. I could take care of two if I only had eyes in the back part of my head. are politicians.. Every Roman Catholic in the known world is under the absolute control of the Catholic Priesthood. are the worst class of American politicians. the sound of the mill was in my ears. or on the overseer's bench.. THE LOWELL GIRLS Lowell. but I was so interested in learning that I endured it very well.. I went into the mill to work a few days after I wrote you. 1985). and now I have improved so that I can take care of one loom. They set me to threading shuttles. as of crickets.. designing demagogues. You know that people learn to sleep with the thunder of Niagara in their ears. this power of the Priesthood to control the Catholic community. The plants in the windows. But corrupt and ambitious politicians in this country. on the ancient and profligate altar of Rome.. The National Experience. a most baneful Foreign and anti-Republican influence. Pope. to the Catholic Church. The girls generally wear old shoes about their work. Associated with them for the purpose... this organized and concentrated political power of a distinct class of men.. Massachusetts. And it is this faculty of concentration.. 313.. It looked very pleasant at first. Its.. and a cotton mill is no worse.... and cause a vast multitude of ignorant foreigners to vote as a unit. which have called forth the opposition. p. The first mill employees were primarily girls from the surrounding communities. spacious. and thus control the will of the American people. if they may but rise to distinction on its ruins!.. that had engendered this opposition to the Catholic Church. These politicians know that Popery. Blum. frogs. After that it seemed as though cotton-wool was in my ears.. foreign by birth. and clear.. inferior in intelligence and virtue to the American people. and was put to learn with a very patient girl--a clever old maid. Source: John M. as a system is in the hands of a Foreign despotism.. It makes my feet ache and swell to stand so much. (New York. and they are willing to sacrifice the Protestant Religion.. Here is a letter from "Susan" published in 1844 in the Lowell Offering which describes one woman's experiences in the mills. and when I went out at night. this political influence.gave a pleasant aspect to things. Well. their girls so pretty and neatly dressed. but I suppose I shall get accustomed to that too. for the sake of profitable offices. but now I do not mind at all.. and the machines so brightly polished or nicely painted.. and tying weaver's knots. I went into the mill..of securing the Catholic vote.. selfish office-seekers. and such things. and bad men. I should be willing to be one myself if I could be as good as she is.. was the first planned industrial city in the United States and was the center of the Textile industry. his Bishops and Priests.

and keep a correct account of their time and work. The overseers are to be always in their rooms at the starting of the mill. at seven we come out to breakfast.. where they board. if you know of any one who is perfectly contented. (New York: W. they are cheerful... becomes larger than the left. Massachusetts.. I. as the sternest opponents of the factory system do.. Vol.. Norton. for it would compromise their Yankee spirit. and lament as loudly.it is because she has heard bad news from home. and stay until seven at night. You ask if the girls are contented here: I ask you. They would scorn to say they were contented. They may grant leave of absence to those employed under them. whenever the change their boarding place. Though the number of men is small in proportion there are many marriages here. and there is no disadvantage in their situation which they do not perceive as quickly. The right hand. we return to our work. 1979). If you see one of them with a very long face. Kutler. or quarter-past one four months in the year. At one. or because her beau has vexed her. and stay until half-past twelve.know nothing is easier. They are to see that all those employed in their rooms. are in their places in due season. We go in at five o'clock." Yet. Lowell. are to give at least two weeks' notice thereof to their overseer. . and are to observe the regulations of their boarding house. and then they have to send him word of the cause of their absence.262. 260. FACTORY REGULATIONS IN LOWELL Listed below are some of the regulation observed by employees of the Hamilton Manufacturing Company. except in cases of absolute necessity. and not absent unnecessarily during working hours.. Source: Stanley I.. but they almost all say that when they have worked here a year or two they have to procure shores a size or tow larger than befog the came. are to observe the regulations of the room where they are employed. or. They are not to be absent from their work without the consent of the overseer. The girls here are not contented. if asked the question. I never saw a happier set of beings.. Those intending to leave the employment of the company. who think nothing is more tedious than a factory life.W.past seven we return to our work. pp. Looking for America: The People's History.. when they have spare hands to supply their places. and a great deal of courting. but in other respects the factory is not detrimental to a young girl's appearance. They are to board in one of the houses of the company and give information at the counting room. withal.... All persons in the employ of the Hamilton Manufacturing Company. Then the evening is all our own. I will tell you of this last sometime.and love of "freedom and equality. which is the one used in stopping and starting the loom. and not otherwise. which is more than some laboring girls can say. at half. when they begin. except in cases of sickness.

Norton. or known to be guilty of immorality. cloth or other article belonging to the company. A physician will attend once in every month at the counting-room.721 160. Boston. free of expense. NY 4. or do not comply with all these regulations. are considered engaged for twelve months. AMERICAN URBANIZATION TO 1860 20 Largest Cities: 1840 20 Largest Cities: 1860 1.261 1. Source: Stanley I. MD 5. with which all persons entering into the employment of the Hamilton Manufacturing Company engage to comply. PA 3.C. Philadelphia. pp. S. Kutler.380 177. NY 2. will not be entitled to a regular discharge. Philadelphia. I. MA 6. The accounts will be made up to the last Saturday but one in every month. MA 6.230 161. These regulations are considered part of the contract.529 102. Brooklyn. MD 4.266. St.000 220. 312. 1979). Looking for America: The People's History. MO 9. Baltimore. Any one who shall take from the mills or yard. IL .044 33. OH 7.338 168. will be considered guilty of stealing and be liable to prosecution. New York. Brooklyn. The company will not employ any one who is habitually absent from public worship on the Sabbath.400 565.All persons entering into the employment of the company. Louis. Charleston. to vaccinate all who may need it. Cincinnati. New Orleans. Baltimore. Chicago. 265. Boston. NY 8.190 212.660 102. New Orleans. NY 9.300 266. New York.840 46.773 29. NY 2. PA 3. any yarn. and paid in the course of the following week. (New York: W. OH 8.W. and those who leave sooner. Albany.418 93.700 813. LA 5. Cincinnati. LA 7. Vol. Payment will be made monthly.675 36. including board and wages.

MI 15. KY 68. Sarah Grimke: In contemplating the great moral reformations of the day. NJ 45.210 12. Rochester. Milwaukee.666 17.619 20.218 20. MA 61. Washington. will accompany her prayers by her labors. Portland.. Richmond. NY 48. woman has a mighty weapon in secret prayer. Newark. Providence. and putting up my prayers for his deliverance from bondage. Troy.213 18.940 12. they will only inquire. Buffalo. Washington.367 14.C. weeping over the miseries of the slave. I acknowledge. 20. Albany. A friend of mine remarked: "I was sitting in my chamber. two prominent Pennsylvania abolitionists.246 109. To me it is perfectly clear that whatsoever it is morally right for a man to do. Detroit. Rochester. PA 62. In the two passages below each sisters discuss the problem of discrimination and what activists must do. Providence. it is morally right for a woman to do. Louisville. VA 50.221 18. ME 45.171 11. Buffalo. RI 71.115 13. It is said.153 16. WI Cities not on the 1840 list are highlighted. RI 19.. how far they may go without overstepping the bounds of propriety.802 16. D. NY 20.130 11. when in the midst of my meditations it . instead of puzzling themselves with the harassing. CA 20. NJ 21. Pittsburgh.260 23. "Lord what wilt thou have me do?" They will be enabled to see the simple truth. began in the 1830s to compare the political disabilities of the slaves with the discrimination directed against women. in common with man: but the woman who prays in sincerity for the regeneration of this guilty world.C. PA 18. she has. Louisville. 81. San Francisco. D. NY 56.334 17. which separate male and female duties.033 13. NY 17. Pittsburgh.10.191 15. THE GRIMKE SISTERS ON THE RIGHTS OF WOMEN Sarah and Angelina Grimke.290 19. KY 21. because unnecessary inquiry. NY 23. Newark.796 14.204 19..364 10. that God has made no distinction between men and women as moral beings.122 15. Lowell. and the part which they [women] are bound to take in them. NY 49.

by which moral delinquencies which exclude women from society. and so on.. are not only tolerated but deemed of little account in man. He closes against her all the avenues to wealth and distinction. (New York. by giving to the world different code of morals for men and women. When. p.. He has created a false public sentiment. that it is not.. Century of Struggle: The Woman's Rights Movement in the United States.. when she herself is under the feet of man and shamed into silence? Source: Eleanor Flexner. having in direct object the establishment of an absolute tyranny over her. Why... IT IS NOT: we must meet it and meet it now.. You may depend upon it. tho' to meet this question may appear to be turning out of our road. in the formation of which she had no voice.. it becomes necessary for one portion of the family of man to assume among the people of the earth a position different from that they have hitherto occupied. let facts be submitted to a candid world..occurred to me that my tears. He has endeavored. New York." She is now an active abolitionist--her prayers and her works go hand in hand. could never melt the chain of the slave. which he considers most honorable to himself.. He has taken from her all right in property.. The history of mankind is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations on the part of man toward woman. if married. to destroy her confidence in her ... He has made her. and from those she is permitted to follow... He has denied her the facilities for obtaining a thorough education-all colleges being closed against her... He has monopolized nearly all the profitable employment. He has never permitted her to exercise her inalienable rights to the elective franchise.. 48... What then can woman do for the slave. We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men and women are created equal. we must surrender the right to petition next year. He has compelled her to submit to laws. 1970). Angelina Grimke: We cannot push Abolitionism forward with all our might until we take up the stumbling block out of the road. even to the wages she earns.. in 1848. liberty and the pursuit of happiness. in every way that he could.If we surrender the right to speak in public this year. unaided by effort. in the eyes of the law civilly dead. and the right to write the year after. she receives but a scanty remuneration. in the course of human events. I must be up and doing. THE SENECA FALLS CONVENTION Reprinted below is the Declaration of Principles which emerged from the first Women's Rights Convention at Seneca Falls. my dear brothers can you not see the deep laid scheme of the clergy against us lecturers? .. that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights: that among these are life. To prove this.

we anticipate no small amount of misconception. 1985). p. In entering upon the great work before us. circulate tracts.own power. Fremont William Lloyd Garrison Frederick Douglass Seminole Indian Wars Nat Turner The Republican Party William Walker and Filibustering The American (Know-Nothing) Party Gag Bill of 1837 . The National Experience. John M. (New York. 75. We hope this Convention will be followed by a series of Conventions embracing every part of the country. Sources: Eleanor Flexner. misrepresentation and ridicule. and to make her willing to lead a dependent and abject life. 1970). CHAPTER THREE: AMERICAN SLAVERY Terms for Week 3 Eli Whitney Haitian Revolution Toussaint L’Overture abolitionists Texas and Slavery John C. to lessen her self-respect. Blum. but we shall use every instrumentality within our power to effect our object. petition the State and national legislatures. Century of Struggle: The Woman's Rights Movement in the United States. and endeavor to enlist the pulpit and the press on our behalf. We shall employ agents. (New York. 260.

155.286 1. 1854 "Bleeding Kansas" Dred Scott Decision. Douglas Kansas.596.318 604.278 708.012 % White 42 45 50 55 55 56 56 64 70 74 74 75 80 81 90 % Black Slave 57 55 47 44 44 44 39 33 30 26 25 13 20 2 10 % Free Blacks 1 * 3 1 1 * 5 3 * * 1 12 * 17 * ____________________________________________________________ _________ . 703.049 1.201 140.684 112.216 1.801 687.Nebraska Act.Compromise of 1850 John C.708 791. 1860 Whites and Blacks in the Total Southern Population State South Carolina Mississippi Louisiana Alabama Florida Georgia Virginia Texas North Carolina Arkansas Tennessee Maryland Kentucky Delaware Missouri Total Pop.057.215 992.622 435. 1857 John Brown SLAVERY IN THE SOUTH.450 1.182.424 1.002 964.109. Calhoun Harriet Beecher Stowe Bridget “Biddy” Mason personal liberty laws Stephen A.

. Sex. bruised and mangled by scores and hundreds of blows with the paddle. poured over the gashes to increase the torture. not more than nine hours a day. Theodore Weld. on the average. Weld: The slaves in the United States are treated with barbarous inhumanity.. He has no liberty.. etc. a 19th century defender of slavery argued that it was a positive good and in fact advocated the enslavement of white workers in the North to improve their condition. was an uncompromising abolitionist who wanted to end slavery because it brutalized slaves and made their owners callous to human suffering. and. and terribly torn by the claws of cats.they are often made to wear round their necks iron collars armed with prongs. they can sleep at any hour..The free laborer must work or starve. that they may be easily detected when they run away. He is more of a slave than the negro. Their views are described below. with so much of license and liberty.. and yet have all the comforts and necessaries [sic] of life provided for them. would die of ennui.. and not a single right. the freest people in the world. however. and hot brine.. and have insufficient sleep. because the cares of life with him begin when its labors end.443. and has no holiday..9% * Free Blacks comprised less than 1% of the state's total population. their backs and limbs cut with knives.. in some sense. . wretchedly clad and lodged. The negro men and stout boys work. Source: Eighth Census of the United States. Fitzhugh: The negro slaves of the South are the happiest. White men. and are protected from the despotism of their husbands by their masters.UNITED STATES 31. and quiet sleep is the greatest of human enjoyments. spirits of turpentine... TWO VIEWS OF SLAVERY George Fitzhugh.Besides.they are often stripped naked. have red pepper rubbed into their lacerated flesh. Population by Age.they are overworked.1% Slaveholders 21.321 86 13 1 Composition of Southern White Society: Nonslaveholders 78.they are frequently flogged with terrible severity..they are often kept confined in the stocks day and night for weeks together. The children and the aged and infirm work not at all. to drag heavy chains and weights at their feed while working in the field. Race and Agriculture of the United States.. made to wear gags in their mouths for hours or days. because they are oppressed neither by care nor labor. in good weather. The women do little hard work.. they have their Sabbaths and holidays. With their faces upturned to the sum. underfed. have some of their front teeth torn out or broken off. but negroes luxuriate in corporeal and mental repose. drawn over them by their tormentors. 1860. because he works longer and harder for less allowance than the slave... They enjoy liberty..

1857).. It has the effect to harden them to the value of a good name. They seem more sensible to cold than we are. do twice or thrice the work of the same number here. and the whites only as a kind of agents for them.. where it would be unpardonable for them to sit down. a cook.As to clothing.. A NORTHERNER'S ATTITUDE TOWARD SLAVERY While Abolitionist usually captured the public's attention with their denunciations of slavery. I saw only house servants. and a waiting servant.. A great number from the black population belong to several churches here. a 28 year. These unhappy people are brought to a land that while it enslaves their bodies. and to blight the first risings of anything like affection or respect. They sit on benches or stand along the aisles. The Episcopal churches are said to contain a great number of colored people. visited Charleston. [But] the negroes are servants and others masters. Ebenezer Kellogg. The domestics of a New Englandman. The worst form in which they are wronged.. You will readily believe that where so many are employed their labour cannot be very severe.Source: George Fitzhugh.. They must.. When they are blamed.is when they are talked about in their own presence.. however unjustly they never answer. and those employed in the labours of the town. which is the highest blessing of the happiest portion . I saw little. The character and situation of the black population of this country is one of the most interesting subjects of observation to strangers who visit it. (Boston.. .. (New York.. a chamber maid. and this is commonly true. of the field servants I can say little.. never attempt to justify themselves. In larger and wealthier families there must be a coachman. I often heard them scolded without reason. Of their treatment as respect discipline. performing a very important part in the interior economy of this mixed society.. They are usually decent for labouring people. the vast majority of Northerners were ambivalent toward the institution. however small must have at least three. 1839). many of them be whipped if they are to be servants. The blacks pay nothing toward the support of the churches. Every small child must have a nurse till it is several years old.. even when a single word would completely do. Cannibals All. Yet they sometimes suffer from cold.. South Carolina in 1817 and provided these impressions. besides assistants in these departments. Of house servants every family... Their number is such as might entitle them to be regarded as the first portion of the population. that does not in this climate very much affect their comfort. and opens to them the glorious door of hope.saves their souls [sic] from the slavery of sin.old professor of languages at Williams College in Massachusetts. seamstress. Little attention is however paid to their comfort in this particular. They were frequently blamed when the justification was obvious to every bystander. a laundress. They are obliged to spend hours there or in the back part of the room itself. I have seen the servants in a cold evening seated on mats in the hall before the door of the sitting room. I have never seen them whipped though I have heard their cries while under the lash. or have part of the gallery. but a part subservient rather than superior to the blacks. Slavery As It Is. Theodore Dwight Weld..

327-329. women. no colored person can go over a ferry without a pass.. SLAVERY AND SOCIAL CONTROL The slave system included a variety of restrictions and punishments designed to maintain social control over the black population.. and the slave is sold away.. I. However thirsty a slave may be.We had to work. ... even in long summer days. pp. they are flogged. Formerly slaves were allowed to have religious meetings. described some of the measures. and one for each of the children.. if there is a negro to be whipped. It is more severe in the west and south than where I lived. Widows and other females. In this account Moses Grandy... escape is made next to impossible.. 'Rise...There are men who make a trade of whipping negroes.. or none at all.. On the frontier between the slave and free States there is a guard.. where the free and slave states join. Vol. . he can only have it when the hands have reached the ditch.. the farther we go from the free states.' we had to rise and go to work again.but after the [Nat Turner] insurrection. The salt fish made us always thirsty. They may go to the places of worship used by the whites. By these regulations. and does it immediately. before we tasted a morsel. he is flogged himself. They hide themselves in the woods. the back is allowed to heal.of the world. The treatment of slaves is mildest near the border. .. he is not allowed to leave his employment for a moment to get water... having negroes. Source: Stanley I.their backs pickled. men. Kutler. till twelve o'clock. At noon the cart appeared with our breakfast.. get them whipped this way.. Norton. this man is employed when he calls.and two herrings for each of the men and women. [vinegar applied to the back] and the flogging repeated. The overseer stood with his watch in his hand to give us just an hour. When caught. there was small hominy boiled.. at the end of the rows. (New York: W. Three were shot. but they like their own meetings better.. The severe punishments. of which a piece was cut for each person.. and if he does not flog with sufficient severity. it becomes more severe.. and thanking her for the correction.. his fee is half a dollar... Looking for America: The People's History. whether man or woman. Often they are flogged if they are found singing or praying at home.they were forbidden to meet even for worship. and the... After months of this torture. Our drink was the water in the ditches. 1979). One black man in kept on purpose to whip the others in the field.. and.W.... in some cases for years. drive many of them to desperation. There was bread. A number of slaves went into a wood to hold meetings.for trifling offenses. Many mistresses will insist on the slave who has been flogged begging pardon for her fault on her knees. and children all being served alike.. they ride about inquiring for jobs of persons who keep no overseer.patrols. they were flogged. where they remain for months. when they were found out. when he said..and the agonizing feelings they endure at being separated from the dearest connections. a fugitive slave. two of whom were killed.

a slave assigned to her by her master.. even though not so long before the colonial woman had not been much better off. As the function of the Southern white woman changed. She was labeled sexually promiscuous because it was imperative that her womb supply the labor force.Source: Moses Grandy.41. the overseer. 34. hideously intertwined. She had to be considered at least the physical equal of the black man so that he would not feel justified in attempting to protect her. No one wished to admit that she felt as any woman would about the loss of her children. the separation of wives and husband. She was stronger than white women in order to justify her performing a kind of labor most white women were now presumed to be incapable of. as well as the notion of the frivolity and vulnerability of white women. That white men were omnipotent meant that white women had to be impotent. which took effect in 1808. 16-17. That white was powerful meant that black had to be powerless. the selling of children away from their mothers. The business of sexual and racial definition. the life of the black woman continued just as if the country were in its first stages of growth. The theory of the inferiority of blacks began to be elaborated upon and take hold. developed muscles in her arms. Narrative of the Life of Moses Grandy. pp. After the constitutional ban on slave importation. But slavery produced further complications: black women had to be strong in ways that white women were not allowed to be. SLAVERY'S IMPACT ON RACE AND GENDER ROLES Black feminist theorist Michelle Wallace suggests in the passage below the various ways in which slavery's racial and gender roles impacted on the attitudes toward black people and particularly on the dynamics of interaction between black women and men.. Source: Michele Wallace. since he might also have to be sold.. She labored in the fields beside he husband. She was the key to the labor supply. Every tenet of the mythology about her was used to reinforce the notion of the spinelessness and unreliability of the black man. the market required that a brutal emphasis be placed upon the stud capabilities of the black man and upon the black woman's fertility. had become a matter of balancing extremes. (New York. (Boston. black men had to be weak in ways that white men were not allowed to be. her marriage was not recognized by law. It was at this point that the black woman gained her reputation for invulnerability. the breeding of slaves like animals. . 1844). bore the lash and the wrath of her master. Gradually a network of lies developed to justify the continuance of the master/slave relationship. or that she had any particularly deep attachment to her husband. Her labor and trials became inextricably associated with her skin color. a neighboring white man. Her first duty had to be to the master of the house. The father might be her master. Black Macho and the Myth of Superwoman. She was believed to be not only emotionally callous but physically invulnerablestronger than white women and the physical equal of any man of her race.

Texas slave woman has provided one such opportunity with the letter she wrote to her husband. who at the time was serving with the 28th Texas Cavalry in Arkansas. I haven't forgot you nor I never will forget you as long as the world stands. the personal servant of Theophilus Perry. Choctaw. Brothers & Sisters say Howdy and they hope you will do well. Be sure to answer this soon for I am always glad to hear from you. I went up to Miss Ock's to a candy stew last Friday night. 1862 Because most slaves could not read and write only rarely do we have the opportunity to read the thoughts expressed by someone in bondage. A TEXAS SLAVE'S LETTER TO HER HUSBAND. Norfleet Perry. I heard once that you were sick but I heard afterwards that you had got well. Campbell and Donald K. Fanny Perry. We do not know if she and Norfleet were ever reunited during or after the Civil War. they brought slaves with them. the Chickasaw. I am very anxious to hear from you. SLAVE AND FREE BLACKS IN INDIAN TERRITORY The Five Civilized Tribes. Master gave us three days Christmas. I know I would have enjoyed myself so much better. Mother. Here is Fanny's letter of December 28. I hope to meet you in Heaven. a Harrison County. and I hope it will be so with you. Dec. "'My Dear Husband. Upon their removal to Indian Territory (Oklahoma) in the 1830s.1979) pp. Father. I wish you could have been here to have gone with me. In the account below Daniel and Mary Ann Littlefield describe the status and treatment of African Americans. There is not time night or day but what I am studying about you. I haven't had a letter from you in some time. I wish you could have been here to enjoy it with me for I did not enjoy myself much because you were not here." Journal of Negro History 65:4(Fall 1980):361-364. Grandmama. 1862. 137-138. Pickens. Spring Hill. My love is just as great as it was the first night I married you. even if you forget me. and I hope yours is to mine. 1862. slave and free. I hope your health will be good hereafter. I hope it will not be long before you can come home. among the . If I never see you again. Your Loving Wife Fanny Source: Randolph B. Cherokees Creeks and Seminoles all developed black slavery in their native homes stretching from North Carolina to Mississippi. I am doing tolerable well and have enjoyed very good health since you left. 28th 1862 My Dear Husband.' A Texas Slave's Love Letter. My heart and love is pinned to your breast. I would be mighty glad to see you and I wish you would write back here and let me know how you are getting on.

[it] ordered all free blacks. the Creeks had written laws which provided for the manumission of slavery by individual owners. pp. But at that time many Chickasaws sold their homes in invested in slaves whom they moved to the West [and] opened large plantations [using] their blacks in agricultural labor. Because they spoke English as well as the Indians' native tongue. to leave the nation by January 1. Many were freed by voluntary acts of their Seminole masters. Jr. Here is a brief glimpse of the lives of fugitive slaves in Mexico . By 1859 the number of slaves in the Cherokee Nation had reached 4. In 1838 the Choctaws forbade cohabitation with a slave. In the late 1850s the Chickasaws forbade their council from emancipating slaves without the owner's consent. and by the time the Civil War began some of them owned businesses such as boarding houses and stores.. and scouts. All persons of "negro or mulatto parentage" were excluded from holding office.. not freed by Cherokee citizens.were free by virtue of their assistance to the United States as informers..762 Creeks and 502 slaves with only a few Creeks owning more than ten slaves. on the eve of removal.. were allowed to own property and carry weapons. there were 16.. the teaching of a slave to read or write without the owner's consent and the council's emancipating slaves without the owner's consent. 1843. like the Seminole slaves.and in the aftermath of a slave revolt in 1842. A number of free blacks also lived among the Creeks.. Those who refused to go were to be sold. "The Beams Family: Free Blacks in Indian Territory. The Chickasaws did not hold large numbers of slaves before removal. by far.regarded their slaves in the same manner as white owners. was among the Seminoles. The Seminoles had no laws restricting free blacks. nearly 500 blacks. and Mary Ann Littlefield.000... both slave and free. removed with them. 17-21. County judges were authorized to order [free] blacks out of their respective counties. The Cherokee Council [governing legislature] prohibited the teaching of slaves and free blacks not of Cherokee blood to read and write.963 Choctaws and 512 slaves [and] eleven free blacks.592 slaves. The Chickasaws.. Between 1838 and 1843. 61:1 (January 1976). Slavery among the Cherokees was little different from that in the white South and the status of slaves and free blacks declined as laws became more severe. An 1831 census listed 17.... RUNAWAY SLAVES IN MEXICO Hundreds of black Texas slaves made their way to freedom in Mexico in the years before the Civil War. Source: Daniel F. The greatest population.as slaves.Five Tribes. guides. several of the free blacks served as interpreters.. Some." Journal of Negro History.. Fewer slaves lived in the Choctaw Nation. who.. Decades before their removal to the West. The free blacks were removed with the Creeks. Other laws prohibited intermarriage and persons of African descent from holding office. A census of 1832 showed 21.. Among the Creeks were several free blacks who were heads of households. There were fewer free blacks among the Cherokees despite large numbers of slaves among them. Littlefield...543 Cherokees and 1... In 1835..

and positions of honor. looking at us. They had never been used to taking care of themselves. As we turned a corner near the bank. that he had known of. Once he had been beyond Durango. if they chose to be industrious. or nearly to the Pacific. At other points. when I nodded to him. however. I followed. turned hesitantly back and walked away from us.. generally they gave it all away to the women. and. or were killed on the way. that I could discover. and had traveled extensively in Mexico. who were industrious and saving.. by marriage. they could live very comfortably. in answer to inquiries. He could speak Spanish fluently. a great many more came than here. One of them was startled. He had joined the Catholic Church. in the last three months. not knowing the language of the country. or engaged in any kind of labor. he thought. He was a mechanic. the night before.. But. and often they were very poor and miserable. but he could count forty. The Mexican Government was very just to them. and he was very well satisfied with the country.. and with being made so much of by these Mexican women. and could earn a dollar very easily. who had acquired wealth. he had no object. that they spent all they brought very soon. Most of them brought with them money. always did well. he said. that he was born in Virginia. stepped up on one of the sand-bank caverns. to exaggerate the facts either way. as a guide. northward." He touched his hat. and he professed to be competent. and showed no feeling except a little . who thought as much of themselves as the best white people in Virginia. as if he hadn't meant to. as they were crossing the street. they wouldn't find any work to do. and. as I had previously been informed. had rather an advantage over a white American.written by Fredrick Law Olmstead following his famous journey across Texas in the mid-1850s. by his trade. Very few persons were moving in the streets. a colored man. Thither. but they had all they earned for their own. which they had earned and hoarded for the purpose. between the settlements and the river. and then. and a man's living did not cost him much here. The people generally liked them better. every day. to any part of Northern Mexico. Runaways were constantly arriving here. and in a short time they had nothing to live upon. Some of them had connected themselves. with rich old Spanish families. These Texas folks were too rough to suit them. and the other negro. He supposed a good many got lost and starved to death. two had got over. He would like. He very civilly informed me. we came suddenly upon two negroes.. and looking ashamed and confounded. sometimes on his own business. Wages were low. Colored men. which did not generally take them long. after they had learned the language. and had been brought South by a trader and sold to a gentleman who had brought him to Texas. He mentioned to me several negroes whom he had seen. putting his hands in his pockets. He could not guess how many came in a year. and sometimes as a servant or muleteer. whistling. further down the river. to Chihuahua. if he could behave himself decently. In fact. grinned impudently--expressing plainly enough--"I am not afraid of you. or some small articles which they had stolen from their masters.to see old Virginia again. that he would--if he could be free. I believe these statements to have been pretty nearly true.. wishing to have some conversation with him. and when they first got here they were so excited with being free. whereas some Mexican children laughed. in different parts of the country. they could always have their rights as fully protected as if they were Mexican-born. from whom he had run away four or five years ago.

In revenge for this carelessness. If so taken. The impulse must be a strong one. He faces all that is terrible to man for the chance of liberty. Yet there is something a little strange about this. have settled together within a few days' walk of Eagle Pass. and sometimes. which induces a slave to attempt an escape to Mexico. It is repeated as a standing joke--I suppose I have heard it fifty times in the Texas taverns. or of being bitten or stung by the numerous reptiles that abound in it. They were confirmed. Dr. as well as by Mexicans themselves. his cries awoke his Mexican neighbors. and the captor had to run for it. . of famishing in the wilderness from the want of means to procure food. The poor yellow-faced. also. There is a permanent reward offered by the state for their recovery. a suit was then pending for these temporary services. again. which. in earnest. at once. Once. who are not generally able to speak Spanish. priestridden heathen. by every foreigner I saw. by taking them up. and he would be greedily snatched up by the first American that he would meet. who had lived or traveled in this part of Mexico. in the hands of a returning party of last year's filibustering expedition. they are severely punished. actually hold. and when the claim to him had been sold for fifty dollars. to his old comfortable. in all essential particulars. he escaped from the field where his temporary holder had set him at work on the Leona. they must be. when seized. there is then the great dry desert country to be crossed. with amusing extravagance) of the dangers and difficulties to be encountered by a runaway. it must be as one to a thousand of those going the other way. he escaped with a horse and a six-shooter. if they come in their way. The escape from the wretchedness of freedom is certainly much easier to the negro in Mexico than has been his previous flight from slavery. and always to the great amusement of the company-that a nigger in Mexico is just as good as a white man. the ideas on this subject put forth in that good old joke of our fathers--the Declaration of American Independence. with the danger of falling in with savages. Let any one of them present himself at Eagle Pass. as I have had personal evidence. of freezing in a norther. in winter. they who have got far into the interior are said to be almost invariably doing passably well. who had been three times brought from beyond the Rio Grande. It is those that remain near the frontier that suffer most. A gang of runaways. Bravo negro! Say I. Once. at all seasons. though if they return voluntarily they are commonly pardoned. it is natural to suppose. 1856) notices having seen at Fort Inge a powerful and manly-looking mulatto. careless life. the irksomeness of slavery keenly irritating. If it ever occur. and if you don't treat him civilly he will have you hauled up and fined by an alcalde. Once. and I have heard them spoken of as being in a more destitute and wretched condition than any others. and.resentment towards the women. The masters take care. when negroes are brought into Western Texas. and a considerable number of men make a business of hunting them. of drowning miserably at the last of the fords. that they are informed (certainly never with any reservation. Most of the frontier rangers are ready at any time to make a couple of hundred dollars. The runaways are generally reported to be very poor and miserable. and restored. If they escape immediate capture by dogs or men. or the longing for liberty much greater than is usually attributed to the African race. after having been captured. or of being attacked by panthers or wolves. Stillman (Letters to the Crayon. who probably wheedled him out of his earnings. yet I did not hear of a single case of his availing himself of this advantage. with whom I was able to converse on the subject. the tyranny extremely cruel.

[the Church newspaper] was devoted to a rebuttal of abolitionism. There once was a time. a Saddle-Trip on the Southwestern Frontier......." The Mormons. 1859). However. Lester Bush. far from professing divine insight the authors [including Joseph Smith] made it expressly clear that these were their personal views. when a "Negro problem" did not exist for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.. the next issue of the Messenger and Advocate." Though no law authorized. The first group of Mormons to enter the Salt Lake valley were accompanied by three Negro "servants. was baptized in Maryland. Slaveowning converts were instructed to bring their slaves west if the slaves were willing to come..W. THE MORMONS AND BLACK SLAVERY By 1852 Utah had become the only territory to legalize both black and Indian slavery. continued to be charged with anti-slavery activity in Missouri. Missourians interpreted as an invitation "to free negroes from other states to become 'Mormon' and settle among us...from hunger and thirst to every nasty form of four-footed and two-footed devil.. The constitution of Deseret was intentionally without reference to slavery and Brigham Young declared "as a people we are adverse to slavery but we do not wish to meddle in the subject. and preached to.Negroes among his first audience." A Negro. albeit brief." was among the first converts in Ohio.. tongues and peoples. The following year another black. Part of his account is reprinted below.. They were fully at liberty to leave their masters if they chose.the Gospel was for "all nations." The local citizenry immediately drafted a list of accusations against the Saints. "Black Pete.W.and declared [no blacks] "will be admitted into the Church.. W. W. In less than a year a rumor was afoot that [the Mormons] were "tampering" with the slaves. described the evolution of Mormon doctrines on blacks and slavery against the background of the antebellum slavery controversy. Elijah Abel.. in spite of their repeated denials.. 323-327.slavery in Utah..... prominently featuring the anti-slavery issue.. In the summer of 1833. kindreds. Phelps opened a mission to Missouri in July.] This initial period was brought to an end by the influx of Mormons into the Missouri mission in late 1831 and early 1832. Mason Brothers.... A Journey Through Texas--Or.. (New York. I pity the man whose sympathies would not warm to a dog under these odds." By 1850 nearly . In response Phelps issued an "Extra" explaining that he had been 'misunderstood'. Phelps published an article. How can they be held back from the slave who is driven to assert his claim to manhood?. [Abel was later named a priest in the church and lived for a time in Prophet Joseph Smith's home. Jr.. there were slaves in the territory. In response. a member of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.. for much of the national debate was focused on the West. 1831.. I fear I should myself suffer the last servile indignities before setting foot in such a net of concentrated torture. Source: Frederick Law Olmsted. but were otherwise advised to "sell them" or let them go free. The Mormon exodus to the Salt Lake Valley did not free the Saints from the slavery controversy. During those early months in New York and Ohio. pp..

regarding not the humanity with attaches to the colored race.. scarcely inhabited and quite unexplored.. and power. The Compromise of 1850 was worked out to mollify both pro.. In his request for legislation on slavery Governor Brigham Young. requires.to an equality with those whom Nature and Nature's God has indicated to be their masters.declared "while servitude may and should exist. and finds us debating the dissolution of the Union itself. arise.." Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought. To constitute a physical equilibrium between the slave states and the free states. But it is insisted that the admission of California shall be attended by a compromise of questions which have arisen out of slavery! I am opposed to any such compromise.. an equality of territory. and well can talk of nothing but slavery.100 blacks had arrived.. spoke against the Compromise.California brings gold and commerce as well as freedom.from want of moral courage to meet this question of emancipation as we ought. more populous than the least and richer than several of the greatest of our thirty states. who four years later became one of the founders of the Republican Party.. What is proposed is a political equilibrium.nor elevate them.whether slavery stand or fall in the District of Columbia. And this is already lost. THE DEBATE OVER CALIFORNIA In 1850 the debate over the admission of California as a free state nearly prompted a civil war.. thus rich and populous.. 8:(1973). is here asking admission into the Union. gorgeously inlaid with gold--is doubly welcome. Jr. was unknown even to our usually immoderate desires. However New York Senator William H..California. It is well. on the Pacific coast. gold.. and in New Mexico. California. What am I to receive in this compromise? Freedom in California.. "Mormonism's Negro Doctrine: An Historical Overview.. in any and all the forms in which it has been proposed. I feel assured that slavery must give .. a Mexican province.." Source: Lester E...and anti-slavery interests.. the youthful queen of the Pacific. Part of his address is reprinted below.in New Mexico. first. Seward.. California is a state.. pp. in her robes of freedom...and even whether slavery stand or fall in the slave states.. then to surrender some portion of human freedom in the District of Columbia.. To-day. Every political equilibrium requires a physical equilibrium to rest upon. approximately two-thirds of whom were slaves. California ought to come in.. I am.we should not.... But what am I to give as an equivalent? A recognition of the claim to perpetuate slavery in the District of Columbia. We hear nothing but slavery. for the mixed consideration of liberty.. The "laissez-faire" approach to slavery came to an end in 1852.... and dangers... it is worth the sacrifice. forbearance toward more stringent laws concerning the arrest of persons suspected of being slaves found in the free states. And now our difficulties. Bush.and [there are] those who are naturally designed to occupy the position of 'servant of servants'. Let California come in. forbearance from the proviso of freedom in the charters of new territories.make them beasts of the field. This same California. embarrassments. Four years ago.. 11-25.

by a full and final settlement. I shall not impeach their wisdom. health. can save a patient lying dangerously ill. if . Brown and Co. In the passages below South Carolina Senator John C. not by the weaker party. Garraty. they go further. Calhoun and Massachusetts Congressman Horace Mann offer opposing views on the issue of California and slavery in speeches before Congress. A large majority of the Southern legislators have solemnly "resolved" that if Congress prohibits slavery in the new territories. and to the ripening influences of humanity. pp. glorious health!" on the part of the physician. that emancipation is inevitable.. and let the States we both represent agree to separate and part in peace.but I will adopt none but lawful. cannot agree to settle them on the broad principle of justice and duty. Mann: Gentlemen of the South not only argue the question of right and of honor. If you who represent the stronger portion. in substance. as I certainly cannot their patriotism. tell us so... indulging no such apprehensions myself. they will resist the law "at any and at every hazard. say so.. (Boston: Little. and they tell us what they will proceed to do if we do not yield to their demands. 446-459. Source: Richard N.. I shall vote for the admission of California directly.. and is near. by an amendment. for it can of itself do nothing--not even protect itself--but by the stronger.. and peaceful means.to the salutary instruction of economy. on the principle of justice of all the questions at issue between the two sections.... Words that Made American History.way. then. ed... with qualifications. But can this be done? Yes. THE COMPROMISE OF 1850: TWO VIEWS The controversy over the admission of California to the Union in 1850 almost prompted the secession of several slaveholding states. constitutional. How can the Union be saved? There is but one way by which it can with any certainty.. If you are unwilling we should part in peace. and that is. when you reduce the question to submission or resistance. and to do her duty by causing the stipulations relative to fugitive slaves to be faithfully fulfilled--to cease the agitation of the slave question. which will restore to the South. Let. easily.I. and without compromise. Current and John A. The cry of "Union. without conditions. and we shall know what to do.. to secure even that end... The North has only to will it to accomplish it--to do justice by conceding to the South an equal right in the acquired territory. however splendid or numerous.. those who distrust the Union make compromises to save it. but. and to provide for the insertion of a provision in the Constitution.. Calhoun: The Union cannot. be saved by eulogies on the Union. Vol. 1965)." And do the gentlemen who make these threats soberly consider how deeply they are pledging themselves and their constituents by them? Threats of dissolution.. the glorious Union!" can no more prevent disunion than the cry of "Health. Union.. the power she possessed of protecting herself before the equilibrium between the sections was destroyed by the action of this Government.

founded in 1831. 268. No! No! Tell a man whose house is on fire. martial law will be proclaimed.. are men who want rain without thunder and lightning... but they must certainly pay for all they get. In the light of these ideas. better disunion--better a civil or a servile war--better anything that God in His Providence shall send. but it must be a struggle. ABOLITIONISTS-GARRISON AND DOUGLASS William Lloyd Garrison and Frederick Douglass were leaders of the abolitionist movement.269. pp. It never did and it never will. If there is no struggle there is no progress.executed. The limits of tyrants are prescribed by the endurance of those whom they oppress. by sacrifice. Its agents and abettors would be traitors. Wherever this rebellion rears it crest. The Garrison passage is from the first editorial of his anti. Douglass: The whole history of the progress of human liberty shows that all concessions yet made to her august claims. or write with moderation. Blum. Find out just what any people will quietly submit to and you have found out the exact measure of injustice and wrong which will be imposed upon them.--but urge me not to use moderation in the cause like the present. The Liberator. tell him to moderately rescue his wife from the hands of the ravisher.. than an extension of the bounds of slavery. 1989). This struggle may be a moral one. and these will continue till they are resisted with either words or blows. tell the mother to gradually extricate her babe from the fire into which it has fallen. and if needs . Negroes will be hunted at the North. I have only to add that such is my solemn and abiding conviction of the character of slavery that under a full sense of my responsibility to my country and my God... and held and flogged at the South so long as they submit to those devilish outrages. Power concedes nothing without a demand. Source: John M. but is there not a cause for severity? I will be as harsh as truth. I deliberately say. The Douglass passage is from speech he gave in Boston in 1857. we must pay for their removal. or it may be a physical one. On this subject. and as uncompromising as justice. become rebellion and treason. Such forcible opposition to the government would be treason. They want the ocean without the awful roar of its many waters.slavery newspaper. by suffering. Men may not get all they pay for in this world. or with both. I do not wish to think or speak. We must do this by labor.. and it may be both moral and physical. to give a moderate alarm. I am in earnest--I will not equivocate--I will not excuse--I will not retreat a single inch--AND I WILL BE HEARD. Those who profess to favor freedom and yet deprecate agitation. have been born of earnest struggle. If we ever get free from the oppressions and wrongs heaped upon us. The National Experience: A History of the United States (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. In the passages below Garrison and Douglass outline their views. Garrison: I am aware that many object to the severity of my language. and make no resistance. either moral or physical. and those found with hostile arms in their hands must prepare for the felon's doom.

responded to his owner. Now you have the meanness to ask me to return and be your chattel. shall not I infer that you forfeit all your rights to me? Have you got to learn that human rights are mutual and reciprocal.. of Tennessee. 1971). and in the same breath and almost in the same sentence. I. Lougen's reply reflects his sense of personal security in Syracuse. 1961). Nevertheless. for you knew I was susceptible in that direction.be. Sarah Logue. bound to a coffle in chains? Where are my poor bleeding brothers and sisters? Can you tell? Who was it that sent them off into sugar and cotton fields. that you should be willing to crucify us all. indeed. to be kicked and cuffed. Sources: Richard Current. N. You say you have offers to buy me. wish to know how I regard .. because I ran away. send you $1.W. American History: A Survey. Mrs. than my own life. Wretched woman! I value my freedom. and you approved the deed--and the very letter you sent me shows that your heart approves it all. and twelve acres of land." Woman. Abe and Ann.000.Y. Lougen. and not that you should get land.. Shame on you! You say I am a thief.. and to groan and die. more than all of the lives of all the slaveholders and tyrants under heaven. you say. is there a law for one man which is not a law for every other man? If you or any other speculator on my body and rights. (New York: Knopf. you say. that you should be so cruel as to tear the hearts I love so much all in pieces. p. and I thank you for it. a fugitive slave living in Syracuse. I am indignant beyond the power of words to express. your husband did. Do you say you did not do it? Then I reply. Ebony Pictorial History of Black America. 221-222. "You know we raised you as we did our own children. Have you got to learn that I had a better right to the old mare than Mannasseth Logue had to me? Is it a greater sin for me to steal a horse. by our lives and the lives of others. because I took the old mare along with me. (Nashville: Southwestern Company. A FUGITIVE SLAVE RESPONDS TO HIS OWNER The Fugitive Slave Act proved unenforceable in the North because abolitionists refused to assist local authorities in capturing runaway slaves. you forfeit your own liberty and life? Before God and high heaven. Sarah Logue: Yours of the 20th of February is duly received.314. who had requested he return to her plantation or face the possibility of slave catchers. Lerone Bennett.to stir my pity. In 1860 J. than it was for him to rob my mother's cradle and steal me? If he and you infer that I forfeit all my rights to you. p. You say you are a cripple. out of compassion for your poor foot or leg.. I do pity you from the bottom of my heart. Mrs. to say nothing of my mother. and whipped. or in lieu thereof. and if you take my liberty and life. and that you shall sell me if I do not send you $1. brothers and sisters more than your whole body. more.000 to redeem the land but not to redeem my poor brother and sister! If I were to send you money. it would be to get my brother and sister. You sold my brother and sister. did you raise your own children for the market? Did you raise them for the whipping-post? Did you raise them to be driven off.

Norton. I...... OREGON TERRITORY BANS AFRICAN AMERICANS The Territorial Legislature in 1854 reenacted an earlier statute which banned the entry of African Americans into Oregon. or from some other vessel within forty days. The new measure is reprinted below. 6 If any negro or mulatto shall be found in this Territory.. or reside within the limits of this Territory... it shall be the duty of any Judge or Justice of the Peace to..and shall be liable to any person aggrieved by such negro or mulatto. Source: Stanley I. except as hereinbefore provided and except such as may now be permanent residents. 3 No negro or mulatto shall be permitted to leave the port where the vessel upon which they are or may be employed shall be lying without the written permission of such master or owner. Sect.. I thank God. sympathize with my rights and the rights of mankind.apply to any negro or mulatto now resident in this Territory. 5 If any master or owners of a vessel having brought negroes or mulattoes as provided for in the second section of this act into this Territory. Sect. and lay their hands on me to enslave me.. 1979)..W. pp.. that I meet the proposition with unutterable scorn and contempt. or owner.. shall be responsible for the conduct of such negro or mulatto.. Looking for America: The People's History. Did you think to terrify me by presenting the alternative to give my money to you. Kutler.and on conviction. 4 That it shall be the duty of masters and owners of vessels having brought negroes or mulattoes into Oregon as aforesaid to cause such negro or mulatto to leave this territory with such vessel upon which the shall have been brought into the Territory. 2 That Masters and owners of vessels having negroes or mulattoes in their employ on board of vessel may bring them into Oregon Provided that in so doing such master.. Sect. (New York: W. they need but come here.my rights.to issue a warrant for the apprehension of such . nor shall it apply to the offspring of any such as are residents. Sect. who. shall be fined and imprisoned at the discretion of the court. A BILL TO PREVENT NEGROES AND MULATTOES FROM COMING TO... 1 Be it enacted by the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Oregon that it shall not be lawful for any negro or mulatto to enter into. 342-343... shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor. or give my body to slavery? Then let me say to you. Vol... Provided that the fine in no case shall be less than five hundred dollars. shall fail to remove and take the same with them when leaving the Territory.. OR RESIDING IN OREGON Sect. Providing that nothing in this act shall . Sect. I stand among a free people.

Presiding over everything is the great motherly figure of Biddy Mason─Grandma Mason. But this is no ordinary parking garage. irresistible energy. Two public art pieces─one by Sheila Levrant de Bretteville. Nothing is left of the original homestead of Biddy Mason.. Here is a partial account of the freedom Mason found in the Far West. 9 This act to take effect and be in force from and after its passage.. a fine art book has been printed by artist Susan E. Many black leaders in the community worship there. the Broadway-Spring Center is a rather graceful pink-and-green building with a Tony Sheets bas-relief on the front facade. migration. became one of the first settlers of Los Angeles when the city had fewer than 1.. and she appears . an old church that Mason founded still exists. Today a memorial to her 19th urban homestead sits across the street from the Ronald Reagan Federal Building in downtown Los Angeles. is a testament to the complexity of Mason's life. the other by Betye Saar─have recently been installed here.. 7 If any negro or mulatto shall be found a second time unlawfully remaining in this Territory he shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and shall. "Chip" Murray offers up sermons with titles such as "You Can't Beat the House. as part of the same project. work. at 331 South Spring Street. the first black woman to own property in Los Angeles. lit with a golden light that also bathes the pulpit. Sect. slavery. Sect. directed to any sheriff or constable..to arrest... More than a mile away.. is the new Broadway-Spring Center.upon conviction be fined and imprisoned at the discretion of the court. rows of crops and workers.negro or mulatto. Africa. and. Source: Archives of the Oregon Historical Society BRIDGET "BIDDY" MASON IN SLAVERY AND FREEDOM Bridget "Biddy" Mason. close to the USC campus. She's tending a flock of sheep. all to honor Mason and the site where her home once stood. tranquil park that has been named after Mason and which provides a green. Sect. 8 The Governor of this Territory shall cause this act to be published in some one or more of the California newspapers and such other newspapers as he may think necessary in order to carry out the spirit of the same. In its place. one hundred and eighteen years old." while a conga drum.such negro or mulatto. and impact on the city. The dynamic Reverend Cecil L. Ten stories tall.... King. and clapping hands set a background beat for gospel-rocking songs that bring people to their feet and infuse the room with sudden. well-planted walkway between Broadway and Spring Street. The First African Methodist Episcopal Church of Los Angeles. born a slave in Georgia. primarily a parking structure. The ground floor will be divided into shops with access to the small.. an electric guitar. There's a very large mural at the front of the church. the energy of hope and belief and love.000 inhabitants. A history is pictured there: pyramids.

who owned Biddy and her sister and their children. however. had made friends with free blacks here. Source: Judith Freeman. Mason possessed great skills in medicine and became a midwife. by a rider on horseback. she eventually built her own house there─the house in which the First African Methodist Church was born. Pioneer. including Elizabeth Flake Rowan. illuminating a scant few blocks of humble houses in the bottom of a dark. including the baby she carried in her arms. Biddy thus became a western pioneer. Charles Owens. Before her death in 1891. April. and his father. at this time. Mason was born in 1818 in the state of Georgia and sold into slavery at eighteen. Biddy sued for freedom in court. seven continuous months of walking. 1990.. sloping basin. She had three children at the time.) Ten years after winning her freedom she had saved enough money to buy the Spring Street lot. They were a homeless people slouching toward Zion. who ran a flourishing stable on San Pedro Street. She became known for her good works. in part because she gave them land to start a stable. Her grandsons were prosperous. one by one. pp. named Smith. and they wanted to leave you. traveling with their slaves and stock and children in oxcarts loaded with everything they owned. thirty-eight years old. 58-60. Robert Owens. and moved her family in with the Owens. Biddy Mason bought her land and built her house in 1866 in a town then so raw and new that the streets were troughs of mud or dust. until eventually Biddy's party passed the valley of the Great Salt Lake in Utah─where others settled permanently─and went on to San Bernardino. and points less charted to the west. a black slave caught up in a white religious pilgrimage. to celebrate a birth. she also became rich enough to know the joys of opening her hand and giving her wealth away. (For childbirth. "string small pieces of poke root around a baby's neck to ease teething". but Smith was hoping to depart for Texas. won her papers in 1856. Like many Afro-American women. They walked from Mississippi to Paducah. for a new baby.A. to Council Bluffs. didn't realize that California was a free slave state: If you brought your slaves here.dignified and strong. taking his slaves along before anyone could stop him. Biddy. She walked across America in 1848 with the family who owned her and her sister─a Mississippi family who'd converted to Mormonism and were trekking west in caravans of wagons. That's exactly what Biddy wanted. She was. In time she bought more land. she knew the lore of remedies and rituals. every night. "Commemorating An L. "make a blue flame in the hearthfire by throwing a handful of salt"." Los Angeles Magazine. Kentucky. But this Mormon family. swooping down on the Mormon camp in the Santa Monica mountains in the middle of the night. they could.. Nebraska. keep the patient walking as "long as she can drag". Iowa. Owens got up a posse of vaqueros to rescue Biddy and her kin. BLEEDING KANSAS--ONE SOUTHERNER'S VIEW . and Lincoln. now the valley of a billion lights. arriving in 1851. Gas lamps were individually lit. and later she erected a two-story building.

K.. I for one. as I begin to think that this will be made a Free State at last.. Source: Stanley I Kutler. These excerpts from his letters home describe "Bleeding Kansas. it will be rejected. was one of thousands of Americans who participated in the settlement of Kansas Territory in the 1850s. Vol.. If we had nominated a Southern man. I fear him. as I feel pretty confident they have a majority here at this time. but I feel pretty certain. Still. that coming here will do no good at last. We came in gunshot of each other. Looking for America: The People's History. . almost all of the Proslavery party between this place and Lawrence are here. Your Affectionate Son Douglas. though I have but little hopes of your getting this letter for some time past have been miscarried or stopped on the way--but I will make the venture. he would have been beaten. Ransom of Michigan. [Anti-slavery leader James] Lane came against us last Friday. Hoole. I drew a bead a dozen times on a big Yankee about 150 yards from me. 1856 My Dear Mother I must write you a few lines to let you know how I am getting along. We nominated a candidate for Congress last Friday--Ex-Gov. but some of our boys would not be restrained. K.T. You perceive from the heading of this that I am now in Lecompton..Axalla John Hoole. 1979). Sister. as we though that we would be better able to defend ourselves when altogether than if we were scattered over the country. if it is put to the vote of the people.000 men.. I. while the North is redoubling her exertions. every man seemed keen to fight. and we had orders not to fire until the word was given.. We had about 400 men with two cannon--we marched out to meet him. tho he professes to hate the Abolitionists bitterly. but did all that I could to restrain our men though I itched all over to shoot.. We had strict orders from our commanding officer (Gen'l Marshall) not to fire until they made the attack. but it was the best we could do. like most Southerners. the boys all around me would do the same. came to Kansas partly to insure its admission as a slave state while Northern settlers had the opposite intent. a South Carolinian. did not feel as nervous as I am when I go to shoot a beef or a turkey. but not before our party had shot some dozen guns. though we would have lost a good many men.. but did not fire. 'Tis true we have elected Proslavery men to draft a state constitution. I was a rifleman and one of the skirmishers. We brought our families here.W.. myself. Norton.. 393-394.. as I knew if I did. 1857 Dear Sister: I fear. but the regular soldiers came and interfered. I did not see a pale face in our whole army. 12. (New York: W." Lecompton.T.I firmly believe that we would have whipped them. and I doubt whether we can even elect a Northerner who favors our side.. though we were under the impression at the time that we had 1. July the 5th. The South has ceased all efforts. and I have heard him say that Negroes were a great deal better off with Masters. Sept. pp. by which it is reported that five of the Abolitionists were killed or wounded. I must confess I have not much faith in him.

. .. the conduct of the distinguished men who framed the Declaration of Independence would have been utterly and flagrantly inconsistent with the principles they asserted... and when the claims of the owner or the profit of the trader were supposed to need protection. But is too clear for dispute. .. and laws long before established. and the language used in the Declaration of Independence. that the enslaved African race were not intended to be included and formed no part of the people who framed and adopted this declaration. and if they were used in a similar instrument at this day would be so understood.. they would have deserved and received universal rebuke and reprobation. for if the language. would embrace them. Congress could not outlaw slavery in any territory under its jurisdiction.The general words [of the Declaration of Independence] would seem to embrace the whole human family... become a member of the political community formed and brought into existence by the Constitution of the United States. whether they had become free or not. In the opinion of the court.. Supreme Court ruled in Dred Scott v. as understood in that day. and doomed to slavery. and privileges.. Part of that controversial decision is printed below. which.THE DRED SCOTT DECISION In 1857 the U.. and immunities. whose ancestors were imported into this country. in the sense in which that word is used in the Constitution.. by common consent. and instead of the sympathy of mankind.. guarantied [sic] by that instrument to the citizen? One of which rights is the privilege of suing in a court of the United States. angered anti-slavery advocates throughout the country. either in social or political relations. and they knew that it would not in any part of the civilized world be supposed to embrace the negro race.that the plaintiff in error is not a citizen of Missouri.. and could give no judgment in it. Sanford that a black slave was undeniably property and because no citizen could be deprived of his property without due process of law as guaranteed by the Fifth Amendment. and sold as slaves. show that neither ..and that the Circuit Court of the United States had no jurisdiction in the case. They had for more than a century before been regarded as beings of an inferior order. and as such become entitled to all the rights. It is the judgment of this court. moreover.They perfectly understood the meaning of the language they used. and how it would be understood by others. The decision understandably sent shock waves through the black community and.. The unhappy black race were separated from the white by indelible marks. The question is simply this: Can a negro. and were never thought of or spoken of except as property. to which they so confidently appealed. nor their descendants.. . had been excluded from civilized Governments and the family of nations. and altogether unfit to associate with the white race. and so far inferior that they had no rights which the white man was bound to respect. were acknowledged as a part of the people.slaves.. the legislation and histories of the times.S.

in behalf of His despised poor.. JOHN BROWN'S LAST SPEECH. Ill. That was all I intended. and mingle my blood further with the blood of my children and with the blood of millions in this slave country whose rights are disregarded by wicked. when I went into Missouri and there took slaves without the snapping of a gun either side. Joshua Speed. This court acknowledges. or any of that class. I say.--and suffered and sacrificed what I have in this interference. That teaches me that all things whatsoever I would that men should do to me. wife. sister. brother.. or to make insurrection.. (Glenview. In the first place. p. it is unjust that I should suffer such a penalty. I should do even so to them. on a larger scale. moved them through the country. further. cruel. I never did intend murder. Fishel and Benjamin Quarles. as bound with them.. Brown offered no defense at his trial other than his desire to end slavery. Lincoln's ambivalence about his political affiliation reflected the increasing political confusion brought on by the slavery question. the New York abolitionist who moved to Kansas in the 1850s and participated in the territory's civil war.. I have another objection: and that is. as I did last winter. mother. I designed to have done the same thing again. 205-207. or to excite or incite slaves to rebellion. a few words to say. I see a book kissed here which I suppose to be the Bible. The Negro American: A Documentary History. or children. I have. Within . 1967). may it please the Court. I believe that to have interfered. was not wrong. November 2. to 'remember them that are in bonds. The Negro American: A Documentary History.. so let it be done! Source: Leslie H. and finally left them in Canada. Had I interfered. but right. in 1852 offered the following explanation of his political views. the intelligent. Now. the powerful. if it is deemed necessary that I should forfeit my life for the furtherance of the ends of justice. the so-called great. I am yet too young to understand that God is any respecter of persons.--I submit. LINCOLN'S POLITICS Abraham Lincoln writing to his friend. 1859 John Brown. I deny everything but what I have all along admitted. was arrested in 1859.in behalf of the rich. it would have been all right. It teaches me.' I endeavored to act up to that instruction. or in behalf of any of their friends. (Glenview.. and every man in this court would have deemed it an act worthy of reward rather than punishment. and unjust enactments. pp.--either father. as I suppose. or the destruction of property. 207.Source: Leslie H. I intended certainly to have made a clean thing of that matter. tried and convicted of attempting to seize the Federal Arsenal at Harper's Ferry to gather arms to support a large scale slave uprising in the South.--the design on my part to free the slaves. or at least the New Testament. Ill. 1967). or treason. the validity of the law of God. Fishel and Benjamin Quarles..

more than ever before. and we hold in abhorrence all . the Rights of the States. 2002).two years Lincoln and thousands of other Americans would create the Republican Party to articulate their views and advocate the changes they felt were vital to the nation's interests. THE REPUBLICAN PARTY PLATFORM. p. Gienapp. that among these are life. in discharge of the duty we owe to our constituents and our country. demand its peaceful and constitutional triumph. That the history of the nation." is essential to the preservation of our Republican institutions. That the maintenance of the principles promulgated in the Declaration of Independence and embodied in the Federal Constitution. and without the base alloy of hyprocracy [sic]. has fully established the propriety and necessity of the organization and perpetuation of the Republican party. (New York. during the last four years. That we.. its surprising development of material resources. it will read "all men are created equal. Resolved. "That all men are created equal. its rapid augmentation of wealth. were despotism can be taken pure. liberty and the pursuit of happiness." Source: William E.. in Convention assembled. That is certain. for instance. How could I be? How can any one who abhors the oppression of negroes. be in favor of degrading classes of white people? Our progress in degeneracy appears to me to be pretty rapid." We now practically read it "all men are created equal. except negroes. and that the causes which called it into existence are permanent in their nature. and foreigners and Catholics. unite in the following declarations: 1. its happiness at home and its honor abroad. 3. except negroes. must and shall be preserved. and now. You enquire where I now stand. This Fiery Trial: The Speeches and Writings of Abraham Lincoln. the delegated representatives of the Republican electors of the United States. 1860 Here is part of the platform of the Republican Party when it nominated Abraham Lincoln for President. That to the Union of the States this nation owes its unprecedented increase in population. 37. that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights. and that the Federal Constitution." When the Know-Nothings get control. Much of that platform was unacceptable to the South and Lincoln's election precipitated the secession of a number of Southern States which later formed the Confederacy." When it comes to this I should prefer emigrating to some country where they make no pretense of living liberty--to Russia. As a nation we began by declaring that "all men are created equal.. I think I am a whig. I am not a Know-nothing. 2. but others say there are no whigs and that I am an abolitionist.. and the Union of the States. That is a disputed point.

as especially evinced in its desperate exertions to force the infamous Lecompton constitution upon the protesting people of Kansas.. That the maintenance inviolate of the rights of the States. and we deny the authority of Congress. when they had abolished slavery in all our national territory.. and we call upon Congress to take prompt and efficient measures for the total and final suppression of the execrable traffic. and subversive of the peace and harmony of the country. be immediately admitted as a State under the Constitution recently formed and adopted by her people. to give legal existence to Slavery in any Territory of the United States. aided by perversions of judicial power.. and in its general and unvarying abuse of the power intrusted to it by a confiding people.is revolutionary in its tendency. and accepted by the House of Representatives. 11. while providing revenue for the support of the General Government by duties upon imports. of right. everywhere. That we brand the recent re-opening of the African slave-trade. of a territorial legislature. of its own force. and against any view of the Homestead policy which regards the settlers as paupers or supplicants for public bounty. in its attempted enforcement. on land and sea.. 5. or of any individuals. 12. without due process of law.. That.. 13. as among the gravest of crimes. carries Slavery into any or all of the Territories of the United States. in its measureless subserviency to the exactions of sectional interest. and we demand the passage by . come from whatever source they may. That the present Democratic Administration has far exceeded our worst apprehensions. That the new dogma that the Constitution. no matter under what pretext. is essential to that balance of powers on which the perfection and endurance of our political fabric depends. ordained that "no person should be deprived of life. or property. That Kansas should. sound policy requires such as adjustment of these imposts as to encourage the development of the industrial interests of the whole country." it becomes our duty. 9.to maintain this provision of the Constitution against all attempts to violate it.. That the normal condition of all the territory of the United States is freedom. under the cover of our national flag... 7. through the intervention of Congress and of the Federal Courts of the extreme pretensions of a purely local interest. and we denounce the lawless invasion by armed force of the soil of any State or Territory. and especially the right of each State in order and control its own domestic institutions according to its own judgment exclusively. That as our Republican fathers. liberty. in construing the personal relation between master and servant to involve an unqualified property in persons. 4.schemes for Disunion. is a dangerous political heresy. That we protest against any sale or alienation to others of the Public Lands held by actual settlers. 8.. as a crime against humanity and a burning shame to our country and age.

Vol. ed.. Garraty. Candidate Party Vote Abraham Lincoln Stephen A. 14. That the Republican Party is opposed to any change in our Naturalization Laws..713 848. Source: Richard N.906 CHAPTER FOUR: THE CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION Terms for Week 4 Fort Sumter Jefferson Davis New York City Draft Riot.356 592.. That a Railroad to the Pacific Ocean is imperatively demanded by the interests of the whole country. (Boston: Little. Brown and Co. 1965). Lee Ulysses S. Words that Made American History. a daily Overland Mail should be promptly established.382. both at home and abroad.. 16.. pp.and in favor of giving a full and efficient protection to the rights of all classes of citizens. Current and John A. as preliminary thereto. THE PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION OF 1860 Popular Electoral % Vote Vote 180 12 72 39 40% 30% 18% 12% Pop. 522-525. Grant Emancipation Proclamation.Congress of the complete and satisfactory Homestead measure which has already passed the house. I.. 1862 Battle of Vicksburg . 1863 Robert E. Douglas John Breckenridge John Bell Republican Northern Democrats Southern Democrats Constitutional Union 1. that the Federal Government ought to render immediate and efficient aid in its construction. whether native or naturalized.593 1. and that.865.

Battle of Gettysburg Sherman's March to the Sea Stand Watie Appomattox Court House Congressional Reconstruction Radical Republicans Radical Republican leaders: Senator Charles Sumner. 1866 Ku Klux Klan Sunday School League Mississippi Plan Compromise of 1877 "Birth of A Nation" grandfather clause sharecropping Ben Tillman .Massachusetts Congressman Thaddeus Stevens-Pennsylvania Andrew Johnson Reconstruction Amendments Thirteenth Amendment Fourteenth Amendment Fifteenth Amendment Freedmen's Bureau Black Codes Mississippi Vagrancy Act.

" Other smaller ridges were marked with the number of dead lying under them. I believe. if not hundreds. A History of the American People. bullets. Patches of the woods take fire. 1989). 389. A long ridge of fresh gravel rose before us. Nearly 365. Some have their legs blown off--some bullets through the breast--some indescribably horrid wounds in the face or head. torn. (New York. and many good fellows lying helpless. both in the arm and leg--both are amputated--there lie the rejected members. in 1860 was 31 million and in 1940 it was 132 million. Holmes: On coming near the brow of the hill. Then the camps of the wounded. I. as some poor fellow poured his life out on the sod. portions of bread and meat.AMERICA'S BLOODIEST WAR The Civil War was second only to World War II as the bloodiest military contest in which Americans have been engaged. the early summer grass so rich. from 200 to 300 poor fellows--the groans and screams. However because the population of the U. then. sickening. and were guarded for the Government. the grass. 395. cap boxes. "How many?" "Only one. A board stuck up in front of it bore this inscription.) in 1863. canteens.000 men. and several of the wounded. all Nature so calm in itself. and. We stopped the wagon. gouged out--some mere boys. the odor of blood. in this region of the field of strife. unable to move. scores. the trees--that slaughter-house! One man is shot by a shell. There they lie.S. haversacks. pp. mixed with the fresh scent of the night. not correct: "The Rebel General Anderson and 80 Rebels are buried in this hole. The whole ground was strewn with fragments of clothing. Hard by was a large pile of muskets. I saw two solders' caps that looked as though their owners had been shot through the head. scraps of paper. began to look around us. SECESSION--ONE PLANTER'S VIEW . cartridges." The dead were nearly all buried. Vol. Whitman: The night was very pleasant. all mutilated. The first is a description of the 1862 Battle of Antietam by future Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes and the second is Walt Whitman's description of the Battle of Chancellorsville (Va. and every minute amid the rattle of muskets and cannon the red life-blood oozing out from heads or trunks or limbs upon that green and dew-cool grass. women and children were killed between 1861 and 1865 compared to the 405. In several places I noticed dark red patches where a pool of blood had curdled and caked. burning the dead also. getting out.000 American deaths in World War II. we met a party carrying picks and spades. at times the moon shining out full and clear. and the foliage of the trees--yet there the battle raging. are consumed--quite large spaces are swept over. the Civil War's impact on the nation was far greater. The vignettes below describe the carnage that became so typical of Civil War battles. Source: Stephan Thernstrom. which had been picked up. the first part of which was.

Yours most Affectionately. and also to hear from a State which just now by her political position is somewhat the object of attraction in this country. Lord in Connecticut. James A. C.. (New York: W. I have plenty of Beef & mutton to feed my family upon and I think I and all around me could stand hard times better than some of the rich abolitionists of your part of the World. or they will soon be numbered among the Nations which have over them. In the Country here the planters are all quiet and our crops going to market as usual. & try farming where there is a distinction between a white man and a black one. S.W. Norton. which is not found in Connecticut.. When next I write I shall belong to another government for which I shall be thankful. The condition of affairs at the North since the election of an Abolitionist for President makes it necessary for us to get away as quickly as possible. p. care of Messrs. The Northern men must rouse themselves and shake off the Tyrants who now rule over them. In the following letter from Edward Barnell Heyward. Charleston..C. This letter was written one month before South Carolina seceded from the Union. Bee and Co. Wm. a South Carolina planter to his friend. 1979).B.Lincoln's election in 1860 moved the nation toward division. If there is no money in the banks we can go without it till England and France and perhaps the North send the gold for the cotton which they must have or go all to ruin. or them will soon be numbered among the Nations which have been! You live among a manufacturing people and you know better than I what the conditions of things would be in case the operatives were all dismissed. or put on starvation prices for the next year. Looking for America: The People's History. but you have nothing to loose by the Revolution that I suppose must ensue upon the present overthrow of our beautiful government. soon and tell me what is going on at home and about at the North. Of course we shall declare free trade with the whole world and having no manufactures to protect we shall bring about such a competition with the manufactures of this Country and those of Europe that the profits in such business at the North will be seriously reduced. Southern fears of a Republican administration are explained. We have on hand about three million Bales of Cotton and plenty to eat & clothe ourselves with. I have about 130 Bales of Cotton on my plantation to sell. I. 1860 My Dear Jim: . In January next we shall take leave of the Union and shall construct with our Sister Cotton States a government for ourselves.it might interest you to hear how I am living and what my occupations may be. If you were a rich man Jim I should advise you to quit the North &and come here and live in quiet. Whether the other Slave States will join seem very uncertain at least for the present. Do write me as before.. E. . Vol. and what is most important our working population have masters to take care of them and will not feel any pressure such as will soon come upon the operatives in the manufacturing States at the North. and about 3000 bshls of corn and one hundred Hogs now fattening for the negroes to eat and their winter clothes I will get in a few days.. Heyward Source: Stanley I Kutler. 399. November 20. If times get very hot you had better come on here.

. Should we submit to such degradation? Who are these Black Republicans? A motley throng of. perjury. 1861 February 4.. 1861 June 8. jests with [prize] fighters. 1861 April 12.. Oh. 1861. would let this low fellow rule for them? No! His vulgar facetiousness may suit the race of clock makers and wooden nutmeg vendors--even Wall Street brokers may accept him. 1861 January 11. 1861 January 26. and theft find ready absolution if the record be accompanied by a stolen slave. What are. 1860-1861 Seceding State South Carolina Mississippi Florida Alabama Georgia Louisiana Texas Confederate Government Organized in Montgomery. 1860 January 9. See the disgusting spectacle now presented to the world by the Federal government.. on his triumphal march to the Capitol. interspersed by Bloomer women.. 1861 January 10.. 'Tis true we have refused to accept Lincoln for a president.. exhibits himself at railway depots. arson.THE SECESSION CRISIS. but the Jesuitical dogma of the expediency of crime when a doubtful good may come. 1861 May 20. a South Carolinian whose husband had participated in the state convention which voted to secede. Such crimes as murder. 1861 A SOUTHERN WOMAN DEFENDS SECESSION Susanna Sparks Keitt. What of that? Did you think the people of the South. since they do not protest--but never will he receive the homage of southern gentlemen.. Mrs. and amalgamists. shame. Frederick Brown.the doctrines they teach? Equity and justice? Peace and Good Will toward men? No. bandies jokes with the populaces. and have the red seal of southern blood. fugitive slaves.. on March 4. the Lords Proprietors of the Land. shame. wrote her Philadelphia friend.. 1861 January 19. free lovers. 1861 May 6. 1861 February 1. My Dear Friend You must believe me when I say we did not break up the Union you so much love nor bring about the crisis you so much deplore. Alabama Confederate Bombardment of Federal Garrison at Fort Sumter. explaining why the Southern states left the Union. kissed bold women from promiscuous crowds. 1861 April 17. The President Elect of the American people.infidels. South Carolina Virginia Arkansas North Carolina Tennessee Date of Secession December 20.

and attach the death penalty to all future agitation of the slavery question. 1862.000. issued by President Abraham Lincoln on September 22.300. Norton. RESOURCES OF THE UNION AND THE CONFEDERACY.. Source: Stanley I. and not till then.000 $ 330.000. the Republicans prepare for a war of extermination.500. Here they are: Hang all your.. When these things are done. will cut our hair for bowstrings to plague the enemy as long as possible.000. will we consider the question of reunion.00. I. extermination.370. then..With a rancor and hatred worthy of a foreign foe.000 $ 850.000 22.000 110. homes. And the Stars and Stripes will shame their ancient glories when the "Southern Cross" takes the field.000 1.700. but I must candidly say that I can make no distinction between at-cost-of war Union Lovers and ultra Black Republicans. 1979). How can you counsel submission to such a people? We loved the Union.000. had a profound effect on the Union. 403.of their presence.000. The matter of our continued friendship must now be decided by you.500. black . You still hope for reunion.000 $ 95.000 $ 155.Garrisons. unite your Sumners and Sewards to ebony spouses and send them as resident ministers. and of course. And if the fate of Carthagenia be ours.000* $ 5... Greeleys.000. pp.. but our lives.000 18.W.Yes. 3.000 $ 11.000. for they know as well as we do that thus only can they conquer us. Purge the halls of Congress and the White House.406. and kindred are dear to us and cannot be sacrificed to a Memory.. Kutler. war let it be if war they desire.000. the Confederacy. (New York: W.000 * 40% were slaves. and the minds of our happy slaves poisoned of thought of murder and conflagration.000 9.000 $ 1. like those of old. incarcerate your Garret Smiths.000 THE EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION The Emancipation Proclamation. Yes.. See their bloody programme. A vain hope unless our conditions be accepted. Looking for America: The People's History.000 Confederacy 11 8.000 110. Our relations have been so pleasant it would pain me to see them altered. we women.000.. The dykes [sic] of the Mississippi must be cut. 1861 Union Number of States Population Real and Personal Property Banking Capital Capital Investment Manufacturing Establishments Value of Production (annual) Industrial Workers Railroad Mileage 24 23. and Ward Beechers.to Timbuctoo and Ashantee [African kingdoms]. Vol.000 $ 27.

position. and that the executive government of the United States. I do order and declare that all persons held as slaves within said designated States and parts of States are and hence-forward shall be free. And by virtue of the power and for the purpose aforesaid. pp. Dr. 1863 a predominately Irish mob rioted against the newly enacted federal draft and vented their fury particularly on New York City blacks. the twenty-second day of September. I invoke the considerate judgment and mankind and the gracious favor of Almighty God. that such persons of suitable condition. 1863 . unless in necessary self-defense. in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty two. the persons whereof shall then whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States. July 13th. And I further declare and make known. and the Executive Government of the United States. THE NEW YORK DRAFT RIOT. New York. to wit: That on the first day of January. Moss. By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Whereas. 1988). in any efforts they may make for their actual freedom. 1863 New York. among other things. And upon this act. including the military and naval authorities thereof. the following. And I hereby enjoin upon the people so declared to be free to abstain from all violence. containing.. will recognize and maintain the freedom of said persons. and will do no act or acts to suppress such person. Source: John Hope Franklin and Alfred A.. and forever free. AN EYEWITNESS ACCOUNT In July. Knopf. warranted by the Constitution upon military necessity. will recognize and maintain the freedom of such persons. and I recommend to them that in all cases when allowed they labor faithfully for reasonable wages.Americans. or any of them. (New York: Alfred A. a proclamation was signed by the President of the United States. sincerely believed to be an act of justice. From Slavery to Freedom: A History of Negro Americans. Part of the document appears below. in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three. John Torrey in the following account describes the riot. henceforward.. Jr. shall be then. stations. 532-533.. and other places and to man vessels of all sorts in said service. all persons held as slaves within any state or designated part of a state. July 13th. including the military and naval authority thereof. will be received into the armed services of the United States to garrison forts.

.... shoot an Irish fireman. Before this fire was extinguished. furious as demons. who made pacific speeches to them..Dear Doctor-We have had great riots in New York to-day & they are still in progress.. & a decided republican.. The typical Yankee was at best a reluctant liberator. They barely desisted when addressed by the Catholic priest. The rioters were induced to go away by one or two Catholic priests.--or the Harlem R.. calling at houses.Toward the evening the mob. went yelling over to the Colored-Orphan Asylum in 5th Avenue a little below where we live--& rolling a barrel of kerosine in lit. Many have been killed.. The mob had been in the College Grounds. I found Jane & Maggie [his black servants] a little alarmed. The following account by historian Leon Litwack describes the attitudes of some Northern soldiers toward the blacks they encountered in the South. King's house. 1972). & is now a smoking ruin. John Torrey Source: John Bracey and others. as he was rich. in a frenzy. & came to our house--wishing to know if a republican lived there. 230.. The furious bareheaded & coatless men assembled under our windows & shouted aloud for Jeff Davis! . had his house smashed up yesterday. The man had. they [the rioters] were numerous. the northern sky was brilliantly illuminated..Americans: Selected Documents. but not frightened.. & is known to be an abolitionist. (Boston: Allyn and Bacon. In 49 st. & demanding money-threatening the torch if denied. What has become of the 300 poor innocent orphans I could not learn. They are very hostile to the Negroes. A person who called at our house this afternoon saw three of them hanging together. not all Northerners embraced the idea that they were fighting to liberate the slaves. Ever yours. Gibbons) who visits us almost every week.. The Afro. and they immediately strung up the unhappy African. the whole structure was soon in a blaze. as I was passing near the College. They must have had some warning of what the rioters intended. or rather burned out. but I thought they were exaggerated.. RELUCTANT LIBERATORS: NORTHERN TROOPS IN THE SOUTH As the preceding vignettes on the New York Draft Riot indicates. Road Bridge--both of which places were threatened by the rioters. Thieves are going about in gangs. A friend (Mr. A friend who rode with me had seen a poor Negro hung an hour or two before. pp. They were going to burn Pres. and the attitudes and behavior he . & made. & I trust the children were removed in time to escape a cruel death. probably by the burning of the Aged Colored-woman's Home in 65th St.. They were reported to us at the Assay office about noon. for the wicked wretches who caused it would not permit the engines to be used. an attack upon one of a row of new houses in our street. & and scarcely one of them is to be seen. The worst mobs are on the 1st & 2nd and 7th Avenues.233. & what the College building was used for.

the prospect of a negotiated peace seemed even more remote. but when they did occur southern whites made the most of them. "As I was going along this afternoon. when combined with long-held and deeply felt attitudes toward black people. Although Union propagandists and abolitionists might exult in how a war for the Union had been transformed into a crusade for freedom." Few Northerners. The normal frustrations of military life and the usually sordid record of invading armies. keep me clear of the darkey in any relation. and not to liberate the G-d d-d niggers. Yes. and southern whites could be expected to fight with even greater intensity and conviction. while they openly consorted with white women during the day. men who have wives at home get entangled with these black things. greasy little vermin was the best that could be said of it. . "I would rather fight them. Now that the very survival of the southern labor system was at stake. after all." "I won't be unfaithful to you with a Negro wench. "the heads of the women indicate great animal passions. additional exposure to blacks appeared to strengthen rather than allay racial antipathies. Here." To debauch black women. "Republican as I am." a Massachusetts soldier and amateur phrenologist observed. The evidence suggests one of the more tragic chapters in the history of this generally brutalizing and demoralizing war. The evidence was to be seen everywhere." a Pennsylvania soldier assured his wife. a black soldier noted that they usually mingled with "deluded freedwomen" only under the cover of darkness." a Union deserter told his captors. was to partake of a widely practiced and well-accepted southern pastime. "a little black baby that could just walk got under my feet and it look so much like a big worm that I wanted to step on it and crush it. had chosen to wage this kind of war." a young Massachusetts officer wrote from New Orleans." And if anything." Marriages between Yankees and blacks were rare. Yankees tended to share the popular racist notion of black women as naturally promiscuous and dissolute. "My repugnance to them increases with the acquaintance." Rather than view emancipation as a way to end the war. What mattered was how they manifested their feelings when they came into direct contact with the slaves. "Our government has broken faith with us." an Ohio private wrote. That most Union soldiers should have failed to share the abolitionist commitment is hardly surprising. some Yankee soldiers thought it would only prolong the conflict. then. The frequency with which common soldiers mixed with black women prompted some regimental commanders to order the ejection of such women from the camp because their presence had become "demoralizing.evinced did not always encourage the slaves to think of themselves as free men and women. many northern soldiers donned the crusader's armor with strong misgivings or outright disgust. "We enlisted to fight for the Union. but true. Not only did the invaders tend to view the Negro as a primary cause of the war but even more importantly as an inferior being with few if any legitimate human emotions-at least none that had to be considered with any degree of sensitivity. "though it is the case with many soldiers. sharing their quarters with them. "Singular." a New England officer remarked. the nasty. not to mention the proper subordination of black people. Besides." Although some Union officers made no secret of their slave concubines. was a logical and convenient object on which disgruntled and war-weary Yankees could vent their frustrations and hatreds. "I don't think enough of the Nigger to go and fight for them. some Yankees apparently concluded. were more than sufficient to turn some Union soldiers into the very "debils" the slaves had been warned by their masters to expect.

as was most graphically illustrated in an incident involving some Connecticut soldiers stationed in Virginia. Not only did some Union soldiers sexually assault any woman they found in a slave cabin but they had no compunctions about committing the act in the presence of her family. 127-128." Whatever the reputation of black women for promiscuity. legs. "He was probably a Southern man by birth and education. After seizing two "niger wenches. (New York. Not surprisingly. black women could be subjected to further brutality and sadism." Without explanation. Been in the Storm So Long: The Aftermath of Slavery. In November 1865. sexual submissions frequently had to be obtained by force. 1979) pp. The second account. a clerk in the Confederate War Department. the husband or children of the intended victim had to be forcibly restrained from coming to her assistance. Jones.Two of the Brownfields' former negroes have married Yankees-one. Beyond the exploitation of sexual assault. a light colored mustee. even among those who deplored the excesses. In some such instances. stocks. Tinsley [her master] didn' ever beat or hurt us. lighted cigars & and sand into their behinds. "While on picket guard I witnessed misdeeds that made me ashamed of America. chips. moreover. "cause Mr. Union soldiers often shared the outrage of local whites at such liaisons. But they occurred with sufficient frequency to induce a northern journalist in South Carolina to write that Union troops had engaged in "some of the vilest and meanest exhibitions of human depravity" he had ever witnessed. "Dis was new to us." one of the victims recalled. Her entry describes the rampant inflation which affected most Confederate cities by 1863. and property left her by some white men whose mistress she had been-she says she passed herself off for a Spaniard and Mercier Green violated the sanctity of Grace Church by performing the ceremony--the other. reflects the intense hatred the war generated between Southerners and . an Georgia girl's entry in her journal following Sherman's March to the Sea." two witnesses reported from Virginia." a soldier wrote from South Carolina. and backs with razors." Most Union soldiers would have found these practices reprehensible. & put tobacco. 129-130. "and Hoosiers and Suckers don't take readily to Southern habits. "The father and grandfather dared offer no resistance. the racial ideology that encouraged them had widespread acceptance. Source: Leon Litwack. went north and married a Jewess--the idea is too revolting. stopped five young black women and cut their arms." the newspaper said of the victim. a man. If such incidents were rare. some Union soldiers in Hanover County Virginia." they "turned them upon their heads.B. kept a diary which in 1863 details the privations of the people of Richmond during the Civil War. HARD TIMES IN THE CONFEDERACY J. a black newspaper in Charleston reported that an Illinois soldier had been tarred and feathered by his own comrades for having married a black woman. he had recently observed a group of his comrades rape a nine-year-old black girl.

m. 'Love your enemies. which it ate from her hand. and seemed grateful. but as they are not being punished in this world. They have but a quarter of a pound of meat per day.F.--Some idea may be formed of the scarcity of food in this city from the fact that. Now that they have invaded our country and killed so many of our men and desecrated so many homes. W. 18th.. bacon. Several others soon appeared and were as tame as kittens. and 70 pieces of Artillery. pp.. sausage meat.T. Here is a part of a letter from W. for that would be wicked. The main road was blocked up with teams so we were obliged to go round by an old ford road making us 5 miles extra travel. Perhaps we shall have to eat them! February 18--One or two of the regiments of General Lee's army were in the city last night.' He meant Yankees. Monday the 14th [Nov. a young rat came out of its hole and seemed to beg for something to eat. A SOLDIER WITH SHERMAN'S ARMY General William T. The whole army intended for this Campaign was now in and around the City and ready to start the next morning. and even liver is selling at fifty cents per pound. one dollar. 1864 My Dear Father: At 10 a. they could not tell how I hate Yankees. I hope it is abundant there. Dec. The men were pale and haggard.000 men under the command of Major. February 11th. I don't see how else they are going to get their deserts. Source: Richard Current.. making nearly 80. It comprised 73. . Gen. Saylor. Of course I don't want their souls to be lost. I can't believe that when Christ said.000 Infantry. But meat has been ordered from Atlanta. 397. American History: A Survey. All the necessaries of life in the city are still going up higher in price. Sherman's famous March Through Georgia introduced the Confederacy to the concept of "total war. having previously set fire to our comfortable winter quarters. If all the words of hatred in every language under heaven were lumped together into one huge epithet of detestation.. one dollar. beef. while my youngest daughter was in the kitchen today. In the field near Savannah Geo. she held out some bread. Sherman.Northerners.] we started on the march towards Atlanta. (New York: Knopf. 399. 5500 cavelry [sic]. Butter." His military objective was not to destroy an opposing army as much as the South's morale and resolve to continue the war. 1961). three dollars per pound. a dollar and a quarter. describing the March. a Union soldier from Wisconsin.

Hogs. 15th. Hardly . The boys unearthed the stuff. We have all their Cattle. And they did their work well. The proud city of Atlanta is now a heap of Ashes. This is a very pretty place and contains some beautiful buildings.m. A tornado 60 miles in width from Chattanooga to this place 290 miles could not have done half the damage we did.found Ex-Gov. I. 22 Left Camp at 10 a... A CONFEDERATE SUPPORTER DESCRIBES THE FALL OF RICHMOND In April 1865 units of the Union Army entered Richmond. The right wing towards Macon. Vol. without inhabitants or public communication. 1979).. The Ex Gov of course had gone.. The Officer in charge persuaded an aged darkey by threatening to hang him (rather persuasive argument) to tell him where the stuff was. We travel fast and get to Camp in Milledgeville the Capitol of Geo. The Army moved out on four different roads.. and then set the cabbages out nicely again. A small force was left behind to burn the city [Atlanta] after the troops got out. The Ex Gov took up a bed of cabbages in his garden then dug holes and deposited his goods in boxes and barrels in said holes. Grace Street. The foragers got lots of stuff to eat here but not finding the usual amount of finery in the house they suspected that it was hid some where. The Weather is now cold and cloudy. but had left some of his old darkies. The Legislature had been in session but on hearing of our approach they adjourned and fled in confusion. I can't. with a few flakes of snow. Can't you imagine with what a heavy heart I begin it? The last two days have added long years to my life I have cried until no more tears will come.Tuesday morning Nov. Burton Harrison. Mrs. Dec. We burnt all the Cotton we men which was millions of pounds. having traveled 10 miles.. Mules.. in this account from a letter to her relatives. But it wouldn't work. Nov 28. the left wing towards Augusta... It was an awful looking place when we got through. Richmond. Johnston's house about 5 to 7 miles from the road we were on. pp. April 4.. (New York: W.. Norton. at 5 p. burning everything but a few private dwellings and the Churches. the capital of the Confederacy and thus signaled the collapse of the rebellion.W.. Nov. Virginia.think of what the people that are left there are to live on. We burned the State Prison and arsenal and other public buildings and pillaged an plundered the town generally. describes the episode. Sheep.432.All through the evening the air was full of farewells as if to the dead. Horses. Sweet Potatoes and Molasses and nearly everything else.You can form no idea of the amount of property destroyed by us on this raid. and my heart throbs to bursting night and day. 430.. All the Roads in the state are torn up and the whole tract of country over which we passed is little better than wilderness. 1865 My Precious Mother and Brother: I write you this jointly.. Source: Stanley I Kutler. because I can have no idea where Clarence is. Looking for America: The People's History. 10th.m.

Norton. the doors and shutters of every house tight closed... The War Department was sending up jets of flame. orderly for Col..M the troops .anybody went to bed. Thank God. we felt safe enough.. commander of the 29th Connecticut Colored Infantry Regiment.Looking down from the upper end of [Capitol Square] we saw a huge wall of fire blocking out the horizon. when all was in readiness. Vol. pp. The streets filled with smoke and flying fire were empty of the respectable class of inhabitants. B. Through all of this strain of anguish ran like a gleam of gold the mad vain hope that Lee would yet make a stand somewhere--that Lee's dear soldiers would give us back our liberty. it was said.and cannon ever in my ears. THE FALL OF RICHMOND: A BLACK SOLDIER'S PERSPECTIVE J. by convicts escaped from the penitentiary.______ and the_____'s were there to ask for food. trampling horses. In a few hours no trace was left of Main. rare books and barrels of sugar and whiskey. During Sunday night the brigade was out in line of battle. together with a mob of miserable poor whites. W. Cary. but the experience was not pleasant. The ending of the first day of occupation was truly horrible. as their families were starving.... Looking for America: The People's History. drank themselves mad with liquor scooped from the gutters. and the brief visit there by President Abraham Lincoln in his book A Sketch of the 29th Regiment of Connecticut Colored Troops. the kitchen and cabins of the better class of darkies displayed handsome oil paintings and mirrors.of papers torn from the different departments' archives of our beloved Government... that day of doom.General Lee's house had a [Union] guard camped in the front yard. (New York: W. and the order was given to strike tents and move on to Richmond. and Canal Streets. I... Source: Stanley I Kutler. A courteous young lieutenant was sent to pilot us out of the confusion. J. For some days after. We heard stately Mrs. 438-441. Wooster. At 5 A. 1979). they tore through the streets. Part of the description is reprinted below. .. Some negroes of the lowest grade. from which soldiers in blue were picking out letters and documents that caught their fancy.. We walked through the streets like lost spirits till nearly daybreak.. I can hardly write coherently.W. carrying loot from the burnt district.. describes the capture of the Confederate capital in April 1865.. All was quiet here until the 1st of April. Already the town wore the aspect of one in the Middle Ages smitten by pestilence. We saw many people we knew on the same errand as ourselves. Hill.With the din of the enemy's wagon trains. we have not fallen to that! Certainly. and I must say were treated with perfect courtesy and consideration. bands.except tottering walls and smoldering ruins. Thanks to our trim Yankee guard in the basement. her face looked like a tragic mask carved out of stone.. We went on to the head-quarters of the Yankee General in charge of Richmond. Reinforced. and at three o'clock in the morning the rebels blew up three gun boats and commenced vacating their works in our front. their heads turned by the prospect of wealth and equality.. Along the middle of the streets smoldered a long pile..

and as fast as the white troops came in the colored troops were ordered out.. Give Him praise for his goodness. they went at double quick most of the way. 6. in the summer of 1865 when word finally reached Texas. there is the man that made you free. some of the largest kind. (Baltimore. [On April] 3d President Lincoln visited the city. crossing and walking and riding. Wooster passed them about. Everyone was a-singing. until we occupied the advance. the 9th U. all of a sudden. [olored] troops next. Hallelujah! . 1867). North Carolina." She exclaimed. A Sketch of the 29th Regiment of Connecticut Colored Troops. was everywhere--coming in bunches. Wooster came to Main St." and the company charged through the main street to the capitol and halted in the square until the rest of the regiment came up. "Glory to God. We remained on the outpost.M. born a slave in Raleigh. and were the first infantry that entered the city. for they left work and crowded to see the President. The main body of the army went up the New Market road. J. none of the army were injured by them. She gazed at him with clasped hands and said. Very soon after the arrival of the white troops the colored troops were moved on the outskirts of the city. but to the surprise of officers and men. I was very much amused at the plight of one officer who had in charge fifty colored men to put to work on the ruined buildings." and she shouted till her voice failed her. we captured 500 pieces of artillery. Col. pulled by twelve sailors. Soon refugees from the rebels came in by hundreds. Source: J. I was standing on the bank of the James river viewing the scene of desolation when a boat. and the prisoners I was not able to number. B. As he approached I said to a woman. There was a sudden shout and clapping of hands. and said "Double quick. he pointed his sword at the capitol. and arrived in the city at 7 A. W. The 29th skirmished all the way. "Is that President Lincoln?" My reply was in the affirmative. No triumphal march of a conqueror could have equalled in moral sublimity the humble manner in which he entered Richmond. he found himself alone. march. came up the stream.commenced to advance on the rebel works--the 29th taking the advance. 25-27. FELIX HAYWOOD REMEMBERS THE DAY OF JUBLIO Felix Haywood. gained his freedom in San Antonio.S. The road was strewed with all kinds of obstacles. They were very numerous. In some way the colored people on the bank of the river ascertained that the tall man wearing the black hat was President Lincoln. pp. Texas. It contained President Lincoln and his son. In this interview Haywood recalls the day of emancipation.. When Col. "Madam. On our march to Richmond. Hill. Soldiers. The white troops remained in the city as guards.. We was all walking on golden clouds.C. and made them go before the regiment and dig up the torpedoes that were left in the ground to prevent the progress of the Union Army. and men were lying all along the distance of seven miles.000 small arms.

. They went right on giving us food just the same. Me and my father stuck. Other black slaves emancipated themselves by exploiting the disruption of war to run away to freedom. Everybody went wild. Source: Robert D. We knowed freedom was on us. I'll never be a slave-Shouting the battle cry of freedom. But it didn't turn out that way. the war'd been over before it began. Marcus and David Burner. Freedom came in many guises to the four million African Americans who had been enslaved at the beginning of the Civil War. We was free. which in some instances was as close as the nearest Union Army camp.Union forever Hurrah. they had gone to find water 'long the San Antonio River and the Guadalupe. the Tidewater area of Virginia (Hampton and Norfolk) or New Orleans all before January 1863. and the whites didn't. We decided we was too soft and freedom wasn't going to be much to our good even if we had a education. We thought we was going to be richer than the white folks. but right off colored folks started on the move. so they'd know what it was--like it was a place or a city. Some fortunate black women and men were emancipated as early as 1861 onward when Union forces captured outlying areas of the Confederacy such as the Sea Islands of South Carolina. The Gudlows started us out on a ranch. and they didn't have us to work for them any more. Martin's Press. and nobody had made us that way but ourselves. They seemed to want to get closer to freedom. all right. Did you ever stop to think that thinking don't do any good when you do it too late? Well. but we didn't know what was to come with it. We couldn't no more shot 'em than we could fly. We felt like heroes. that's how it was with us. Part of that article is reprinted below. My father and me used to talk 'bout it. 1989). It didn't seem to make the whites mad. hurrah! Although I may be poor. My father. JUNETEENTH: BIRTH OF AN AFRICAN AMERICAN HOLIDAY In a brief article for the Eugene Register Guard I described the origins of the Juneteenth holiday. Nobody took our homes away. But we didn't do it. either. but it didn't make 'em rich. They was cattle that they belonged to. We thought we was going to get rich like the white folks. Then the whites gave me and my father some cattle for our own. we was free. he'd round up cattle--unbranded cattle--for the whites. p. My father had his own brand . If every mother's son of a black had thrown 'way his hoe and took up a gun to fight for his own freedom along with the Yankees. 'cause we was stronger and knowed how to work. close as a lean tick to a sick kitten. 11. We soon found out that freedom could make folks proud.7 B)--and we had a herd to start out with of seventy. America Firsthand: From Reconstruction to the Present (New York: St. Just like that. We couldn't help stick to our masters. boys.

1865. they did not. horse races. barbecues. Source: Quintard Taylor. came only in 1865 when Confederate commander Robert E. When the news came entire plantations were deserted...President Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation liberated all blacks residing in territory captured from the Confederates after January 1.. 1D. 1865. however was another matter. and formal balls. Texas during the Civil War.at Appomattox Court House in Virginia. THE POST WAR SOUTH-A DEFEATED PLANTER LOOKS BACK Previously Edward Barnell Heyward. Many blacks brought from Arkansas... D. Oakland." Eugene RegisterGuard. they merely had to wait for Federal troops to arrive. the South Carolina planter wrote his Northern friend. Isolated from both Union and Confederate forces. With the migration of African Americans from Texas to the West Coast particularly during World War II. Seattle. Lee surrendered his army to Federal forces.000 people) in Houston and Dallas. Texas. Juneteenth had surpassed the Fourth of July as the biggest holiday of the year for Texas African Americans.. pp. including those in Texas. James A. And some communities east of Texas such as Washington. But African Americans would not be denied the liberty that had eluded them so long. These slaves did not have to run for their freedom. local blacks gradually settled on June 19 (Juneteenth) as their day of celebration. Texas. By 1900 the festivities had grown to include baseball games. had forgotten the holiday's origins and its significance in African American history. Beginning in 1866 they held parades. By that time Juneteenth had officially become Texas Emancipation Day and was sponsored by black churches and civic organizations.. Emancipation for the majority of African Americans. Juneteenth simultaneously declined in Texas and grew in the emerging black communities of Los Angeles. 1865-1992.. "The Juneteenth Celebration. and Birmingham. and part of June. railroad excursions.. began celebrations as well. May. returned home while Texas freedpersons headed for Galveston. Through April. In 1866 Heyward again wrote his friend but now historical events mandated a far . and gave speeches in remembrance of their liberation. however. Houston and other cities where Federal troops were stationed. freedom officially arrived when Federal troops landed at Galveston. 1863. Portland. Juneteenth had become so respectable that white politicians including various Texas governors addressed the largest gatherings (which sometimes included upwards of 5. Finally on June 19. Word of emancipation gradually spread over the state despite the efforts of some slaveholders to maintain slavery. Although news of emancipation came at different times during that Texas summer of 1865. Louisiana and Missouri during the War.C. 4D. 1992. June 8. Indeed. Alabama. Lord explaining why the South would declare its independence and offering reasons for its success if the Northern states attempted to block the secession. With that surrender the. picnics. and San Diego. had become a place of refuge for slaveholders seeking to insure that their "property" would not hear of freedom.. News of Lee's surrender spread quickly through the former slave states east of the Mississippi River.rebellion was over. But by the 1970s many blacks.

The Enemy passed over all our property on the coast in the march from Savannah to Charleston. was sacked. Norton. and this they are determined to do. have made nothing. My Father and I. are roaming in a starving condition. and in the end. I feel now I have no country. Perhaps the next letter. & baby eighteen months old at my elbow. 1979). and the negroes. My Father had five plantations on the coast. Our losses have been frightful.. my brother died in the Army. and extremely glad to hear from you.. is now a howling wilderness. and every family has lost members. and the negroes. before this once productive country will be able to support itself. at this time. pp.. No one can know how reduced we are. During the war. about the city. and all the valuable furniture stolen and the houses well riddled by shell & shot. and we have. will at last. I shall quit the Country. scarcely a support. All is now lost. and leave others to stand the storm. and my Son is now a tall fellow who would astonish you by his size. Our Residence in the city. and all the buildings were burnt. I found time to get married again. I am quite well. be exterminated themselves. left to themselves.. you get from me. and suffered the terrible anxieties & losses of that dreadful event.. As soon as able. owned near seven hundred negroes and they are all now wandering about like lost sheep. They very naturally. 463-465. and it will be many years. and had given your life.. now left to themselves. to take care of them. now. I. poor things. particularly the refined & educated. and now have a most lovely woman. think that freedom means doing nothing. makes them now disposed to be quiet & obedient: but the determination of your Northern people to give them a place in the councils of the Country and make they the equal of the white man. Looking for America: The People's History. & have my family around me. but I do not suppose so by your letter. Vol. "SEND ME SOME OF THE CHILDREN'S HAIR" . Source: Stanley I Kutler. My daughter died during the war.different letter. I served in the Army. down there. to find. 22 Jan y 1866 My dear Jim Your letter of date July 1865. They look to the government. for the cause. mules & stock. Our handsome Residence in the country was burnt. We live twenty miles from Columbia [the state capital]. (New York: W. and seek a little food. with no one to care for them.. but I cannot love such a government. bear its fruit. Some of my relatives were there.W. Our farm near Charleston was abandoned to the negroes. I obey like a subject. leaving provisions. has just reached me and you will be relieved by my answer. and their docile and generous temper. the whole country. them. will be from England. The former kind treatment of the slaves.thought that you had been among those who had joined the Army.. and we may then expect. during the occupation by Sherman. to rise against the whites. that I am still alive. in which your nation seems to much pride itself. I have.

as you ever did Laura.. as long as I am married. I do not think I would die satisfied till you tell me you will try and marry some good.Sometime before the Civil War Laura Spicer and her children were sold from their husband and father. and not because I think more of the wife I have got then I do of you. have had such bad health. As I am.-I think of you and my children every day of my life. that I am. Send me some of the children's hair in a separate paper with their names on the paper. I am married. My dear. My love to you never have failed. Defenders of the notion of early Victorian (white) womanhood could not help but be struck by black women who openly challenged conventional standards of female . I want to see and I don't want to see you. I treats them good as a Father can treat his children. is because your letters disturbed me so very much. for every time I gits a letter from you it tears me all to pieces. Laura I do love you the same. who remains anonymous except to Laura. You know it never was our wishes to be separated from each other. wrote a letter describing the pain of their separation and yet wishing Laura would find another husband to care for the family.. smart man that will take care of you and the children. today or tomorrow. You know my treatment to a wife and you know how I am about my children. Source: Herbert Gutman. Laura. and it will not do for you and I to meet. I do not know which I love best. The woman is not born that feels as near to me as you do. You feel this day like myself. 6-7. truly. Oh. You feels and seems to me as much like my dear loving wife. The husband. The reason why I have not written you before. at any-time. I would come and see you but I know you could not bear it. you or Anna. The Black Family in Slavery and Freedom 1750-1925 (New York. You know I am one man that do love my children. and it never was our fault. "IMPUDENT" FREEDWOMEN In the account below historian Jacqueline Jones describes the attitudes of both Northerners and Southerners to what they described as the particular insolence of black women. I had rather anything to had happened to me most than ever to have been parted from you and the children. I am sorry to hear that Lewellyn. and I do a good deal of it for you. 1926) pp. You know I love my children. Laura I do not think I have change any at all since I saw you last. I have got another wife. I would much rather you would get married to some good man. The letter is reprinted below. and I am very sorry. you know the Lord knows both of our hearts.. my poor little son. I can see you so plain. They wanted to reunite after emancipation but her husband had remarried. Will you please git married. and my wife have two children. and if you and I meets it would make a very dissatisfied family. I love you just as well as I did the last day I saw you. If I was to die. in a long time. Tell them they must remember they have a good father and one that cares for them and one that thinks about them every day-My very heart did ache when reading your very kind and interesting letter. and do it because you love me.

.submissiveness. President. (New York. 70-71. showed the wide disparity between the President's views on voting rights for the ex-slaves and those of the assembled black activists. saying: Mr. Frederick Douglass. who elsewhere complained of black "female loaferism" prevalent in the area." and insisted there must be some mistake. stubborn. Labor of Sorrow: Black Women. This. In other cases.'" De Forest.' she exhorted. male relatives were often perceived to be much more "reasonable" (that is. subject to being drafted. and subject to taxation. professed abolitionists." "impudent. The man remained "puzzled. Fred." male-female relationships. Yankee planters. responded to the demands put forth by delegations of female field hands with contempt for their brashness. Source: Jacqueline Jones. Work. makes it not improper that should ask to share in the privileges of this condition. but to show our respect. incredulous. Douglass advanced and addressed the President. or father. Part of the exchange is reprinted below. John De Forest [Freedman's Bureau officer] later recounted the respective reactions of an elderly couple who had used up in supplies any profit they might have earned from a full year's labor. But ironically in such cases. 'Don' you give down to it. to bless or blast us--I mean our whole race. Apparently an aggressive woman existed outside the realm of "natural. with their "loud and boisterous talking. In the order of Divine Providence you are placed in a position where you have the power to save or destroy us.. pp. The fact that we are the subjects of Government." "vulgar" persons who "spoke up bold as brass" and." In the process of ridiculing these women. . George Downing and other black leaders met with President Andrew Johnson at the White House. PRESIDENT JOHNSON MEETS BLACK LEADERS On February 7. sir. and the Family from Slavery to the Present. northerners often indirectly revealed their ambivalent attitudes toward black men. Your noble and humane predecessor placed in our hands the sword to assist in saving the nation. will favorably regard the placing in our hands the ballot with which to save ourselves. 1985). brother. the first meeting between an American president and black political spokesmen. Peter. we are not here to enlighten you. 'It ain't no how ris'ible that we should 'a' worked all the year and git nothing' to go upon. 1866." demanded fair treatment for "we people [left] way back. and to present in brief the claims of our race to your favorable consideration. subject to volunteer in the service of the country. For example. as to your duties as the Chief Magistrate of this Republic. subject to bear the burdens of the State. her own truculence must be counterbalanced by the weakness of her husband. Mr. and we do hope that you. prone to accept the white man's point of view) than their vehement womenfolk. We shall submit no argument on that point." "impertinent. his able successor. Freedwomen were described as "growling. His wife was not about to accept the situation so politely: "trembling with indignant suspicion [she] looked on grimly or broke out in fits of passion. Labor of Love. showed a curious lack of sympathy for this hardworking woman.

shall exist within the United States. liberty. for it is always best to talk plainly and distinctly about such matters.. and to that portion of it which constitutes the colored population.. 1865. and subject to the jurisdiction thereof. Ill. except as a punishment for crime. It was rejected by Delaware and Kentucky. 1866-1870 ARTICLE 13 . I am free to say to you that I do not like to be arraigned by someone who can get up handsomely-rounded periods and deal in rhetoric. and property.Citizenship Rights Not To Be Abridged 1) All persons born or naturalized in the United States. or property. was conditionally ratified by Alabama and Mississippi. I will say that if I have not given evidence in my course that I am a friend of humanity. whereof the party shall have been duly convicted. No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States. RECONSTRUCTION AMENDMENTS. Fishel and Benjamin Quarles. 135. 2) Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. p. life... All that I possessed. and Texas took no action. I can give no evidence here. liberty. or any place subject to their jurisdiction.. This amendment was proposed to the State Legislatures by the 37th Congress on February 1. have been put up in connection with that question. If I know myself. when I had every inducement held out to take the other course. who never perilled life. Response of the President: In reply to some of your inquiries. unpractical friendship amounts to but very little.. God forbid that I should be engaged in such a work! Source: Leslie H. not to make a speech about this thing.I have no speech to make on this occasion. nor shall any State deprive any person of life. hollow. which if persisted in will result in the extermination of one or the other. The Negro American: A Documentary History. or property without due process of law. 1967).. ARTICLE 14 . liberty. and the feelings of my own heart. are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. (Glenview. I do not want to adopt a policy [of voting rights for negroes] that I believe will end in a contest between the races. 1865. This kind of theoretical. I simply submit these observations as a limited expression of the views and feelings of the delegation with which I have come. nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the . and talk about abstract ideas of liberty. and was ratified December 18.Slavery Abolished 1) Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude. they have been for the colored man. While I say that I am a friend of the colored man.

or previous condition of servitude. New Jersey rejected the amendment in 1870. ARTICLE 15 . it was rejected by California. Kentucky. California took no action. During the Civil War the [Oregon] legislature passed the last anti-black state laws.. 1869. Between 1866 and 1872.. S.Equal Voting Rights 1) The right of the citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race.equal protection of the laws. It was not acted on by Tennessee.. we cannot deny the same right to the Indian or the Mongolian (the Chinese. still controlled by the [Republicans] but with a strong minority of Democrats. Constitution. It was rejected by Delaware. The amendment was supported by 23 Northern states. Maryland and 10 ex-Confederate states. Full suffrage would result in a "war of the races. 1866. 1870.. considered and ratified the Fourteenth Amendment. and was ratified on March 30. RECONSTRUCTION AMENDMENTS: OREGON'S RESPONSE In the following vignette historian Elizabeth McLagan describes the Oregon legislature's response to the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments to the U. The Oregon Statesman. Kentucky. that these amendments were unpopular with most Oregonians. in an editorial published [in 1865]. It was later ratified by the 10 ex-Confederate states. with the exception of the ban on intermarriage passed in 1866. color. and was ratified July 23. New York rescinded its ratification on January 5. This amendment was proposed to the State Legislatures by the 40th Congress on February 27. Then how long would we have peace and prosperity when four races separate. Japanese and other Asians). although . Maryland and Oregon. If we make the African a citizen. Delaware.. 1868. It was supported by 30 states. This amendment was proposed to the State Legislatures by the 39th Congress on June 16." the editorial concluded.. It was clear. distinct and antagonistic should be at the polls and contend for the control of government? The 1866 legislature. which gave citizenship to black people and the right to vote to black men. 1870. however. but ratified it in 1871. predicted that giving the vote to blacks would have a revolutionary influence on society. 2) The Congress shall have power to enforce the provisions of this Article by appropriate legislation. the legislature was required to consider ratification of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments.

Ford. 8 opposed and 3 absent.these attempts failed. or any person having more than one half Indian blood.S. Sleepily listen to legislators who have given them their freedom and now propose to invest them with the highest privileges of American citizenship.. The Democrats made two attempts to withdraw ratification but.declared the Fifteenth Amendment was "an infringement on popular rights and a direct falsification of the pledges made to the state of Oregon by the federal government. In 1867. and their political . Williams was also active in the campaign to impeach President Andrew Johnson. which five years earlier had opposed the Fifteen Amendment.. This session also recalled Oregon Senators George H. declared to be ratified nationally only six weeks previously. The legislator's reluctance to endorse the Fourteenth Amendment was the subject of debate in the local press as well.H.. two black men who had voted. the dregs of broken up plantations. this paper had been suppressed during the Civil War. criticized for their support of Reconstruction. ratified and declared in force by Congress between Oregon's 1868 and 1870 legislative sessions. Because of its rabid pro-South rhetoric. This legislature also passed another law prohibiting intermarriage. Yates and W. who had become the hero of the Democratic Party for his opposition to Reconstruction. animal-jawed crowd of niggers.. with an additional $1. they drowsily look down upon the assembled wisdom of a dissevered Union.. Although Oregon refused to ratify the Fifteenth Amendment.. bullet pated. This time the repeal passed in both chambers by a combined vote of 39 to 27.the vote was close. It passed with little debate the combined vote was 47 in favor. ran an editorial which admitted: There are but a few colored men in Oregon.000 fine. the Eugene Weekly Democratic Review printed a vicious attack on black people. Greasy. Corbett.. The Fifteenth Amendment was proposed. dirty. another attempt was made to repeal ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment... In 1868. thick lipped. the Oregonian predicted that if copies of the resolutions ever reached Congress they would probably be used to light someone's cigar.. The penalty for disobeying the law was a prison sentence of not less than three months. Any person authorized to conduct marriages who broke the law by marrying two people illegally was subject to the same penalty. wooly headed. Williams and Henry W. This law was not repealed until 1951. idle and vicious blacks.gaping.... and C. The legislature was not deluded into thinking that its actions would make any difference. or up to one year in jail." The Fifteenth Amendment was finally ratified by the centennial legislature of 1959. released from wholesome restraints of task masters and overseers. Chinese or [Hawaiian] blood. That same year the Oregonian. but against anyone with "one-fourth or more Negro. . The legislative session of 1870. The case involved the election of a county commissioner in Wasco County. a state Supreme Court decision rendered in 1870 affirmed the right of black men to vote. It was directed not only against white/black marriages.... lousy..

some of the closely-divided states will in all probability be insured to the Republicans by the negro vote. 68-74. If the Democratic party persists in its long-time inveterate hostility to the negro.was overcome not by a change in attitude. Resistance to accepting the black vote. and Indiana.000. without the endorsement of the state legislature. if the Republicans are true to themselves and their principles. 41. as the colored folks have been voters among us for sometime already. But will the Democratic party be so stupid as to drive these new voters en masse into the Republican fold? We doubt it. and Ohio.. The following from an exchange contains much truth and will prove of interest to many of our readers: "The number of colored men whose right to vote will be established by the Fifteenth Amendment is estimated at 850. By 1870.500 in the remaining Western States.. but it would be many years before the legislature would begin to take an interest in passing laws that would allow black people to enjoy equal rights as citizens of the state. .000 in the states of New York. at least. ____________________ Source: Elizabeth McLagan. Pennsylvania. The period of enacting racist legislation had ended. yet it will be a matter of much importance in both Oregon and California. but because Oregonians realized that federal civil rights legislation had to be acknowledged. The paper's position is reprinted below.influence cannot be great. change was inevitable. The second vignette from the English-language Honolulu Friend indicates that the debate over black voting rights extended beyond the boundaries of the United States when in 1865 the newspaper urged that suffrage be granted to the newly freed slaves. Among these states we may mention Connecticut. 1788-1940 (Portland. to divide their strength. These 850. We cannot doubt they will exercise intelligently the franchise with which they are newly invested. Blacks were granted civil rights under the terms imposed by the federal government.500 in New England.000 black men may perhaps hold the balance of power between the two political parties in the next presidential election and for a long time to come. Of these 790. New Jersey. Delaware. On the contrary. so Oregonians acquiesced. New York. as a rule.000 are in the South. they will have a decided advantage over their opponents in this struggle--at least. industrious and intelligent citizens. 7. Ohio. Pennsylvania. 1980). so far as the more intelligent of the negroes are concerned. Olympia: Although the Fifteenth Amendment does not particularly affect us in this Territory. if not endorsed. quiet. and assume that they are approximately accurate. and 8. New Jersey. These statistics we find in the [Baltimore] Sun. A Peculiar Paradise: A History of Blacks in Oregon. But. we expect to see that party making special efforts to win these voters--enough of them. Oregon's black population was small and posed little threat to the established order. BLACK VOTING RIGHTS: OTHER VIEWS FROM THE FAR WEST In an 1870 editorial the Olympia (Washington Territory) Commercial Age outlined its position on black voting by publishing a long letter on the subject from one of its local readers. But these here are. pp.

will. March 26. true to his country and the flag. no doubt. Washington Territory) Commercial Age. Give the colored man a fair start." It will be a happy day for the country when the people shall no more care to inquire whether a voter or a candidate for office is white or black than whether he is tall or short. Senator Sumner. HELENA CITIZENS CELEBRATE THEIR NEW RIGHTS Helena. and now not to allow him all the rights and privileges enjoyed by his fellow soldiers would be wrong. The vignette suggests that Reconstruction mean a new birth of freedom for African American outside the South as well as in the Reconstruction states. feeling desirous of showing our high appreciation of those God-like gifts granted to us by and through the passage of the 15th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States. Sources: The (Olympia. of course. as in the other." Honolulu: In glancing over the files of the American papers. the Helena Daily Herald. In our opinion these men occupy the only consistent and correct ground. The tendency is towards that point in all lands. Of course there is a great difference of opinion upon the subject. The Honolulu Friend. are by no means all saints. that they owe their enfranchisement to the Republican party. Montana's African Americans. and a host of leading men of the Republican party. the most prominent question of discussion appears to be the status of the negro. p. announcing their celebration. no doubt. is surely as good a citizen as a rebel. Mean men in this party. take the ground that the negro should now be permitted to vote and enjoy all the privileges of the white population. nor all entirely exempt from the spirit of estate. will.The negroes know. the colored citizens of Helena. thus helping the Democrats to "divide that they may conquer. 1870. Revolutions go not backward. The Republicans. while they have every reason for regarding the other party with aversion and distrust. like their counterparts throughout the United States acclaimed the passage of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments to the Constitution. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: We. Such men as Chief Justice Chase. and many of them. We believe most fully in the doctrine that all men should enjoy equal civil and political rights. A loyal negro. and knowing. be ready to fall into the snares which unscrupulous Democrats will be sure to lay in their path. October 13. moreover. In 1870 they wrote the local newspaper. and let him try for himself. although he [the rebel] may have recently take the oath of allegiance. 1865. continue to behave shabbily toward the new-made voters. that those . Shall he. 1. But they cannot all be expected to take the highest view of their obligations as citizens. or shall he not be admitted to all the civil and political rights of the white inhabitants? This is the question. as we do. We hope Americans will start aright this time. reprinted in the San Francisco Elevator. The negro has nobly fought for the country.

Sec. thank God. in mass assembled. or suffer corporal punishment as provided hereinafter. or former owner. in His infinite wisdom. JOHNSON. 2: Every negro who shall be found absent from the residence of his employer after ten o'clock at night. we. To-day. Sec. That no negro shall be allowed to pass within the limits of said parish without special permit in writing from his employer. 1870. in the Territory of Montana. now thank God. most of these laws nevertheless created repressive conditions that were strikingly similar to slavery. Reprinted below are some of the 1866 black codes for a Louisiana parish. who shall be held responsible for the conduct of said negro. THE BLACK CODES Immediately after the Civil War ex. is written and heralded to the wide world that we are free men and citizens of the United States--shorn of all those stigmatizing qualifications which have made us beasts.rights which have been withheld from us. and the Congress of the United States. shall pay a fine. conveyed and gave unto us. Any negro violating this provision shall be immediately ejected and compelled to find an employer. President J. from the hill and to the south of the city. do. are now submerged and numbered with the things of the past.R. 1870. Now. or in default thereof shall be forced to work four days on the public road. 3: No negro shall be permitted to rent or keep a house within said parish. A. the colored people of the United States. on the 14th of April. possess all those rights which God. the citizens of Helena. that we. Signed. Whoever shall violate this provision shall pay a fine of two dollars and fifty cents.slaveholders generated a series of laws to regulate the behavior of the newly freed slaves.. Sec.. Landry. Secretary Source: Helena Daily Herald. BENJAMIN STONE. . April 15. on this 15th day of April. by these presents. While these codes recognized the end of slavery.. declare our intentions of celebrating the ratification of the 15th Amendment. without a written permit from his employer. 1: Be it ordained by the police jury of the parish of St. 4: Every negro is required to be in the regular service of some white person.D.. by the firing of thirty-two guns. Sec.

exhort. it is a necessity in order to protect the loyal white men in the seceded states. Source: Howard H. Sec. or otherwise declaim to congregations of colored people. 8: No negro shall sell. is not to prevent negroes from attending the usual church services. The white Union men are in a great minority in each of those states. Main Problems in American History.. except one. For I believe. 5: No public meetings or congregations of negroes shall be allowed within said parish after sunset. Quint. They must suffer constant persecution. approved and indorsed by the nearest and most convenient chief of patrol.Sec. by special permission in writing of the captain of patrol. There are several good reasons for the passage of this bill [for reconstructing the South]. Another good reason is. In 1867 Stevens makes an impassioned plea for black suffrage before the House of Representatives. Sec. With them the blacks would act in a body.. however. or in default thereof work five days on the public road. it is just. Sec. within the parish without special written permission of his employers. within whose beat such meetings shall take place. without a special permission in writing from the president of the police jury. 7: No negro who is not in the military service shall be allowed to carry firearms. specifying the article of sale. the two united would form a majority.. barter. THADDEUS STEVENS DEMANDS BLACK SUFFRAGE Pennsylvania Representative Thaddeus Stevens was one of the leaders of the Radical Republicans in the Post Civil War Congress. This prohibition. Have not loyal blacks quite as good a right to choose rulers and make laws as rebel whites? In the second place. Milton Cantor and Dean Albertson.10. 9: Any negro found drunk. or exchange any articles of merchandise or traffic within said parish without the special written permission of his employer. 1987) p. or be exiled.. Now they are the victims of daily murder. on my conscience. within the said parish shall pay a fine of five dollars. In the first place. but such public meetings and congregations may be held between the hours of sunrise and sunset. 9. and it is believed that in each of said states. or any kind of weapons. it would insure the ascendancy of the Union [Republican] Party. I do. conducted by white ministers and priests. that on the continued ascendancy of .. (Chicago: The Dorsey Press. 6: No negro shall be permitted to preach. I am now confining my argument to Negro suffrage in the rebel states.. barter or traffic. control the states and protect themselves. "Do you avow the party purpose?" exclaims some horror-stricken demagogue. Sec. or suffer corporal punishment as hereinafter provided.

5 June 25. 4 February 23. If it be just. 1874 Virginia 1869 Mississippi 1876 Texas 1873 Georgia 1871 Date of Readmission Government * July 24. 5 March 30. if it be necessary. if it be a punishment to traitors. Whole Slavery sat upon her defiant throne. 2 June 25. 1984). revengeful South. The American Spirit. For these. If impartial suffrage is excluded in the rebel states. Lexington. Bailey & David M. they deserve it. Mass: D. 4 June 22. 1869 Florida 1877 Louisiana 1877 North Carolina 1870 South Carolina 28.. you must divide them between loyalists. and insulted and intimidated the trembling North. Now. READMISSION OF EX-CONFEDERATE STATES Date Conservative State Military Dist. it should be adopted. 1868 November 3 June 25.that party depends the safety of this great nation. it should not be denied. 1870 January 14. They. 1868 January 2. 1866 October 4. 3 July 15. Source: Thomas A. among other reasons. 1870 November 1. 1868 January 2. without regard to color. 1870 January 4. then every one of them is sure to send a solid rebel representative delegation to Congress. 457-458. would always elect the President and control Congress. Reestablished Tennessee 1869 Arkansas 10. pp. and disloyalists. 1868 November 3. II. I am for Negro suffrage in every rebel state. with their kindred Copperheads of the North. 2 June 25. *Tennessee was readmitted to the Union before the other Ex-Confederate States were . or you will be the perpetual vassals of the free-trade. 1876 Alabama 16. Vol. and cast a solid rebel electoral vote. irritated.. 1868 November 1 January 26. Heath and Company. 1870 October 5. Kennedy. C. 1868 November 3 July 14.

gazing excitedly upon the body in session. Let me go. They were of every hue. I knew the negro.divided into military districts. Here is part of his description of the state legislature." . They were such a body of men as might pour our of a market house at random in any Southern state... (1870) Black Legislators White Legislators Black % of Legislators South Carolina 59 73 Mississippi 56 Louisiana 51 Florida 49 Alabama 48 Georgia 46 Virginia 42 North Carolina 37 84 53 40 34 49 36 19 25 26 30 32 13 27 15 19 12 Texas 31 Tennessee 26 Arkansas 25 75 88 57 58 214 154 135 11 156 1 94 0 87 6 1 0 SOUTH CAROLINA UNDER BLACK GOVERNMENT James S. About three-quarters of the crowd belonged to the African race..issued forth from the State House. "This is the first time I have been here. Yesterday. about 4 p. as he leaned over the rail inside the House. Pike. the assembled wisdom of the State. from the light octoroon to the deep black..m. FIRST RECONSTRUCTION LEGISLATURES Black % of State Pop. "My God..but I never though it would come to this. I thought I knew what we were doing when we consented to emancipation.. toured South Carolina in 1873 and wrote a highly critical account of Reconstruction in that state. clad in homespun.. look at this!" was the unbidden ejaculation of a low-country planter. a Maine Republican and former abolitionist..

MR.. irrespective of color. Heartily do I endorse the object. He believes he can do any thing. being more volatile and good-natured. even if the land-owners would sell. Will South Carolina be Africanized? That depends. . Source: Richard N.... The historical record clearly shows otherwise... and putting that master under his feet. but others are going off farther South. pp. The pickaninnies die off from want of care. He is more vivacious than the white. It is barbarism overwhelming civilization by physical force. and. Sambo can talk on these topics and their endless ramifications. It was said of him that he did not know what he was going to say when he got up. Current and John A. So. given by Lord Derby on one occasion. they know exactly what it means...The body is almost literally a Black Parliament. I do not propose to enact in this report a section that may be used by our enemies to appeal to the worst passions of a .. In the following account from the Proceedings of the Constitutional Convention of South Carolina in 1868. Garraty. This section proposes to open these schools to all persons. The negro is imitative in the extreme..... invested with the functions of government. A DEBATE OVER PUBLIC SCHOOLS Until the 1960s most historians of Reconstruction assumed that black politicians made virtually no contribution to the post Civil War debates surrounding land redistribution and the public school system.61. R. too. C.. ed. and he did not know what he had said when he sat down. It is the slave rioting in the halls of his master. Brown and Co.the chairman of the Ways and Means is black. and the chaplain is coal-black. DE LARGE: I am not well acquainted with all the clauses in the constitution of Massachusetts.. He can copy like a parrot or a monkey. The free school comes right home to them. and never loses a chance to try.. 57. Here is part of the debate. The white young men who were growing into manhood did not seem inclined to leave their homes and migrate to foreign parts. He answers completely to the description of a stupid speaker in Parliament. Words that Made American History Since The Civil War..When an appropriation bill is up to raise money to catch and punish the Ku-klux. One of the things that first strike a casual observer in this negro assembly is the fluency of debate. The whites seem likely to hold their own while the blacks fall off.. 1965). and it is the only one on the face of the earth which is representative of a white constituency and the professed exponent of an advanced type of modern civilization.The Speaker is black. but the manner in which it is to be enforced meets my most earnest disapproval.In the place of this old aristocratic society stands the rude form of the most ignorant democracy that mankind ever saw. and speak only from my historic knowledge of that people. with educational measures. Some blacks are coming in from North Carolina and Virginia. The negroes were poor and unable to buy. he is correspondingly more irrepressible... day in and day out. we see the spirited discussion among black politicians over compulsory education.. the Clerk is black. to open every seminary of learning to all.. The old slave-holders still hold their lands. he did not know what he was saying while he was speaking. (Boston: Little.

going to a step beyond the bounds of prudence. be compelled to educate his children and fit them for the responsibilities of life. DE LARGE: Can the gentleman demonstrate how the Legislature is to enforce the education of children without punishment of their parents by fine or imprisonment. by some means. J. we leave that an open question. RANSIER: When that question arises in the Legislature. For these reasons I am opposed to the section. we shall. As to the particular mode of enforcing attendance at school. is not to enjoy unlimited license. under proper provisions in the Constitution. MR. A. and if education must be enforced to secure these grand results. insist upon our right to provide for the exercise of the great moral agencies which education always brings to bear upon public opinion. but to declare that parents "shall" send their children to them whether they are willing or not is. and I am content to trust to the Legislature to carry out the measures to which it necessarily leads. At present we are only asserting the general principle. I contend that in proportion to the education of the people so is their progress in civilization." but I do not think it of grave importance. Believing this. it is the gross ignorance of the masses. in my judgment. and the people would have been advanced to a higher stage of civilization and morals. Civilization and enlightenment follow fast upon the footsteps of the schoolmaster. MR. A. for one. nevertheless. in my opinion. My friend does not like it. RANSIER: I am sorry to differ with my colleague from Charleston on this question. this. MR. I say let the compulsory process go on. and believe that the more it is considered in all its bearings upon the welfare of our people. the greater will be the desire that every parent shall. Upon the success of republicanism depends the progress which our people are destined to make. however. and the Legislature will provide for its application. had there been such a provision as this in the Constitution of South Carolina heretofore. I hope we shall answer that question. The schools may be opened to all.class of people in this State. there is no doubt that many of the evils which at present exist would have been avoided. I recognize the importance of this measure. If parents are disposed to clog this progress by neglecting the education of their children. Vice and degradation go hand in hand with ignorance. because he says it is contrary to the spirit of republicanism. To be free. and in the next to punish their parents by fine and imprisonment if they do not send their children to school. J. Now I propose to support this section fully. Hence. and we would not have . While we propose to avoid all difficulties which may be fraught with evil to the community. I believe that the Committee have properly provided for the compulsory education of all the children in this State between the ages named in the section. R. C. or my friend himself might desire to enslave again his fellow men. and urge that the word "compulsory" shall be stricken out. If there is any one thing to which we may attribute the sufferings endured by this people. there is a seeming objection to the word "compulsory. I will not aid and abet them. is an exceedingly wise provision. Is there any logic or reason in inserting in the Constitution a provision which cannot be enforced? What do we intend to give the legislature power to do? In one breath you propose to protect minor children.

MR. DUNCAN: Does the gentleman propose to educate children at the point of the bayonet. R. I cannot for the life of me see in what manner republicanism is at stake. on the contrary. and it might be just as consistently urged that it is contrary to republican principles to organize the militia. I do not think it will militate against the cause of republicanism. CARDOZO: This system has been tested in Germany. and this is the grand object of this provision in the report of the Committee on Education. through the militia? MR. but also one of its grand objects to build up civilization. and the promotion of the general welfare. MR. It has also been tested in several States of the Union. L. O. DE LARGE: That is not so. as far as practicable. B. compulsory attendance at school.been called upon to mourn the loss of the flower of the youth of our country. It is simply a matter of justice which is due to a people. F. C. R. Feeling that everything depends on the education of the rising generation. MR. RANDOLPH: The State of New Hampshire is one. Now this is a question which does not concern republicanism at all. Blackstone lays it down as one of the objects. Now. C. as far as it can consistently be done of the general welfare of the people. RANDOLPH: It exists in Massachusetts. WRIGHT: Will you inform us what State in the Union compels parents to send their children to school? MR. It proposes to further civilization and I . but for the protection of all citizens of a State. B. and I defy the gentlemen from Charleston to deny the fact. In conclusion. F. It may be asked what is the object of law? It is not only for the purpose of restraining men from doing wrong. but. to show that where it has been applied it has failed to produce the result desired. F. MR. B. and use all my exertions to secure its adoption into this Constitution. I shall give this measure my vote. F. J. as I do. F. and I defy the gentleman to show that is has not been a success. It is one of the objects of law. the furthering. J. be of benefit both to it and to the people whom we represent. RANDOLPH: In favoring. B. I favor this section as it stands. It becomes the duty of the opposition if they want this section stricken from the report. RANDOLPH: If necessary. It seems to have been the fashion on this floor to question a man's republicanism because he chooses to differ with others on general principles. MR. the gentlemen on the other side have given no reasons why the word "compulsory" should be stricken out. not to restrain wrong by punishing man for violating the right. DE LARGE: Can you name any State where the provisions exists in its Constitution? MR. we may call out the militia to enforce the law. B. as to urge that this provision is anti-republican because it compels parents to see to the education of their children. MR.

. marry the white women. It was a fight between barbarism and civilization. pp. of what I saw. The Negro militia grew unbearable and more and more insolent. equipped with new Springfield rifles and dressed in the regulation uniform. namely. They used to drum up and down the roads with their fifes and their gleaming bayonets. it was then that "we stuffed ballot boxes. BEN TILLMAN JUSTIFIES RECONSTRUCTION VIOLENCE South Carolina Senator Benjamin R. 686-94.. I suppose. in a 1907 speech on the floor of Senate..Life ceased to be worth having on the terms under which we were living. 705-08.(Chicago. for they were never soldiers--growing more and more bold. take the land. Source: Proceedings of the Constitutional Convention of South Carolina (Charleston. I am not speaking of what I have read.. We reorganized the Democratic Party [of South Carolina] with one plank.000 Negro militia organized by carpetbaggers. in which seven Negroes and one white man were killed." After the [federal] troops came and told us." Under that banner we went to battle." because desperate diseases require desperate remedies. and white men must govern it... and the people of South Carolina had been living under Negro rule for eight years. and murder were holding high carnival.. but there were [at least] forty or fifty or a hundred. Misrule. 138-142. There was a condition bordering upon anarchy. we hesitated at nothing. but these Negro soldiers--or this Negro militia..look upon it as one of the most important results which will follow the defeat of the rebel armies.. [President] Grant sent troops to maintain the carpetbag government in power and to protect the Negroes in the right to vote. for mastery. It was in 1876. We had 8. let drop talk among themselves where the white children might hear. the establishment among the people who have long been deprived of the privilege of education. 1988)pp. it was then that "we killed them". robbery. I am speaking of what I know. and having resolved to take the state away. A month later we had the Ellerton riot. he explained why the violence was necessary. Tillman participated in anti.. and then these white children will wait on us. This is what they said: "The President [Grant] is our friend. Frazier...black violence in the 1870s. between the African and the Caucasian. "You must stop this rioting. a law which will compel parents to send their children to school. The North is with us. in which no one ever knew how many Negroes were killed. and in desperation we determined to take the government away from the Negroes. The Hamburg riot was one clash. ." Clashes came. that "this is a white man's country. It was lawful. Afro-American History: Primary Sources. and only one plank." we had decided to take the government away from men so debased as were the Negro. 1868). Then it was that "we stuffed ballot boxes. There were two militia companies in my township and a regiment in my county. thirty years ago. We intend to kill all the white men. Years later. He merely obeyed the law. It was then that "we shot them". We had clashes with these Negro militiamen. Reprinted in Thomas R.

1890 Ellis Island pogrom Tammany Hall Women's Christian Temperance Union Social Darwinism . and the action of the white men of South Carolina in taking the state away from the Negroes we regard as a second declaration of independence by the Caucasian from African barbarism. Heath and Company. Vol. 462-463. II. Bailey & David M. C. Kennedy. The American Spirit. 1984). Source: Thomas A. P.I want to say now that we have not shot any Negroes in South Carolina on account of politics since 1876. Eighteen hundred and seventy-six happened to be the hundredth anniversary of the Declaration of Independence. Mass: D. We have not found it necessary. pp. Rockefeller railroad rebates Standard Oil Trust J. Lexington. Morgan "Taylorism" National Women’s Party Interstate Commerce Commission Sherman Anti-Trust Act. CHAPTER FIVE: INDUSTRIALIZING AMERICA Terms for Week 5 standard time zones “robber barons” political machines John D.

often willingly gave valuable lands to the railroads. the said railroad company will without delay. and private citizens before they would construct lines into cities and towns.P. the largest landholders in most western states. The 1889 resolution reprinted below. build and construct its railroad from Santa Margarita in said county to said city of San Luis Obispo. to and through said city. the early construction of said railroad of said city will be of great benefit to us and each of us. 1889. Maddux.E. Kaiser. Warden and E.M. Levi Rackliffe. The Gospel of Wealth Carlisle Indian School Dawes Act American Protective Association Chinese Exclusion Act. and also such lands within the corporate limits of said city as may be necessary for the machine shops. California.M. WHEREAS. depot grounds. anxious to see a rail line stimulate population growth and commercial development. ROCKEFELLER JUSTIFIES RAILROAD REBATES . 1883 RAILROADS AND WESTERN LANDS: San Luis Obispo The federal government and various states granted Railroad Corporations thousands of acres of prime public lands to encourage them to extend rail lines into the West. have been duly appointed a committee. The Southern Pacific Railroad Company has proposed to citizens of the city of San Luis Obispo and vicinity. eager to get produce or livestock to market. and town boosters. Local farmers and ranchers. McBride. R. L. and WHEREAS. Yet some railroads demanded additional concessions from cities. Source: San Luis Obispo Tribune and Daily Republic. H. and WHEREAS. They are hereby made our agents to make said purchases and to donate said lands to said railroad company when purchased. after the federal government. Unangst. Jack. the right of way for its railroad from the west side of the Cuesta mountains in San Luis Obispo county. L. and are duly authorized to act for said citizens. J. that if said citizens will purchase and donate to said railroad company. describes how San Luis Obispo citizens purchased land at the request of the Southern Pacific Railroad.H.E. counties. and side tracks of said railroad.Andrew Carnegie. These donations often made railroads. May 1.

For these services it obtained contracts for special allowances on freights. Much depended upon whether the shipper had the advantage of competition of carriers. The Standard gave advantages to the railroads for the purpose of reducing the cost of transportation of freight. so far as my knowledge extends. It exempted railroads from liability for fire and carried its own insurance.John D. He feared that some of his competitors were doing better than he in bargaining for rates. He was an old and experienced merchant. The Standard Oil Company of Ohio. was seldom retained in full. (New York: Doubleday. carloads and trainloads. and whatever advantage it received in its constant efforts to reduce rates of freight was only one of the many elements of lessening cost to the consumer which enabled us to increase our volume of business the world over because we could reduce the selling price. but whether he was doing better than his competitor was only a matter of conjecture. were the ones who profited by the traffic of the Standard Oil Company. The profits of the Standard Oil Company did not come from advantages given by railroads. Random Reminiscences of Men and Events. The Standard Oil Company of Ohio. The railroads. It provided at its own expense terminal facilities which permitted economies in handling. Random Reminiscences of Men and Events. 107-109. as well as of water transportation in the summer.. By this method of real rate of freight which any shipper paid was not known by his competitors nor by other railroad companies. did receive rebates from the railroads prior to 1880. so that a railroad could conduct its transportation to the best advantage and use its equipment to the full extent of its hauling capacity without waiting for the refiner's convenience. Taking advantage of those facilities. being situated at Cleveland. Rockefeller in his 1909 autobiography. A public rate was made and collected by the railroad companies. details his reasons for promoting railroad rebates to the Standard Oil Company. Other companies sought to do the same. rather. the matter of rebate from railroads has perhaps been uppermost. Of all the subjects which seem to have attracted the attention of the public to the affairs of the Standard Oil Company. and he delivered himself of this conviction: "I am opposed on principle to the whole system of rebates and drawbacks-unless I am in it.. It furnished loading facilities and discharging facilities at great cost. It offered freights in large quantity." Source: John D. . of which I was president. I well remember a bright man from Boston who had much to say about rebates and drawbacks. 1909) pp. and looked after his affairs with a cautious and watchful eye. Rockefeller. The reason for rebates was that such was the railroads' method of business. a portion of it was repaid to the shippers as a rebate. but. the amount being a mater of bargain with the carrying company. had the advantage of different carrying lines. It provided regular traffic. Each shipper made the best bargain that he could. but received no advantages for which it did not give full compensation. it made the best bargains possible for its freights.

Outside of rebates or freight discriminations. testified before a congressional committee investigating the conditions of employment at various industrial plants around the country. Question: What is the effect of machinery on those laborers whom for the time .their power for evil. uncut. But my refinery has been shut down during the past three years. owing to the powerful and allprevailing machinations of the Standard Oil Trust..plainly showed. never come. from one railway line to another. by which they could temporarily cut only my customers' prices. His argument reflects the basic beliefs of the Social Darwinists. I (1899). 704.. Standard Oil prices generally were so high that I could sell my goods 2 to 3 cents a gallon below their prices and make a nice profit. a Pennsylvania oil refiner. This has been a very sad. This they can easily do without any appreciable harm to their general trade. and money in building up. born in the state of Vermont.S. and below cost. Industrial Commission. and a refiner of same for twenty years.. Rockefeller's consolidation efforts.. but these savage attacks and [price] cuts upon my customers' goods. was a victim of John D. Source: Report of the U. in the absolutely vain endeavor to get equal and just freight rates with the Standard Oil Trust. though I may die in despair. he describes how the Standard Oil Trust bankrupted his refining company. which have [has] as yet. an outspoken opponent of labor unions used this forum to criticize attempts by government to regulate industrial working conditions. bitter. as fully set forth. William Graham Sumner. WILLIAM GRAHAM SUMNER ON TRADE UNIONS In 1878. however. expecting relief through the honest and proper execution of our laws. 687. but which I have been utterly unable to do. in criminal collusion and conspiracy with the railroads to destroy my business of twenty years of patient industry. with my business absolutely ruined and my refinery idle. I have had to consequently shut down.. but I have endeavored to the best of my circumstances and ability to combat it the utmost I could for many a long waiting year.. leaving the balance of the town. and the uselessness to contend against such odds. In testimony before the United States Industrial Commission in 1899. I have been driven from pillar to post. nine-tenths. Producer of petroleum for more than thirty years. wholly by and through unlawful freight discriminations.. so as to be able to run my refinery at anything approaching a profit. and ruinous experience for me to endure. toil. I had no show with the Standard Oil Trust.ROCKEFELLER BREAKS A COMPETITOR George Rice. Sumner.. But I am still living in hopes.. professor of political and social science at Yale College. because of their unlawfully acquired monopoly. and thus effectually wipe out all competition. I am a citizen of the United States. for twenty years.

Source: Howard H. In all cases that I have ever known of young men who claimed that society owed them a living. make the best of circumstances. it has turned out that society paid--in the State prison. THE ROAD TO BUSINESS SUCCESS Andrew Carnegie's life was the epitome of upward mobility. The Gospel of Wealth. Quint. I do not see any other result.. (Chicago: The Dorsey Press. I cannot get evidence of it.. The only things that the government can do are generally things such as are in the province of a government. He has got to fight the battle with nature as every other man has.. He also discusses the need to redistribute the accumulated incomes of the wealthy. Milton Cantor and Dean Albertson. and if he fights it with the same energy and enterprise and skill and industry as any other man. Carnegie was also an articulate spokesman of the new cult of success and promoted it through his most famous book.. In the passages below he describes the price of economic progress. The first thing is to give him the greatest possible liberty in the directing of his own energies for his own development. I do not see any more than that a government can do. I cannot imagine his failing--that is.. published in 1901. The general things that a government can do to assist the non-capitalist in the accumulation of capital (for that is what he wants) are two things.. The fact that a man is here is no demand upon other people that they shall keep him alive and sustain him... and still another until you work yourself out as an individual. Question: Do you admit that there is what you call distress among the laboring classes of this country? Sumner: No sir: I do not admit any such thing.. I do not know of anything that the government can do that is at all specific to assist labor--to assist non-capitalists. try another way. an impoverished immigrant and later became one of the nation's leading industrialists. and if you cannot go on in the way you were going.being it turns out of employment? Sumner: For the time being they suffer.. and the second is to give him the greatest possible security in the possession and use of the products of his own industry. There is no way on earth to help it.. Society does not owe any man a living. go ahead. misfortune apart.. The only way is to meet it bravely. Today the world obtains commodities of excellent quality at prices which even .. 50. Main Problems in American History. 1987) p. of course. a loss of income and a loss of comfort. He arrived in the United States. Question: Is there any way to help it? Sumner: Not at all.

Neither is it well for the State.. Rigid castes are formed and. But. in the hands of a few. but the advantages of this law are also greater still than its cost--for it is to this law that we owe our wonderful material development. as being not only beneficial but essential to the future progress of the race. Beyond providing for the wife and daughters moderate sources of income. Morgan bought out Carnegie Steel and created U. 9. whether the law be benign or not. and the law of competition between these. Source: Andrew Carnegie..... of whom the employer can know little or nothing. Objections to the foundations upon which society is based are not in order. (New York. The growing disposition to tax more and more heavily large estates left at death is a cheering indication of the growth of a salutary change in public opinion.and while the law may be sometimes hard for the individual. 3-5. What were the luxuries have become the necessaries [sic] of life. great. We assemble thousands of operatives in the factory.. CARNEGIE AND MORGAN: A CONVERSATION ABOUT STEEL In 1900 J. The price we pay for this salutary change is. as usual. 1901) pp. Under the law of competition the employer of thousands is forced into the strictest economies. men may well hesitate. and often there is friction between the employer and the employed.. All intercourse between them is at an end...for great sums bequeathed often work more for the injury than the good of the recipients.. the largest corporation in America at the time. and in the mine.. Steel. it is not well for the children that they should be so burdened...S.P. it is best for the race because it insures the survival of the fittest in every department... The price which society pays for the law of competition. if any. By taxing estates heavily at death the State marks its condemnation of the selfish millionaire’s unworthy life... and very moderate allowances indeed. is also great. is it not misguided affection? Observation teaches that. we cannot evade it... We accept and welcome. industrial and commercial. It was a cold winter's night in December 1900. The Gospel of Wealth. The State of Pennsylvania now takes--subject to some exceptions--one tenth of the property left by its citizens. Why should men leave great fortunes to their children? If this is done from affection. 11. no doubt.... Here is part of the conversation between the two men which finalized the deal.. mutual ignorance breeds mutual distrust. most .. In the commercial world similar causes have produced similar results and the race is benefited thereby. and ready to credit anything disparaging in regard to it. Of all forms of taxation this seems the wisest.it is here. the concentration of business. because the condition of the race is better with these than it has been with any other which has been tried..great inequality of environment... among with the rates paid to labor figure prominently. for the sons. like the price it pays for cheap comforts and luxuries.4 billion (America's first billion dollar corporation) a figure three times larger than the annual budget of the United States.. Capitalized at $1. The poor enjoy what the rich could not before afford.the preceding generation would have deemed incredible. seventy-five of the richest. generally speaking. Each caste is without sympathy with the other.

For several years he and others had been busily creating trusts [which] they hoped to unite or eliminate competition in order to raise prices. Morgan. Illinois. Go find his price.in his speech rhapsodized over low prices and stability for steel.. victory certain." Schwab approached Carnegie on the golf course.. 2. They were going to produce their own steel or but it from others--and put Carnegie out of business. In the early hours of the next day Morgan finally said. (Glenview. Morgan and his cohorts soon realized that depending on Carnegie for raw steel would doom their consolidation schemes. where he might be more inclined to cooperate. 1860-1980 Leading Industrial Nations 1860 2000 Great Britain United States France 1900 1980 United States United States Germany Soviet Union .." Source: James K. wanted to retire. he glanced at it and replied. and Schwab's speech was aimed at producing a bargain. 512. Vol.. Martin. start at once hoop... not a war. antiquated. This future was to be ushered in by a scientifically integrated firm which would supplant numerous companies--many of which produced more stock certificates than steel. only one policy open." Carnegie know he could produce superior products at cheaper prices. America and its People. "Mr. Morgan in the weeks before the testimonial dinner. "Well.influential American businessmen gathered at the New York University Club. I want to congratulate you on being the richest man in the world. I accept the price. Morgan did not miss the point. When Schwab gave Morgan the offer.. and scattered plants of his competitors would have been no match for Carnegie's new ones. Seated to the honoree's right was J.Have no fear as to result... Panicked promoters scurried to J. CHANGING WORLD INDUSTRIAL BALANCE." A few days later Morgan stopped by Carnegie's office." Carnegie. The overcapitalized. Few doubted Federal Steel president Elbert Gary's assertion that Carnegie could "have driven entirely out of business every steel company in the United States. however.. Andrew Carnegie's company was the largest supplier of raw steel to such companies. Carnegie telegraphed instructions to his company's officers: "Crisis has arrived.. Later they held an all-night session at Morgan's house. At that time Carnegie handed him a slip of paper with his asking price of $480 million written in pencil.. president of Carnegie Steel Company. Carnegie.P. if Andy wants to sell. nail mills. Charles Schwab. After the dinner Morgan fired dozens of questions at Schwab.P. 1989). I'll buy.. wire. and he hated trusts. They met for a testimonial dinner in honor of Charles Schwab. Carnegie listened and asked Schwab to return the next day for an answer. the powerful investment banker and consolidator of industry. shook hands on the deal and stated. Rather than surrender.

200.000 16.Japan United States Germany Germany Great Britain Great Britain Japan France West Germany Nations in 2000 with the Largest GDP (in Trillions of Dollars) United States 552 Billion Japan 442 Billion Germany Great Britain 8.700.050.834.855.600.311.159 Capitalization $ 1.369.405 1900 512.567.378.843 5.000.000.852 1890 355.015 2.306.272.143 13.885.000.1 Trillion Italy 1.606 6.251.860.4 Trillion France 1.000 29.100.732.000.000.149.715 1.191 1.372.676 2.385.000.694.000 11.1 Trillion Mexico 1.4 Trillion China 429 Billion Brazil 1.053.996 3.000 Per Capita Income $ 223 254 327 374 388 424 434 .000 27.000 24.1 Trillion India 2.3 Trillion Spain 4.813.525.300.759 9.000.000.595 5.535 9.246 $ 1.433 1870 252.140 1880 253.009. 1860-1900 Date Number of Factories Number of Employees Value of Products 1860 140.000.191 4.000 20.790.100.390 Gross National Product and Total Per Capita Income 1870-1901 Date Gross National Product 1873 1876 1881 1886 1891 1893 1896 $ 9.579.354 2.861.0 Trillion 743 Billion Manufacturing in the United States.

reprinted below. and on conviction thereof. 1 Every contract. shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor. 1891-1903 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 4 8 9 3 8 1896 1897 1898 1899 10 7 12 88 1900 1901 1902 1903 MAJOR INDUSTRIAL TRUSTS. is hereby declared to be illegal. or combine or conspire with any other person or persons.000 59. shall be punished by fine not exceeding five thousand dollars. 2 Every person who shall monopolize. or by both said punishments. Every person who shall make any such contract or engage in any such combination or conspiracy. to monopolize any part of the trade or commerce among the several States. or conspiracy. NUMBER OF TRUSTS FORMED. Its language on this question was clear but it was not enforced by American presidents until Theodore Roosevelt used the measure to breakup the Northern Securities Trust. shall be punished by fine not exceeding five thousand dollars. 1890 The Sherman Anti-Trust Act.000 THE SHERMAN ANTI-TRUST ACT.000 9.000. Sec. was intended to halt the proliferation of business trusts. 1904 33 71 88 25 . or by imprisonment not exceeding one year. or by both said punishments. or attempt to monopolize.1901 37.000 496 Steel Production in the United States. in restraint of trade or commerce among the several States. 1870-1905 Average Production (in Tons) Per Establishment 1870 1880 1890 1900 1905 5.100. in the discretion of the court. on conviction thereof. in the discretion of the court. or by imprisonment not exceeding one year. or with foreign nations.000 23. Sec. and. shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor.000 43. or with foreign nations. combination in the form of trust or otherwise.

subject to the will of a small minority of their boards. these directors represent only one quarter of the memberships of their boards.000..000. The testimony failed to establish any concerted policy or harmony of action binding these 180 men together.000. no such policy exist. It is preposterous to suppose that every "interlocking" director has full control in every organization with which he is connected.550. Pierpont Morgan denied claims that he and other bank directors attempted to control major American corporations. as matter of fact.370.000 1891 100 1899 100 1899 55 145. on the average. living in different parts of the country.000 11 175. But such an implication rests solely upon the untenable theory that these men. in many cases personally unacquainted with each other.Date Leading Company* Standard Oil Trust 97% American Sugar Refining Amalgamated Copper Trust American Smelting Trust 98 Consolidated Tobacco United States Steel 76 % of Capitalization Formed Industry Plants 1882 400 97. P. In these tables it is shown that 180 bankers and bank directors serve upon the boards of corporations having resources aggregating $25.000 150 502. and it is implied that this vast aggregate of the country's wealth is at the disposal of these 180 men.000 1901 100 1901 *Dominant Corporation in the Trust J.915. J. .000 121 201. vote always for the same policies and control with united purpose the directorates of the 132 corporations on which they serve. and that the majority of directors who are not "interlocking" are mere figureheads.000 785 1. Such growth in the size of banks in New York and Chicago has frequently been erroneously designated before your Committee as "concentration.000. and.000. MORGAN DENIES A MONEY TRUST In testimony before a Congressional Committee in 1913.There have been spread before your Committee elaborate tables of so-called interlocking directorates.." whereas we have . from which exceedingly mistaken inferences have been publicly drawn.000. and in most cases associated only in occasional transactions.500. The absurdity of the assumption of such control becomes more apparent when one considers that.

I believe that all these things are minor considerations. 1908. THE TRUSTS: A CRITICAL VIEW Hazen Pingree. the reform mayor of Detroit. Mass.C. pp. Bailey and David M. He has felt the stimulus and ambition which goes with equality of opportunity. I think that it is of far greater importance to inquire whether the control of the world's trade. 1900... or any of the other commercial advantages claimed for the trust. before your Committee. They are the sinew and strength of the nation. and no testimony whatever was adduced to show the actual working of such relationships. While the business of the country has been conducted by persons and firms. especially since January 1. His argument is summarized below. These mergers. delivered an address at the Chicago Conference on Trusts. has been frequent. Heath and Company. Yet.hitherto pointed out [that] the growth of banking resources in New York City has been less rapid than that of the rest of the country.whether the financial system of the country will be endangered-whether we can better compete for the world's trade with large combinations or trusts..: D. the skilled employee has held close and sympathetic relations with his employer. As our cities double and treble in size and importance. middle men. as railroads extend and industrial plants expand. This is made up of manufacturers. and merger of two or more banks into one institution (with the same as the aggregate of the banks merging into it). But increase of capital. this natural and eminently desirable relationship was made to appear almost sinister. It tends to concentrate the ownership and management of all lines of business activity into the . which was highly critical of the business consolidation movement. Perhaps it is not known as well as it should be that in New York City the largest banks are far inferior in size to banks in the commercial capitals of other and much smaller countries. however. retail and wholesale merchants. commercial travelers and business men generally. Vol. but it is necessary. How does the trust affect them? It is admitted by the apologist for the trust that it makes it impossible for the individual or firm to do business on a small scale. (Lexington. The American Spirit. II. It would be little short of calamity to encourage any industrial development that would affect unfavorably this important class of our citizen. are a development due simply to the demand for larger banking facilities to care for the growth of the country's business. The strength of our republic has always been in what is called our middle class. not only is it natural. that our banking institutions should grow in order to care for the increased demands put upon them. Source: Thomas A. 636-637. are worth the price we pay for them. jobbers.. Everybody has been asking whether more money can be made by trusts than by small corporations and individuals-whether cost of production will be increased or decreased-whether investors will be benefited or injured. He has been something more than a mere machine. Kennedy. 1984). Close to them as a strong element of our people are the skilled mechanics and artisans.

1987) p. (Chicago: The Dorsey Press. will be prevented by the strict and impartial administration of just and equitable laws. They are at variance with the fundamental law of government. It is his duty to serve the soulless and nameless being called the stockholder.we suppose to be injurious. simply because he is poor.. And. No one denies this.. The master is the trust manager or director. of the property for which he has not labored.-with due regard for property rights. This being so. Main Problems in American History. The trust is therefore the forerunner. The dishonest acquisition of property. Their personal identity is lost. WORK AND POVERTY Those who criticized industrialization by linking it to the apparent rise in poverty faced deeply held views about the responsibility of society to assist the poor. . in the greatest degree.. The slave is the former merchant and business man. the more active and spontaneous will be their exertion.that. Self.. There is no real advance for them. The Elements of Political Economy in 1837. stealing... shall enjoy only that for which he has labored.preservation compels it. for several reasons. by inflicting upon the indolent the just punishment of their idleness. he be allowed to use it as he will. 159. and of provision to supply his wants. the advantages of his labor. 2d... or rather the creator of industrial slavery. yet he has not designed them to labor without reward. As it is unnatural to labor without receiving benefit from it. 1. Part of his book is excerpted below.The support of the poor. either dishonestly or by begging. without requiring the previous exertion of his labor.160.. the greater this benefit. first. men will not labor continuously nor productively. by securing to the industrious the righteous reward of their labor. but they can never look forward to a life of business freedom. unless they receive such benefit. we see that the benefit of such laws is two fold. I favor complete and prompt annihilation of the trust. that he who is able to labor. Hence.. Milton Cantor and Dean Albertson. must enter the employment of the trust. he be allowed to gain all that he can. a professor at Yale University who in 1837 published a widely read book. Source: Howard Quint. Many of those ideas were articulated by Francis Wayland. who one cherished the hope that they might sometime reach the happy position of independent ownership of a business.hands of a very few. A man may possess himself. individual business man. That having gained all that he can. and the artisan and mechanic. They may perhaps become larger cogs or larger wheels. They encourage industry.. hence.. In order that every man may enjoy. as by cheating.. His trusted foremen and his employees must follow him. Although God has designed men to labor. . it follows that the independent. They become cogs and little wheels in a great complicated machine.. and. and secondly. or robbery. To the latter the dividend is more important than the happiness or prosperity of any one. of course.

that is. and a great and constantly increasing burden is removed from the community. to such extreme penury that he is in danger of perishing. The right of property should be perfectly protected. N. 1966). By so directing our benevolent energies. That those who are enabled only in part to earn their subsistence. . and thus present the strongest inducement to industry. It is a discouragement to industry. There should be no common funds for the support of those who are not willing to labor. so that nothing is left in common. why not to support them better. Hence. they are happier themselves. Hence. most frequently. That if a man be reduced. less production created. in just so far as this stimulus is removed.. 134—127 reprinted in Richard W. 4.. both against individual and social spoliation. Source: Francis Wayland. 1837). and be remunerated with the proceeds. The Elements of Political Economy (New York.2. rather than upon himself. because they must proceed upon the concession that the rich are under obligation to support the poor.. They remove from men the fear of want. 4. 6. 317-319. for a larger and larger measure of assistance.it rarely ceases to apply regularly.. be provided for.. Arthur S. nay. If this be so. Property should be universally appropriated.. By teaching a man to depend upon others. 3.. p. we see. They are. Link and Stanley Corbin. hence. Leopold. the greater will be the liability to collision between the two classes. and.J. the more provision there is of this kind. Problems in American History (Englewood Cliffs. by indolence or prodigality. they destroy the healthful feeling of independence. And hence that all our provisions for the relief of the poor be so devised as not to interfere with this law of our nature.. in progress of time. there will be in a given community less labor done. 5. only. after a family has once applied for assistance. one of the most natural and universal stimulants to labor. in principle. that in order to accomplish the designs of our Creator in this respect. For. 5. 2. It is in evidence…that. destructive to the right of property. to the amount of that deficiency. 111. that he be furnished with work. they tend to insubordination. 3. 1.. such a system must tend greatly to increase the number of paupers. and a bounty upon indolence. the poor are better provided for. why not to support them as well as themselves. Hence.. if the rich are under obligation to support the poor.. eds.

. Men cannot live by bread. but I rocked and rested. and hurried down to prepare luncheon. When a man is educated away from the power of self-denial. I could not finish in less time. The floor was covered with oilcloth and it was getting dingy. and one of the nation's most prominent religious leaders." said my lady. Main Problems in American History. cooks. and it took me half an hour.. In the passage below she outlines her duties during her first day as a maid. I was thankful for a chance to sit. By half-past nine the downstairs work was finished. I had been on my feet steadily for seven hours and they began to complain. if the man insists on smoking and drinking beer.. In my own housekeeping I had taken frequent opportunities for short rests. I was very tired. did a little mending. Such may be called the bread of affliction. I was too much heated to dare a bath. the vast majority who did were domestic servants-.maids. but the man who cannot live on bread and water is not fit to live." So I spent ten minutes in my room and two hours in the sitting room.. 1987) p. "Thursdays you will clean the sitting room. (Chicago: The Dorsey Press. this I served at one.75 a week doing general housework and cooking. I wish you always to put your own room in order before noon. The kitchen was large. She was soon employed as a domestic servant for $2. and tidied . Milton Cantor and Dean Albertson. A family may live on good bread and water in the morning. laundresses. She was right. The great laws of political economy cannot be set at defiance.. Five times during the two hours I was called off by the door bell and twice I went down to look after my bread. left her middle class home to work as a maid. here the strain had been steady. but it is fit that man should eat the bread of affliction. and dawdled over my lunch for half an hour. Henry Ward Beecher. water and bread at midday. minister of Brooklyn's Plymouth Church. I rose at six and served breakfast promptly at seven. It was half-past two. DOMESTIC SERVICE--ONE WOMAN'S ACCOUNT Although most 19th and early 20th Century women did not work outside the home. and good water and bread at night. curious about the life and work of servants.It is true that $1 a day is not enough to support a man and five children. 51. discussed his views of the workingmen's plight during the national railroad strikes of 1877. then I went to my room. Is not a dollar a day enough to buy bread? Water costs nothing. In 1901 Inez A Godman. it is true.. "but you must tidy your own room first. I finished soon after twelve. . he is falsely educated. Source: Howard Quint.HENRY WARD BEECHER: THE WORKER'S STANDARD OF LIVING Rev. everything was in order and I was preparing to go to my room when my lady appeared saying that the kitchen floor ought to be wiped.

WOMEN'S WORK AND WORKING WOMEN. Seven Days A Week: Women and Domestic Service in Industrializing America. The pay they are willing to accept all have to take. There was a roast for dinner and I hastened down to heat the oven. threw herself from her attic window. To have the different courses ready at just the right moment. To take the case of the saleswomen for illus- .” It was only a few brief weeks before that verdict was uttered. but woman’s wages have no limit. Source: David A. since the paths of shame are always open to her. describes working women in New York City in 1900. and by the time the dishes were washed up my whole being was in a state of rebellion.. It is estimated that at least one hundred and fifty thousand women and girls earn their own living in New York. but there is reason to believe that this estimate falls far short of the truth when sufficient account is taken of the large number who are not wholly dependent upon their own labor. to think quickly and act calmly. and it is characteristic of the situation that the very fact that some need not starve on their wages condemns the rest to that fate. Katzman.. pp. What the “everlasting law of supply and demand. even to scrubbing.33. Six months have not passed since at a great public meeting in this city. to be sure that nothing burned or curdled while I was waiting on the table. has to do with it. I had started upstairs with a pail of hot water for my tired feet when I remembered the ice water [for the mistress]. that the community was shocked by the story of a gentle and refined woman who. Then came three hard hours. 32. without depriving herself of real necessities. but not surprisedly this time. left in direst poverty to earn her own living alone among strangers. after a vain search for work in a driving storm. all this meant weariness. It is inevitable that they must in many instances resort to evil. I assured you that I did not dally an hour with my toilet but was in bed and heavily asleep in twenty minutes. drenched and starving. I would have done any honest work. and coming at night when I was tired was always something of a worry. It was astonishing how soon four o'clock came. a pioneer in investigative journalism. For a moment I hesitated.” she wrote. Dinner was a complex meal. It did not seem possible that I had been upstairs forty minutes. one learns from observation all along the road of inquiry into these real woman’s wrongs.” that serves as such a convenient gag for public indignation. These alone constitute a large class of the women wage-earners. New York: Oxford University Press. It is simply impossible for any woman to live without assistance on the low salary a saleswoman earns. while contributing by it to the family’s earnings. the Working Women’s Society reported: “It is a known fact that men’s wages cannot fall below a limit upon which they can exist.myself up a bit. She had tramped the streets for weeks on her weary errand and the only living wages that were offered her were the wages of sin. 1900 In the following account Jacob Riis. 1978. Nevertheless I took it up and my lady smiled again. It meant another trip and had not been asked for. preferring death to dishonor.

and “the superintendent was heard to charge the time-keeper with not being strict enough in his duties. Do you employ any below the age of ten? A. No. yet for some trivial mistake the girl was fined sixty cents out of her two dollars. Eighty-two cents a day for the last six months.tration: The investigation of the Working Women’s Society disclosed the fact that wages averaging from $2 to $4. but the girls were fined when found using them. Q. How much help do you employ? A. 485 on our pay-roll. I think about one-third of the remainder would be children and two-thirds women. CHILD LABOR IN 19TH CENTURY AMERICA The passage below. Riis. Yes. How many of those are men? A. What do the children make on an average? A. What is the average wages that you pay? A.50 a week were reduced by excessive fines. Q.” One of the causes for fine in a certain large store was sitting down. Q. Q. p. before a 1896 Congressional Committee on child labor. vol. What do the women make a day? A. The law requiring seats for saleswomen.. In one instance they amounted to $3. We have. ed. Do you think it well that children between the ages of say ten and fourteen years should be required to work more than about half the time in a factory? .000. The seats were there. or in that neighborhood. I think. You employ children of ten years and upward? A. who received two dollars a week. Q. Q. sir.2 (New York: 1989). I cannot answer that exactly.. The rest are women and children. about one-seventh. Q. 151-52. How many of them would you class as women and how many as children? A. About $1 Q. is part of testimony by Otis Lynch. generally ignored. was obeyed faithfully in this establishment.” A little girl. made cash-sales amounting to $167 in a single day. while the receipts of a fifteen-dollar male clerk in the same department footed up only $125. the mill owner. a description of the workforce in a Massachusetts textile mill. And the men? A. America Firsthand. sir. Source: Jacob A. About from 35 to 75 cents a day. Q. I suppose? A. Yes. The practice prevailed in some stores of dividing the fines between the superintendent and the time-keeper at the end of the year. How the Other Half Lives (1905) reprinted in Robert D. Q. That is about the proportion. “the employers placing a value upon time lost that is not given to services rendered. Q. Marcus and David Burner. About $1 a day.

PA 451. There is no rule about it. Vol. Well. MO 575. N. Q. Washington. MA 560. Boston. in individual cases they sometimes quit the mill and go to school--some of them do. AMERICAN URBANIZATION. A.Y. New York. N. PA 3. Pittsburgh. Q. Q. Oh.170 599. I suppose. St. MD 508. IL 874. How as to their chance of getting some education in your free schools? A.957 7.185 2. Louis. PA 1. CA 342. I don't know whether they should be compelled to work at all in the factory unless the circumstances made it necessary. 84. 3. Chicago. Brooklyn.698.Y.959 11. II. Cleveland.071 10. 1860-1900 20 Largest Cities: 1880 1.575 3. OH 325. Cincinnati. (New York. Indefinite periods.839 5.164. Source: Robert D. Chicago. I don't know that I can answer that question satisfactorily. San Francisco.C.437.739 9. Baltimore. and afterwards when it becomes necessary they send them back to the mill again. Q. New Orleans.673 1. OH 255. Well.Y. N.86. MD 332. 177. but they change a good deal out and in. 4.387 10. Marcus and David Burner. Philadelphia. San Francisco. New Orleans. MA 362. Boston. 352. New York.313 7. N. OH 381.518 6. Louis. 20 Largest Cities: 1900 1. IL 1. Philadelphia. MO 350.697 4. Buffalo. Pittsburgh.624 12. St. LA 216. yes.090 8. Cincinnati. LA .768 9.892 6. 1989). Yes. PA 235. America Firsthand.293. For how long periods? A.238 5.Y. pp. D. CA 233. Do the children remain in the mill during the whole eleven hours as the older operatives do? A.902 12.512 8. Some of the parents take their children out when they feel that they can do without them for a while and send them to school.495 503.A.782 11. Baltimore. But most of them remain in the mill one year after another.202 2.

Washington. KY 123.340 15.I. First he has a hard enough time at the borders.718 16. sisters.433 18. appeared originally in the Jewish Daily Forward. Milwaukee. Louisville. N. These Jews are deserters from the Russian army and political escapees.758 17. he is give for 'dissert' an order that he must show that he possesses twenty-five dollars. the unfortunate who are imprisoned on Ellis Island. What .C.J. 104. N.134 14. WI 285. OH 160.722 18. Providence. Louisville. But where can we get it? Who ever heard of such an outrage. they could find means of livelihood. This vignette.287. MI 285.146 13.859 20. N. life baggage. Milwaukee. There he lies around in the immigrant sheds till the ship finally leaves. treating people so? If we had known before. Newark.J. 120. Jersey City.I. Cleveland. he has endured all this. Dear Editor. written by Russian immigrant and former Petersburg University student Alexander Rudnev. and he is at last in America. whom the Czar would like to have returned to Russia. We. 278.315 15. so that our brothers in America may know how we suffer.J. You know full well how much the Jewish immigrant suffers till he gets to America. with God's help. 136. Many of the families sold everything they owned to scrape together enough for passage to America. 206. 246. beg you to have pity on us and print our letter in your worthy newspaper.J. WI 115. Detroit. MN 202. Buffalo. 155. brothers and friends. Then follow the torment on the ship where every sailor considers a steerage passenger a dog. most of them are Russian Jews.Y.587 19. KY 204. N. of the suffering that many of the newcomers initially encountered upon arrival.597 A LETTER FROM ELLIS ISLAND Today millions of Americans visit Ellis Island to commemorate and celebrate the arrival of their 19th and early 20th Century ancestors to the United States unaware.508 16. Minneapolis. 175. Jersey City. R. then with the agents. D.070 17.718 20.731 19. for the most part. The people here are from various countries. Providence.704 14. R. 1909. on the train to a port. we would have provided for it somehow back at home. N.104 13. with the help of their children. They haven't a cent but they figured that. Detroit. After this he goes through a lot till they send him. MI 116. who was detained at Ellis Island on July 4. Newark. And when. many of who can never return to Russia.

And God know how many Jewish lives this will cost. because we don't have our baggage with us.679. and if often happens that they never come back. Alexander Rudnev Source: Robert D.615.400 1. 128-129. We like about on the floor in the spittle and filth. The women have not signed.500 1. We are packed into a room where there is space for two hundred people.500 1.000 635.167. Everyone goes around dejected and cries and wails. they are taken to a hospital.200 980. America Firsthand: From Reconstruction to the Present Vol.900 2.900 1.667. All our hope is that you. The don't let us out into the yard for a little fresh air.200 6. and are being detained.800 1. because they don't let us get to them.179. the Fourth of July. S.251. they don't let him.' that is.600 1.700 1.900 58.600 Canada 493.600 10.900 221.nonsense this is! We must have money on arrival.000 132.500 717. Marcus and David Burner.900 9.400 723. they didn't send anyone back. but we want to convey at least a little of it.690.966. who have come to their husbands.700 2. Editor. will not refuse us. to the boat.300 206. 1870-1900 COUNTRY OF ORIGIN 1870 1880 1890 1900 Germany 1.800 1.855.400 ___________________________________________________________ Total Foreign Born 5.200 Scandinavia 498. not a few hours later (when relatives come) it's too late.500 Other Foreign Born 81.500 Eastern Europe 93.600 Southern Europe 25. 1989) pp. or when a father wants to see his child.257. because more than one mind dwells on the though of jumping into the water when the take him to the boat. We're wearing the same shirts for three or four weeks. For this kind on nonsense they ruin so many people and send them back to the place they escaped from It is impossible to describe all that is taking place here. the begin again to lead us to the 'slaughter.400 Ireland 1.300 Foreign-Born as a Percentage of the Total Population 14% 13% 15% 18% ____________________________________________________________ .200 153.200 917. 2 (New York. Women with little babies.600 1. But Tuesday. Mr. When a man wants to ask his wife something.600 530.900 Great Britain (excluding Ireland) 770.663.784.000 Mexico & Latin America 57.854. the fifth.300 154. FOREIGN-BORN POPULATION OF THE U. and print our letter which is signed by many immigrants.871. Because today is a holiday.341. but they have crammed in about a thousand.000 1. Children get sick.300 137.419..500 107. Who can stand this suffering? Men are separated from their wives and children and only when they take us out to eat can they see them.473.249.900 89.

MI. 16.315 278.718 175. Washington. Poles Germans. N. Irish Germans. IL. Buffalo. 3. 9. while from the depths of the abyss came up the noise of hundreds of steam-hammers. Italians Germans. MN. Irish Germans.202 1.697 575. 4.512 381.437. Minneapolis. Irish Germans. 19. Irish Irish.718 246. The entire space lying between the hills was filled with blackest smoke.______ FOREIGN-BORN IN THE TWENTY LARGEST CITIES. 5. 14. MA. Irish Germans.597 % ForeignBorn 37% 35 23 19 35 14 26 33 30 34 18 11 35 31 6 29 31 8 30 32 Largest Nationalities Germans. 3. near the level of the rivers.957 451. Jersey City. Norwegians Irish. Newark. 6. from out of which the hidden chimneys sent forth tongues of flame. but soon the wind would force the smoky curtains aside. LA. Detroit. Irish Germans. MO. On the evening of this dark day. Pittsburgh. 1900 City Population 1. 15.238 560. 8. 11. Philadelphia. Irish Germans. There would be moments when no flames were visible. New Orleans. Milwaukee. Germans Germans.J. Russians Germans. The first is an account of the rapidly growing industrial city of Pittsburgh in January 1868 by James Barton. OH. Irish Germans. Irish Germans.070 206. San Francisco.Y.387 342.731 202.C. a slum area in New York City in 1883. from which you can look directly down upon all that part of the city which lies low. 18. English TWO VIEWS OF URBAN AMERICA The two passages below provide a glimpse into urban life in the post Civil War era.902 287. OH. and the whole black expanse would be dimly lighted with dull wreaths of . 10. 20. 17. Cincinnati. PA.J. Canadians Germans. a reporter for the Atlantic Monthly. 12. R. MD.768 352. Providence.704 285.782 325. N. we were conducted to the edge of the abyss. Baltimore. 7. Cleveland. Irish Germans. Louis. Owing to the abruptness of the hill behind the town. WI. 13. there is a street along the edge of a bluff. D.293. and looked over the iron railing upon the most striking spectacle we ever beheld. PA. Barton: There is one evening scene in Pittsburgh which no visitor should miss. CA. Chicago.Y.433 204. N. 2. Boston. Irish Swedes. Irish Irish.575 1. Louisville.698. KY. St. N.104 285. The second passage is from a Senate Committee investigation of living conditions on Baxter Street.892 508. New York.I. Poles Germans.

" The Atlantic Monthly. Now that he can work no more. Perhaps the lack of healthy exercise had as much to do with it. I think they are rag pickers. "Pittsburgh. Do you know how the people who live here employ themselves? A. Q. mainly.fire. One small stove is all that can be found in that enormous room to warm a whole crowd of people in the cold weather. longer but not as wide as this room--it extends back. Six children sit at his table.. Who it is who owns these houses I do not know. 1885. the burden of its support has fallen upon her alone. for thirteen years he helped his wife make cigars in the manufacturer's tenement. lives now the cigar maker I spoke of as suffering from consumption which the doctor said was due to the tobacco-fumes. I refer to the tenements for the masses. Q. when the tide comes in the water is eight inches deep on the floor. Well. he may do so by simply walking up a long hill to Cliff Street in Pittsburgh. Do you say that there are eight families in one room? A. perhaps. author Jacob Riis describes tenement life among the working poor. She has work in the shop at eight dollars a week. January 1868. for none of the children is old enough to help. sir. it is a basement. How they can ride in their carriages.. By trade a shoemaker. and the family under the doctor's orders has moved away from the smell of tobacco.hunting. and hence are too vile to live in. it is all there is. I cannot understand. but if any one would enjoy a spectacle as striking as Niagara. is it above ground or under ground? A. and have altogether insufficient water. and. . mostly immigrant families by illustrating the experience of one working woman's family. and dress in silk and velvets. Where is this room. Report of the Committee of the Senate on the Relations between Labor and Capital.. In a house around the corner that is not a factory-tenement. Committee: In Baxter Street in one room there are eight families.. It is an unprofitable business.. Source: James Barton. Q. too poorly ventilated. or sleep peacefully at night while they permit their tenants to have such dwellings. Happily. What is the size of the room? A. and until his health gave out two years ago they were able to make from $17 to $25 a week. She was a very good hand.. TENEMENT LIFE IN NEW YORK CITY. and three-quarters of them are so destitute of clothing that they cannot go into the street even to beg. and looking over into--hell with the lid taken off. composed altogether of forty-two people. 1890 In the vignette below.. and this must go round. a half-cellar. It is.. Q. they have to put scantlings and slabs across to put their clothes on. view. I say that the houses for the poor in this city are too dark.. by lengthening the day at both ends. Yes. too much crowded. It is a large room--a whole basement. too damp. I have been told that some of these tenements--places of the lowest order--are owned by people like the Astors.

then." Source: Jacob Riis. greens and bread.this being a tenement for revenue only. but gets a bite at her bench. meat. 613. There are such things in the world as human rights. Part of his argument is presented below. Oh! it is a good dinner. But are there not reasons against all this? Is there not such a law or principle as that of self-preservation? Does not every race owe something to itself.. unmixed with cigars. Bread. vol. and there is seldom anything to spare. her husband being too weak. 2 (New York 2003). The question: A bite of what? seems as merciless as the surgeon's knife. I have said that the Chinese will come. patient smile. and your fathers asserted by coming here. They rest upon no conventional foundation. It is this great right that I assert for the Chinese and Japanese. For ten cents they eat all they want. But at night they all have supper together--sausage and bread. and indestructible. soup. The invalid is listening. the rent is cheaper: seven dollars for two bright rooms on the top floor. a good many.? Is it best to take on board more passengers than the ship will carry? To all of this and more I have one among many answers. Breakfast of coffee and hard-tack. though I cannot promise that it will be so to you. How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York reprinted in Pauline Maier. now and forever.. but are external. Frederick Douglass challenged most social observers and politicians (including most African Americans) by advocating the acceptance of Chinese immigration. I know of no rights of race superior to the rights of humanity. Inventing America: A History of the United States. A woman in Seventy-second Street supplies their meals. p. but belongs alike to all and to all alike. and when there is a conflict between human and national rights. Does she come home for dinner? No. which the wife and mother fetches in a basket. It is the right you assert by staying here. Would you allow them to hold office? I would. is the right of.. FREDERICK DOUGLAS DESCRIBES THE "COMPOSITE NATION" In an 1869 speech in Boston. she cannot leave the shop.? Should not a superior race protect itself from contact with inferior ones? Are not the white people the owners of this continent. It is the principal family meal... at twenty cents for the whole eight. I submit that this question of Chinese immigration should be settled upon higher principles than those of a cold and selfish expediency.. if I favor such immigration. or any other essential human rights to themselves. and . Among these. and the sentence remains unfinished. I reject the arrogant and scornful theory by which they would limit migratory rights. the right which belongs to no particular race. No housekeeping is attempted. and have them invested with all the rights of American citizenship? I would. Do you ask. or black bread.. it is safe to go to the side of humanity. universal. I answer I would. and she winces under it as one shrinks from physical pain.migration. but---. together satisfactory to me. What of dinner? One of the children brings it from the cook. all for thirty cents. Would you have them naturalized... the little woman says with a brave. Would you allow them to vote? I would. and for all other varieties of men equally with yourselves.

Conn. and pleads for composite nationality as essential to her triumphs. plead and wage a continuous warfare against ignorance and fanaticism. had the least intercourse with other races of men.A... Foner and Daniel Rosenberg. ought to have some weight and influence in disposing of this and similar questions. augmented by an ever-increasing stream of immigration from Europe... emerged in the 1880s in response to European immigration and the rise of immigrant-supported big city machines in the East. anti-Catholic organization. 1993). They will come as strangers.. and can only be resuscitated by assistance from without. the fact that only one fifth of the population of the globe is white. the mulatto and the Latin races.. a secretive... labor.and thus have all the world to itself.does not seem entitled to much respect. None of our children are in Chinese schools. The voice of civilization speaks an unmistakable language against the isolation of families. In the West it was primarily anti-Asian. They will find here a deeply rooted.P. that I will use my utmost power to strike the shackles and chains of blind obedience to the Roman Catholic Church from the hampered and bound consciences of a priest-ridden and church-oppressed people. They will come in their weakness. and Asian Americans from 1850 to the Present: A Documentary History (Westport.would convince us that the points of human difference. but I want the Asiatic to find a home here in the United States.. are a standing confirmation of the folly of isolation. If the white race may exclude all other races from this continent. a member of the Roman Catholic Church. The apprehension that we shall be swamped or swallowed up by Mongolian civilization. not we to them. Chinese children are in American schools in San Francisco. Contact with these yellow children... They will come to us.. eds... it may rightfully do the same in respect to all other lands. to the utmost of my ability... OATH OF THE AMERICAN PROTECTIVE ASSOCIATION The American Protective Association. Thought they come as the waves come. The very soil of the national mind becomes in such cases barren. I do most solemnly promise and swear that I will always. Source: Philip S. that I will never allow anyone. we shall be stronger if we receive them as friends and give them a reason for loving our country and our institutions.and with all the advantages of organization. I want a home here not only for the negro. and probably never will be.. seem. By 1896 it claimed one million members. Such contact would remove mountains of prejudice. Reprinted below is the oath of membership of the A. We are at home.. 223-226. both for his sake and for ours. the other four fifths are colored. great as they. If respect is had to majorities.. indigenous. and feel at home here.. are as nothing compared with the points of human agreement. Dissent. Racism. to become a member of this order. upon first sight. pp. Those races of men which have. nations and races. growing civilization. I knowing him to be . we shall meet them in our strength.which would make them the owners of this great continent to the exclusion of all other races of men....

so far as may lie in my power (should there be two Roman Catholics in opposite tickets. but will vote only for a Protestant. Vol. of a Roman Catholic for any office in the gift of the American people. Kennedy.510. In the following passage we see a letter from a "Discontented Wife" and Cahan's response. I furthermore promise and swear that I will not countenance the nomination. Now he has announced a new decision. I furthermore promise and swear that I will not aid in building or maintaining. I ask you to decide whether a married woman has the right to go to school two evenings a week. and doesn’t hurry to open the door. a Yiddish-language newspaper for Jewish immigrants in late 19th and early 20th Century New York. so help me God. II. Source: Thomas A. and that I will not vote for. I am still young and I want to learn and enjoy life. I admit that I cannot be satisfied to be just a wife and mother. provided advice to his readers in a column titled "A Bintel Brief" [bundle of letters]. any Roman Catholic. that I will not enter into any controversy with a Roman Catholic upon the subject of this order. nor will I enter into any agreement with a Roman Catholic to strike or create a disturbance whereby the Catholic employees may undermine and substitute their Protestant co-workers. My husband thinks I have no right to do this. it seems to him that I have too much time for myself. Heath and Company. Since I do not want my conscience to bother me. . pp. he lets me stand outside a long time intentionally. that in all grievances I will seek only Protestants. but I go to evening high school twice a week. To all of which I do most solemnly promise and swear. C. (Lexington. that I will use my influence to promote the interest of all Protestants everywhere in the world that I may be. and will not make known to them anything of any nature matured at such conferences. to the entire exclusion of the Roman Catholic Church. that I will at all times endeavor to place the political positions of this government in the hands of Protestants. if I can procure the services of a Protestant. that I will not employ a Roman Catholic in any capacity. Mass: D. My husband is not pleased and when I come home at night and ring the bell. and counsel with them to the exclusion of all Roman Catholics. even enough to go to school. Amen. or counsel others to vote for. Bailey & David M. and the mandate of the Pope. editor of the Jewish Daily Forward. My children and my house are not neglected. Dear Editor. any Roman Catholic church or institution of their sect or creed whatsoever. 509. in any caucus or convention. Because I send out the laundry to be done. but will do all in my power to retard and break down the power of the Pope. in this country or any other. 1984). The American Spirit. by my resources. So from now on he will count out every penny for anything I have to buy for the house. of the members thereof.such. A DISCONTENTED WIFE Long before "Ann Landers" and "Dear Abby" Abraham Cahan. I will erase the name on the ticket I vote).

He is in favor of the emancipation of women. And when I have to do the work myself there won’t be any time left for such “foolishness” as going to school. I told him that I’m willing to do my own washing but that I would still be able to find time for study. 1971). p. 2 (New York: 1989). 130. Reprinted in Robert D. America Firsthand Vol. I want to say that my husband is an intelligent man and he wanted to marry a woman who was educated. Source: Isaac Metzker. Also the opinion is expressed that the wife absolutely has the right to go to school two evenings a week. CHAPTER SIX: INDUSTRIALIZATION'S CRITICS Terms for Week 6 Populist Party William Jennings Bryan Knights of Labor-Terence Powderly American Federation of Labor (AFL)--Samuel Gompers Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) eight-hour day Gentleman's Agreement Hull House . I remain. yet in real life he acts contrary to his beliefs. A Bintel Brief: Sixty Years of Letters from the Lower East Side to the Jewish Daily Forward (New York. Your reader. When I am alone with my thoughts. The Discontented Wife ANSWER: Since this man is intelligent and an adherent of the women’s emancipation movement.so I will not be able to send out the laundry any more. I feel I may not be right. Awaiting your opinion on this. ed. he is scolded severely in the answer for wanting to keep his wife so enslaved. Perhaps I should not go to school. Marcus and David Burner. The fact that he is intelligent makes me more annoyed with him.

Taylor. I have borrowed for example $1. beyond redemption. many of us financially. in a letter dated January 10. attributing it mostly to man-made conditions rather than more typically weather or insects. This season is without a parallel in this part of the country. referendum The Square Deal National American Woman Suffrage Association The Conservation Movement A. but the unlawful and inhuman country destroying rate of 3 per cent. Chamber of Commerce National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) Socialist Party of America Disfranchisement The Oregon System: initiative. M. who have taken the money and now are after the property.S.000. 1891. recall. not by the hot winds so much as by the swindling games of the bankers and money loaners. I give my note and second mortgage of 3 per cent of the $1. a month.. The hot winds burned up the entire crop. Mitchell Palmer A FARMER'S GRIEVANCE Nebraska farmer W. . describes the hardship he and other farmers faced.. I pay $25 besides to the commission man. some going still farther and charging 50 per cent per annum. leaving the farmer moneyless and homeless. or even 10 per cent.Muckrakers-Ida Tarbell Upton Sinclair Lincoln Steffens Progressive Reformers: Jane Addams Jacob Riis Progressive Organizations: Sierra Club General Federation of Women’s' Clubs National Civic Federation U. which is the lawful rate of interest. which is $30 more. We are cursed. many of whom might have been able to run through this crisis had it not been for the galling yoke put on them by the money loaners and sharks—not by charging 7 per cent per annum. leaving thousands of families wholly destitute.000.

. about five times the value of the note. 4. abstract. and we denounce the present ineffective laws against contract labor. harness and wagon. If I can’t get the money. recording. vol.. etc. The time comes to pay. We condemn the fallacy of protecting American labor. p. I have the extreme pleasure of seeing my property taken and sold by this iron handed money loaner while my family and I suffer. 1891. ed.... This is on the farm. and pledge ourselves to secure it to every legal voter.. while grievous wrongs have been inflicted upon the suffering people.000 to the actual loaner. I must have $50 to save myself. Part of the Party platform adopted at the Omaha Convention in 1892 is reprinted below. he can’t stand to loan at such low rates. 3.which opens our ports to the pauper and criminal classes of the world and crowds our wage.Then I pay 7 per cent on the $1. Nebraska Historical Society. America Firsthand. must have the money..through the adoption by the States of the Australian or secret ballot system. We cordially sympathize with the efforts of organized workingmen to shorten the hours of labor. 5. secured by chattel of two horses. I get the money. of the people--should be expanded. No I can’t wait.. Yet I am told by the agent who loans me the money. We pledge our support to fair and liberal pensions to ex-Union soldiers and sailors. and demand a rigid enforcement of the existing eight-hour law on Government . my note is made payable in thirty or sixty days for $35. I ask for a few days. and demand the further restriction of undesirable emigration. so when I have secured my loan I am out the first year $150. Farmer's Alliance (Lincoln. but now comes the chattel loan.as rapidly and as far as the good sense of an intelligent people and the teachings of experience shall justify. We charge that the controlling influence dominating both these parties have permitted the existing dreadful conditions to develop with serious effort to prevent or restrain them.. The revenue derived from a graduated income tax should be applied to the reduction of the burdens of taxation now levied upon the domestic industries of this country. Source: W. Taylor to editor.earners. 2. Then besides all this I pay for appraising the land. Marcus and David Burner. to the end that oppression. THE POPULIST PARTY PLATFORM In 1892 the Populist Party mounted its first campaign for the Presidency. January 10. We believe that the power of government--in other words. injustice. M. 1.2 (New York: 1989). We have witnessed for more than a quarter of a century the struggles of the two great political parties for power and plunder. and poverty shall eventually cease in the land. reprinted in Robert D. Nebraska). We demand a free ballot and a fair count in all elections. 99.

Then the politicians said we suffered from overproduction. the rains fell. and what came of it? Eight-cent corn. 8. and monopoly is the master. ed.. MARY ELLEN LEASE RALLIES KANSAS In the early 1890s Mary Ellen Lease became one of the leading Populist Party spokespersons. The West and South are bound and prostrate before the manufacturing East. This is a nation of inconsistencies. that was all we needed. 223. the sun shone. Current and John A. by the people. Wall Street owns the country. We went to work and plowed and planted. and for Wall Street. pp. Our laws are the output of a system which clothes rascals in robes and honesty in rags. ten-cent oats. and we demand its abolition. Money rules.000 shop girls in New York are forced to sell their virtue for the bread their niggardly wages deny them. and our Vice-President is a London banker. 6. The main question is the money question. two-cent beef. We favor a constitutional provision limiting the office of President and Vice-President to one term. so statistics tell us. Brown and Co.. Overproduction. Tariff is not the paramount question. 9.. known as the Pinkerton system. Kansas suffers from two great robbers. starve to death every year in the United States.. We regard the maintenance of a large standing army of mercenaries. We oppose any subsidy or national aid to any private corporation for any purpose. by Wall Street. We commend. when 10..work. We fought England for our liberty and put chains on four million of blacks. This Kansas housewife was best known for her demand that farmers "raise less corn and more hell" to address their grievances. and we raised the big crop that they told us to. but a government of Wall Street. and for the people.000 little children.the legislative system known as the initiative and referendum. as a menace to our liberties.. the Santa Fe Railroad and the loan companies. . and providing for the election of Senators of the United States by a direct vote of the people. 226. nature smiled.. The parties lie to us and the political speakers mislead us. 1965). and ask that a penalty clause be added to the said law. The great common people of this country are slaves. We wiped out slavery and by our tariff laws and national banks began a system of white wage slavery worse than the first. and no price at all for butter and eggs--that's what came of it.227. The Puritans fleeing from oppression became oppressors.. In this speech in 1890 she explains the plight of the farmers. and over 100. Words that Made American History Since The Civil War. (Boston: Little. Source: Richard N. We were told two years ago to go to work and raise a big crop. It is no longer a government of the people. Garraty. 7.

I would be presumptuous. The humblest citizen in all the land. has been that if you legislate to make the masses prosperous. my friends. There are two ideas of government. a 36 year old Congressman from Nebraska. The American Spirit. We have begged. We are fighting in the defense of our homes. is stronger than all the hosts of error. You come to us and tell us that the great cities are in favor of the gold standard. I come to speak to you in defense of a cause as holy as the cause of liberty--the cause of humanity. The next day Bryan was nominated for President on the Democratic Party ticket. We want the abolition of the national banks. There are those who believe that if you will only legislate to make the well-to-do prosperous. Kennedy. and posterity. formerly a distinguished member of Congress. and our entreaties have been disregarded.548. our families. and.. The Democratic idea. We defy them!. But this is not a contest between persons. electrified the Democratic Party Convention in Chicago in 1896 with his "Cross of Gold Speech in which he advanced the position of the Free Silver advocates before the 15. Bailey and David M. Massachusetts. We want the accursed foreclosure system wiped out. Vol.. We [silverites] do not come as aggressors. pp. Source: Thomas A. We will stand by our homes and stay by our fireside by force if neces sary. their prosperity will leak through on those below. however. indeed.. WILLIAM JENNINGS BRYAN'S CROSS OF GOLD SPEECH William Jennings Bryan. land. their prosperity will find its way up through every class which rests upon them. and will not pay our debts to the loan-shark companies until the government pays its debts to us. The sympathies of the Democratic Party. 547. to present myself against the distinguished gentlemen to whom you have listened if this were a mere measuring of abilities. Carlisle [John G..The common people are robbed to enrich their masters. 1984). Part of his speech is reprinted below. was Cleveland's Secretary of Treasury in 1896] said in 1878 that this was a struggle between "the idle holders of idle capital" and "the struggling masses.. Our war is not a war of conquest.000 people in the Convention hall. The people are at bay. Land equal to a tract thirty miles wide and ninety miles long has been foreclosed and bought in by loan companies of Kansas in a year. Carlisle of Kentucky. and they have mocked when our calamity came. are on the side of the struggling masses who have ever been the foundation of the Democratic Party. and our petitions have been scorned.. Mr. the question we are to decide is: upon which side will the Democratic Party fight--upon the side of "the idle holders of idle capital" or upon the side of "the struggling masses"? That is the question which the party must answer first.. We want money. who produce the wealth and pay the taxes of the country". and then it must be answered by each individual hereafter. II (Lexington. We beg no longer. and we want the power to make loans direct from the government. we entreat no more. we petition no more. We have petitioned. and transportation. when clad in the armor of a righteous cause. We have entreated. as shown by the platform. let the bloodhounds of money who have dogged us thus far beware. We .

.. and indolent farmer deserves none. Source: The Report of Secretary of Agriculture. Sterling Morton of Nebraska. 1984). who served as Secretary of Agriculture under President Grover Cleveland between 1893 and 1897. practical. The free and independent farmers of this country are not impoverished.. The intelligent. we will answer their demand for a gold standard by saying to them: You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns. amend. Lawmakers cannot erase natural laws nor restrict or efface the operation of economic laws. It is not the business of Government to legislate in behalf of any class of citizens because they are engaged in any specific calling. is that the Government does nothing for agriculture. you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold. and the grass will grow in the streets of every city in the country. like Indians upon reservations.. Kennedy. Their utterance is a belittlement of agriculture and an indignity to every intelligent and practical farmer of the United States. 1896. and most essential occupation of the human race. or revise the laws of production and distribution. xlvxlvi.they are not wards of the Government to be treated to annuities.. The ignorant. Out of each thousand farms in the United States only 282 are mortgaged. The constant complaint by the alleged friends of farmers. The American Spirit. pp. And the prevalent idea that the West and the South are more heavily burdened with farm mortgages than the East and Northeast sections of the United States is entirely erroneous. Upon it all other vocations depend for subsistence and prosperity.reply that the great cities rest upon our broad and fertile prairies. But destroy our farms. most honorable. D. Source: Thomas A. challenged Populist arguments by asserting that there was no farm problem. Having behind us the producing masses of this nation and the world. Bailey and David M. 563. 1896 (Washington. WHAT FARM PROBLEM? In the vignette below J. impractical. It is a beneficent arrangement of the order of thing and the conditions of human life that legislators are not permitted to repeal. and three-fourths of the money represented by the mortgages upon the 282 farms was for the purchase of those farms or for money borrowed to improve those farms.C. and your cities will spring up again as if by magic. and the toilers everywhere. Here is an excerpt from his report on farm conditions in 1896. supported by the commercial interests. Largely these declarations are without foundation. They are representatives of the oldest. the laboring interests.. Vol. Legislation can neither plow nor plant.565. pp.. and successful farmer needs no aid form the Government. Massachusetts. Burn down your cities and leave our farms. II (Lexington. no matter how essential the calling may be to the needs and comforts of civilization.. and by some farmers themselves.

Creative intellect was not given to him. and cycles sweep by. They will see a similarity of cause and a similarity of remedy.THOMAS WATSON AND BLACK VOTERS Thomas Watson. The National Experience. No original idea of his lives in poetry or song. Saxon and Angle did.. in written bork or hieroglyphic.. Watson called for black disfranchisement. empires rise and fall. then. And on these broad lines of mutual interest. as Celt and Teuton. 1909: How silly it is to judge the negro race by a few mulattoes like Dr. even as it did at the feet of our ancestors. 102. the application of compulsion as a means of enforcing their demands. 514. They will recognize that each should help the other in the work of repealing bad laws and enacting good ones. 93. The point to be determined is . The Knights of Labor have undertaken to test. races appear and disappear. pp. The conclusion.--the negro undergoes no chance. the Georgia Populist leader. his opposition to labor organization in an principle and specifically to the Knights of Labor. Watson and other Populist leaders welcomed black voters as political allies. DuBois. century after century.. but he never dared to build ship and brave the deep.p. upon a large scale. Booker Washington or Prof. By 1900. the neighbor of the gorilla and chimpanzee. Commerce owes him nothing. 1985). in stone or upon canvas. No. 3. seems to me to be this: the crushing burdens which now oppress both races in the South will cause each to make an effort to cast them off. Part 2 (New York: Harcourt. the ocean roared at his feet. You are deceived and blinded that you may not see how this race antagonism perpetuates a monetary system which beggars you both. symbolized the transformation of the Populist Party on the issue of black voting.. It will be to the interest of both that each should have justice. in an 1886 article.. 1909).. making no more effort at civilization than they make. They will become political allies.Leave the negro to himself. mutual forbearance. . 2 (February. 1892: Now the People's Party says to these two men. and dreaming of none. Brace Jovanovich.black attacks after 1900. "You are kept apart that you may be separately fleeced of your earnings. Sources: John Blum. In all the long reach of the ages he [the negro] has not contributed one ray of light to civilization.. Watson's Jeffersonian Magazine Vol.. He remains. HENRY CLEWS OPPOSES THE ORGANIZATION OF LABOR In the vignettes below Henry Clews outlines. You are made to hate each other because upon that hatred is rested the keystone of the arch of financial despotism which enslaves you both. and mutual support the present will be made the stepping-stone to future peace and prosperity. making no advance. and neither can injure the other without weakening both. In the early 1890s when the party first emerged. however. Reprinted below is his appeal to black voters in 1892 and an example of his vitriolic anti.

Source: Henry Clews. The laboring man in this bounteous and hospitable country has no ground for complaint. and therefore this is the land of refuge for the oppressed. telegraphs. by the force of coercion. has the laborer to complain of in America? By inciting strikes and encouraging discontent. the effort is to elevate the standard of the human race and not to degrade it. became a machinist and later joined the secret order of the Knights of Labor. But Powderly was also criticized by trade union advocates within the Knights of Labor who wanted wage increases and shorter hours and who often went on strike. and the hand of the laboring man should not be raised against it. p. ed. or regulation of railroads. battling for short hours for . In all other nations it is the reverse. 58. Opposing Viewpoints in American History (San Diego. But all of this time I have been fighting for a raise in wages. the son of Irish immigrants.whether capital or labor shall. of railroads. in every civilized community are secured as the most sacred and inalienable rights of the employer. The Knights welcomed virtually all workers and worked for a variety of reforms such as regulation of trusts and monopolies." North American Review. a reduction in the hours of labor. What. All of this time I have opposed strikes and boycotts. and money. I have contended that the short-hour question was not the end but merely the means to an end. powers and control which. Under the government of this nation. he stands in the way of the elevation of his race and of mankind. June 1886. Just think of it! Opposing strikes and always striking. His vote is potential and he is elevated thereby to the position of man. Powderly. or some demand of the trade element in our Order. therefore. reprinted in Bruno Leone. which is that of abject depression. it is a question whether his individual rights as to the control of his property’ shall be so far overborne as to not only deprive him of his freedom but also expose him to interferences seriously impairing the value of his capital. To the employees. POWDERLY AND THE KNIGHTS OF LABOR Terence V. TERENCE V. To the employer. to their own profit. I have contended that the wage question was of secondary consideration. 1996). despite the organization's prohibition of such action..000 in the early 1880s. Elsewhere he is a creature of circumstance. determine the terms upon which the invested resources of the nation are to be employed. in future. Powderly's organization was attacked by conservatives who accused it of advocating communism. I have held a most anomalous position before the public for the last twenty years. to gain their objectives. The Almighty has made this country for the oppressed of other nations. Powderly explains his views in his autobiography published in 1893. and government ownership of railroads. it is a question whether. "The Folly of Organized Labor. they can wrest. He ultimately became Grand Master of the organization when it reached its maximum strength of 700. to the exclusion of the very work that I have constantly advocated and which the General Assembly of the Order commanded me to advocate. I have endeavored to direct the eyes of our members to the principal parts of the preamble of our Order--government ownership of land.

he is afraid his friend will see him. a better man in general. Gompers called for trade or craft unions of skilled workers..would create a greater spirit in the working man. It gives the workingmen better conditions and better opportunities.. The Path I Trod.others. Our Order has held me in my present position because of the reputation I have won in the nation at large by taking high ground on important national questions. has evoked a spirit and a demand for reform. He also requires a newspaper.. yet the trade element in our Order has always kept me but at the base of the breastworks throwing up earth which they trample down. A man who goes to his work before the dawn of the day requires no clean shirt to go to work in. served as the AFL's first president almost until his death in 1924.. and fighting with might and main for the little things. In the vignette below Gompers explains the need for organization among workers. naturally resort to combinations to improve their conditions which surround them to organize for self-protection. utterly helpless in a contest with their employers. one incessantly striving to obtain the labor of the other class for a little as possible. (Chicago: The Dorsey Press. Battling with my pen in the leading journals and magazines of the day for the great things we are educating the people on.. while a man who goes to work early in the morning and stays at it late at night does not need a newspaper. Wherever trades unions have organized and are most firmly organized. and makes of him what has been too long neglected-a consumer instead of a mere producer.. I believe that the existence of the trades-union movement. 52. 1987) p. cofounded the American Federation of Labor in 1886.53. obliged to work long hours myself... so he does not want to be dirty. If you wish to improve a people you must improve their habits and customs.. but is content to go in an old overall or anything that will cover his members... 1893. Milton Cantor and Dean Albertson. for he has no time to read... Source: Howard H. Source: Terence V.. 401. Powderly. (New York. Modern industry evolves these organizations out of the existing conditions where there are two classes in society. more especially where the unionists are better organized. . Unlike the Knights which sought to be one large union. The trade unions are not what too many men have been led to believe they are. reprinted by Columbia University Press. Quint. Main Problems in American History. SAMUEL GOMPERS DESCRIBES TRADE UNIONS Samuel Gompers.. lacking time to devote to anything else.. as individuals. but has held in check the more radical elements in society.. requiring all the time he has to recuperate his strength sufficiently to get ready for his next day's work. p.. Hence trade unions. it would make him a better citizen. a better husband. and the members of the other class being. a London-born New York cigar maker. there are the rights of the people respected. importations from Europe. but a man who goes to work at 8 o'clock in the morning wants a clean shirt. The general reduction of the hours per day. a better father. The reduction of the hours of labor reaches the very root of society. 1940).

they would die. However this report of a 1906 Congressional Committee on conditions in the industry was as telling as the novel. It was too dark in these storage places to see well. set in the immigrant neighborhoods of Chicago. The Jungle. 1800-1954 Democratic Southend Republican Democratic Democratic Democratic Hall. 59th Congress. First Session. There would be meat that had tumbled out on the floor. . Source: Congressional Record. bread. There would be meat stored in great piles in rooms. where the workers had trampled and spit uncounted billions of [tuberculosis] germs. was intended as a call for socialism among the working classes but instead became popular because of its exposure of the abuses of the meat packing industry. There was never the least attention paid to what was cut up for sausage. and that was mouldy and white--it would be doused with borax and glycerine.THE "REAL" JUNGLE Upton Sinclair's novel. These rats were nuisances. and the water from leaky roofs would drip over it. and the packers would put poisoned bread out for them. BOSSES AND POLITICAL MACHINES City Boss Political Party Political Organization New York 1790 William Tweed 1865-1871 Democratic Tammany (Honest)John Kelley 1871-88 Richard Crocker 1888-1894 Charles Murphy 1902-1904 Democratic Democratic Democratic Chicago Michael Kenna 1900-1910 Democratic Organization. in the dirt and sawdust. and thousands of rats would race about on it. and then rats. p. Co. 1906). and meat would go into the hoppers together. Daley 1953-1976 Democratic Cook Boston Martin Lomasney 1880-1890 Democratic Club. there would come all the way back from Europe old sausage that had been rejected. Nash 1931-1936 Edward Kelley 1936-1951 Richard J. 1900William Thompson 1916-31 Patrick A. 7801 (June 4. and dumped into the hoppers. and made over again for home consumption. but a man could run his hand over these piles of meat and sweep off handfuls of the dried dung of rats.

Philadelphia is.. a California-born journalist. I don't know just who to measure the intelligence of a community. is the most American of our greater cities. Philadelphia is our third largest city and its growth has been gradual and natural. himself justified the . Cox 1885-1911 Republican Baltimore Club. New York is excused for many of its ills because it is the metropolis. The Shame of the Cities. 1888-1934 Harvey Wheeler 1899-1910 Democratic Treaton Democratic Kansas City James Pendergast 1881-1892 Democratic Org. Philadelphia with 47 percent of its population native-born or native-born parents. had emerged as one of the leading muckrakers in the country with the publication of his book. Hague 1917-1947 Democratic Memphis Edward Crump 1911-1948 Democratic Org. no matter how bad their own condition may be. and intelligent. too. but it is not without significance. In this passage he explains the operation of the Philadelphia political machine. Every city and town in the country can learn something from the typical political experience of this great representative city. 1894-1936 Tom Dennison 1901-1929 Democratic Omaha Democratic Jersey City Frank J." This is not fair. Chicago. corrupt. all point with scorn to Philadelphia as worse--"the worst-governed city in the country. 1881-1949 Tom Pendergast 1892-1932 Democratic West County End BOSS RULE IN PHILADELPHIA In 1904 Lincoln Steffens.James Michael Curley 1890-1920 Democratic Philadelphia James McManes 1868-1881 Republican Club. It is good. but a Pennsylvania college professor who declared to me his belief in education for the masses as a way out of political corruption. 1895-1948 Democratic Democratic San Francisco Abraham Ruef 1892-1910 Union-Labor Omaha Club. Immigration has been blamed for our municipal conditions. Other American cities.1860-1932 Republican Philadelphia New Orleans Martin Behrman 1900-1920 Choctaw Club.. indeed. because of its forced development. 1898-1965 Democratic Shelby Cincinnati George B.

193-194.--and neither has any of the men who have made big fortunes in politics.millionaire while controlling the Tammany Hall political machine. "That's so."rake-off" of preferred contractors on public works on the ground of a "fair business profit." reminds his hearers that was the word of Independence Hall. There's an honest graft. BOSS PLUNKITT DEFENDS HONEST GRAFT In 1905 New York City political boss. and non-existent person. therefore. down on such a list. What has happened in Philadelphia may happen in any American city "after the reform is over. My party's in power in the city. The honest citizens of Philadelphia have no more rights at the polls than the Negroes down South. that they're goin' to lay out a new park at a . Well. A [machine politician] in a speech resenting sneers at his ward as "low down.. I have myself. I've made a big fortune out of the game. is not that which precedes but that which follows reform. then say. Everybody is talkin' these days about Tammany men growin' rich on graft. only I never thought of it in just that way.. another that of a little four-year-old Negro boy. The assessor pads the list with the names of dead dogs. and practices fraud at every stage. he will look startled. say. that's literally true. Yes. explained the process by which he became a multi. many of our men have grown rich in politics.. I might sum up the whole thing by saying': "I seen my opportunities and I took 'em. disorderly people. voted down here once. The New Yorkers vote for Tammany Hall. In the process Plunkitt explained the distinction between "honest" graft and "dishonest" graft. One newspaper printed the picture of a dog. "they vote here yet. The [tax] assessor's list is the voting list. There's all the difference in the world between the two. and I'm gettin' richer every day." Source: Lincoln Steffens. the fathers of American liberty. 1904). he closed his highest flight of eloquence with the statement that "these men." . It isn't sound." The machine controls the whole process of voting.. pp. I'm tipped off. George Washington Plunkitt. but if you remind the average Philadelphian that he is in the same position. they are disfranchised. etc. naming the signers of the Declaration of Independence... but nobody thinks of drawin' the distinction between honest graft and dishonest graft.. The present condition of Philadelphia." Just let me explain by examples. (New York: Macmillan... and their disfranchisement is one anchor of the foundation of the Philadelphia organization.. children. saloonkeepers. "And. You can arouse their Republican ire by talking about the black Republican votes lost in the Southern states by white Democratic intimidation. and the assessor is the machine's man. The Philadelphians do not vote.. Nor do they fight very hard for this basic privilege. and it's goin' to undertake a lot of public improvements. but I've not gone in for dishonest graft--blackmailin' gamblers. and I doubt if it would stand in New York or Chicago. and I'm an example of how it works. The Shame of the Cities.. and." he added with a catching grin.The Philadelphia machine isn't the best." Philadelphia is a city that has had its reforms.

certain place.
...I go to that place and I buy up all the land I can in the neighborhood. Then the
board of this or that makes it plan public, and there is a rush to get my land, which
nobody cared particular for before.
Ain't it perfectly honest to charge a good price and make a profit on my investment
and foresight? Of course it is. Well, that's honest graft.
...I've told you how I got rich by honest graft. Now, let me tell you that most
politicians who are accused of robbin' the city get rich the same way. They didn't steal a
dollar from the city treasury. They just seen their opportunities and took them. That is
why, when a reform administration comes in and spends a half million dollars in tryin' to
find the public robberies they talked about in the campaign, they don't find them.
The books are always all right. The money in the city treasury is all right.
Everything is all right. All they can show is that the Tammany heads of departments
looked after their friends, within the law, and gave them what opportunities they could to
make honest graft. Now, let me tell you that's never goin' to hurt Tammany with the
people. Every good man looks after his friends, and any man who doesn't isn't likely to be
popular...
Tammany was beat in 1901 because the people were deceived into believin' that it
worked dishonest graft. They didn't draw a distinction between dishonest and honest
graft, but they saw that some Tammany men grew rich, and supposed they and been
robbin' the city treasury or levyin' blackmail on disorderly houses, or workin' in with the
gamblers and lawbreakers.
As a matter of policy, if nothing else, why should the Tammany leaders go into
such dirty business when there is so much honest graft lyin' around when they are in
power? Did you ever consider that?
Source: William A. Riordan, Plunkitt of Tammany Hall, (New York: Alfred A. Knopf,
1948), pp. 3-4.
MAJOR PROGRESSIVE ACHIEVEMENTS, 1900-1920
1901 Acting under the Forest Reserve Act, President Theodore Roosevelt withdrew
150,000,000 acres of public timber land for sale in six western states and created
the first National Forests.
1902 Maryland passed the first workmen's compensation law. It made the employer
liable for injuries suffered by employees.
1903 The Elkins Act declared railroad rebates illegal.
Oregon adopted the Initiative, Recall, and Referendum.
Wisconsin adopted the direct primary.
1904 U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Northern Securities Company v. United States that
the Northern Securities Trust is a combination in restraint of trade. President

Theodore Roosevelt initiated the suit, the first under the provisions of the Sherman
Anti-Trust Act.
New York limited child labor and enacted the first statues to limit hours and insure
safe working conditions for women.
1906 The Hepburn Act enlarged the Interstate Commerce Commission and gave it the
power to reduce unreasonable or discriminatory railroad rates.
The Meat Inspection Act passed.
The Pure Food and Drug Act passed, creating the Food and Drug Administration
(FDA).
1910 The Mann-Elkins Act abolished long and short haul railroad rates.
1911

President William Howard Taft brought suit against the Standard Oil Trust and the
American Tobacco Trust. Both were declared illegal by the U.S. Supreme Court.

1913 Sixteenth Amendment authorized a federal income tax.
Seventeenth Amendment allowed the direct election of U.S. Senators by popular
vote.
Federal Reserve Act created the Federal Reserve Banking System.
1914 The Clayton Act established a Federal Trade Commission to prevent unfair
methods of competition including interlocking directorates, price fixing, and
pooling arrangements. It also made corporate officers liable for illegal acts.
1920 Nineteenth Amendment gave women the right to vote.
LOUIS BRANDEIS INDICTS INTERLOCKING DIRECTORATES
Louis D. Brandeis, who in 1914 was an attorney for the Pujo Committee which
investigated the "money trust" and who would later become a U.S. Supreme Court
Justice, describes the interlocking banking directorates which controlled the largest
American corporations.
The practice of interlocking directorates is the root of many evils. It offends laws
human and divine. Applied to rival corporations, it tends to the suppression of
competition and to violation of the Sherman [anti-trust] laws. Applied to corporations
which deal with each other, it tends to disloyalty and to violation of the fundamental law
that no man can serve two masters. In either event it tends to inefficiency; for it removes
incentive and destroys soundness of judgment. It is undemocratic, for rejects the
platform: "A fair field and no favors," substituting the pull of privilege for the push of

manhood. It is the most potent instrument bankers over railroads, public-service and
industrial corporations, over banks, life- insurance and trust companies, and long step
will have been taken toward attainment of the New Freedom.
A single example will illustrate the vicious circle of control-the endless
chain-through which our financial oligarchy now operates:
J. P. Morgan (or a partner), a director of the New York, New Haven & Hartford
Railroad, causes that company to sell to J. P. Morgan & Co. an issue of bonds. J. P.
Morgan & Co. borrow the money with which to pay for the bonds from the Guaranty
Trust Company, of which Mr. Morgan (or a partner) is director. J.P. Morgan & Co. sell
the bonds to the Penn Mutual Life Insurance Company, of which Mr. Morgan (or a
partner) is director. The New Haven spends the proceeds of the bonds in purchasing
steel rails from the United States Steel Corporation, of which Mr. Morgan (or a partner) is
a director. The United States Steel Corporation spends the proceeds of the rails in
purchasing electrical supplies from the General Electric Company, of which Mr. Morgan
(or a partner) is a director. The General Electric sells supplies to the Western Union
Telegraph Company, a subsidiary of the American Telephone and Telegraph Company;
and in both Mr. Morgan (or a partner) is a director.
Source: Louis D. Brandeis, Other People's Money, (New York: Harper and Row, 1914),
pp. 51-53.
MAJOR U.S. CORPORATIONS, 1917, 2002
1917
2002
Assets in
Assets in
Rank
Millions of Dollars Rank
Millions of Dollars
1. U.S. Steel
2,449
1.
General
Electric
326,500
2. Standard Oil of N.J.
574
2.
Microsoft
301,000
3. Bethlehem Steel
382
3.
ExxonMobil
286,300
4. Armour and Company
314
4.
Wal-Mart
256,500
5. Swift and Company
306
5.
Citigroup
233,800
6. Midvale Steel
270
6.
Pfizer
233,300
7. International Harvester
265
7.
Intel
201,800
8. E.I. du Pont
263
8. Johnson and Johnson
194,300
9. U.S. Rubber
258
9. American Int. Group
182,100

10. Phelps Dodge
11. General Electric
12. Anaconda Copper
13. Am. Smelting
14. Standard Oil of N.Y.
15. Singer Manufacturing
16. Ford Motor
17. Westinghouse Electric
18. American Tobacco
19. Jones & Laughlin Steel
20. Union Carbide

232
151,500
232
137,400
226
128,600
222
116,900
204
115,200
193
114,400
170
113,700
165
111,800
162
109,100
160
108,600
156
108,000

10.

IBM

11.

Coca-Cola

12.

Merck

13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

Phillip
Proctor
Royal

&

Dutch
Home

Bank

20.

Gamble
Petroleum
Depot

of

18.
19.

Morris

America
Cisco

Verizon

Communications

Berkshire

Hathaway

WARTIME HYSTERIA
It has been suggested that World War I destroyed the Progressive Movement by
diverting the nation's attention from political and economic reform to winning the
conflict with Germany. Certainly the intense anti-German wartime propaganda
convinced many Americans that the Kaiser was to be feared far more than the trusts.
The passage below is an example of that propaganda.
Let us set down sternly that we are at war with the Germans, not the Junkers
[German aristocrats], not autocracy, not Prussianism, not the Kaiser...The German people
is what we war with. The German people is committing the unspeakable horrors which
set the whole world aghast. The German people is not and has not been conducting war.
It is and has been conducting murder. Hold fast to that. The Supreme Court of New York
declared the sinking of the Lusitania an act of piracy. Piracy is not war. All decencies,
honors, humanities, international agreements, and laws have been smashed by them day
and night from the first rape of Belgium to now. The new atrocity which appeared this
week was spraying prisoners with burning oil. This is Germany's most recent jest. It
makes them laugh so!
They have violated every treaty with the United States; they have lied from start to
finish and to everybody. A treaty was a scrap of paper....
Germany has ravished the women of Belgium, Serbia, Romania, Poland, Armenia.
Germany murdered the passengers of the Lusitania and struck a medal to celebrate that
German triumph, dating it two days before the horrible occurrence. Germany has ruined

cathedrals and cities in sheer wanton fury, in such fashion as has not been done in all the
wars wages in Europe since the days of the building of the cathedrals. Germany has
poisoned wells, crucified inhabitants and soldiers, burned people in the houses, and this
by system. Germany has denatured men and boys, has wantonly defaced the living and
the dying and the dead. An eye-witness tells of seeing women dead at a table with their
tongues nailed to the table and left to die.
Germany has disclosed neither decency nor honor from the day it started war, nor
has a single voice in Germany to date been lifted up against the orgies of ruthlessness
which turn the soul sick and which constitute the chief barbarity of history. Germany
remains unblushing and unconscious of its indecency. Germany's egotism still struts like
a Kaiser. And to climax its horrid crimes, Germany has inflicted compulsory polygamy on
the virgins of its own land.
Source: Thomas A. Bailey and David M. Kennedy, The American Spirit, Vol. II, Boston,
Mass.: D. C. Heath and Company, 1984), pp. 663-665.
THE FIRST RED SCARE, 1919-1920
The following vignette describes the role of Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer in
orchestrating the first Red Scare in 1919 and 1920.
...The spotlight suddenly shifted to Attorney-General A. Mitchell Palmer. A Quaker
with a long record of support for progressive legislation, Palmer had been [President
Woodrow] Wilson's floor manager in 1912. Regarded by many as the father of women's
suffrage and the child labor law a strong advocate of the League of Nations, Palmer was
the prototype of the Wilsonian liberal. The Democratic party's contact man with labor in
the 1916 campaign, Palmer was appointed Attorney-General partly because of his
popularity with labor and the foreign-born. Yet no sooner had he been sworn into office
in March, 1919, he started a campaign against enemy aliens. After the June 2 [Wall
Street] bombings he hired William J. Flynn, reputedly an expert on anarchism, and asked
for and received a $500,000 increase in his budget in order to combat radicalism. In
August he set up an antiradical division in the Department of Justice under J. Edgar
Hoover.
On November 7 the first of the Palmer raids began, with the arrest of 250 members
of the Union of Russian Workers in a dozen cities; many were roughly handled,
particularly in New York City, where they were beaten by the police. Most of the
prisoners were released with "blackened eyes and lacerated scalps," the New York Times
reported. Only 39 men were recommended for deportation. On December 21, 1919, 249
aliens, most of whom had no criminal record and had committed no criminal offense,
were deported to Russia on an army transport, the "Buford." Although the country was
worried about a Bolshevik conspiracy, few of the people deported were Communists;
most of them were anarchists, including Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman...who
had no intention of ever using violence.
Palmer turned next to the Communists. Working with an agent in the Labor
Department, which had authority over deportations, Palmer in the last week of 1919
secured warrants for the arrest of more than 3,000 aliens who were members either of the

Although members of the legislature condemned Hughes as "disloyal" and "pro-German. Convinced that Palmer had been violating civil liberties.Communist party or the Communist Labor party. led by Secretary of Labor Wilson and Assistant Secretary Louis Post. Palmer invaded private homes. the antiradical campaign in New York reached its climax when the state legislature expelled five Socialist members of the Assembly. against dozens of aliens and by spring released nearly half of the men arrested in Palmer's January raids. if they were aliens. If the persons arrested were citizens they were turned over to state authorities for prosecution under antisyndicalist laws." the campaign against the radicals was dealt a heavy blow. Not only had a firm stand been taken on democratic principle. The raids yielded almost nothing in the way of arms and small results in the way of dangerous revolutionaries. but the idea that the New York legislature felt threatened by five Socialists made the Red Scare appear more than a little ridiculous. more than 4. the . perhaps at no time in our history. and denied food for 24 hours. denounced the action of the legislature. let his attempts to capitalize on the Red Scare get out of hand. and in New York City the entire police force of 11. chained together. Post cancelled action. had there been such a wholesale violation of civil liberties. In New England. forced to sleep on the bare floor of a corridor. held for a week in jail. Most effective was Charles Evans Hughes. they were held for deportation. although the Socialist party was a legally recognized party and the members were innocent of any offense. Directed by the irresponsible Lusk Committee. Not a shot was fired. including the Chicago Tribune and Senator Warren G. and meeting halls. Throughout the country. Early in 1920 an insurrection against Palmer in the Labor Department. Buildings were placed under guard. and subjected to kangaroo trials. The beginning of the end came in New York State. hundreds of people were arrested who had no connection with radicalism of any kind. Not a bomb exploded. who not only reproached the legislature but offered the Socialists legal counsel. Palmer. May Day passed without a single outbreak of any kind. 300 people were arrested on false charges. Schwab was one) protested against the raids. The Red Scare ended almost as quickly as it began. Aided by court decisions which held that men could not be deported on evidence illegally obtained. As a result. turned deportation proceedings in a saner direction. state militias were called to the colors. 1920. Finally. In one city. government. only to be found innocent of any involvement in a revolutionary movement. People were held incommunicado." but when Post was hauled before a congressional committee. as a step toward overthrowing the U. newspapers and public figures. Harding of Ohio. denied counsel. 1920. In the end. On a single night in January.000 arrest warrants had been sworn out in late 1919. although 5. union headquarters.000 men was put on 24-hour duty.000 alleged Communists were arrested in a dramatic coast-to-coast raid in 33 cities. Not for at least half a century. Palmer demanded that Post be fired for his "tender solicitude for social revolution. In Detroit. Post insisted on giving aliens proper counsel and the right to fair hearings. seeking the 1920 presidential nomination. Although a few individuals (the steel baron Charles M. In April he issued a series of warnings of a revolutionary plot which would be launched on May 1.S. he made such an excellent presentation of his case that his critics were forced to back down. only a few more than 600 aliens were actually deported. Palmer emerged from the episode a national hero. prisoners were handcuffed. and marched through the streets. public leaders were given police protection.

country. Francis Townsend-Old Age Pension Union Senator Huey P. 1929 "bank holiday" relief anti-chain store movement "pump priming" Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) Works Progress Administration (WPA) Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA) Wagner Act. Source: William E. vexed at Palmer. Long-Share Our Wealth Society welfare state Cannery Workers and Farm Laborers Union (CWFLU) . Leuchtenburg. 1914-32 (Chicago. 1935 Eleanor Roosevelt Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) Dr. The Perils of Prosperity. 1933 Social Security Act. 1973). CHAPTER SEVEN: THE GREAT DEPRESSION AND THE NEW DEAL Terms for Week 7 Stock Market Crash. 7780. Congress now turned to an investigation not of the radicals but of Palmer. concluded he had cried wolf once too often. 1935 Glass-Steagall Act.

electric irons. as well as soap powders. hot-water taps. We have seen the evolution of shaving creams. or cleansing powders. heavy iron pots and skillets to be lifted. soft-coal cook-stove. dried fruit. lard. and there it is. He credits business and particularly advertising for this revolution. The cake was hard as Stonehenge. And not only toilet soap. Calkins's passage aptly describes what historians call the rise of consumer society which emerged in the 1920s just before the Great Depression. . dumped on a sheet of paper laid on the scales. scouring mops. coffee. reasonable in price. just as pure as Castile. Molasses and vinegar drawn from the wood. tinted to match the bathroom decorations if we prefer. the corners sharper than a serpent’s tooth. bought in bulk. metal-ring dishrags. vacuum cleaners. baked beans an eighteen-hour job. author of the 1928 bestseller. a reservoir at the back the only source of hot-water supply. about fifty years ago more or less. scooped out of open boxes or barrels. in short. crackers.. washing machines. Today we have a cake of toilet soap—a great many of them. kitchen cabinets—everything. oatmeal an overnight operation. 1937 Gone With the Wind War of the Worlds Mein Kampf Anne Morrow Lindbergh ADVERTISING AND CONSUMER SOCIETY In the following vignette Earnest Elmo Calkins. rice. pepper. butter and milk hung down the well by a string to keep them cold.. An iron. and between whiles the gallon measures standing around. dishes washed by hand. and when we want another cake we go to the nearest grocery or drug store. spices.exposed until sold. self-rising flours. pickles. sugar. salt. hog lard instead of vegetable shortening. in fact— just the right shape to fit the hand. aluminum cooking utensils. scented if we like. The amount of sheer drudgery that has been taken out of housekeeping in fifty years can be realized only by comparison. Business. saleratus instead of baking powder. safety razors. that constitutes the difference between our mothers’ kitchens and our wives’. laundry chips. describes how in two generations (1880-1920) manufactured goods and labor-saving devices revolutionized and modernized American households. by drawing the illuminating parallel. refrigerators. no wire brushes. and tooth pastes. mother used to buy a bar of Castile soap half a yard long and four inches square and saw it up into cakes an inch thick. When I was a boy. It took weeks of use to wear it down so that it comfortably fitted the hand. the green-painted iron pump in the wooden corner sink for cold drinking water from the pump outside. no device to alleviate the frightful labor—no rubber scrapers. or drying racks. to say nothing of the coalhod. the Civilizer.Republic Steel. vegetable shortenings.

In 1928 no one dreamed we were on the verge of a catastrophic depression. And anyway sensible conservative people did not believe in guaranteeing bank deposits. 223-224. There were a few stories and comments of an uneasy nature.” Better still. It was the end of a ten-year period which had shown the greatest increase in national income this country had ever known. The housemother became a miniature manufacturing plant before the food was ready for the family to eat. ed. take a modern housewife. If there is any way of judging the future by the past..—there are such even to-day. Put such a kitchen beside the one pictured in most advertisements selling kitchen equipment. 2 (New York: 1989). It was a penalty put on good bankers for the benefit of poor ones. In the beginning of 1929 national income was still going up in terms of the production of physical goods. Business the Civilizer (Boston. Clothes were washed with a rub-rub-rub that wore the zinc from the washboard." The note of hope was sounded everywhere in that New Year edition of the Times. 1928). Source: Ernest Elmo Calkins.733. But the stock market was up. except among the newly arrived foreign-born. Most people thought it was up permanently. To keep house with what was available half a century ago was an art handed down from generation to generation. THE STOCK MARKET CRASH The following vignette provides a description of the Stock Market Crash in October. She could not do in a week what my mother did every day of her toil-bound life. There was cleaning with no other implements but a rag. It has been twelve months of unprecedented advance. which happily has been lost. not the delicatessen and can-opener type.993. all of them rosy.385. but only a few. Marcus and David Burner. “How to Furnish the Ideal Kitchen. Food was unclean.. The New York Times wrote in its New Year's editorial of January I. And the preparation of meals was but a small portion of the housewife’s burden. one article told of the disappointing year which England had just gone through.proving the adage that molasses attracts more flies than vinegar. . It was an assault on free enterprise. this new year may well be one of felicitation and hopefulness. America Firsthand. reprinted in Robert D. pp. Between 1910 and 1919 the increase in the national income in terms of physical goods was about 10 per cent. There were many reasons for optimism so far as the real wealth of the country was concerned. Big businessmen made their usual yearly forecasts. It had been a glorious year. Stocks had made a gain of $11. vol.—and put her in an oldfashioned kitchen like that described above. or those complete ones shown in the housekeeping departments of the women’s magazines. a broom. and a turkey wing. who keeps her house and takes pride in it. there was no sponsor for its quality. and it came to the kitchen almost in a state of nature. but a real housekeeper. There was a story that the state guarantee of bank deposits in Nebraska was inadequate to meet the pressure of mounting bank failures. with only here and there a note of skepticism. For example. 1929. of wonderful prosperity--in this country at least. 1929: "But it will go hard to get people to think of 1928 as merely a 'dead past' which we must make haste to bury.

He shared with everyone else. They. The break came early in September. slipped into the offices of J. So did Albert H. There was a mid-month recovery. Steel. the market advanced. William Potter. including our best economists. head of the National City Bank. Mr. When stocks faltered in April. five and ten years ahead. flourished. opened at 315.. but stocks thrashed about getting nowhere. Wall Street was fully in accord with such sentiments. And the curve of increased production was going up at a more rapid pace than ever before. Toward 2:00 P. not the present. which had been as high as 261. a lack of vision with respect to the defects in our social organization. but it was the last gasp. and Eastman Kodak. American Telephone. was an engineer with an engineering mind. But he saw better than most old-fashioned businessmen and bankers the technical possibilities of an industrial revolution in methods of production which had begun in the nineteenth century and was moving toward fruition in the twentieth. and soon was down to 93. Wall Street seers regarded it as a "buying opportunity. the Dow-Jones industrials soared to 300. Came Thursday. We had practically doubled our national production of goods and services. By August the Dow Jones industrials hit 380. S. the old zip was lacking. who was then President. In coal mining and railroads the increase in output per manhour had not been so great but it was nevertheless large. you buy the future. October 24. and George F. But somehow. crashed through 200. known as the Morgan broker. was split five for one. A new school of economists argued that when you buy common stocks. like U. Morgan and Company. During May and June. formed a consortium to shore up the market. Liquidation increased. Steel. we appeared to the casual observer on New Year's Day of 1929 to be richer by many times than ever before in our history. he had informed the American people that they could expect two chickens in every pot and two cars in every garage as part of the normal standard of living for every family. with Thomas Lamont. Names like Auburn. Mitchell. Koister Radio--names you no longer hear of--flashed across the ticker tape.M. Pools worked valiantly. Richard Whitney. There was in that rally no hint that Whitney. bid 205 for Steel. Radio Corporation of America (RCA) went up to 500. of Morgan. March 4. Blue chips. Brokers' clerks worked long hours sending out margin calls. General Electric. Hoover. The market rallied. head of the Guaranty Trust. During the 1928 election campaign. Output per man-hour in manufacturing industries had doubled in the twenty years between 1909 and 1929. then vice- . and Seward Prosser. somewhere. Panic. P. of the First National Bank. stocks wavered. Baker. dropped to 283. Real wages had more than doubled since 1914. The "New Era" had arrived. As a result. 1929. head of the Bankers Trust.During the period from 1920 to 1929 the increase was 93 per cent. U. Since in the long run real wealth consists only in ability to produce goods and services. found Wall Street even more ebullient. Grigsby-Grunow. Charles E. Inauguration Day. head of the Chase National. which only a few weeks before sold above 400. on New Year's Day of 1929 both weekly cash wages and real wages were at the highest point in our economic history. About noon. but as Election Day approached. 1928. S. And when Hoover rolled in by twenty-one million votes to Al Smith's fifteen million. The Dow Jones industrials were up another 20 points. Wiggin. The first week in September stocks climbed to 381. We had become more efficient industrially than any other country in the world. reached alltime highs. opened at 205. Imaginative projections of earnings." And so it proved for a few months.

but. And how the high and mighty had fallen! American Can was down from 181 to 86. The climax came November 13. I am not going to stand for it. Came Black Tuesday. 215-217. General Motors from 72 to 36. and I was feeding them corn. would ultimately go to Sing Sing [Prison] for speculations as head of the firm of Richard Whitney and Company--a depression casualty. and by the time I got them to Chicago the price of cattle." Then I asked. 1929. an Oklahoma City newspaper editor. was not enough to even pay my expenses. Some time ago a cowman came into my office in Oklahoma City. and I [will] capture that with my men. 1919-1941 (New York. I finally accumulated two sections of land and a fine herd of white-faced Hereford cattle.410. The Aspirin Age. He was one of these double-fisted gentlemen. by God. describes to a Congressional committee the anger of farmers and ranchers over their economic plight in 1932. "Then what?" He said." meaning his cowboys. "I mortgaged my two sections of land." Continuing. "Who is going to make the revolution?" He said. A record 16." I asked what his share was and he said. Source: Thurman Arnold.7.. "The Crash—and What it Meant (1929)" reprinted in Isabel Leighton. The Big Bull Market was dead. ed. "because I know the inside and outside of it." I remarked that anybody could do that if he worked hard and did not gamble and used good management. and he said. and to-day I am cleaned out. And Coolidge-Hoover Prosperity was dead with it.president of the Exchange and subsequently its president. and by tending strictly to business. with the gallon hat and all. "If there are enough fellows with guts in this country to do like us. New York Central from 256 to 160. We have . We will cut the East off from the West. he said. "After the war. and munitions and rifles. p. "You do not know me from Adam's ox. I could not pay anything. United States Steel from 261 to 150.000 shares changed hands. October 28. considering the price of corn I had fed them. He said. RUMBLES OF REVOLUTION Oscar Ameringer. "We have got to have a revolution here like they had in Russia and clean them up. cattle began to drop. I came to this country without a cent. knowing my onions. Buy and sell orders piled into the Stock Exchange faster than human beings could handle them. He said. The ticker ticked long after trading closed. and everything else needed to supply a pretty good army. "I will capture a certain fort. "We will have 400 machine guns." I finally asked him. and I am going to do my share in it. tractors." I asked him what he was going to do about it. we will march eastward and we will cut East off. "What then?" He said. 1949). I know I can get in with twenty of my boys. The Dow-Jones average dropped to 198. I was independent. American Telegraph and Telephone (AT&T) from 304 to 97. so many batteries of artillery. "I just want to tell you I am going to be one of them." I rejoined.

As to "immediate relief.. if you like.S." That man may be very foolish. the cattle.. It is conservative to estimate that the problem of next winter's relief is a problem of caring for approximately 25. I have met these people virtually every day all over the country. but he is in dead earnest. Vol.. The number of persons totally unemployed is not at least 10." the first principle is that this nation. Unemployment has steadily increased in the U.one man of every four employable workers.000. the Italians. (Lexington. Taking account of the number of workers on part time.. this national Government. They say the only thing you do in Washington is to take money from the pockets of the poor and put it into the pockets of the rich.. THE UNEMPLOYMENT CRISIS Each of the two statements below reflect the gravity of the unemployment situation in 1932. The American Spirit.000.. the East has nothing but mortgages on our places. From Fortune Magazine. The Fortune Magazine article is perhaps most striking because it recognizes the grave threat to the social order if the millions of jobless become angry and violent.000.000.... then to Arkansas. pp. not a Socialist or a Communist. but lower than the German. I hear such remarks every day. Eleven million unemployed means 27. The first is from Fortune Magazine and the second is an excerpt from Franklin Roosevelt's campaign speech at Boston... I hope we may not have such. I have heard much of this talk from serious -minded prosperous men of other days. owes a positive duty that no citizen shall be permitted to starve.. We will show them what we can do..next winter will. since the beginning of the depression. This percentage is higher than the percentage of unemployed British workers…and higher than the French... but the danger is here. and the Canadian percentages...: D. I do not say we are going to have a revolution on hand within the next year of two.500. 1984).... he is hard-shelled Baptist and a hard-shelled Democrat. to build up on a basis of permanent employment. perhaps never. the total of those without adequate income becomes 34. the corn. The number. but just a plain American cattleman whose ancestors went from Carolina to Tennessee. . and then to Oklahoma. second. Heath and Company.000.. II. And it is not necessary to appeal.000 souls. 739-740.be 11. September 1932 We have two problems: first.to class fear in order to point out that there is a limit beyond which hunger and misery become violent. ed.000 whose regular source of livelihood has been cut off. Source: Thomas A. They say that this Government is a conspiracy against the common people to enrich the already rich.. to meet the immediate distress.got the granaries.000... Bailey and David Kennedy.. C. and I think he is.000 or better than a quarter of the entire population. Mass. we have the hogs.

the economic crisis reached into their lives as well. A couple of husky freshmen at West Virginia University who probably didn't know the difference between a casserole and a wash tub when they left home. mail carriers. Third.. As a result. The large gasoline station at which he is a night attendant has been robbed three times by gunmen. From Franklin D. secretaries. A student at Western Reserve University. janitors. and unemployment reserves. Joe College and Betty Co-ed are getting educated in spite of technological unemployment.. the Federal Government should expedite the actual construction of public works already authorized. . collegians are now acting as night watchmen..615.. You and I know that in the national forests. locker room attendants. Eight boys at the University of Washington are getting their meals at very small cost by cooking them in a basement and "taking in" several other students as boarders.. This account from a 1933 article. 1989). The University of Pennsylvania took action at the start of the present school year to turn over as many campus jobs as possible to students. Campaign Address in Boston. combed and manicured. Roosevelt. Cleveland. the Federal Government should and must provide temporary work whenever that is possible. in that larger field that looks ahead. tens of thousands. illustrates the creative ways they responded to economic adversity. The National Experience: A History of the United States (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. COLLEGE STUDENTS AND THE GREAT DEPRESSION While few could argue that college and university students were among those who suffered most during the Great Depression. impoverishment of agriculture and a general scarcity of cash. have been going to school on less than $1. switchboard operators. take him to their "plant" and return him all nicely bathed.. Bruno or Towser. and even hundreds of thousands of our unemployed citizens can be given at least temporary employment.. the advance planning of public works.In addition to providing emergency relief. Finally. October 1932 Source: John M. pp.60 a week apiece by renting a back bedroom with a small stove in it and cooking cheap but nourishing foods. bank moratoria. For instance: Two male students at Ohio State University have started a "dog laundry. Blum. technicians and clerks. has been able to hold a comparatively lucrative position right through the depression because he is accustomed to hold-ups. we call for a coordinated system of employment exchanges. and on the development of waterway projects that have already been authorized and planned but not yet executed.. 614. on flood prevention." They call for Fido. Using their wits to earn money or cooking their own meals and living in shacks to save it. College students have probably developed more ingenious ways of betting the depression than any other group in America.

reprinted in David A. “Let me assert my firm belief that the only thing we have to fear is fear itself—nameless. 1933. They separated inside the Capitol.” The crowd stirred as if with hope. The colorless light of the granite skies merged with the emotionless faces of the people who stood in huddled groups. where a huge crowd. pp. quiet. “There is nothing more we can do. When the economic depression is finally over and commendations for valor are being passed around. administered the oath on a Dutch Bible which had been in the Roosevelt family for three hundred years. Then the new President turned to the crowd. Friday. Franklin Roosevelt. unreasoning. Shannon. somber. walked down a special maroon-carpeted ramp to the plat~ form. The Great Depression (Englewood Cliffs. quit a $100 a month job because it was keeping him from his studies.” the retiring President. On the drive to the Capitol the President-to-be was sociable and talkative. Source: Gilbert Love's "College Students Are Beating the Depression. erect in the chilly gusts of wind. started down the corridor toward the Senate ten minutes before noon. “We are at the end of our string. drawn almost by curiosity rather than by hope. The White House." The bugle blew at noon. gathered to watch the new President. unjustified terror which paralyzes needed efforts to convert retreat into advance.: 1960). THE NEW DEAL: THE FIRST HUNDRED DAYS In the account below historian Arthur Schlesinger describes both the transition of the presidency from Herbert Hoover to Franklin Roosevelt on March 4." School and Society XXXVII (June 10. weary and red-eyed. with only enough money to last until June if he spent but 35 cents a day for food. some sort of special recognition should be given to the student who. and microphones carried his words to millions across the land. said to his friends as the striking clock announced the day of his retirement. it was too early. could not conceal his bitterness. climbed on trees and rooftops in front of the Capitol. let a miner pay his daughter's tuition in coal this past winter. leaning on the arm of his son James." he laughed. Charles Evans Hughes.Officials of Carthage College. Winter clouds hung over the Capitol. The machinery of American capitalism had broken down. He was stopped. "we'll go back an wait some more.” . in Illinois. 1933). “In every dark hour of our national life a leadership of frankness and vigor has met with that understanding and support of the people themselves which is essential to victory. “Machine guns. "All right. The new President. “What are those things that look like little cages?” asked someone in the waiting crowd. and FDR's legislative agenda which was implement immediately after he took office. Across the country banks had shuttered their windows and closed their doors. ed.” Saturday dawned gray and bleak. 1933. sat on benches. the great depression had reached its symbolic climax.” replied a woman with a giggle. Herbert Hoover.000 fellow students in 20 minutes. March 3. midnight.J. N. 104-105. They are so numerous that they serve a meal to their 2. his face heavy and sullen.. At Notre Dame 300 students are earning their board by waiting on tables in the dormitory dining halls. waiting nervously in the Military Affairs Committee Room.

“This nation asks for action. "The thing that emerges most clearly. But the people as a whole welcomed the promise of action —action to exorcise the dark spell that lay over the nation's economy. proclaimed a four-day bank holiday. for all the audacity of his long-range plans. weary. ." he told newspapermen." wrote Edmund Wilson. Roosevelt himself had been impressed by the deathbed repentances. In their need they have registered a mandate that they want direct. His advisers were intent on restoring business confidence. The tired men at the Treasury took showers. . aimed at reducing government expenses and cutting veterans’ compensation. the President's intentions toward the banks were strictly conservative. On March 15 the Stock Exchange resumed. “We do not distrust the future of essential democracy. Phones rang incessantly with calls from distant cities. quickly dying away.The firm. late in the evening.” he said in summation. remained calm. . shaved. down from New York to report the occasion for the New Republic. They have made me the present instrument of their wishes. . Four days of tense. The crowd began to break up. a surge of deposits showed that the people were regaining their faith in the banking system. With Republican support and progressive opposition. 3. Leading bankers. Woodin left the White House with the emergency banking bill. As day was breaking on Thursday.. Congress passed the economy bill on March 15. and Secretary of the Treasury Woodin. . Some saw dismal portents in the eloquent but ambiguous phrases. The Republican holdovers at the Treasury stood by. The Senate took three hours. and act quickly. We must act and act quickly.2 beer on March 16. “The people of the United States have not failed. In the prevailing near-hysteria. to break through the magic circle which be-numbed the powers of government. and action now. curiously excited as it had not been an hour earlier. On March 12 he called for the legalization of beer. frightened and panicky. The House passed the bill in thirty-eight minutes. There was a diffused roar of applause. vigorous action. By now the banks were reopening. and endless conferences began. "is the warning of a dictatorship.. Later that same evening Roosevelt handed party leaders his economy bill. March 8. Roosevelt declared it wasn't necessary at all: "I've just had every assurance of co-operation from the bankers. strumming his guitar in moments of perplexity. resonant tone itself brought a measure of confidence. most of the Representatives had only the sketchiest idea what it was all about. who moved through turbulence in his own serene way. as he saw it. only the President." Congress met. and I'm finished too. Yet." "This NATION asks for action and action now. and turned to the frantic twenty-four-hour task of deciding what banks should reopen. it's finished. "Both bills are finished. They have asked for discipline and direction under leadership. "Yes. It may be that an unprecedented demand and need for undelayed action may call for temporary departure from that normal balance of public procedure. We must act. In the evening the President signed the act in the Oval Room. You know my name is Bill. who seemed to be exhilarated by crisis. .” Herbert Hoover stared glumly at the ground." The problem. converged on Washington. was to reopen the banks as quickly as possible. The next day the President convened a special session for March 9 and. When Senator LaFollette gave him a plan of drastic reform." That night the new cabinet was sworn in quietly at the White House.

p. 284-285. Home Owner's Loan Corporation (HOLC)--Grants low-interest loans to home owners in financial difficulty. Jr. Federal Housing Administration (FHA)--Insures private lending agencies against loss on home mortgage and home improvement loans. 275-277. 1935 Social Security Board (SSB)--Oversees the Social Security system. ed. National Youth Administration (NYA)--Provides job training for unemployed youth and part-time work for needy students. 1938 Federal Crop Insurance Corporation (FCIC)--Provides insurance protection .. Farm Credit Administration--Provides long and short term credit for farmers. Schlesinger. 1934 Federal Communications Commission (FCC)--Regulates radio. MAJOR NEW DEAL AGENCIES 1933 Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)--Insures deposits in the nation's banks.Source: Arthur M. 1937 Farm Security Administration (FSA)--Helps farmers purchase equipment. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)--Regulates stock market practices. 1919-1941 (New York. 1949). television. Works Progress Administration (WPA)--Provides work for needy persons on public works projects. The Aspirin Age. telephone and other communications systems. Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA)--Assists farmers with commodity price supports and regulates farm production. The First Hundred Days of the New Deal (1933) reprinted in Isabel Leighton. National Labor Relations Board (NLRB)--Settles disputes between unions and management. Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)--Responsible for providing electricity to the Tennessee Valley.. Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)--Provides work for unemployed youth in National Parks and National Forests.

and especially when the strong-arming became personal. and the Governor had struck back. Counterfeit.against unavoidable loss of crops. you watched a fellow reporter being hustled out of the Governor’s suite. And after Irby had told who he was. a fellow reporter was to have a gun thrust into his stomach as he sought to enter the elevator on which the mysterious Mr. Irby was being whisked away. through brawling campaigns. but only after his bodyguards had pinioned his attacker.. Afterwards. You interviewed him after he had precipitated a silly international incident by receiving a German admiral in disheveled green pajamas. Senator) of Louisiana who proposed a plan to "Share the Wealth" of the United States by excessively taxing the fortunes of American millionaires. managed by a. brawling legislative sessions. Reprinted below is an account of this "American dictator. the popular governor (and simultaneously U.The reporter had struck the Governor in retaliation for being cursed. in front of the microphone in the hotel headquarters. And then you testified in United States District Court that a telegram. who had been kidnapped by state police on the eve of an election because he had threatened to tell what he knew about his daughter and the Governor. HUEY LONG: AMERICAN DICTATOR President Franklin Roosevelt had challengers on the left and right..former shoe clerk who was now his paymaster and treasurer. That the scheme was impractical did little to diminish its popularity among many people impoverished by the Great Depression. ." For newspapermen. In a corridor of the garish Roosevelt Hotel. the city machine... those were..was this telegram which you had seen and read on a speaker’s stand in New Orleans on one of the last heated nights before election. while the bodyguards glowered protectively near by. . and you jotted down the incessant harangues against the lying newspapers. you marveled at his exoneration of the Governor.. as he slopped up great tablespoonfuls of cereal with a sidewinding sweep or tore broiled chicken to pieces with his fingers.S. thrust before a microphone. also absolving the Governor and purportedly coming from the mother of another kidnapping victim—the secretary’s ex-husband—was signed with the name she had borne before her second marriage.memorable days. endlessly.. in the corridor. One of those on the left was Huey Long. if only because the slugging of newspapermen didn’t seem justifiable even for vote getting. You didn’t like him. who employed her as his secretary. You stood beside his hotel dining table.. and the battered enemy politicians. 1940 Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB)--Regulates private and commercial aircraft. identify himself as Sam Irby. And so. brawls Such goings-on made of Louisiana a reportorial heaven. You heard a pale-faced man. and you laughed in spite of yourself at his shrewdly appealing account of his gaucherie. and speculated upon the reasons therefore. You were chased by militiamen across the parade grounds of Jackson Barracks in New Orleans and held a prisoner after you had sneaked in to discover whether the Governor was calling out the troops on the eve of the Senatorial election—in which the Governor was a candidate.

and when his. automobiles. The depression was rocking Louisiana. eaten. a homestead grant of $6.. a public utilities receipts tax. The public-works program went into high gear. the Louisiana Progress. took care to protect his rear. With a year and a half yet to serve as Governor.500 and a maximum of $1. and another twenty million dollars in assorted projects.Lieutenant Governor claimed the Governorship because of Long’s election to the Senate. theoretically up to two thousand dollars. Huey decided to run for the United States Senate with the state program as his platform.800. and put in the president pro tempore of the Senate as acting Governor. staffed it principally with skillful. degenerative series of special sessions in 1934 and 1935.. but with a minimum of ten to be sold. conscienceless young newspapermen. the number of subscriptions depending upon the size of their salaries.000 to $2.. "Every Man a King. slugging bodyguards. Public works meant needed jobs. Huey called out the state police and the National Guard. The first program was followed by a second and more ambitious one: a sixtyeight-million-dollar highway construction project. He established a weekly newspaper. the votes of the aunts and uncles and cousins and wives and children of job holders who made it clear to their relatives that their fifteen to thirty dollars a week was secure only so long as they could prove their loyalty with political performance. In a spectacular. old-age pensions. an annual income minimum of $2.. The hazy concept of a national redistribution of wealth. a debt moratorium act. read the Lieutenant Governor out of office. No matter that the Share Our Wealth program was demonstrably impracticable as presented. his legislature reduced Louisianans almost literally to the status of Indian wards. In 1934 Long formalized the program which he hoped would eventually win him the Presidency. all to be financed by an additional three-cent hike in the gasoline tax. radios. It was believable: a limitation of fortunes to $5. expanded now to the American Progress. The Share Our Wealth members had their own catchy song. abolition of the one-dollar poll tax. took definable shape in a national “Share Our Wealth” organization. The voters of the nation’s most illiterate state could understand its cartoon obscenities even when they couldn’t spell out the text..000.Louisiana’s frightened. an attempted “two cents a lie” tax on the advertising receipts of the larger newspapers. a five-million-dollar skyscraper capitol. the mudslinging Louisiana Progress. Huey won hands down. No dues were necessary." their own newspaper. vengeful Governor surrounded himself with a half-dozen gun-ready. an abundance of cheap food through governmental purchase and storage of surpluses. And the administration could count on at least five votes for each employee. free education from kindergarten through college. No opponent big enough to be worthy of notice escaped its libeling. and sicked it on his enemies. As the Share Our Wealth chorus swelled. State employees found it good insurance to subscribe to the Progress. Together with this final elimination of. or used as wallpaper.. bonuses for veterans. like a wise military tactician. presented fifteen years before by the obscure state Senator from Winn Parish.000. which the United States Supreme Court pronounced unconstitutional.000. and new taxes—an income tax.000 for every family. and with the opposition organizing against the program. .democratic self-government—to the unconcern of a majority of the unconsulted electorate—came new benefits: homestead tax exemption. Huey.

In July.trying to decide what to do for the next state campaign. accompanied by his closest aides and bodyguard. American Exodus. sole custody over the ballot boxes themselves. I was at that meeting. many others. the assassin lay dead. concealed in the meeting room. It is perhaps a corollary that in the last year of his life Long became obsessed with a fear of assassination. describes the so-called "Dust Bowl" migration which brought 250. 1949). so that a misbehaving corporation or individual might know just who held the economic stranglehold. Huey Long: American Dictator (1935) reprinted in Isabel Leighton. was hatched in a New Orleans hotel at a gathering of his enemies. Source: Hodding Carter. The Aspirin Age. The "plotting" was limited to such hopefully expressed comments as "Good God. Seconds later. could have so completely surrendered a people’s political powers and economic and personal safety to one man. I wish somebody would kill the son of a bitch. a slender. and took other unusual precautions to insure his personal safety.. their number and the identity of the uninformed alike a secret. On the night of September 8. But Louisiana’s legislature did.. with appointive control over all fire and police chiefs. ed.000 Oklahomans. no matter how great the material rewards for its complaisant majority.. 353-56. Thirty hours later he died. his body and head riddled by sixty-one shots. in his book. bespectacled man in a white suit stepped from behind a marble pillar in the capitol as Long. The State Tax Commission was given the right to change any city or county tax assessment.[where] Huey had once been rotten-egged. hurried to the Governor’s office. he charged on the floor of the Senate that enemies had planned his death with “one man. 1919-1941 (New York. Arkansans and Missourians along Route 66 to California between 1935 and . Texans. he said. Dr... drew a small pistol and fired once. and one bullet” as the medium. It was a caucus of die-hard oppositionists. p.. and the privilege of designating as many “special deputies” as might be necessary to guard the polls. the man in the white suit. This plot.. CALIFORNIA DREAMING IN THE DEPRESSION University of Washington historian James Gregory. Carl Austin Weiss. 351-52. Administration-designated election supervisors were given the sole right of selecting voting commissioners. and with the promise of a Presidential pardon as the slayer’s reward. The Governor was even enabled to replace the entire city administration of Alexandria. But these are sufficient to indicate what had happened to self-government in Louisiana. There were other repressive measures. A dictograph. 339-40. in his stomach. An ironically designated civil service board was created.Perhaps it seems inconceivable that any legislature. Huey Long staggered away with one bullet wound. one gun.. The Governor could—and did—expand the state police force into a swarm of private agents.." And somebody did. He increased his armed bodyguard. some uniformed and some not. perhaps a second. had recorded the murderous conversation. and a school budget committee with the right to review the appointments of every school teacher and school employee. 1935. The State Attorney General was empowered to supersede any district attorney in any trial.

1940, and which was immortalized by the film, "The Grapes of Wrath." In the
following vignette Gregory shares the personal account of two of those migrants,
Lonnie Nelson and Flossie Haggard, mother of country music singer Merle Haggard.
Nelson: I've live in Oklahoma since I was eight years old, stayed on the farm till I
was sixteen. I went to railroadin' when I was 22. Come out durin' the big strike. I really
believe in the Union. I got married in 1922, 12th of July--six o'clock in the evening.
Then me and the bride went back to the farm, and stayed on the farm till '24. From that
I taken up ginnin' and concrete work 'cause the drought hit and wasn't makin'
nothing'...
I went back to the railroads in '26, with a different outfit and worked there till
'32... The second day of January '32 I got...laid off fer good... The only think to do was to
go back to the farm and stayed there one year. About this time, in '33, my wife was
operated on fer thyroid goiter. Then I worked on C.W.A. for one year buildin' and such
like as that.
In '34 I got a job with the Government killin' cattle. It lasted seven week and I
killed form 26 to 135 head a day... After that was over I picked up odd jobs till January of
'35 and went back to farmin'. The drought struck again in '35, and high waters come on
in the late fall. In other words, what the drought didn't git the high waters did. I was
overflowed five times in two months. A farmer can't stand the like of that. So there was
nothin' to do but throw up my tail and go back on relief. We all got hit and hit hard.
That was from '36 to '39, by gosh... So the 15th of January, 1940 we loaded up and come
out here, leavin a snow storm to our back, sunny California to our belly and here we are.
The good Lord is just lettin' me sit around the see what the hell will happen next.
Haggard: In July, 1935, we loaded some necessary supplies onto a two wheel
trailer and our 1926 model Chevrolet which Jim had overhauled. We headed for
California on Route 66, as many friends and relatives had already done. We had our
groceries with us--home sugar-cured bacon in a lard can, potatoes, canned vegetables,
and fruit. We camped at night and I cooked in a dutch oven. The only place we didn't
sleep out was in Albuquerque where we took a cabin and where I can remember
bathing.
[Things went well until the reached the desert and their car broke down]
We were out of water, and just when I thought we weren't going to make it, I saw
this boy coming down the highway on a bicycle. He was going all the way from
Kentucky to Fresno. He shared a quart of water with us and helped us fix the car.
Everybody'd been treating us like trash, and I told this boy, "I'm glad to see there's still
some decent folks left in this world.
Source: James Gregory, American Exodus: The Dust Bowl Migration and Okie
Culture in California (New York, 1989), pp. 31, 34.
PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT'S SECOND INAUGURAL ADDRESS
The worst of the crisis of the Great Depression had passed by the end of Roosevelt's
first term. His second term was then devoted to developing permanent reforms that

would prevent future depressions. In this excerpt from his Second Inaugural Address
on January 20, 1937, Roosevelt discusses the remaining challenges facing the nation.
I see a great nation, upon a great continent, blessed with a great wealth of natural
resources... I see a United States which can demonstrate that, under democratic
methods of government, national wealth can be translated into a spreading volume of
human comforts heretofore unknown, and the lowest standard of living can be raised far
above the level of mere subsistence.
But here is the challenge to our democracy: In this nation I see tens of millions of
its citizens--a substantial part of its whole population--who at this very moment are
denied the greater part of what the lowest standards of today call the necessities of life.
I see millions of families trying to live on incomes so meager that the pall of
family disaster hangs over them day by day.
I see millions whose daily lives in city and on farm continue under conditions
labeled indecent by a so-called polite society half a century ago.
I see millions denied education, recreation, and the opportunity to better their lot
and the lot of their children.
I see millions lacking the means to buy the products of farm and factory and by
their poverty denying work and productiveness to many other millions.
I see one-third of a nation ill-housed, ill-clad, ill-nourished.
Source: Richard Current, American History: A Survey, (New York: Knopf, 1961), p.
747.
THE NEW DEAL: OPPOSING VIEWS
The New Deal program of Franklin Roosevelt dramatically increased government
involvement in a wide range of economic and social activity. That heightened
involvement prompted a debate, which continues to this day, concerning the aims of
the New Deal and its impact on the citizens and institutions of the United States. I
have reprinted below two views of the New Deal.
Organized enterprise is obtaining an increasingly large proportion not only of
national income, but of all savings and of all wealth... Within the corporate structure
itself the concentration is progressing...
This amazing concentration of the corporate ownership of wealth has been
accompanied by a similar concentration of dividend distribution. The great and
powerful business organizations which dominate the economic scene are owned by a
numerically insignificant proportion of the total population... Less than 1% of all
American corporate stockholders are the beneficiaries of one-half of all the dividends
paid in this country...
As the concentration proceeds, the flow turns away from organized business to
government... The inevitable and inescapable result of continued concentration in big
business is the final triumph of big government...
If we are agreed...that we want to preserve free enterprise...it must be perfectly
clear that any remedy that does not stop the steady progress of concentration will be

utterly futile and will end only in an all-powerful government...
The only remedy to save a democratic economy is to be found in making the
economy democratic.
From the Final Report... of the Temporary National Economic Committee, 1941.
The New Deal is nothing more or less than an effort sponsored by inexperienced
sentimentalists and demagogues to take away from the thrifty what the thrifty or their
ancestors have accumulated, or may accumulate, and to give it to others who have not
earned it...and who never would have earned it and never will earn it, and thus
indirectly to destroy the incentive for all future accumulation. Such a purpose is in
defiance of everything that history teaches and of the tenets upon which our civilization
has been founded.
Nothing could threaten the race as seriously as this [the New Deal]. It is begging
the unfit to be more unfit. Even such a measure as old-age insurance...removes one of
the points of pressure which has kept many persons up to the strife and struggle of life.
Quoted in George Wolfskill, The Revolt of the Conservatives, 1962.
Source: John M. Blum, The National Experience: A History of the United States (New
York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1989), p. 629, 633.
EIGHT DEAD AT REPUBLIC STEEL
The following vignette describes the violent confrontation between Chicago police and
striking steelworkers at Republic Steel in 1937.
Republic Steel stood abrupt out of the flat prairie. Snakelike, the line of pickets
crossed the meadowland, singing at first: Solidarity forever! The union makes us strong,
but then the song died, as the sun-drenched plain turned ominous, as five hundred
blue-coated policemen took up stations between the strikers and the plant. The strikers'
march slowed, but they came on. The police ranks closed and tightened. It brought to
mind how other Americans had faced the uniformed force of so-called law and order so
long ago on Lexington Green in 1775; but whereas then the redcoat leader had said,
"Disperse, you rebel bastards!" to armed minutemen, now it was to unarmed men and
women and children that a police captain said, "You dirty sons of bitches, this is as far
as you go!"
Once there was an illusion somewhere that the police were gentle souls who
helped lost children, but a striker put it afterwards: "A cop is a cop, that's all. He's got
no soul and no heart for a guy who works for a living. They learned us good.
About two hundred and fifty yards from the plant, the police closed in on the
strikers. Billies and clubs were out already, prodding, striking, nightsticks edging into
women's breasts and groins. But the cops were also somewhat afraid, and they began to
jerk guns out of holsters.
"Stand fast! Stand fast!" the line leaders cried. "We got our rights! We got our

legal rights to picket!"
The cops said, "You got no rights. You red bastards, you got no rights."
Even if a modern man's a steelworker, with muscles as close to iron bands as
human flesh gets, a pistol equalizes him with a fat-bellied weakling... Grenades began to
sail now; tear gas settled like an ugly cloud. Children suddenly cried with panic, and the
whole picket line gave back, men stumbling, cursing, gasping for breath. Here and there
a cop tore out his pistol and began to fire; it was pop, pop, pop at first, like toy favors at
some horrible party, and then, as the strikers broke under the gunfire and began to run,
the contagion of killing ran like fire through the police.
They began to shoot in volleys at these unarmed men and women and children
who could not strike back or fight back. The cops squealed with excitement. They ran
after fleeing pickets, pressed revolvers to their backs, shot them down, and then
continued to shoot as the victims lay on their faces, retching blood. When a woman
tripped and fell, four cops gathered above her, smashing her flesh and bones and face.
And so it went, on and on, until seven were dead and more than a hundred
wounded.
Source: Howard Fast, "An Occurrence At Republic Steel (1937)" reprinted in Isabel
Leighton, ed., The Aspirin Age, 1919-1941 (New York, 1949), pp. 386-387.
ORGANIZING A FILIPINO UNION
In contrast to other Asian Americans who looked to entrepreneurship for economic
development, many Filipino Americans believed that working-class organizations such
as unions would provide economic security. One of the most effective of these unions
was the Cannery Workers and Farm Laborers Union (CWFLU), Local 18257, a
predominately Filipino Union organized in Seattle in 1933. A brief account of the union
appears below.
Not until the winter of 1932 did efforts at unionization among Filipino salmoncannery hands in the Pacific Northwest begin. Pence Torres recalled that only "a few
people (met) to plan something to improve ourselves." They congregated in secret for fear
of reprisals by contractors and canners. Torres explained that they could not "possibly get
many people at one time...We have to do it between school days." Planning around
school schedules indicated the central role played by students in the effort. More than
Filipinos, students felt the constraints on their expectations for social mobility during the
depression, which explains their interest in changing the labor recruitment and
management practices in the industry. Nonetheless, this early cabal barely included a
dozen members.
The small group of planners concluded that "the only solution to the problem is to
be organized," and in June 1933 they held a special public meeting of the Filipino
Laborers' Association to discuss affiliation with the American federation of Labor (AFL).
The "big crowd" of seven Filipino union officers and nineteen others listed to C.W. Doyle
of Seattle's Central Labor Council, carefully discussed the issue, and voted in favor of
affiliation. On June 19, 1933, the Filipinos entered the AFL as the Cannery Workers and
Farm Laborers Union (CWFLU), Local 18257.
Although the reasons for AFL

endorsement of the local are unclear, CAWIU successes in organizing California field
laborers may have jolted the AFL into action to head off what it perceived as a
communist-led insurgency.
The newly affiliated local stressed goals that revealed the barriers to be overcome if
the workers were to improve their condition. The union pledged to foster the attainment
of higher skills and efficiency among its members. Although unions invariably used such
language, Filipinos did need to cultivate their canning expertise in order to make possible
their movement into the specialized tasks monopolized by Chinese and Japanese. The
local also proposed shorter working hours, which would either bring greater overtime pay
in rush periods or force the hiring of larger crews and thus provide more jobs for
unemployed Filipinos.
To achieve its goals, the local also had to unite a divided Filipino community. This
proved no easy task. In Seattle, for example, most Filipino immigrants were Ilocanos, but
the community also had Tagalogs, Pangasinans, and Visayans--each group with its own
dialect--as well as other ethnic associations. In 1923 Tagalogs in Seattle had founded a
branch of the Caballeros Dimas Alang (its title originating from revolutionary Jose Rizal's
pen name). In that political, nationalistic, and self-help organization, members
conducted rituals and secret meetings in Tagalog to the exclusion of other groups. Not
every Filipino association was based on ethnicity, however. In the late 1920s, students at
the University of Washington had formed a Filipino Club that fostered their academic
pursuits, helped with their social lives, and provided economic assistance. Contractors
helped raised money to run the club, and they used that connection as an avenue to a
labor supply. Small-group activity was symptomatic of the factions among Filipino
immigrants. The manner in which Filipinos entered and worked in the industry further
heightened their reliance on such groups.
Before the depression, the use of family, friendship, and ethnic networks to gain
employment had its advantages for Filipinos, who faced a Chinese and Japanese oligarchy
over labor recruitment and management in the industry. That strategy also helped at the
plants where Filipinos worked in the small groups characteristic of their immigration.
Sylvestre A. Tangalan explained that at the cannery where he worked: "We were happy,
mostly Bauanganians," fellow villagers from La Union. Segregation at the cannery
reinforced, rather than destroyed, Filipino ethnic and immigrant ties...
To compete with the contractors and aspirant agents even more successfully, the
CWFLU adopted a series of social welfare programs for members. It gave $50 to a
Filipino-owned cafe in exchange for the restaurateur's providing meals to "indigent active
members." The local also loaned money to members. In 1935, for example, it approved a
$50 loan to a Filipino who a year earlier had supported the local's efforts in a farm
workers' strike near Seattle. Such actions helped members avoid indebtedness to
contractors and encouraged nonunion Filipinos to think seriously about joining.
Allocation of the local's financial resources, for any purpose other than supporting
cannery organization, however, led to charges of favoritism and misuse of union funds.
In spite of the charges, the local's efforts to provide meals and money for some of its
members reveal that some money was returned to the rank and file.
As the union's membership grew to several hundred in the first few years, it
created its own job ladder, separate from that of the existing hierarchy of cannery tasks.
At first, titles were awarded as recognition of service to the union and carried status only.
Financial stability soon allowed the local to pay its officers for their contributions. The

$40. I achieved an. $80. for the rest of the world nearly twenty years later. It gave to the Philippine American Chronicle a 4 percent interest loan as well as gifts of cash. Source: Chris Friday.. Virgil Dunyungan and Cornelio Mislang. vice-president. 144-145. the psychological effect can be calculated with precision. $40. $20. and on the occasion of mass demonstrations will always be successful unless opposed by equal terror. but from life.salaries for 1935 reveal the significance of income from a union position relative to the average cannery worker's $25-$50 a month during the canning season. only Pio De Cano took up broader community concerns. The local also became politically active in an attempt to achieve recognition as the voice of the Filipino community.. the local's records indicate no activity concerning the Tydings-McDuffie Act (1934). (Philadelphia 1994). $60. pp. especially when they voted raises for themselves. Elsewhere.' Those ideas would take tragic form for Germans. trustees.. Here. not from books. 1870-1942. The local also cultivated community support through its public relations efforts. Also. $40. were the publishers. In 1935 the local sent a three-person delegation to Olympia to fight against antimiscegenation bills in the Washington state legislature. too. In return. guide. Their salaries also touched off resentment. it also fostered deeper divisions because the other major newspaper. the Chronicle became for all practical purposes the local’s official organ. $20. treasurer. AND THE MASTER RACE Hitler in Mein Kampf. the local protested a Washington state bill that would prevent Filipino immigrants from owning or leasing lands because of their newly acquired "alien" status under the Tydings-McDuffie Act. This was no great concession for the paper because two officials of the local. guard. The impression made by such a success on the minds of the great masses of supporters as well as opponents can only be measured by those who know the soul of a people. HITLER'S VIEWS: TERROR. the Philippine Advocate. While the local's involvement with the Chronicle gave it a wider voice within the community. Terror at the place of employment. Organizing Asian American Labor--The Pacific Coast CannedSalmon Industry. secretary.. challenging in state courts the application of anti-alien land laws to Filipino immigrants between 1937 and 1941. For while in the ranks of their supporters the . The CWFLU did get involved in at least two other legislative actions at he state level. Thereafter. in the meeting hall. lined up against the local and the Chronicle and was backed by Ayamo's Filipino Protective Labor Association. Among contractors. for Europeans.understanding of the importance of physical terror toward the individual and the masses. 136-137. Its appearance at the NRA code hearings marked it as an early advocate for the Filipino community. which proposed eventual independence for the Philippines but also convinced stringent immigration restrictions. lays forth his ideas on terror and about a `Master Race. Such highly visible political lobbying enhanced the local's status in the Filipino community. in 1937. The CWFLU monthly salary scale for officers was: president. the CWFLU asked for a regular labor column in the paper. in the factory.

. I began to see Jews.. could simply not be talked away. There were few Jews in Linz. When I recognized the Jew as the leader of the Social Democracy. Not until my fourteenth year did I begin to come across the word `Jew. Today it is difficult. was my first thought. Anyone who dares to lay hands on the highest image of the Lord commits sacrilege against the benevolent creator of this miracle and contributes to the expulsion from paradise. (Boston. Mein Kampf. In the course of the centuries their outward appearance had become Europeanized and had taken on a human look. the dark veils of an age without culture will again descend on this globe. in fact. 1971). partly in connection with political discussions... Then I came to Vienna. the more indulgent I grew toward all the hundreds of thousands who succumbed to it. Once.. In a short time I was made more thoughtful than ever by my slowly rising insight into the type of activity carried on by the Jews in certain fields. If he dies out or declines. The undermining of the existence of human culture by the destruction of its bearer seems in the eyes of a folkish philosophy the most execrable crime. I even took them for Germans. I gradually became aware that the Social Democratic press was directed predominately by Jews. In Mein Kampf he describes his evolving anti-Semitism. principally with the methods of physical terror. particularly in cultural life. We all sense that in the distant future humanity must be faced by problems which only a highest race. artistic trash. Source: Adolf Hitler. and theatrical idiocy can be set to the account of a people.. 383-384. for me to say when the word `Jew' first gave me ground for special thoughts. Is this a Jew?. yet I .. the more sharply they became distinguished in my eyes from the rest of humanity. Is this a German? Wherever I went. I suddenly encountered an apparition in a black caftan and black hair locks. if not impossible. as I was strolling through the Inner City. Human culture and civilization on this continent are inseparably bound up with the presence of the Aryan. pp. Particularly the Inner City and the districts north of the Danube Canal swarmed with a people which even outwardly had lost all resemblance to Germans. without at least one Jew involved in it? The fact that nine tenths of all literary filth.victory achieved seems a triumph of the justice of their own cause. HITLER AND THE JEWS Adolf Hitler's racial attitudes reflected longstanding European prejudices but they also helped determine the specially horrendous character of the Nazi state. constituting hardly one hundredth of all the country's inhabitants.. The more familiar I became.. Was there any form of filth or profligacy. and the more I saw. the defeated adversary in most cases despairs of the success of any further resistance.' with any frequency. it was the plain truth. A long soul struggle had reached its conclusion.. the scales dropped from my eyes. 44. will be equipped to overcome. become master people and supported by the means and possibilities of an entire globe.

did not attribute any special significance to this circumstance, since conditions were
exactly the same in the other papers. Yet one fact seem conspicuous: there was not one
paper with Jews working on it which could have been regarded as truly national,
according to my education and way of thinking. From the publisher down, they were all
Jews.
I took all the Social Democratic pamphlets I could lay hands on and sought the
names of their authors: Jews. I noted the names of the leaders; by far the greatest part
were likewise members of the `chosen people,' whether they were representatives in the
Reichsrat or trade-union secretaries, the heads of organizations or street agitators....One
thing had grown clear to me: the party with whose petty representatives I had been
carrying on the most violent struggle for months was, as to leadership, almost exclusively
in the hands of a foreign people; for, to my deep and joyful satisfaction, I had at last come
to the conclusion that the Jew was no German.
Source: Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf, (Boston, 1971), pp. 51-61.
GERMANY UNDER THE NAZIS
William L. Shirer, an American correspondent assigned to cover Germany and central
Europe for CBS News during the 1930s, has provided a revealing glimpse of life in
Germany under the Nazi Party. Here are excerpts of his Berlin Diary.
Paris, June 30, 1934
Berlin was cut off for several hours today, but late this afternoon telephone
communication was reestablished. And what a story! Hitler and Goring have purged the
S.A., shooting many of its leaders. Rohm, arrested by Hitler himself, was allowed to
commit suicide in a Munich jail... The French are pleased. They think this is the
beginning of the end for the Nazis.
Paris, August 3
Hitler did what no one expected. He made himself both President and
Chancellor.... Hitler had the army swear an oath of unconditional obedience to him
personally.
Nuremburg, September 4
Like a Roman emperor Hitler rode into this medieval town at sundown today past
solid phalanxes of wildly cheering Nazis... Tens of thousands of Swastika flags blot out the
Gothic beauties of the place... The streets are a sea of brown and black uniforms.
Nuremburg, September 5
I'm beginning to comprehend some of the reasons for Hitler's astounding success.
Borrowing a chapter from the Roman church, he is restoring pageantry and color to the
drab lives of 20th Century Germans. This morning's opening meeting in the Luitpold
Hall was more than a gorgeous show; it also had something of the mysticism of an Easter
Mass in a great Gothic cathedral. Even Hitler's arrival was made dramatic. The band
stopped playing. There was a hush over the 30,000 people packed in the hall. Hitler

appeared in the back of the auditorium and followed by his aides, he strode slowly down
the long center aisle while thirty thousand hands were raised in salute.
Nuremburg, September 6
Hitler sprang his Arbeitsdienst, his Labor Service Corps, on the public for the first
time today and it turned out to be a highly trained, semi-military group of fanatical Nazi
youths. Standing there in the early morning sunlight, fifty thousand of them, with the
first thousand bared above the waist, suddenly made the German spectators go mad with
joy when without warning, they broke into perfect goose-step. The boys formed an
immense chanting chorus─and with one voice intoned─"We want one Leader! Nothing
for us! Everything for Germany! Heil Hitler!
Bad Saarow, April 21, 1935
The hotel mainly filled with Jews and we are a little surprised to see so many of
them still prospering and apparently unafraid. I think they are unduly optimistic.
Berlin, April 20, 1937
Hitler's birthday. He gets more and more like a Caesar. Today a public holiday
with sickening adulation from all the party hacks, delegations from all over the Reich
bearing gifts, and a great military parade. The Army revealed a little of what it has: heavy
artillery, tanks, and magnificently trained men. Hitler stood on the reviewing stand as
happy as a child with tin soldiers, saluting every tank and gun. The military attaches of
France, Britain, and Russia, I hear, were impressed. So were ours.
Berlin, June 15
Five more Protestant pastors arrested yesterday. Hardly keep up with the church
war any more since they arrested my informant, a young pastor; have no wish to
endanger the life of another one.
Berlin, September 27
The strain on the life of the [German] people and on the economic structure of the
state is tremendous. Both may well crack. But the youth, led by the S.S., is fanatic. So are
the middle class "old fighters" who brawled in the streets for Hitler in the early days and
now have been awarded with good jobs, authority, power, money. The bankers and
industrialists, not so enthusiastic now as when I arrived in Germany, go along. They
must, It is either that or the concentration camp.
I leave Germany in this autumn of 1937 with the words of a Nazi marching song in
my ears:
Today we own Germany
Tomorrow the whole world
Vienna, March 22, 1938
On the streets today gangs of Jews, with jeering storm troopers standing over them
and taunting crowds around them, on their hands and knees scrubbing the Schuschnigg
[former Austrian Prime Minister] signs offs the sidewalks. Many Jews killing themselves.
Jewish men and women made to clean latrines. Hundreds of them just picked at random
off the streets to clean the toilets of the Nazi boys. The wife of a diplomat, a Jewess, told

me today she dared not leave her home for fear of being picked up and put to "scrubbing
things."
Rome, May 3
The town full of [detectives]─fifty thousand of them, they say, German and Italian,
to protect the two great men [Hitler and Mussolini]. All the foreign Jews here have been
jailed or banished for the duration of the visit. The Italians hardly hide their hostility to
the Germans. They watch them walk by, and then spit contemptuously.
__________________
Source: William L. Shirer, Berlin Diary, (New York, 1941), pp. 11-192.
JAPANESE FASCISM: ONE INSIDER'S VIEW
Saburo Ienaga, a political dissident in Japan during the 1930s and 1940s, provided this
description of Japanese fascism just before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor which
brought the United States into World War II.
Japanese fascism differed from its German and Italian counterparts. They were
broad movements from below. Charismatic leaders established dictatorial systems based
on mass organizations, the Nazi party and Fascist party. In Japan fascism was imposed
from above by the military and the bureaucrats, aided by their junior partners, the civilian
rightists (whose money came from secret army funds and similar covert sources). A "new
political structure movement" was planned and the Imperial Rule Assistance Association
(IRAA) was established in October 1940. It was not comparable to the mass parties of
Germany or Italy and was not very effective in organizing or mobilizing the populace. The
IRAA used local organizations such as the hamlet and village associations, neighborhood
associations, civil defense associations, and the reservist associations to constantly
interfere in the people's lives through ration distribution, air raid drills, official sendoffs
for draftees, and memorial services for war dead. These organizations got into the act by
forcing women to stop wearing long-sleeved kimonos and getting permanent waves, and
insisted that citizens put on the prescribed air raid "uniforms" of puttees and khaki caps
for men and monpe (women's work pants gathered at the ankle) for women.
The Nazis destroyed the Weimar Republic and established a dictatorship. No such
clear break with the past occurred in Japan. The Meiji Constitution was never revised or
suspended. The Diet was rendered impotent but it continued to exist. About the only
major legal shift was the 1938 enactment of the National Mobilization Law. Although
probably unconstitutional, its sweeping provisions broadened the state's administrative
authority, imposed new duties on the citizenry, and curtailed civil rights.
In January 1934 Army Minister Araki Sadao presented a study to Premier Saito
which shows the hawks' attitude toward civil liberties. Among Araki's recommendations
and proposals were the following about "controls on journalism and publication": "Direct
publishing activities so that they contribute to state prosperity, social order, the smooth
functioning of national life and to wholesome public entertainment; "Ban views which
would impair fundamental national policies"; "Tighten controls over rumors, gossip,
speech, and publications that would harm the state." On the "Purification of thoughts,"
Araki recommended: "Tighten controls over subversive organizations. The most severe

methods should be carried out by legal groups which disseminate anti-imperialist ideas...
Strengthen public unity for national mobilization by making participation in the
Reservists' Association and youth training mandatory and encouraging organizations
such as the...Boy Scouts, Patriotic Women's Association, National Defense Women's
Association, Red Cross Society..."
Source: Saburo Ienaga, The Pacific War: World War II and the Japanese, 1931-1945,
(New York, 1978), pp. 97, 112-113.
"THE WAVE OF THE FUTURE": AN AMERICAN SUPPORTS ISOLATION
In 1940 Anne Morrow Lindbergh, wife of the aviator Charles Lindbergh, wrote a book
titled, The Wave of the Future which called for continued American isolationism as
World War II spread across Europe. But she also reflected the views of millions of
Americans when she expressed her admiration for the major European dictatorships.
Lindbergh urged her countrymen to understand rather than oppose the dictatorships
because they were, in her words, "the wave of the future." Part of her comments are
reprinted below:
What was pushing behind Communism? What behind Fascism in Italy? What
behind Naziism? Is it nothing but a "return to barbarism," to be crushed at all costs by a
"crusade"? Or is some new, and perhaps even ultimately good, conception of humanity
trying to come to birth, often through evil and horrible forms and abortive attempts?... I
cannot see this war, then, simply and purely as a struggle between the "Forces of Good"
and the "Forces of Evil." If I could simplify it into a phrase at all, it would seem truer to
say that the "Forces of the Past" are fighting against the "Forces of the Future..."
Somehow the leaders in Germany, Italy and Russia have discovered how to use
new social and economic forces... They have felt the wave of the future and they have
leapt upon it. The evils we deplore in these systems are not in themselves the future; they
are scum on the wave of the future... There is no fighting the wave of the future, any more
than as a child you could fight against the gigantic roller that loomed up ahead of you.
Source: John M. Blum, The National Experience: A History of the United States, (New
York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1989) p. 656.
ROOSEVELT ON THE THREAT OF WAR
In 1940, after World War II had already broken out in Europe, President Franklin
Roosevelt began to psychologically prepare the United States for what he and a number
of Americans thought would be the inevitable clash with the Axis powers. Here is part
of his radio address on December 29, 1940.
My Friends:
This is not a fireside chat on war. It is a talk on national security... There is danger
ahead-danger against which we must prepare. But we well know that we cannot escape

danger, or the fear of danger, by crawling into bed and pulling the covers over our heads.
Some nations of Europe were bound by solemn non-intervention pacts with
Germany. Other nations were assured by Germany that they need never fear invasion...
As an exiled leader of one these nations said to me the other day-"The notice was given to
my Government two hours after German troops had poured into my country in a hundred
places."
There are those who say that the Axis powers would never have any desire to attack
the Western Hemisphere. The plain facts are that the Nazis have proclaimed, time and
again, that all other races are their inferiors and therefore subject to their orders. And
most important of all, the vast resources and wealth of this American Hemisphere
constitute the most tempting loot in all the round world.
The American appeasers ignore the warning to be found in the fate of Austria,
Czechoslovakia, Poland, Norway, Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, and France. They
tell you that the Axis powers are going to win anyway; that all this bloodshed in the world
could be saved; that the United States might just as well throw its influence into the scale
of a dictated peace, and get the best out of it that we can.
They call it a "negotiated peace." Nonsense! Is it a negotiated peace if a gang of
outlaws surrounds your community and on threat of extermination makes you pay
tribute to save your own skins?
With all their vaunted efficiency, with all their parade of pious purpose in this war,
there are still in their background the concentration camp and the servants of God in
chains.
The history of recent years proves that shootings and chains and concentration
camps are not simply the transient tools but the very altars of modern dictatorships. They
may talk of a "new order" in the world, but what they have in mind is only a revival of the
oldest and the worst tyranny. In that there is no liberty, no religion, no hope.
The proposed "new order" is the very opposite of a United States of Europe of a
United States of Asia. It is not a Government based upon the consent of the governed. It
is not a union of ordinary, self-respecting men and women to protect themselves and
their freedom and their dignity from oppression. It is an unholy alliance of power and
greed to dominate and enslave the human race.
We must be the great arsenal of democracy. For us this is an emergency as serious
as war itself. We must apply ourselves to our task with same resolution, the same sense of
urgency, the same spirit of patriotism and sacrifice as we would show were we at war.
Source: Howard Quint, Milton Cantor and Dean Albertson, Main Problems in
American History, (Chicago: The Dorsey Press, 1987) p. 262- 266.
MARTIAN INVASION, 1938
On October 2, 1938, Orson Wells, operating from a CBS studio called the Mercury
Theater of the Air, broadcast a simulated invasion of the earth by Martians based on
the H.G. Wells science fiction novel, War of the Worlds. The broadcast was so realistic
that millions of listeners believed it was an actual event. In the vignette, Charles
Jackson, an executive with CBS Radio, describes the radio broadcast and its impact.
Historians have suggested that the panic over the broadcast reflected actual fears of an

The opening announcement said: The Columbia Broadcasting System and its affiliated stations present Orson Welles and the Mercury Theater of the Air in The War of the Worlds. or what they were doing when they heard it. families fled their apartments in panic. For a few moments. Arriving at the office the next morning. (indeed. lay down on my bed. no dramatic program seemed to ensue. as if their personal reaction were more important than the event itself. more than twenty families rushed out of their homes with wet handkerchiefs and towels over their heads and faces. on Monday morning. "My God. In San Francisco. G. Then an announcer remarked that the program would be continued from a New York hotel. and the frightful Martians were even now moving westward. some to near-by parks. At Moments of crisis or disaster people are fond of telling where they were at the time. a terror-stricken parishioner rushed into the First Baptist . with dance tunes. A prosaic weather report was given instead. Then came a sudden break-in with a "flash" which declared dramatically that a professor had just noted from his observatory a series of gas explosions on the planet Mars. I was dumfounded—and somewhat ashamed for my fellow Americans—to discover that a national panic had been generated by the broadcast. In Newark. the landing of a meteor near Princeton.'s original at any point)—was up to one of his tricks. to find out how they could follow the broadcast’s advice and flee from the city. G. come to open hostilities against the inhabitants of the earth. The clever Welles—not H. to flee from what they believed to be a gas raid. by H. killing fifteen hundred persons—and then the discovery that it was no meteor at all but a metal cylinder containing Martian creatures armed with death rays. I went into the bedroom.impending Second World War. "where can I volunteer my services? We've got to stop this awful thing!" In Caldwell. my own story went something like this: My wife and I had returned from dinner in Greenwich Village. interspersed with "remotes": on-the-spot broadcasts of actual "scenes. G. but after a few moments. with the extraordinary technique which radio had long since perfected for news events. in a state of terror. and dialed WABC to see how the Orson Welles show was going. it seemed to me. October 3. New Jersey. As usual. he succeeded too well. the dramatization had little connection with H. Simulated news bulletins followed in rapid succession. New York was in the process of being destroyed. hundreds of others. Thus." roared one man into a phone." These reported brilliantly. New Jersey. one heard the music of a swing band. many to seek verification of the horrendous report. Sunday night's wave of mass hysteria took strange forms. while everybody in the radio business collected in excited knots to discuss the panic the country had been thrown into on the previous evening by the medium they worked in. Throughout New York City. But strangely. how they happened to hear the news. the general impression of listeners was that an overwhelming force had invaded the United States from the sky. the very grotesqueness of the broadcast soon caused me to lose interest—it outraged all my sense of belief. New Jersey. in a single block. Orson was presenting a dramatization of a book. Wells. 1938. and by eight-fifteen or so. I could not but admire Orson for the marvelous reality he was able to bring to such a fantastic story. I switched off the dial and took a nap.

I've always heard that when the world would come to an end. received the first alarming reports in a form indicating that a meteor had fallen near Dutch Neck. they came down unexpected. The Reverend Thomas attempted to quiet his congregation by leading them in prayer for deliverance from the catastrophe. Vernon." In Harlem. What they found was a group of excited natives. screaming. Arthur F. a bottle of poison in her hand.. We all felt the world was coming to an end.. for the meteor. the family decided to go out. "I'd rather die this way than like that!" Another man. some five miles away. So I ran out of the house. "Get gas masks!" That was the part that got me. I stood on the corner waiting for a bus and I thought every car that came along was a bus and I ran out to get it. Thirty men and women rushed into the West 123rd Street Police Station and twelve into the West 135th Street Station saying they had their household goods packed and were ready to quit Harlem if the police would tell them where to go to be evacuated. Men of science were not immune. called police to tell them that his brother. A man in Pittsburgh returned home in the midst of the broadcast and found his wife in the bathroom.. like themselves. The Germans are so smart they were in something like a balloon. I guess I didn’t know what I was doing. We took blankets and my granddaughter wanted to take the cat and the canary. and that North Jersey was threatened with annihilation. advising all citizens to leave the city. extreme panic was created. I couldn't make myself believe it was the end of the world. One man insisted he had heard "the President's voice" over the radio. New York. We felt it was terrible we should die so young. getting more and more excited. a detailed study of the entire panic and its effects was made by the Princeton Radio Project. Princeton University. chairman of the department of geology. it would come so fast nobody would know--so why should God get in touch with this announcer? When they told us what road to take and getup over the hills and the children began to cry. showering death and destruction. Later. One could hardly blame him. professor of geology. Dr. But I didn't know just what it was. It's a wonder my heart didn't fail me because I'm nervous anyway. for at a dramatic point in the broadcast the President's voice was exactly imitated by a Mercury Theater actor telling the listeners to do just that. a hopeless invalid. and when the balloon . in Mt. I thought I was going crazy. I kept saying over and over again to everybody I met: "New Jersey is destroyed by the Germans--it's on the radio! I was all excited and I knew that Hitler didn't appreciate President Roosevelt's telegram a couple of weeks ago.." A Negro housewife in Newark: "We listened. Buddington. They armed themselves with "the necessary equipment" and set out to find the specimen. I wanted to be together with my husband and nephew so we could all die together." A high-school girl in Pennsylvania: ". My two girl friends and I were crying and holding each other and everything seemed so unimportant in the face of death. We were outside the garage when the neighbor’s boy came back and told us it was only a play.Church during the evening service and shouted that a meteor had fallen. and Dr. operating on a grant of the Rockefeller Foundation to Princeton University. had been listening to the broadcast and when he heard the report. Some of the comments recorded by interviewers for the Project were as follows: A New Jersey housewife: "I knew it was something terrible and I was frightened. I felt if the gas was on.I was really hysterical. While the United States thought everything was settled. Then we heard. he got into an automobile and "disappeared. searching. Nor was credulity confined to the susceptible citizenry alone. Harry Hess.

landed--that's when they announced the explosion--the Germans landed. Brother Joe. p. I don't know what I did exactly. and skeptical. Dad was hard to convince. a good Catholic. Washington War Manpower Commission Inez Sauer Hiroshima Japanese American Citizen's League (JACL) League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC) Josef Stalin House UnAmerican Activities Committee (HUAC) . 1949). how petty all things on earth seemed.. and how soon we put our trust in God!" Source: Charles Jackson. 1919-1941 (New York. CHAPTER EIGHT: WORLD WAR TWO AND THE COLD WAR Terms for Week 8 The Axis Powers Executive Order 9066 Camp Harmony. got more excited than anyone. but even he got to believing it. began to pray with Uncle Henry. but I know I prayed harder and more earnest than ever before. "The Night the Martians Came (1938)" printed in Isabel Leighton. Aunt Grace. God knows but we prayed to him last Sunday. The Aspirin Age. ed. Lillie got sick to her stomach." A man in a Midwest town: "That Halloween show had our family on its knees before the program was half over. 431-436. Just as soon as we were convinced that this thing was real. Brother George wasn't home. as usual. My mother went out and looked for Mars. Washington Navajo "code talkers" Rosie the Riveter Zoot Suit Riot Hanford. It was a lesson in more than one thing to us.

Canwell Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) Truman Doctrine North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Warsaw Pact "containment" proxy wars Korean War.Albert F. 1977-1978 Angolan Civil War. Bill Cuban Missile Crisis Gulf of Tonkin Resolution Ethiopian-Somali War.I.1976 Hungarian Revolution. 1956 Berlin Wall. 1975. 1961-1989 Tiananmen Square Boris Yeltsin THE INTERNMENT OF THE JAPANESE President Roosevelt's Executive Order 9066 is reprinted below. 1950-1953 Strom Thurmond\The Dixicrats The Baby Boom Levittown G. WHEREAS the successful prosecution of the war requires every possible .

I hereby further authorize and direct all Executive Departments. American Racism: Exploration of the Nature of Prejudice (Englewood Cliffs. dated December 12. This order shall not be construed as modifying or limiting in any way the authority heretofore granted under Executive Order No. and until other arrangements are made. transportation. The Secretary of War is hereby authorized to provide for residents of any such area who are excluded there from. whenever he or any designated Commander deems such action necessary or desirable. prescribing regulations for the conduct and control of alien enemies. Source: Roger Daniels and Harry Kitano. food. 1941. pp. 1941. to prescribe military areas in such places and of such extent as he or the appropriate Military Commander may determine. the right of any person to enter. equipment. 135-136. and other supplies. "All Seattle . and the Military Commanders whom he may from time to time designate. from which any or all persons may be excluded. shelter. On the 21st of April. with authority to accept assistance of state and local agencies. Nisei Daughter. describes the evacuation of her family from Seattle in the Spring of 1942. and other accommodations as may be necessary. including the use of Federal troops and other Federal Agencies. use of land. clothing. MONICA SONE DESCRIBES THE EVACUATION Monica Sone in her autobiography. or leave shall be subject to whatever restrictions the Secretary of War or the appropriate Military Commander may impose in his discretion. to accomplish the purpose of this order... THEREFORE. in the judgment of the Secretary of War or the said Military Commander. utilities. shelter. 1970). hospitalization. 1941. national-defense premises..protection against espionage and against sabotage to national-defense material.: NOW. such transportation. nor shall it be construed as limiting or modifying the duty and responsibility of the Federal Bureau of Investigation.[General] DeWitt gave us the shattering news. facilities. and with respect to which. to assist the Secretary of War or the said Military Commanders in carrying out this Executive Order. and services. independent establishments and other Federal Agencies. remain in. except as such duty and responsibility is superseded by the designation of military areas hereunder. by virtue of the authority vested in me as President of the United States. food. and shall supersede the responsibility and authority of the Attorney General under the said Proclamations in respect of such prohibited and restricted areas. with respect to the investigation of alleged acts of sabotage or the duty and responsibility of the Attorney General and the Department of Justice under the Proclamations of December 7 and 8. and national defense utilities. The designation of military areas in any region or locality shall supersede designations of prohibited and restricted areas by the Attorney General under the Proclamations of December 7 and 8.. I hereby authorize and direct the Secretary of War. I hereby further authorize and direct the Secretary of War and the said Military Commanders to take such other steps as he or the appropriate Military Commander may deem advisable to enforce compliance with the restrictions applicable to each Military area hereinabove authorized to be designated. including the furnishing of medical aid. and Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy. 8972.

and Friday. I glanced nervously at the soldier and his rifle.. 10710.m.." Source: Monica Sone. Everyone must be registered Saturday and Sunday between 8 a.and slept on the bare floor.m. one of 110. I felt riotous emotion mounting in my breast. One of them rushed up to our bus..parked themselves neatly along the curb. (Seattle. The next morning Henry rudely shouted us back into consciousness.. "Step right in. and.. CAMP HARMONY.. and I was startled to see that he was but a young man.. one of the leaders of the Japanese-American Citizens' League... 1953). We drove through bustling Chinatown. They were silent.around the corner of Eight and Lane. Thursday.. describes his experience in the Summer of 1942 in "Camp Harmony. before being transferred to the Minidoka Internment Camp in Idaho... They will leave next week in three groups. We saw the picture in the newspaper shortly after and the caption underneath it read." a temporary holding area on the Puyallup fairgrounds... his clear gray eyes staring impassively ahead.. and asked a young couple and their little boy to step out and stand by the door for a shot. and 5 p. "Six-thirty! Everybody wake up. stepped briskly up front and started reading off family numbers to fill the first bus. a vanguard of Greyhound busses. but contrarily. "Must you sound so cheerful about it?" "What do you expect me to do. The bus doors opened and from each.. pp.. They were reluctant.suitcases. We climbed into the truck. Monday evening we received friends in our empty house where our voices echoed loudly and footsteps clattered woodenly on the bare floor." We bumped into each other with nervous haste. pink-cheeked. Father and Henry [Sone's brother] moved all our furniture and household goods down to the hotel and stored them in one room. bawl?" On this sour note we got up.Japanese will be moved to Puyallup by May 1. "Japs good-natured about evacuation..That night we rolled ourselves into army blankets. but the photographers were persistent and at length they got out of the bus and posed.. Jim Shigeno. As we coasted down Beacon Hill bridge for the last time. we fell silent. 165-171. The crowd stirred and murmured. WASHINGTON In the following passage Seattle resident Ben Yorita. I suddenly turned maternal and hovered over Mother and Father to see that they were comfortably settled. Jim said. The murmuring died.. Nisei Daughter.. grinning widely to cover their embarrassment.. Newspaper photographers with flash-bulb cameras pushed busily through the crowd.. on Tuesday. Students weren’t as aware of national politics then as they are now. and carefully tied the white pasteboard tag.. standing self-consciously among their. Finally at ten o'clock. on our coat lapels.. today's the day!" I screamed.000 persons of Japanese ancestry interned during World War II. This rifle was presumably to quell riots... It was the first time I had seen a rifle at such close range and I felt uncomfortable. Our number came up and we pushed our way out of the crowd. Our last Sunday. a soldier with rife in hand stepped out and stood stiffly at attention by the door.. labeled Japanese. This area was ordinarily lonely and deserted but now it was filling up with silent. and Japanese- .jammed our blankets into the long narrow seabag.

and most of us were carrying two suitcases or duffel bags. We could take only what we could carry. The dominant society prevented us from going elsewhere. but toward the end of December we started hearing rumors and talk of the evacuation started. so we simply weren’t interested in politics because there was nothing we could do about it if we were. Camp Harmony." Secondhand dealers and everybody else came in and bought our refrigerator. By the way. the whole works was sold. There was no fraternization. no contact with the military or any Caucasian except when we were processed into the camp. They had converted some of the display and exhibit areas into rooms and had put up some barracks on the parking lot. Our family was large. and searchlights. We had to sell our car. It was terrifying because we didn’t know what was going to happen to us.Americans were actually apolitical then. The machines were old but still workable. I had a savings account that was left intact. and everything had been thrown together in haste. We communicated on other things. We could tell from what we read in the newspapers and the propaganda they were printing—guys like Henry McLemore. and the whole thing was very sad. and we had all the traditional aspects of Japanese life—Japanese restaurants. So we were expecting something and the evacuation was no great surprise. We were still in debt on it and we didn’t know what to do with all the equipment. the piano. but not political matters. and we had English type and Japanese type. We sold the equipment through newspaper classified ads: "Evacuating: Household goods for sale. Our parents couldn’t vote. which was one of my personal losses. baths. rifles. That was a rough time for my brother. We didn’t know where we were going and we were just doing what we were told. we had to sell it as junk lead at 500 a pound. so we had two rooms. They took all of us down to the Puyallup fairgrounds. But it was like buffalo in . and so forth. Japanese characters had to be set by hand and were very hard to replace. gave us the idea of how strong feelings were against us. and discrimination forced us together. No questions asked. and since nobody would buy the Japanese type. it was the first time we had ever had a refrigerator and it had to be sold after only a few months. who said he hated all Japs and that we should be rounded up. The rest of our stuff that we couldn’t sell was stored in the Buddhist church my mother belonged to. and I had a whole bunch of books I sold for $5. I never asked them what they thought. we were told we had about a month to get rid of our property or do whatever we wanted to with it. I can’t really say what my parents thought about everything because we didn’t communicate that well. They received no interest. They had also built barbed-wire fences around the camp with a tower on each corner with military personnel and machine guns. When we came back. There were two reasons we were living in the ghettos: Birds of a feather flock together. Finally. but people who had their money in the Japanese bank in Seattle had their assets frozen from Pearl Harbor until the late 1960s. you go ahead and do it. who was running a printshop my parents owned. But the treatment in Camp Harmony was fairly loose in the sense that we were free to roam around in the camp. Right after Pearl Harbor we had no idea what was going to happen. thieves had broken in and stolen almost everything of value from the church. The walls in the barracks were about eight feet high with open space above and with big knotholes in the boards of the partitions. when the funds were finally released. Once the evacuation was decided. If you get an order.

Source: Archie Satterfield. or as they called them. The city police did nothing to stop them. and it was humiliating for the women because they were much more modest then than today. Los Angeles police arrested several severely beaten Mexican American boys on charges of rioting. In 1942. so it was pretty tight for some families. From Camp Harmony on. ed. We could eat in any mess hall we wanted. Eventually they boarded us on army trucks and took us to trains to be transported to the camps inland. but who were thought to be Mexican Americans. and was sometimes used as a signal that the wearer belonged to a club or gang. It was designed to be comfortable to dance in. and parents lost their authority. in the name of national security.cages or behind barbed wire. We weren’t given an allowance while we were in Camp Harmony waiting for the camp at Minidoka to be finished. They had jobs open in the kitchen and stock room. 1981) pp. and kids began ignoring their parents and wandering wherever they pleased. 330-338. Most Anglos called the outfit a zoot suit and assumed that only hoodlums wore them. as well as that of the many members of the armed forces who were stationed in Los Angeles. Every time they saw a Mexican American boy in a zoot suit they would stop and beat him up. They began to give prominence to incidents involving Mexican Americans. We had no duties in the sense that we were required to work. Julian Samora and Patricia Vandel Simon. There was no privacy whatsoever in the latrines and showers. With this group of scapegoats safely out of the way. In the early 1940s many Mexican American teenagers wore "drapes. I wasn’t a qualified teacher. The next evening two hundred sailors hired a fleet of taxicabs and drove through the heart of the city to the Mexican American communities on the east side. 1943. Children ran everywhere they wanted to in the camp. The following two nights the sailors were joined by other servicemen as the wandered freely through the city harassing Mexican Americans. all the Japanese Americans on the west coast had been taken from their homes and interred in camps. even . The Home Front: An Oral History Of the War Years in America: 1941-45 (Chicago. It wasn’t so bad for the men because they were accustomed to open latrines and showers. "zoot suiters." This popular style of clothing resembled the zoot suits worn in Harlem. eleven sailors on shore leave walked into one of Los Angeles's worst Mexican American slums and became involved in a fight with persons unknown. and I got about $13 a month. but you can’t expect a camp to manage itself. Los Angeles newspapers began to blame crime in the city on the Mexican Americans. This incident stirred up the anger of the citizenry. and eventually they opened a school where I helped teach a little. the family structure was broken down. THE ZOOT SUIT RIOT The worst example of anti-Chicano violence in the 20th Century history of the United States is described below by historians." On the evening of June 3. We had been in Camp Harmony from May until September.

Since there was no way we could change a rotten situation.500 places in the regiment. Source: Julian Samora and Patricia Vandel Simon. Filipinos and Negroes as well as Mexican Americans were attacked. Philadelphia and Harlem. The Los Angeles zoot suit riots touched off similar disturbances across the country in the summer of 1943. thousands of civilians joined in the riot. Indiana. Daniel Inouye who later became the U. The division officers' clubs were segregated--this in the heart of a war zone--as was every other recreational facility. Folgorito [part of the Gothic Line] in a week's time. Beaumont... did was send word through the 442nd that we were to steer clear of both the white and colored clubs. Detroit. the 442nd Regimental Combat Team. The rioting spread to the suburbs for two more days before it finally subsided. Later we learned that .though no resistance had been offered by the Mexican Americans. p.O. The mission of the 92nd was to breach the western anchor of the Gothic Line." We jumped off at midnight of April 5. Senator from Hawaii. The had fought hard and lost many men and the Germans seemed to take a fiendish delight in bombarding them with propaganda leaflets--a white man making love to a Negro girl. 157.. At midnight military authorities decided the local police could not handle the situation and declared downtown Los Angeles off limits to military personnel. The outfit has the lowest AWOL rate in the European theater of operations and the only men I ever heard about going over the hill had very special reasons.O. Ind. When the commanding general. NISEI SOLDIERS IN EUROPE Despite the internment of the vast majority of Japanese during World War II. to which the 442nd was now attached. A brief account of their heroism is detailed below by one of their officers. and the inevitable caption: "Is this your wife?" And the taunting questions: "What are you fighting for? To go back to slavery to your white masters?" Our side didn't help much. A History of the Mexican American People. "I think you can count on it. two battalions moving through an unreconnoitered gorge and scaling the cliffs on the enemy's right. Evansville. Elaborate bunkers and fortified machine gun nests made it seem impenetrable. Texas. Few men fought in all of the 442nd's campaign and battles.. in San Diego. Our casualty rate was so high that eventually it took 12.. (Notre Dame.our C..S. But fewer men still missed a battle as long as they could stand up and hold an M1. and we kept very much to ourselves. replied drily.. 1977).asked whether the 442nd could take Mt... a Japanese-American Army unit. a system of rock and concrete fortifications high in the mountains of northern Italy. The 92nd was one of only two outfits in the army made up of Negro troops. fought in against the Germans in the Italian theater and became one of the most decorated American units during the war.. he wanted us to be as free of it as we could. Lt." On June seventh. The newspapers featured headlines such as "44 Zooters Jailed in Attacks on Sailors. One of the first things our regimental C.000 men to fill the original 4. When we reached Leghorn [the site of a battle with German troops] we were trucked north to an area in the sector of the 92nd Division.

They left all their stuff behind.S.. because we had heard that it was an open city.J. My grenade blew up in his face and I stumbled to my feet. We moved up that slope and almost at once three machine guns opened up on us. 150-152. a buck sergeant. We went down into this big arroyo where they had been.. and there was firing back and forth.. They had only .some of the men had slipped and bounced as much as 100 feet down the steep slopes-one fell to his death--but not one of them cried out and the soundless advance went on. he fired and his rifle grenade smashed into my right elbow and exploded and all but tore my arm off.. The Germans were tryin' to come down this mountain road and we were supposed to try to stop them. While those patrols were keeping us busy. and we didn't want to be caught in the middle of the fighting. We went into this heavy thick forest area where everything was so thick that you couldn't see far at all. And as I drew my arm back. We escaped because they were going to move us into Berlin.. and he said to go back up and hold the line. So we started to fall back slowly and we had been doin' this for about three hours. Inouye. 141-142. N. I talked to the platoon leader and he talked to a lieutenant and the captain of the company. Army who was captured by the Germans in World War II only to escape to the Soviet Union. We were pinned down and now the moment was critical. Then everything cut loose. ONE SOLDIER'S STORY: WALTER HIGGANS IN EUROPE The vignette below is an account of Walter Higgans. but nobody would go because the tanks were too close. So the captain talked to the battalion commander... Then the telephone line got knocked out with all the firing.. and one of these was a cousin of mine from Blue Notch..30 caliber machine guns. But that place was torn to . I lobbed two grenades.. the useless right arm slapping red and wet against my side. pp.... I was a squad leader. in patches like.. (Englewood Cliffs. We took the Germans by complete surprise.. By that time three of us.. But the Germans kept sending out patrols. We got through the Russian lines and into Poland to Danzig. I turned to throw as the German was reloading his rifle. and they said to go get all the equipment that was left back up there. we had already gone up there and brought back most of the rifles and grenades that they had left there. So two of us were sent up in the direction of the tanks to fix the telephone wire. I looked down to where my right hand was clutching my stomach. and you can't fight tanks with that. 1967).aiming a rifle grenade at my face from a range of ten yards. But this time I beat him.. and all of a sudden the platoon on our left ran through us and they were yellin' that the tanks had moved in and were coming this way fast. About that time. firing my tommy gun left-handed. As I cocked my arm to throw.. their tanks had moved up practically right on top of us and they were so close you could hear the recoil from their guns when they fired. a Navajo soldier in the U.. Journey to Washington.I saw a German soldier.. Source: Senator Daniel K. Blood oozed between my fingers.. All at once there were two Germans standin' right behind me and I was captured.. There was lots of cover--something like ferns growin' about shoulder high--and this other guy got separated from me..

The men and women who came to Hawaii from the mainland were uniformly shocked by what they found. On the streets of Honolulu or in small towns on the Big Island. Michael Watson. They did stereotype one another: many Americans of Japanese ancestry looked down on the Chinese. and often upon the haoles [whites]. Their experience profoundly reshaped thinking about race among whites. war workers. They came to a place that. taken from a 1993 article authored by Beth Bailey and David Farber. I kept tellin' them that I was an Indian. There were twelve of them. BLACKS. describes the complex racial order that African Americans found themselves in when they served as soldiers. All newcomers were surprised.. Hawaii was much more progressive on the issue of race than the rest of the U... WHITES.. when we got down there. but reactions varied.others were mightily upset by it.S... boy. (Boston 1971).. had no "Negro Problem. but they would just laugh and say that there were no Indians over here and I had to convince them. and while this was going on I got arrested about twelve times. And from Lodz we went across to Kiev... They finally turned me loose one place and then I'd get arrested at the next town. The lines were less absolute. We had been tradin' our clothes for food. They'd throw me in jail and put me through interrogation by somebody who could speak English. They didn't even know that I was an American and that I was born over here. It helped that no one group held a majority. We finally walked down to Odessa and. The Chinese looked down on the Filipinos. Most people on Hawaii did not bring the racist ways of the mainland into there daily lives. sailors and war workers in Hawaii.000 people of African descent--soldiers. before World War II. eds. Source: Jack O. But such prejudices were not the white heat of the mainland's rigid caste society. This was toward the end of March 1945. blacks and Asians on both the islands and the mainland. The Germans had taken all our identification from us.. according to one estimate by the territorial government. "white" ness was not the natural condition.were brought to Hawaii by reason of war. the others were good enough to wait for me.. Well over a million service personnel and civilian employees of the military. pp. All this time we were waking. . the thirteenth. In 1940. Waddell and O. sailors. because I was walking with these white boys and the Russians wanted to know who I was.pieces.. approximately 200 "Negroes of American birth" lived on the islands.. Each ethnic group had its suspicions of the others and definite hierarchies existed. Among those men and women were approximately 30. and I was the odd one. Round and round it went.. When I was in jail." in part because few people on the islands recognized that "Negroes" lived in Hawaii. The American Indian in Urban Society. I asked them to give me a pass. ASIANS IN WORLD WAR II HAWAII The following vignette. 373-375. Some praised what they saw. still others just confused. so then we headed down to Warsaw and then from there to Lodz. I never seen such an awful lookin' bunch of people in my life. After the twelfth time. but we were still half starved and almost naked on top of that..

. "most sailors are from Texas and the South. evil. "I shall never go back. My soul has been stretched here and my notion of civilization and Americanism broadened.." "Down there" was the Jim Crow South.. A young Japanese woman wrote in almost identical terms: "They .Writing home in private letters to family and friends. there does not seem to be any race hatred. "As you know. its just as much difference between over here and down there as it is between night and day. rapers." wrote a Chinese girl.with tales of Negroes carrying dreadful diseases.. being thieves. there is not even any race distinction.. A shipyard worker wrote: "I thank God often for letting me experience the occasion to spend a part of my life in a part of the world were one can be respected and live as a free man should. They are most[ly] Navy men here." one man wrote back to the mainland... Over here they're on the equal with everyone. They're in paradise and no fooling.there was a snake in this paradise. poisonous doctrine that we must fight like hell to overcome. "I'm a little mystified by it as yet but it doesn't bother anyone who had lived here awhile.. and troublemakers. They are going to overstep their bounds a little too far one of these days and those boys from the South are going to have a little necktie party." A white man wrote back home: "Imagine that the South will have some trouble ahead when these black bastards return." * * * In letters back home. murderers and downright no good." Others made it clear they did not believe the trouble would keep: "Boy the niggers are sure in their glory over here. and they have surely poisoned everyone against the Negro." White men and women from the mainland also saw the possible implications of Hawaii's racial landscape: "They have come as near to solving the race problem as any place in the world.. They have the native women to a point they are afraid to even speak to our Negro boys. They make my skin shrivel and myself afraid to go near them. One hardened soul. too. "They preach to the natives a nasty." A teacher found it world shaking: "I have gained here at least the impulse to fight racial bigotry and boogeyism... wives and sweethearts.." The responses of the local people to the black malihini (newcomers) were complex and somewhat unpredictable. This is not to say that the propaganda of African American inferiority had no effect. wrote the folks: "Down here they have let down the standards. in Hawaii with her husband and children.in fact local men often lent their support to blacks against whites. Local women wrote frequently of their fears.. I don't want to expose our children too long to these conditions. They tell the native that we are ignorant dumb.... black men who had come to Hawaii as servicemen or war workers discussed the possibilities of Hawaii's wartime racial liminality." wrote a nurse..they almost expect white people to step off the streets and let them walk by." If Hawaii was "paradise". the place about which a third man wrote." Another young man tried to explain to his girlfriend: "Honey." He concluded: Hawaii "will make anybody change their minds about living down there. Although some sociologists at the time speculated that the local population would not accept negroes.." Not everyone was so inspired. black servicemen fumed about the spread of racial hatred. "I am very scared of these Negro soldiers here in Honolulu.

." Some local women recognized the unfairness of local fears..000 when the United States officially entered the war on December 8. as eighty-eight shipyards.. I sure would like to have gone to it. Boeing workers soon produced one B-29 bomber every five days and one B-17 every twenty-four hours. a process which transformed both the city and the region. longer-range B-29 bomber from its facility in Renton. Racial Ideology." Journal of Social History 26:4 (Summer 1993:818-821. now produced Sherman tanks and employed nearly 4. 825-827. writing in a private letter. Boeing employed nearly 50. prompting historian Carlos Schwantes to describe the years 1941-45 as the beginning of the modern era for the region. at the peak of wartime production. and Merchant Marine.000 workers in the Seattle area and amassed total sales of more than $600 million annually.'" Another Japanese woman was a little more reflective about her feelings... As orders came in. By 1944. I was very frightened. WORLD WAR II: SEATTLE'S ECONOMY TRANSFORMED In the following vignette I describe how Seattle emerged as a major site of war production. "The 'Double-V' Campaign in World War II Hawaii: African Americans. a Seattle suburb. Seattle's aircraft industry also came of age during World War II although the process of growth and transformation had begun long before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. furnished vessels for the Navy. Shipyards in the Puget Sound area including the Navy's facility at Bremerton and twenty-nine yards in . One would be that way after hearing lots of nasty things about them. Boeing began production of the Super Fortress a larger. In 1943..000 workers in 1944." Source: Beth Bailey and David Farber. which in turn stimu lated other sectors of the economy. criticized her peers: "They are going to have a dance for colored boys.but you know Mother. Funny isn't it how I am about them. Although no other Seattle firm could rival Boeing in employment or production. Imagine us here talking about color equality and when it come to those thing not enough cooperation. After sharing a perfectly uneventful bus ride with four black soldiers she wrote a friend: "Gee. The Second World War generated profound changes in economic and social conditions in the Pacific Northwest. Seeing them around while I'm alone gives me the 'goose-flesh. twentynine in Seattle alone. The region's shipbuilding industry was revived in 1941 after its virtual collapse following World War I. The Puget Sound area soon became a major center for ship and aircraft construction. Boeing's work force grew accordingly to nearly 10. sharply contrasting with the $70 million value of all Seattle manufacturing in 1939.000 by June 1941. and 30. Coast Guard.000 workers making military planes for the Army Air Corps and some commercial aircraft such as the Clipper airships which crossed the Pacific..only 18 girls are willing to go--such cooperation.are so big and dark. One young woman of Japanese ancestry. other companies also experienced spectacular growth during World War II. After fighting broke out in Europe. 1941. the British Royal Air Force purchased the company's B-17 Flying Fortress bombers for use against Nazi Germany. which manufactured logging trucks before 1941.000 in September. 20. Pacific Car and Foundry Company in Renton.. The Boeing Airplane Company in September 1939 employed 4. and Federal Power.

She said no one in our family had ever worked in a factory.000 workers by 1944.. "You'll have to correct this man.. I had a six-year-old daughter and two boys. 160-161. The Seattle papers were full of ads for women workers needed to help the war effort. my husband's rubber-matting business in Ohio had to close due to the war restrictions on rubber. I had never handled a tool in my life outside of a hammer. employed 150. so he didn't think I would last very long at the job." He went over and took one out and showed me." Being a D. pp. My husband was ten years older. Seattle's wartime contracts totaling 5.. and we never had to go without anything." My father was horrified too. They were all of the same ilk--all college people and all golfing and bridge-playing companions. as he put it. We didn't have any time off. We were living in Norwalk. Building bombers was. We always kept a live-in maid. Some man come in and asked for a bastard file.A. [Daughters of the American Revolution]. "You don't know what kind of people you're going to be associated with. twelve and thirteen. BOEING AND THE LIBERATION OF INEZ SAUER In this account Inez Sauer. Ohio." It was true. Before the war my life was bridge and golf and clubs and children." I went to my supervisor and said. So I took my children home to my parents in Seattle. I was thirty-one when the war started and I have never worked in my life before. and once in a while we filled it. "Do your part. I remember my husband saying to me. "You've lived through a depression and you weren't even aware it was here. describes how here work experience changed her life.6 billion dollars. I had never worked. 1994). "Don't you know what a bastard file is? It's the name of a very coarse file. so I answered an ad for Boeing. I knew that people were without work and having a hard time. The first year. and he always made me feel like a child. and I could see there was no way I could possibly live the way I was accustomed to doing. We also lost our live-in maid. They did . but it never seemed to affect us or our friends. I really wanted to help the war effort. They started me as a clerk in this huge tool room. you won't get any service here. Source: Quintard Taylor. The Forging of A Black Community: Seattle's Central District from 1870 through the Civil Rights Era (Seattle. free a man for service.. ranked it among the nation's top three cities (after Detroit and Los Angeles) in per capita war orders. but I wanted to do something that I thought was really vital. My husband thought it was utterly ridiculous. Chief Clerk in the Tool Room at Boeing in World War II.R. I didn't know how to handle money. "If you don't control your language. I said to him. I worked seven days a week.. I could have worked for the Red Cross and rolled bandages. but he was wrong. in a large home in which we could fit about 200 people playing bridge. I suppose you'd call it a life of ease. When the war broke out..Seattle." He laughed and said. I was nineteen when I was married. I won't tolerate that kind of language. My mother was horrified.

I think that put a little iron in my spine too. So my mother. and he was very. We had a contract dispute. But she was right.. My contact with my first supervisor was one of animosity. I had always been protected. "The happiest duty of my life will be when I say goodbye to each of you to the door.. very pleasant. The war changed my life completely. I thought she was never going to honor my name again... It gave us a lift. How could you do that to the family?" But I could see that it was a new world. after four o'clock. but I did it and I'm glad. It taught me a different way of life. After I was there for a while. Before I worked at Boeing I also had no exposure to unions. The job really broadened me. you women are doing a wonderful job. so I waited to see him. and I think we worked harder.." At the time I didn't think it would change a thing. And we came down the middle of the street--there were probably five thousand of us. I saw my mother. He smiled and he had his long cigarette holder. She said. But at Boeing I found a freedom and an independence that I had never known... They said he was coming on the swing shift. They cleared out the aisle of the main plant... I found that some of the black people I got to know there were very superior--and certainly equal to me--equal to anyone I ever knew.. I could never go back to playing bridge again. Source: David E. I fact. in which he stated." I didn't understand that kind of resentment. open limousine. My mother warned me. Because I was working late one night I had a chance to see President Roosevelt. After the war. I joined the machinists union.." That night when I got home. I had never been around uneducated people before.. but it was prevalent throughout the plant. people that worked with their hands. eds. 1999). My mother and father didn't understand..and I waved and said. being a club woman and listening to a lot of inanities when I knew there were things you could use your mind for. "Hello there... Boeing was a real education for me.. mother. pp. how are you? Keep up the war effort. My mother happened to be down there seeing the president of the Seattle First National Bank at the time. Oh. at thirty-one I finally grew up. For the Record: A Documentary History of America (New York.. I didn't know there was such a thing as the typical male ego. "Hello. I had always been in a shell. I had no contact with Negroes except as maids or gardeners. and we were bought up to think that colored people were not of the same economic or social level. "To think my daughter was marching in that labor demonstration. I guess you could say. We went on this march through the financial district in downtown Seattle.walked outside to see what was happening." We were all thrilled to think the President could take time out of the war effort to visit us factory workers.. The children didn't understand.. 254-257 . but I worked. I was prudish and had never been with people that used coarse language. I did something that was against my grain.allow us Christmas off. My mother was a Virginian. but Thanksgiving we had to work. Shi and Holly Mayer. I learned differently at Boeing.. and he went through in a big. That was a hard thing to do. "You will never want to go back to being a housewife. and we had a one-day walkout to show Boeing our strength.

black San Francisco shipyard worker Lyn Childs. double bottoms. turned on my torch. All shipyard workers had to adjust to the regimen of prefabricated shipbuilding. and the noise. But these workers faced a bureaucratized environment. west coast shipbuilders assembled whole sections of a ship's structure.. repetitive tasks. all coming and going and working. 257.scraped the rust off the bottom of the boat where they had to paint. In Search of the Racial Frontier: African Americans in the American West. The Richmond yards were laid out in a grid system of numbered and lettered streets.. considered the easiest position on the yards. For the first time in their lives they used security badges. and I had a flame about six to seven feet out in front of me. and I walked up to him and I said (you want me to say the real language?) I said to him. training went rapidly. deckhouses. sweeping and painting ship hulls. One worker described the 900 acres of shipyards: "It was such a huge place. We.. The Chinese performed detail-oriented electrical work considered suitable for their skills.. describes how she came to the defense of a Filipino employee on the ship she was repairing. California." That was my . Three shipyards built by industrialist Henry Kaiser in the Portland-Vancouver area employed over 100. The Robert E. there [was] so much rust in there. Since workers performed specific.and this big white guy went over and started to kick this poor Filipino and none of the Black men that was working down there in the hold with him said one word to this guy... got company-sponsored health care..WEST COAST SHIPYARDS World War II generated the growth of major shipyards from Seattle to San Diego which employed thousands of workers.you could hardly breathe. We had to wear masks. If you go lift one more foot. I'll cut your guts out." Source: Quintard Taylor. (New York." West Coast shipyards pioneered new production techniques and labormanagement relations but they also embraced old stereotypes.... LYN CHILDS CONFRONTS A RACIST ACT In the following vignette. Peary was built in four days [at the Kaiser Shipyard in Richmond] in November 1942. The vignette below describes the Kaiser shipyard in Richmond. "You so-in-so.because it was pitch dark. Portland shipyard worker Beatrice Marshall described her job as a painter's helper: "We had to crawl on our hands and knees and carry our light on an extension cord. 1998) p. reported to timekeepers.. Using techniques developed in building Boulder Dam.000.. People from all walks of life. I sprang to my feet. This technique allowed these yards to assemble vessels in record time. and receive their paychecks (with income tax withheld) from pay windows. 1528-1990. while black women were relegated to scaling (cleaning). And I sat there and was getting madder and madder by the minute. I was working down in the hold of the ship and there were about six Filipino men. White women held welding jobs. preassembled elsewhere and lifted into place by huge cranes. The whole atmosphere was overwhelming to me. boilers. Her account also discusses the reaction from her supervisor.

report to Colonel Hickman immediately." Colonel Hickman said. "Go back to work. because he was crying.. Then he started to tell me that he had been trained in boot camp that any national group who was darkskinned was beneath all White People." So I said." He had one of the guards take me into the office real fast and closed the door real fast and kept them out. "A communist! What is that?" He said.. sent a secret note to Winston Churchill demanding a second front after learning of Churchill's remark that the British and Americans were not yet prepared for an invasion of Europe. "Where are you guys going?" They said.. I was so mad with him." When we got to the office [Colonel Hickman] said. 1944. About that time the intercom on board the ship started to announce. . I'm saying I'm a. and to come to their rescue." He said." "Well." I said. "I guess this is it." Source: Paul R. So he started to cry. and he said. "You know what I am talking about. By the summer of 1943 Soviet dictator. From June. and I said. you called me Why did you call me?" "Never mind what I called you for. I am a communist. so in the end I turned my torch off and I sat down on the steps with him. "Well. STALIN CALLS FOR A SECOND FRONT The origins of the Cold War can be found in the tension between the United States and Britain and the Soviet Union while allies in World War II." I said. and I was frightened. He was frightened. "Work and Hope: African American Women in Southern California During World War II." So I went up to Colonel Hickman's office. to June. "We're going with you. 1941. That is great. really crying. you asked me was I a communist. [but] we're with her." and they said. "A communist! Forget you! The kind of treatment that man was putting on the Filipinos. "I think you ought to get back to work. You're saying I am. I didn't know what I was doing.exact words. "Don't say that so loud." he said." Then he said. Josef Stalin. and behind me came all these men. Spickard. "You'll see all of us.When you write that "it would be no help to Russia if we threw away a hundred . because we were all down there. and there lined up behind me. You're a communist." Journal of the West 32:3 (July 1993):74-75. "I just wanted to see Lyn Childs. "Come into this office.. We all did not have the guts enough to do what she did. "Lyn Childs. Soviet Armies absorbed the brunt of the Axis onslaught with relatively little assistance from Britain and the United States. "Shh! Shh! Shh! Hush! Don't say that so loud. Then I am the biggest communist you ever seen in your life. "What kind of communist activity are you carrying on down there?" I said. I felt sorry for him.

and of reducing the enormous sacrifices of the Soviet armies. envisaged an operation. You say that you "quite understand" my disappointment. measures on which the complete success of the operation should hinge? I shall not enlarge on the fact that this responsible decision.S. and the Prime Ministers of Great Britain during the Great Patriotic War of 1941. a confidence which is being subjected to severe stress. insofar as possible to play a lone hand was proved by undeniable evidence. in which you declared that preparations were under way for an invasion. One should not forget that it is a question of saving million of lives in the occupied areas of Western Europe and Russia.S. Deane. the fact that Russia desired. I must tell you that the point here is not just the disappointment of the Soviet Government.S. Vol. pp.. which.. found the Soviets reluctant allies who wanted American military hardware but who feared American personnel would spy on Soviet defenses and promote dissent among Soviet citizens. not by a hundred thousand. Second.1945. (Moscow: 1957). your February [1943] message which mentioned extensive measures preparatory to the invasion of Western Europe in August or September 1943. Source: Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the U. but by an adequate force." all I can do is remind you of the following: First. and the Presidents of the U. There is no need to say that the Soviet Government cannot become reconciled to this disregard of vital Soviet interests in the war against the common enemy. military liaison officer in Moscow during World War II. but the preservation if its confidence in its Allies. 75-76. apparently. SOVIET-AMERICAN TENSION IN WORLD WAR II General John R. compared with which the sacrifices of the Anglo-American armies are insignificant.S. Whatever the reasons. your own Aide-Memoire of June 1942.about extensive and vigorous measures by the British and Americans to organise the invasion this year. II. not by a hundred thousand men.S. Here he provides an account of Soviet suspicion of American efforts at cooperation. the chief U.thousand men in a disastrous cross-Channel attack." is it not cleat that a statement of this kind in relation to the Soviet Union is utterly groundless and directly contradicts your previous and responsible decisions.A. So when you now declare: "I cannot see how a great British defeat and slaughter would aid the Soviet armies. but by an Anglo-American force exceeding one million men at the very start of the operation. was reached by you and the President [Roosevelt] without Soviet participation and without inviting its representatives to the Washington conference. In her darkest days she refused to allow a .S.R.. although you cannot but be aware that the Soviet Union's role in the war against Germany and its interest in the problems of the second front are great enough..R. Correspondence Between the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the U. revoking your previous decisions on the invasion of Western Europe.

V. Mass: D. Heath and Company.. (Lexington. No! In Soviet Russia each such venture would have meant a closer association with capitalistic foreigners. Vol. Bailey & David M. Source: Thomas A. It was either the President or the Prime Minister [Churchill] who proposed [conferences at] Teheran. All the information Eisenhower had concerning the Red Army's plans was the result of our initiative in seeking to obtain it. No single American was allowed to enter the Soviet Union without pressure from the Ambassador or me. to ship to shore and to aircraft. THE WORLD THE SECOND WORLD WAR CREATED In a special report on the 50th anniversary of the beginning of World War II U. 795. 1. pp. Our well-meant voluntary efforts to support her advance in the Balkans with our Air Force operating from Italy brought forth protests rather than gratitude. their objectives. Six years of global conflict was only the beginning. Kennedy. we might have brought Germany to her knees quicker had we been allowed to establish radar triangulation stations in Russia as navigational aids to our bomber formations in eastern Germany. Yalta.. and Potsdam. Well. Stalin. but the convulsions of that moment are still reverberating. in order to go halfway around the world as the only possible means of meeting J. The American Spirit. and then it was only obtained after continuous pressure at the highest levels. This was true. News and World Report. but proficient in sabotaging its effectiveness. he held a press conference at which he stated that after January 1945 he was kept fully informed at all times of the essentials of the Red Army's plans. There were innumerable little ways in which our joint war effort could have been made more effective. particularly the timing of their offensives. We might have. We might have learned something of immeasurable value in defeating the German submarines had we been allowed to see Gdynia [naval base] as soon as it was taken. and then a visa was granted only after an exhaustive study of the background of the individual involved.C. in .796. 1984).group of Allied bombers to base in the Caucasus in order to assist her at Stalingrad. 1939. and the direction of their main efforts. Under these circumstances it was clear that nothing much could come of a partnership in which one of the principals was not only reluctant.S. perhaps we were among friends. When General Eisenhower visited Moscow after the war. We might have defeated Germany more quickly had we shared our operational experience by having observers on each other's fronts. but his possession of such information was a far cry from the co-operative action that might normally be expected between allies. It was the work of a moment for a handful of German soldiers to snap the frail barrier at the frontier with Poland on Sept. but it was difficult to believe it. Not once during the war did Stalin or his subordinates seek a meeting with British or American authorities in order to present proposals for improving our co-operative effort. II. No single event of the war irritated me more than seeing the President of the United States lifted from wheel chair to automobile. describes the manner in which the Second World War shaped the post-War world. we might have-on and on. Only now.

In less than half a second. 6872. News and World Report. especially for the Soviets. America's allies now see little danger from the Soviet Union and are uninterested in the global vision of the United States. Eighty-eight percent of the people within a radius of 1. The post war period ushered in a type of international conflict not seen since the Crusades." U.. smaller states see a diminishing logic in their own participation in the cold war. Sept. Most others within the circle perished in the following weeks or months. do we seem to be emerging from the postwar era and entering a new one.the fifth decade since.. On the Soviet side.. but its owner. 1945. All who where in Hiroshima on August 6 would come to know precisely how far fate had placed them from the hypocenter at 8:15. And everyone would learn at least one new English word: hypocenter. The post-war era saw the decline and collapse of the traditional colonial empires. He was between house calls in the suburbs. HIROSHIMA: DAY ONE OF THE NUCLEAR AGE The following accounts describe the atomic bomb blast in Hiroshima August 6. kept pedaling unscathed on his bicycle. the fatalistic Dr. it was a conflict of ideologies that recognized no borders and achieved the zealousness of religious wars. and between Soviets and Americans.. The Shima hospital and all its patients were vaporized.500 feet died instantly or later on that day. during the first hour after the explosion. Shima. the hub of the nuclear death wheel. pp. It openly and deliberately tested the potential and performance of opposing economic and political systems. 1989. who could ill-afford the cost. the captive nations and regimes of Eastern Europe are groping for ways to escape Soviet domination. Today. any conflict of such intensity would assuredly have ended in a world war. as Soviet aggressiveness abroad appears to be declining. The first is a discussion of the "hypocenter" of the blast by Peter Wyden and the second is a description of the city by Iwao Nakamura a 5th grader at a local school. the place from which all life and death was measured. to fill the vacuum the old European powers had left. What followed was a competition between Communism and capitalism.. It was ground zero. But because nuclear weapons promised Armageddon. Source: "The World War Created.. The cost of competing for influence in so many unstable.S. The Third World became the principal theater for U.. the cold war remained a conflict of wills rather than of weapons--not the hot wars of tanks and artillery.. heat rays with temperatures of more . propaganda. Wyden: The hypocenter was in the courtyard of the Shima Hospital. but the cold wars of politics. In the past. subversion and espionage. The cold war was not just a battle for survival between two states.-Soviet competition. 4. the point on the ground directly underneath the explosion.A new era is opening with the prospect of a counterrevolution as momentous at the end of the 20th century as the Russian Revolution was at the beginning. poverty-stricken and often insignificant nations frequently went far beyond the point of diminishing returns. both of which proclaimed their universality.S..

HANFORD AND THE BOMB On Monday..00-acre Hanford Project in South Central Washington... the Seattle Times announced to the world that the first atomic bomb had been dropped on Hiroshima with the following headline: ATOMIC BOMB.As we passed the Nakajima School and came to Sumiyoshi Bridge.than 3000 degrees Celsius caused primary burn injuries within two miles of the hypocenter. Children of the A-Bomb: The Testament of the Boys and Girls of Hiroshima.. I was very thirsty too. New York. President Truman's announcement cleared the way for revelation of how at feverish speed the huge sprawling project of towering smokestacks was built on what had been farm and sagebrush-covered lands extending into three Washington counties... TNT. 1945. Under that banner headline appeared another.. rather than humans of this world it might be more correct to say we met humans of that other world. their whole bodies were swollen like balloons. No.000 TONS. delirious students calling the names of their fathers and mothers. 165-166.000 Workers Making Fantastic Explosive. for the first time we met some living people of this world. About 130.. I had the feeling that all the human beings on the face of the earth had been killed off. youngsters crying for help. What I had seen in the tank were the faces of monsters reflected from the water dyed red with blood. the broken skin of their burned faces was stained bright with blood.. and how a new model government city . 1959. "Hanford--War's Greatest Mystery--Cleared. I could hardly believe that these were human faces. HITS JAPAN.. Sources: Peter Wyden.There was no one in sight. The secrecy of the Hanford Engineer Works--one of the America's best-kept secrets of the Second World War--was swept aside today as a new atomic bomb of catastrophic destructive force was dropped on the Japanese homeland and President Truman announced that the materials for it were produced in the 400.. and only the five of use were left behind in an uncanny world of the dead. They had clung to the side of the tank and plunged their heads in to drink and there in that position they had died.. "Oh!" out loud and instinctively drew back.Among them we saw old people begging for water.As we. 1984. Nakamura: We were…surrounded by a sea of fire. and only once in a while we heard a moaning voice like that of a wild beast coming out of nowhere..crossed Sumiyoshi Bridge. When I was close enough to see inside the tank I said. Benton. The streets were blocked with the fire and smoke of the ruined houses. their skin was rust-colored with burns and blood.. of Hell. Yakima and Grant. They were all stark naked. Arata Osada. 253-255. August 6. but there was not a hair left on their heads. 17.000 of Hiroshima's 350.. pp.Yet we who were not even sure of our own lives could do nothing for them.." The vignette below includes the first paragraphs following the second headline. New York.. From their burned and tattered middy blouses I could tell that they were high school girls. Day One: Before Hiroshima and After. and I was so happy to see some people again that without thinking I left my parents' side and went toward them. pp.. EQUIVALENT OF 20. I saw several people plunging their heads into a half-broken water tank and drinking the water.000 people would die.

Wallace. a few miles north of Pasco. Necessarily on a project of such magnitude. and one of the big problems was to design manufacturing processes which would permit the fantastically powerful explosives to be made safely. officials have from time to time let drop quiet remarks which gave a hint of what they were working on. SOVIET-AMERICAN RELATIONS: A DISSENTING VIEW As the Cold War rapidly developed Henry A.000 persons at present. We are reckoning with a force which cannot be handled successfully be a `Get tough with Russia' policy... and kept available for future emergencies. There is a series of plants [sic]. Richland.. became a rare political voice who urged the United States to refrain from confrontations with the Soviet Union and to reduce the tension between these former allies who were now fast becoming implacable enemies. The project employs 17.. guarded. the tougher the Russians will get. . `Getting tough' never bought anything real and lasting--whether for schoolyard bullies or businessmen or world powers... and the third area contains three large plants where the explosive material is produced. the production area is divided into three principal subareas to insure that individual workers learn as little as possible about the overall project.was constructed at Richland. saying: "It will shorten the war and bring victory to the Allies. To impress the necessity of the secrecy which surrounded the project.of the project--the adaptation of the basic force of the universe in a terrific weapon of war. It is looked upon generally as a potential industrial center. But the government has been silent on its future. Separate passes are required to move from one area to another. three huge chemical plants. as American airmen rocked a portion of Japan with the tremendous explosive. made known how workers who did not know what the were making. August 6. The tougher we get. Situated about 30 miles north of Richland.thousands of workers and others knew of the development but only a few high-ranking military officers and scientists knew the exact nature. a former Secretary of Agriculture and Vice.. I believe that we can get cooperation once Russia understands that our primary objective is neither saving the British Empire nor purchasing oil in the Near East with the lives of American soldiers. the second." But today. produced the ingredients for the explosive by operating complicated machinery from behind thick concrete safety walls. officials said. In the speech below he explains why the United States should seek accommodation with the Soviets. officials at the project headquarters. producing fertilizer and synthetics such as nylon and plastics. pp. 2. indicating that it will be put in a reserve status. Source: Seattle Times. 1945.President of the United States. 1.. each behind high wire fences and each removed several miles from its nearest neighbor.." And after Germany was beaten the remark was: "It will finish off Japan. One of the areas contains raw materials. Postwar use of the huge Hanford project has been the source of much optimistic speculation. Benton County..

industrial expropriation.. . 1946. did ________'s wife dress conventionally when she received her guests?" Source: Howard H. and we shall become more and more absorbed with the problems of social-economic justice.. 278. Source: Henry A.. we should recognize that we have no more business in the political affairs of Eastern Europe than Russia has in the political affairs of Latin America.. Western Europe and the United States.On our part. eventually used both inside the federal government and by state governmental agencies and by private organizations. generated a loyalty oath to test American patriotism and to ferret out potentially "disloyal" citizens. September 12. The Russians will be forced to grant more and more of the personal freedoms. 1987) p. But whether we like it or not the Russians will try to socialize their sphere of influence just as we try to democratize our sphere of influence. The test. We may not like what Russia does in Eastern Europe. Main Problems in American History. Speech at Madison Square Garden. (Chicago: The Dorsey Press. We cannot permit the door to be closed against our trade in Eastern Europe any more than we can in China. asked the following questions among others: "Have you ever read Karl Marx?" "What do you think of Henry Wallace's third-party effort?" "Have you ever had Negroes in your home?" "There is a suspicion in the record that you are in sympathy with the underprivileged. THE RED SCARE: THE TRUMAN ADMINISTRATION LOYALTY OATH In 1948 the Truman Administration prompted by rising concern over Communist infiltration into the federal government and by Republican attacks on its foreign policy as passive in the face of Soviet expansionism. Her type of land reform. Milton Cantor and Dean Albertson. Is this true?" "Did you ever write a letter to the Red Cross about segregation of blood?" "Have you ever read Thomas Paine? Upton Sinclair?" "When you were in ________'s home. Under friendly peaceful competition the Russian world and the American world will gradually become more alike. Wallace. and suppression of basic liberties offends the great majority of the people of the United States. Quint. But at the same time we have to recognize that the Balkans are closer to Russia than to us--and that Russia cannot permit either England or the United States to dominate the politics of that area.

One thing to remember in discussing the Communists in our Government is that we are dealing with spies who got 30 pieces of silver to steal the blueprints of a new weapon. we have failed miserably and tragically to arise to the opportunity.. Senate she outlines her . pp. Source: Congressional Record. men's hearts should anticipate a long peace.. At war's end we were physically the strongest nation on earth. This is glaringly true in the State Department.S. It has not been the less fortunate or members of minority groups who have been selling this Nation out..." Part of the Senator's speech appears below. 2nd sess. Our could have bee the honor of being a beacon in the desert of destruction. but rather those that have had all the benefits that the wealthiest nation on earth has had to offer--the finest homes. In my opinion the State Department." This is a time when all the world is split into two vast. There the bright young men who are born with silver spoons in their mouths are the ones who have been the worst. West Virginia.... McCarthy claimed to have the names of 205 Communists in the government but never produced the list. Today we are engaged in a final all-out battle between communistic atheism and Christianity. In a speech before the U. and ladies and gentleman. 1954-7 A SENATOR SPEAKS UP (1950) Maine Senator Margaret Chase Smith was in 1950 one of the few public officials willing to openly criticize Senator McCarthy. I have in my hand 205 cases of individuals who would appear to be either card carrying members of or certainly loyal to the Communist party. Nonetheless his sensational charges gave a new name to hysteria and political scapegoating--"McCarthyism. 12 February 1950. when he declared the United States was losing the Cold War because the Truman administration was filled with Communists.. We are dealing with a far more sinister type of activity because it permits the enemy to guide and shape our policy. a shining living proof that civilization was not yet ready to destroy itself. 81st Cong. and the finest jobs in Government we can give.McCARTHYISM Wisconsin Senator Joseph McCarthy burst into national prominence in 1950 following a speech he delivered to a Republican women's club in Wheeling. This is a time of the "cold war.. the finest college education. and men's minds should be free from the heavy weight that comes with war. increasingly hostile camps. but who nevertheless are still helping to shape our foreign policy. Five years after a world war has been won. But this is not such a period--for this is not a period of peace. is thoroughly infested with Communists. but rather because of the traitorous actions of those who have been treated so well by this nation. which is one of the most important government departments. The modern champions of communism have selected this as the time. the chips are down--they are truly down. The reason we find ourselves in a position of impotency is not because our only powerful potential enemy has sent men to invade our shores. Unfortunately.

As a American. I think that it is high time for the United States Senate and its Members to do some real soul searching. 7894. The right of independent thought. ignore some of the basic principles of AmericanismThe right to criticize. two years before "McCarthyism" became a household word nationally. The right to hold unpopular beliefs.. nor should he be in danger of losing his reputation or livelihood merely because he happens to know someone who holds unpopular beliefs. The American people are sick and tired of being afraid to speak their minds lest they be politically smeared as Communists or Fascists by their opponents.. I am not proud of the obviously staged.objections to his tactics. 2nd Session. Who of us does not? Otherwise none of us could call our souls our own. 81st Congress. I condemn a Republican Fascist just as much as I condemn a Democratic Communist. I am not proud of the way we smear outsiders from the floor of the Senate and hide behind the cloak of congressional immunity. I want to see our Nation recapture the strength and unity it once had when we fought the enemy instead of ourselves. I am not proud of the reckless abandon in which unproved charges have been hurled from this [Republican] side of the aisle. Those of us who shout the loudest about Americanism in making character assassinations are all too frequently those who. undignified countercharges which have been attempted in retaliation from the other [Democratic] side of the aisle. and to weigh our consciences as to the manner in which we are performing our duty to the people of America. and the manner in which we are using or abusing our individual powers and privileges.. a . They are equally dangerous to you and me and to our country. suspect everything" attitudes. The exercise of these rights should not cost one single American citizen his reputation or his right to a livelihood.95 (June 1.. by our own words and acts. 1950) RED SCARE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON In 1948. Otherwise thought control would have set in. pp. for selfish political gain at the sacrifice of individual reputations and national unity. I am not proud of the way in which the Senate has been made a publicly platform for irresponsible sensationalism. and still place ourselves beyond criticism on the floor of the Senate. Source: Congressional Record. The American people are sick and tired of seeing innocent people smeared and guilty people whitewashed. I condemn a Democratic Fascist just as much as I condemn a Republican Communist. As an American. Today our country is being psychologically divided by the confusion and the suspicions that are bred in the United States Senate to spread like cancerous tentacles of "knowing nothing.. I do not like the way the Senate has been made a rendezvous for vilification. The right to protest.. As a United States Senator.

In the passage below local historian Jane Sanders describes the political climate in the state that led to the Canwell Hearings. appointed Beck to the Board of Regents in l946. and the Hearst-owned Post-Intelligencer. A special subject of Republican attack was Hugh DeLacy. In the State of Washington.the Communists are trying everything in the book to reach American youth through the schools. Wallgren. In his campaign for reelection. in turn. they also chose a Republican senator and a Republican-controlled legislature. conservative Democratic leaders resolved to rid themselves of the alleged Communists in their ranks..” The focus of this effort was a clique of Democratic legislators who had espoused “United Front” politics during the 1930s. Aside from conforming to the national pattern. Ethel (English) and Melville Jacobs (Anthropology) were assumed to be members of the Communist Party and consequently fired by the university in 1949. Drumheller. who had won election to Congress [from Seattle] in 1944. a one-time University of Washington English instructor. Herbert Phillips (Philosophy) Harold Eby (English). wide publicity was given to the fact that DeLacy had been cited twice by the House Un-American Activities Committee for membership in Communist “front” organizations. However six faculty who refused to cooperate with the committee. shipping. Joseph Butterworth (English). and farmers which supported candidates favorable to an expansion of the New Deal locally and nationally. Garland O.. Canwell.special state legislative committee led by Spokane Republican Albert F. held week-long hearings on campus to investigate whether there were "no less than 150 Communists or Communist sympathizers on the faculty" as charged by state senator Thomas Bienz. The WCF was an alliance of unemployed and/or disaffected liberals. Powell (1882-87). he brought his own type of peace to the city’s unions and gained the respect of businessmen. Among these were University of Washington regents State Senator Joseph Drumheller and Teamster Union leader Dave Beck.and leader of the WCF. [the Red Scare] in Washington State resembled a family feud. laborers.” In succeeding days.. The 1947 legislature had not yet convened when a coalition of Democrats and Republicans held a caucus to discuss the possibility of a legislative investigation into Communist infiltration of the Democratic party and state institutions. After the elections. a member of a pioneer Washington family and grandson of University of Washington President Leonard J. Ralph Gundlach (Psychology). Wallgren in 1944. in the course of his battles with more radical labor groups. Numerous faculty and administrators were called to testify. the University of Washington. and in some ways anticipating it. Beck had been active in Seattle labor politics since 1918. With regard to one of those institutions. politicians. . was the head of a Spokane chemical firm. In his stead. the 1946 elections featured a campaign by Republicans against “Communist-controlled Democrats. and were members of the Washington Commonwealth Federation... Washingtonians elected a former state commander of the American Legion. Beck had helped elect Democratic Governor Mon C. the caucus report stated: “It is common knowledge in many quarters that the Communists have infiltrated the University of Washington campus and that their supporters have found important places on the faculty. the Post-Intelligencer reported the demands of leading Democrats for a purge of their party. The political and economic fortunes of the state were historically tied to the basic industries of forestry. such as Harry Bridges’ CIO-backed Longshoremen and Warehousemen’s Union..

they worked in . Every 100 feet. pipes. Of course. LEVITTOWN: UP FROM THE POTATO FIELDS Today the vast majority of Americans live in suburbs rather than central cities or rural areas. 1979). 17-18. On nearby slabs already dry. loaded with cement. taking just 13 minutes to dig a narrow. In the eyes of some Washingtonians. Allen Smith’s crusade for public ownership of utilities caused powerful men to call for his dismissal. pp. (Seattle. the Washington Commonwealth Federation. Colleagues wondered again whether activist faculty members were endangering the willingness of the public to support university programs. Some thought matters had gone too far. giant machines with an endless chain of buckets ate into the earth. 1946-64. Attempts by workers to organize often involved violence. and the disorders of the Depression left scars on the memories of Washingtonians. Source: Jane Sanders. Cold War On Campus: Academic Freedom at the University of Washington. Levittown a New York City suburb on Long Island which was created by homebuilders William Levitt who is often credited with being the founder of modern suburbia. Over the years its faculty members were involved in controversial movements. shingles. Within those industries there had always been pockets of right and left radicals who asserted themselves in times of stress. the Technocrats. both embarrassed and delighted the citizenry. four-foot trench around a 25-32 ft. political activism among professors was not unique to the University of Washington. nor was the reservoir of suspicion of professors peculiar to Washingtonians. and copper tubing--nearly as neatly packaged as loaves from a bakery. They sought solutions to the problems of the Depression and the dangers of Fascism through organizations such as the Communist party. the activities of the Industrial Workers of the World.farming.” a remark widely attributed to Postmaster General James Farley. the University of Washington had contributed to the state’s reputation for radicalism. the Seattle General Strike of 1919. “There are forty-seven states and the Soviet of Washington. the threatening gestures of the 1947 legislature revived questions that had lain dormant since the 1930s. On 1. and fishing. The following vignette. Bellamy Clubs. Long Island. the Red Scare and union battles of the 1920s and 1930s. rectangle. excerpted from a 1950 Time Magazine article. [Just before] he died in 1924." and by the enforcement of prohibition. and laid a four-inch foundation for a house in the rectangle. 15-16. J. Near the bundles. Despite the fact that state government was generally in the hands of conservatives. But as the university poised for an era of unprecedented growth and national recognition. the state was considered progressive in labor and welfare legislation. an army of trucks sped over new-laid roads.. In the 1930s faculty members continued to outrage citizens. After the machines came the men. bricks. Smith was still urging his students to disdain the excesses of the government exemplified by Attorney General Palmer’s campaign against "Bolsheviks. Populism at the turn of the century. and the American Federation of Teachers.200 flat acres of potato farmland near Hicksville. describes one of the first of these post-war communities. Then came more trucks. the trucks stopped and dumped identical bundles of lumber..

citizens. Levittown has also developed its own unique way of keeping up with the Joneses. stove and Bendix washer. who are realizing for the first time the great American dream of owning their own home. no nightclubs and only three bars (all in the community shopping centers).000 residents are past 35. N." Time Magazine (3 July 1950):67-69. Plainfield. In front of almost every house along Levittown's 100 miles of winding streets sits a tricycle or a baby carriage. a community almost as big as 96year-old Poughkeepsie. No longer must young married couples plan to start living in an apartment. The countless new housing projects made possible by this financial easy street are changing the way of life of millions of U..990. scarcely 900 are more than seven years old. Government-guaranteed mortgages were so liberalized that in many cases buying a house is now as easy as renting it. then hurried on to the next site. Laid one Levittowner last week. as soon as the new model is on the market. nailing lath. Now they can do it more easily than they can buy a $2. And Levittown has very few old people.. has become the biggest builder of houses in the U. range from baking to banking. Shi and Holly A. reprinted in David E.Y. Eighty percent of the men commute to their jobs in Manhattan. Their jobs. In Levittown. [ed. Levittowners come from all classes.S. Its name: Levittown. Now there were 10. saving for the distant day when they can buy a house. The new terms: 5% down (nothing down for veterans) and 30 years to pay.600 houses inhabited by more than 40. The Government made it just as easy for the buyer by liberally insuring his mortgage. Long Island's Levitt & Sons. Its creator.000] cannot be mistaken for castles. raising studs. two bedrooms on the first floor. all activity stops from 12 to 2 in the afternoon. sheathing.800). Each has a sharp-angled roof and a picture window..000 to $700. The houses in Levittown. 12 by 16 foot living room. Source: "Up from the Potato Fields. bath. The kitchen has a refrigerator. "Everyone is so young that sometimes it's hard to remember how to get along with old people.S. could buy a Levitt house with no down payment and installments of $56 a month. as in any other big community. of some 8.000 children. and an "expansion attic" which can be converted into two more bedrooms and bath..000 car on the installment plan." Though most of the incomes are about the same (average: about $3.J. from teaching to preaching... By insuring loans up to 95% of the value of a house... shingling. or Chelsea. It has no movies. painting. laying bricks. Inc. Levittown is known largely for one reason: it epitomizes the revolution which has brought mass production to the housing industry. Mass.. Each crew did its special job.crews of two and three. Thus an ex-G. kitchen. that is nap time.. 72. Levittown is an entirely new kind of community. These houses now sell for $500. N. all walks of life. new houses rose faster than Jack ever built them.. For the Record: A Documentary History of .. Under the skilled combination of men & machines.. the Federal Housing Administration made it easy for a builder to borrow the money with which to build lowcost homes.I. Three years ago. Like its counterparts across the land.. the living room a fireplace and a built-in Admiral television set. little potatoes had sprouted from these fields. many sharing their transportation costs through car pools. which sell for a uniform price of $7.000 people. a new one was finished every 15 minutes. radiant heating in the floor. Some Levittowners buy a new house every year.. Mayer. Fe of its more than 40.

"Twenty-six percent believe that the police should be allowed to search a person or his home without a warrant. "Only forty-five percent of the nation's young adults believe that newspapers should be allowed to print anything they want except military secrets. "Thirty-three percent say that people who refuse to testify against themselves be made to talk or should be severely punished." Source: Richard Current. American History: A Survey.. 1999).... p. "Thirty percent declare that one can't raise a normal family and become a scientist. . 288. 1961). JOHN F. "Seventeen percent say that it may be right for police to jail people without naming the charges against them.. p. "Fourteen percent think there is something evil about scientists.. "Thirty-five percent believe that it's necessary to be a genius to become a good scientist and forty-five per cent think their own school backgrounds are too poor to permit them to choose science as a career. must a small planet. a recognition of their economic and political differences tempered by the realization that despite those differences the two nations..the United States (New York. (New York: Knopf. "Twenty-five percent agree that some groups should not be allowed to hold public meetings. describes his attitude and approach toward the Soviet Union. Kennedy in a 1963 speech given five months before his assassination. A national survey of teenagers in 1958 revealed scant tolerance for diversity or dissenting opinion. and indeed the rest of the nations. KENNEDY AND THE COLD WAR President John F. "Thirty-seven per cent feel that the greatest threat to democracy in the United States comes from foreign ideas and foreign groups. TEENAGE OPINIONS IN THE 1950s The McCarthy period had a profound influence on the opinions and ideas of an entire generation of Americans. Here Kennedy suggests a type of accommodation between the superpowers.. 854. An additional 20 per cent are uncertain about the point.

submitting their disputes to a just and peaceful settlement.. Kennedy..S. Not the peace of the grave or the security of the slave. our most basic common link is that we all inhabit this small planet. If we cannot now end our differences. following a purported attack on U. and communication as nothing more than an exchange of threats.. After consultation with the leaders of both parties in the Congress. I am talking about genuine peace. do not last forever. And we are all mortal. as between individuals. does not require that each man love his neighbor--it requires only that they live together in mutual tolerance.. naval vessels operating in international waters. at least we can help make the world safe for diversity. Two U.. World peace. like community peace.. military forces off the coast of Southeast Asia.C. This "escalation" initiated the longest war in the history of the United States.. and new weapons beget counterweapons. We all cherish our children's future. However fixed our likes and dislikes may seem.. President Lyndon Johnson sought and received overwhelming Congressional authorization to send combat troops to defend South Vietnam.. And history teaches us that enmities between nations. But it is also a warning--a warning to the American people not to fall into the same trap as the Soviets.. For. We all breathe the same air. 1964 Last night I announced to the American people that the North Vietnamese regime had conducted. 1963. I further announced a decision to ask the Congress for a resolution expressing the unity and determination of the United States in supporting freedom and in protecting peace in . President Johnson's Message to Congress August 5. and I had therefore directed air action against gunboats and supporting facilities used in these hostile operations.. What follows are both the President's message to Congress concerning the incident and its response. accommodation as impossible. Washington D.. No government or social system is so evil that its people must be considered as lacking in virtue.S. the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution. in the final analysis. not to see only a distorted and desperate view of the other side.What kind of peace do we seek? Not a Pax Americana enforced on the world by American weapons of war. aircraft were lost in the action. 1964.deliberate attacks against U. It is sad to read these Soviet statements--to realize the extent of the gulf between us. Speech at American University. INCIDENT IN THE GULF OF TONKIN In August. not to see conflict as inevitable. This air action has now been carried out with substantial damage to the boats and facilities. Some say that it is useless to speak of world peace or world law or world disarmament--and that it will be useless until the leaders of the Soviet Union adopt a more enlightened attitude. I hope they do.S... Source: John F. I believe we can help them do it. June 10. But I also believe that we must reexamine our own attitude--as individuals and as a Nation--for our attitude is as essential as theirs. the tide of time and events will often bring surprising changes in the relations between nations and neighbors. We are both caught up in a vicious and dangerous cycle in which suspicion on one side breeds suspicion on the other.

the actions of the North Vietnamese regime have become steadily more threatening. Section 2.. or territorial ambitions in the area. ----------------------------------------------2. meet Communist aggression against any of the parties or protocol states. We must make it clear to all that the United States is united in its determination to bring about the end of Communist subversion and aggression in the area.. The issue is the future of southeast Asia as a whole. we must and shall honor our commitments. This treaty with its accompanying protocol obligates the United States and other members to.. These latest actions of the North Vietnamese regime has given a new and grave turn to the already serious situation in southeast Asia. I summarized it on June 2 in four simple propositions: America keeps her word. Here as elsewhere. They were further defined in the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty approved by the Senate in February 1955. Our policy in southeast Asia has been consistent and unchanged since 1954. Our military and economic assistance to South Vietnam and Laos in particular has the purpose of helping these countries to repel aggression and strengthen their independence.. with respect to South Vietnam and Laos. Our commitments in that area are well known to the Congress. As I have repeatedly made clear. Our purpose is peace. and seeks no wider war. to take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against the forces of the United States and to prevent further aggression. the United States intends no rashness. As President of the United States I have concluded that I should now ask the Congress. In recent months. on its part. We seek the full and effective restoration of the international agreements signed in Geneva in 1954.. The United States regards as vital to its national interest and to world peace the maintenance of international peace and security in southeast Asia. to join in affirming the national determination that all such attacks will be met. but a struggle for freedom on every front of human activity.southeast Asia. and that the United States will continue in its basic policy of assisting the free nations of the area to defend their freedom. We have no military. A threat to any nation in that region is a threat to all. as Commander in Chief. 1964 Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled. They were first made in 1954 by President Eisenhower..J. RES 1145 August 7. This is not just a jungle war. political. Joint Resolution of Congress H. and a threat to us. Consonant with the ... That the Congress approves and supports the determination of the President.

They sure don't show me much as far as being American citizens. to assist any member or protocol state of the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty requesting assistance in defense of its freedom. They have the idea that they are our future leaders. I won't follow nobody if he isn't going to help fight for my freedom. www. You'd be surprised to know that a guy you went to school with is right now shooting a nine year-old girl and her mother.edu/lawweb/avalon/tonkin-g.. He was more angry than hurt. as the President determines. prepared. the Vietcong aren't the only ruthless ones. Not until after he got the that shot him. it's horrible to read a paper and see your own people aren't backing you up. I had the chance to talk with some Marines who had come to Okinawa for four (lousy) days of leave. Have to. I tell you. .000 by the end of 1968. I asked if it hurt. What they had to say would have had an impact on the people back home. One Oregon serviceman wrote a letter home in 1966 expressing his dismay at the anti-war protest. therefore. Virtually all of them were aware of the growing unpopularity of the war in the United States and were both angered and bewildered at the lack of support. Or throwing a Vietcong out of a helicopter because he wouldn't talk. How are the people taking to the war in Portland? I've read too much . except that it may be terminated earlier by concurrent resolution of the Congress. Source: Department of State Bulletin. Well. and I wish I could have taped it on my recorder. Part of the letter is reprinted below. 1964 © 1996 The Avalon Project. including the use of armed force. This resolution shall expire when the President shall determine that the peace and security of the area is reasonably assured by international conditions created by action of the United Nations or otherwise. A few weeks ago.htm. He did it because if they got the chance they would kill him. One guy (who had broke down and cried) said that his one desire is to get enough leave to go home and kick three of those demonstrators in a well-suited place and bring him back. to take all necessary steps. too.yale. They told me of some of their patrols and how they would be talking to a buddy one minute and watch him die the next. They were more than happy because they had been fighting for six months with no let-up.. VIETNAM--A SOLDIER'S VIEW The number of American servicemen and women stationed in South Vietnam peaked at 538.about the way some of those cowardly students are acting on campuses. We sat in a restaurant all the time. One showed me where he had been shot. Or wake up in the morning and see a friend hung from a tree by hooks in his armpits with parts of his body cut and shoved into his mouth.Constitution of the United States and the Charter of the United Nations and in accordance with its obligations under the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty. We have to be. Section 3. August 24. the United States is. From what they said. The Avalon Project : The Tonkin Gulf Incident. 1964 was last modified on: 12/13/2002 14:40:05. and he didn't feel it.

." Three weeks later I sat at my typewriter and wrote local Draft Board 71 in Fresno.: D. C. possessed a student deferment. The American Spirit. It seemed that to do anything else would have dishonored both. I would refuse to comply. I warned them. 1984). a former Boy-of. "those bastards have got to be stopped. David Harris. Vol. If they ordered me for induction. It also signified tacit assent on my part for both the task the Selective Service System was performing and the power it had assumed over my life. logistic. I attended a lecture by a Canadian journalist who had just returned from North Vietnam. occasionally fatal to old people and children. The M-36 was an 800-pound casing containing 182 separate "incendiary bomblets. Consequently. California.Source: Thomas A. The CBU was a small explosive package stuffed with hundreds of one-inch steel darts. the target increasingly became the population itself." the most horrendous of which were manufactured from phosphorus. Heath and Company. but one wounded required five. explained the journalist.the. I was prepared to abandon what seemed a promising future and pit myself against the war one on one. would tie the enemy's hands." I said. Bailey and David Kennedy.Year from Fresno. Dennis [Sweeney] and the Channing Street Group were at the lecture as well. causing its victims' wounds to glow with an eerie green light.. ed. make "enlarged wounds. 890-891. (Lexington." and "shred body organs" before "lodging in the blood vessels. and muscle spasms. Late in July. In his 1982 autobiography. each shaped with fins. and the American arsenal had developed wounding devices in great variety. believing I would redeem my country and realize myself in the process. strategic air power destroys the enemy's industrial. a letter "To whom it may concern. With what amounted to only a fledgling air defense system. "You know. and transportation systems. I spoke up. David Victor Harris. The letter informed my draft board that I could no longer in good conscience carry the enclosed document or accept the deferment it signified. Being even implicitly a party to the destruction of Indochina was not part of my plans. but North Vietnam possessed little centralized industry and only a rudimentary transportation system. It was a privilege I found unwarranted for any student. chose to protest the war in Vietnam by resisting the draft. pp. the worse it seemed. California. it was assumed. Mass woundings. nausea. he explains his decision. VIETNAM-A PROTESTER'S VIEW In 1966." The BLU 52 was 270 pounds of "riot control" chemical that induced vomiting.. Theoretically. The more we learned about the war. The American strategy's starting point was a calculation by Defense Department planners that it took only two Vietnamese to deal with one of their dead countrymen. commonly lodging in the flesh and continuing to burn for as long as fifteen days. designed to "peel off" the outer flesh. Without looking at Dennis." I enclosed a Selective Service classification card indicating that the bearer. and student body president at Stanford University. II. Harris was arrested and spent two years in a federal penitentiary for his actions. Mass. Dreams Die Hard. . North Vietnam had no hope of turning the American Air Force back.

like their Western counterparts.." who although disenchanted with the Soviet political system eventually succumbed to it. `Lead a simple life. They let me out..Source: Thomas A. Books . but his awakening had been permanent. you want different things. was a planted informer. he attended a forestry institute. as having failed to set a moral and spiritual example for its citizens. What I was doing wasn't any use.. DISILLUSIONMENT. rebellion meant abandoning his job. who pledged themselves to revolution.. Heath and Company. "One of us. They locked us up in Lubyanka [a Moscow prison and the KGB headquarters] for a week. I slept alone in a hut.. and nobody cared whether I lived or died in that forest.. He went to dances and created a scandal by dancing the boogie-voogie. His anger became more specific. Volodya. and just as I had promised. 894-896. and the bitter political satire of Saltykov-Shchedrin. or proletarian intellectual.. As a teenager. seems to have been a bit like a Soviet James Dean. Bailey and David M. They had beaten me on the head in prison. and buying a motorcycle.. TOTALITARIANISM: IDEALISM. In this account written in 1979. which turned me into a rebel. "Until then I was a child─loyal to the State.To me. which he saw as corrupt.' And I agreed. This solitary job was a turning point in Volodya's life. Eventually he went back to work." After that. you realize you have to survive. But up there. `and if you ever touch politics again.I wasn't building Communism as I had been taught to believe. with his cycle and his leather jacket and his anti-establishment stance. pp. Tolstoy. Mass: D.. a thinker schooled in Dostoyevsky. beat us up and interrogated us. Kennedy. and was finally assigned to patrol a game preserve several hundred miles north of Moscow. moving illegally back to Moscow. 1984).. The American Spirit (Lexington. this time in a forest outside of Moscow." The group met for a year. I met Anna [his wife] and settled down." For Volodya. I hardly even read any more. spending entire days immersed in Russian literature.he lived like an outlaw in friends' apartments.. unquestioning.' they told me.C.. I didn't even care any more. Volodya was an idealistic Komsomol member who worked in a construction brigade. I got rid of my old friends and my big ideas. "They struck a bargain with me. My job was just silliness─it didn't exist. were increasingly rebellious against the political system. So I began to read. until they were all suddenly arrested. he says. "I helped to build the Moscow State [University] tower where you live. A few years later he formed a circle of young men like himself. it was like building a shrine─every stone laid with sweat and strong beliefs. damn him. I was slowly providing us with rifles stolen from my forestry job. COMPROMISE By the 1970s some Soviet youth. I was to give up my former friends and my politics and they would let me alone. This changed him. "We planned to take on the State with arms. I spent my days walking or skiing alone through the woods. from a simple discontented worker to an intelligent. They wanted me to denounce my comrades and recant my own beliefs. a visiting American university student describes "Volodya." One day he was brought before a high KGB official. When you get older.. directed at the government. who unexpectedly granted him his freedom. and that did something to me. we'll throw you so far into the camps you'll never see the light of day..

are dangerous─they disturb you. the Soviet Union would do it and after war the least eastern parts of Yugoslavia would be in a pact with Soviet Union. Russian Journal. 1981). but they are all completely black! Now they are one week old and still cannot hear and see anything. When Hitler attacked Yugoslavia. workers have more chances to take part in managing factories. economical and social circumstances. the king with family and government escaped to England and left their nation alone. When the 2nd World War started Yugoslavia was a poor monarchy with a small group of rich and crowds of poor people. After that I went to France to ski for one week. The trip was organized by Skiing Club. In 1986 the letter reprinted below was sent to one of my Cal Poly students from her friend in Yugoslavia. We hoped that the last one of them will be gold-yellow as their mother. Yugoslavia. But Tito soon recognized that Stalin wanted to create our political. the government is less totalitarian. nonaligned polity. LETTER FROM YUGOSLAVIA The Cold War had prompted such fear and suspicion between the peoples on either side of the Iron Curtain that we often forgot that all of us shared common aspirations. Then illegal communist party organized a strong guerilla movement against Germans. without army. They made a state very similar to Soviet Union. her country. The Soviet Union had a big influence on Yugoslav communists. 60-61. (New York. pp. If Yugoslav communists were not successful in 2nd WW. She granted me permission to share it with you. But the fact is. A lot of civilists helped guerilla called partisans. I passed two exams in the beginning of March. hopes. that communists organized one of the strongest guerilla against German nazism in Europe. They are only sleeping and drinking milk. Partisans became very popular among Yugoslav people and after the 2nd World War the partisans (communists) won elections and Tito became president. Many things have changed after 1948. Conditions for downhill skiing were very good. and concerns for a better world. The week was over too soon! Now I'm back in [her hometown] and all work and worries are coming to me again. Have you visited your sister yet? Have you seen New York. Before two months I started instructing math a 13 year girl. That was the reason why they were so successful. no longer exists. if they didn't make Yugoslavia free of Germans." Source: Andrea Lee. without help in occupied Yugoslavia. I don't think that communism helped Yugoslavia to become a stronger nation. I'm in the same situation. I was very lucky to get that job because there were many students who wanted to do it but not so many people who had troubles in a school and were willing to pay instruction. the weather was sunny almost all the time. The country became more democratic. Dear ________: Thank you for your letter. Last week our Labrador Retriever has brought back 8 young dogs. Now Yugoslavia is independent and nonaligned country and we must admit that communists have made . Ironically. how do you find it? I understand that you don't have much free time. Tito refused Stalin in 1948 and started independent.

to learn to serve the state. because government can make mistakes and here is no organization or party to change them on their position. A child of sacrifice. and such was life in Leningrad. Violence always causes new terrorism. I was born in '49 A Cold War kid in the coffee time. I lived one month with a British family in Great Britain and I was for a month in Soviet Union before 2 years. I really didn't mean to bore you too much. but very slow. Your Friend. it's true. One of the reasons is that communist government does not have an opposition. blast those yellow Reds to hell. Bye for now my friend. we can only be critical. Katrina BILLY JOEL'S "LENINGRAD" The Cold War has hovered over the lives of three generations of the world's people since 1945. Things are changing. Stop them at the 38th parallel. a better way to suppress international terrorism.. that our life is more similar to British one. take care of yourself and please. I think that Yugoslav foreign polity is good. Followed the rules and drank his vodka straight. . Well." Billy Joel captures the essence of the Cold War dilemma. Let it be enough about polity. The Cold War kids were hard to kill. But let me ask you one question: What do you (and other Americans) think about war between USA and Libya? I think this war is too dangerous to continue. A child who never had a father after Leningrad. but our economy! We have about 80% inflation (it will increase this year). In the lyrics of his 1987 song "Leningrad. I don't think that communism had much influence in our family life. So when I compare our life with life of families in the two countries I'd say.it. a child of war. Victor was born the Spring of '44 and never saw his father anymore. but it does not help much. keep in touch. etc. Part of the song is reprinted below. many unemployed young people etc. Went off to school. USA and UN have to find a better solution. Yugoslavia has many debts in west countries. A Russian life was very sad. Opposite organizations are forbidden and this is very bad.

. and the transfer of monies. 'till the Soviets turned their ships around. International terrorism is a special problem for democracies.Y.. And now I watched my friends go off to war. It is responsible for assuring the democratic freedoms of speech. travel. What can be done? ." waged against free nations or against nondemocratic but moderate states which. Terrorism is not a new phenomenon. And in that bright October sun. TERROR AND THE COLD WAR In July 1979..rests on the consent of the governed. they can work with others of like mind across the international borders of the world's free nations. I believe that the ultimate but seldom stated goal of these terrorists is to destroy the very fabric of democracy. obviously facilitate terrorist operations directed against a particular government. Washington Senator Henry 'Scoop' Jackson addressed a Conference on International Terrorism in Jerusalem.. we knew our childhood days were done. Modern terrorism is a form of "warfare by remote control... I am not talking about individual acts of madmen. A democratic government. Although his speech cast the Soviet Union as the major sponsor of terrorism at the time... Israel. These conditions.. hid in the shelters underground. Today's terrorists have modern technology to help them.sympathize with freedom. I believe that international terrorism is a modern form of warfare against liberal democracies. his words resonate even in this post-Cold War era when superpower rivalry is history but international terrorism is not. travel. New York. What is new is the international nature of terrorism. press and privacy. then you must join me in wondering why the community of liberal democracies had not bended together more effectively to opposed those international murderers and to loudly and vigorously expose those states which cynically provide terrorists with comfort and support.under their desks in an air raid drill.. Haven't they heard we won the war What do they keep on fighting for? Children lived in Lenintown. and tore all the Cuban missiles down... I believe that it is both wrong and foolhardy for any democratic state to consider international terrorism to be "someone else's" problem. N. permitting rapid international communications. What do we keep on fighting for? Source: Billy Joel. assembly.. If you believe as I do.. "Leningrad" Copyright (1987) by Columbia Records. I'm talking about highly organized groups with international connections and support who systematically rely on major acts of violence as a political instrument. Reprinted with permission.

and local agencies to deal more realistically with terrorists threats.000 8. For instance.848. women and children.First. terrorist murderers do.9 $3. terrorists do. the rest must understand that democracy itself is under attack. and behave accordingly.000 6.. liberal democracies must acknowledge that international terrorism is a "collective problem. 582-585. Freedom fighters don't assassinate innocent businessmen or hijack and hold hostage innocent men.2 million 170 million Doctors Infant Mortality per 1..930. When one free nation is under attack. we are making some progress in organizing federal. We must be allied in our defense against terrorists. 1992) pp. mi. Secondly.. In my country. we must organize to combat terrorism in ways consistent with our democratic principles and with the strong support of our citizens.. Source: William Safire: Lend Me Your Ears: Great Speeches in History (New York.000 26 11 62 73 72 76 . Gross National Product Per Capita Income 277.the idea that one person's "terrorist" is another's "freedom fighter" cannot be sanctioned.. terrorist murderers do.2 $1. It is a disgrace that democracies would allow the treasured word "freedom" to be associated with the acts of the terrorists.." Everything else follow from this. 1989 The Soviet Union The United States Political Leader: Mikhail Gorbachev General Secretary.6 million 31. mi..8 trillion $ 4. Freedom fighters or revolutionaries don't blow up buses containing noncombatants.000 live births Life Expectancy at birth Males Females 896. is it moral to trade openly and freely with states who use the profits from such trade to finance the murder of innocents? Why should those who conduct remote control warfare against us rest easy that we will contribute to financing our own destruction? [Finally] within each of our own countries.700 Railroad Mileage Road Mileage Passenger Cars 141.6 trillion $ 12..5 million 65. Density per sq. and foremost.3 million 17 million 286. state. Bush President Population Land Area in sq.800 1. Communist Party George H. W.000 3.000 361. We can do more. THE SUPERPOWERS COMPARED.550 238. Freedom fighters don't set out to capture and slaughter schoolchildren.

de facto insurrections occurred in every communist capital except .000 184 85 million 164 million 639 80.000 4.800 85. provides his assessment of events leading to the student uprising in China in 1989 and the possible future consequences.026 592 5.170 3.465 1.609 387.2 million 1. San Diego.7 million Los Angeles 3. .700 1.000 inhabitants 20 11 16 9 Largest Cities: million Moscow 8.4 million Chicago 2.8 million New York 7.070 million CHINA. The year 1989 not only marks the 200th anniversary of the French Revolution.398 982 1. in future centuries it may be celebrated as a new watershed in revolutionary behavior.331 248 134 million 484 million 1.1 Kiev 2.7 144. A general crisis of communism engulfed the Marxist-Leninist states.Births per 1.5% 175 Men & Women in the Military Nuclear Missiles: Land Based Sea Based Bombers 3.000 titles 59.7 13. The problem of attempting to reform failed economic systems overtaxed the gerontocratic remnants of politburos in most communist systems and left them with the options of either repression or a sharing of power.000 titles 4.000 inhabitants Deaths per 1. 1989: TIANANMEN SQUARE IN PERSPECTIVE Chalmers Johnson.During 1989.9 million Work Force: Industrial Workers Agricultural Workers Average Monthly Industrial Wage 45% 20% $ 320 32% 3% $ 1.8% 14 1.6 million 99.6 million 1.000 99.0 billion 4..486 Entertainment: Annual Movie Attendance Annual Movies seen per capita Movie Theaters 1980 Film Production TV Sets Radio Sets Daily Newspapers 1980 Books Published 1980 Periodicals Museums Public Libraries Literacy Rate Nobel laureates 4.1 billion 15..1 Leningrad 4. Professor of Pacific International Relations at the University of California.

It does not work.According to the Chinese government's own statistics. czarist Russia and Meiji Japan. much like the attempt to achieve an outward orientation among less developed countries. China seemed to have taken Ferdinand E. Thermidor means that the peoples whose victimization justified the revolution finally decide to take their winnings and call it quits─consolidating the new order and preserving gains. Deng attempted economic reform without political change. The vanguards first attempt to force their ideology on the masses─the Reign of Terror in the French Revolution. Reform of a Soviet-type economy. the East German communist elites guarded paradise at Wandlitz. but as the economic dynamism of the non-communist Pacific reveals. Deng sought perestroika without glasnost.. The system had run out of benefits.. each with different trade-offs.. For communism to try distributing benefits equitably.. 70% of all reported economic crimes during 1987-88 were committed by . state-owned and -controlled enterprises cannot operate efficiently enough to finance a modern welfare system.those ruled by family dynasties. there are many possible forms of political economy other than Marxism-Leninism or Adam Smith's bedrock capitalism. By the late 1970s it had become apparent to virtually all Chinese that Mao's 27 years in power had produced nothing more than that: 27 years of personal dictatorship. there must be some benefits. Stalin's purges. But neither he nor his hand-picked managers of reform. Where Thermidor did not occur─largely because the masses are too unsophisticated to understand what their vanguards are up to─we see a typical pattern. the beach resorts and party stores of China's party plutocracy.. of reforms together with a clear understanding of what markets do and cannot do for economic systems. What is needed is a set. There are innumerable historical examples of similarly placed monopolists without political reform. Dictatorship was the second problem. There are different ways to do it. Brezhnev years. aims not at economic efficiency but at social justice. particularly after the advent of the information-based. Then the vanguard dictatorship becomes solidified and makes its rule routine. including those of the late Manchu China.Instead of studying such nearby functioning states as South Korea and Taiwan. The communist revolutions of the 20th Century differed from the English revolution of the 17th Century or the French Revolution of the 18th Century in that they did not culminate in "Thermidor... Deng tried to restart China's economy without disturbing the dictatorship's entrenched vanguards. Hu Yaobang and Zhao Ziyang. electronics-driven industrial structure. or critical mass. is typified by massive cynicism and corruption─the world of dachas in Russia. Marcos' Philippines as its model. Economic reform certainly must be accompanied by political reform. students of revolution mean that stage in the process of revolution when the masses assert themselves and send the revolutionary vanguards back to their customary occupations as clerks.. lawyers and functionaries. China's Great Leap Forward.Nothing is easy about this process. the sleepy but policed indolence of the Leonid I. This was not a particularly unusual project. is not a unilinear process. This latter phase." By Thermidor. But in the modern world. Although the terms had not yet been invented. ever touched the privileges of the old communist vanguards.. Communism. of course. but that is an inadequate way to put it..

Engels. and Romania were overthrown. That winter.. When he entered the White House in 1989. agreed to German reunification by 1994. plus heirs and descendants of the old vanguards.Deng and company used the army. China behaved worse than any other communist nation and with less excuse. the Communist governments in Yugoslavia. fearing otherwise an unpredictable instability in East Germany. Instead of compromising with the students. Estonia and Lithuania declared themselves independent of the Soviet Union. the union movement that had initiated the drive for liberalization. But Bush opted for it. These are the families of Deng. During the first year of his presidency. Many of the students who gathered in Tiananmen Square came from families of lesser officials or professionals on fixed incomes. Premier Li Peng. anxious about Russian security in the face of a united Germany and under pressure from hard-liners at home. In May 1990." The next time the students' cause will not be democracy but anti-communism. at a summit in Moscow. sentiment for reunification was mounting rapidly. he granted Gorbachev a trade package to help shore him up against the hard-liners. known as the 14 Big Families. Bulgaria. our cause is democracy. 1989. . Corruption extended all the way to the top political leadership. In July 1991..In East and West Germany. and a pro-democracy playwright became president of Czechoslovakia. Inflation affected them personally and focused their attention on families not troubled by inflation because those families were on the take. In May. thousands forced the regime to open the gates to the West and started tearing down the hated wall dividing Berlin. George Bush was suspicious of the genuineness of Mikhail Gorbachev's commitment to perestroika and glasnost.officials. the deposed party leader Zhao. Upheaval followed in East Germany. But Bush's caution was overwhelmed by volcanic demands for freedom that redrew the political map of Central Europe with stunning speed. President Yang Shangkun. and so did Poland. and Solidarity. December 17. The 14 Big Families reacted precisely as Marx. including members of the People's Liberation Army.. with Gorbachev having declared a hands-off policy. won control of the National Assembly. Calls for democracy were not so much for institutions of the West as they were for Thermidor─to get the entrenched old vanguards off the backs of the people and to hold public officials accountable. THE END OF THE COLD WAR The passage below by historian Pauline Meier describes the collapse of the Soviet Union and of four decades of superpower rivalry and potential nuclear war. resisted the union. in exchange. and Lenin had predicted such a ruling class would act under similar circumstances: in their own interest.The reply of the students of Tiananmen was apt: "Only power grows from the barrel of a gun. with the help of the administration.. Hungary cast off most of its Communist leadership. where in early November. In the worldwide 1989 crisis of communism.. Gorbachev. and Gorbachev. during a summit in Washington. Bush and Gorbachev signed the Strategic Arms . where... free elections were arranged. and in August Latvia broke free.. Source: Los Angeles Times.

vol. 1960 LETTER FROM A BIRMINGHAM JAIL LETTERS FROM MISSISSIPPI MURDER IN MISSISSIPPI BERKELEY: THE FREE SPEECH MOVEMENT PRESIDENT JOHNSON PROPOSES THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT MARTIN LUTHER KING AND THE FBI THE END OF NON-VIOLENCE: THE WATTS RIOT STOKLEY CARMICHAEL ON BLACK LIBERATION THE UW BLACK STUDENT UNION A "FISH-IN" ON THE NISQUALLY "TIO TACO IS DEAD" THE BROWN BERETS AND CHICANO LIBERATION THE WHITE BACKLASH. Russian hard-liners attempted a coup against Gorbachev and his reforms. replaced by a Commonwealth of Independent States comprising the eleven former Soviet republics. In defiance. and Boris Yeltsin. he was increasingly overshadowed by Yeltsin and. the president of the Russian republic. 1044-1045. and Yeltsin reigned over Russia. Inventing America: A History of the United States. courageously mounting a tank to denounce the plotters. 2 (New York. Gorbachev resigned. 2003). however. 1967 PARTICIPATORY DEMOCRACY: THE PORT HURON STATEMENT YOUNG AMERICANS FOR FREEDOM SEATTLE'S FIRST ANTI-WAR PROTEST BETTY FREIDAN ON "THE PROBLEM THAT HAS NO NAME" NOW'S CALL FOR ACTION THE EQUAL RIGHTS AMENDMENT AND ROE V. The following month. overwhelmed by the liberalizing forces he had unleashed. Source: Pauline Maier.Reduction Treaty (START 1). In January 1993. WADE THE IMMIGRATION ACT OF 1965 . rallied the crowd. the Soviet Union came to an end. CHAPTER NINE: THE RISE AND FALL OF LIBERALISM Readings for Chapter 9 Terms for Week 9 THE BABY BOOM GENERATION: ONE SEATTLEITE'S RECOLLECTION RONALD REAGAN TO RICHARD NIXON. p. The Cold War was now indisputably over. Bush and Yeltsin signed START II. which called for a two-thirds reduction in long-range nuclear weapons within ten years and complete elimination of land-based missiles. hundreds of thousands of people protectively cordoned off the parliament. In December 1991. an agreement to cut strategic nuclear weaponry ultimately by 30-40 percent. in the end. Although the coup failed and Gorbachev retained power.

The Feminine Mystique National Organization for Women (NOW) . 1980-2000 TWENTY TOP METROPOLITAN AREAS. 1820-1979 ASIAN AMERICAN POLITICAL ACTIVISM SINCE 1965 DREAMS OF PROSPERITY: NEWPORT AND LATINO IMMIGRATION CHANGING ATTITUDES TOWARD GOVERNMENT WATERGATE GAY RIGHTS: FROM STONEWALL TO SAN FRANCISCO OPEC. EMPLOYERS. 1994-2004 TERRORISM IN THE 1990s SEX. 1940-1979 NATIONAL BACKGROUNDS OF IMMIGRANTS. LIES. AND IMPEACHMENT AMERICAN URBANIZATION. 2000 9/11 Terms for Week 9 Wing Luke Barry Goldwater Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) Martin Luther King 1964 Civil Rights Act George Wallace League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC) Free Speech Movement Immigration Act of 1965 The Counterculture The Great Society Betty Freidan. THE WEST.IMMIGRATION TO THE UNITED STATES. AND THE POLITICS OF OIL HOSTAGE CRISIS IN IRAN THE CHALLENGE TO FEMINISM: PHYLLIS SCHLAFLY AND JERRY FALWELL "GREED IS GOOD": THE 1980s THE COMPUTER AGE ARRIVES THE INTERNET THE E-MAIL "REVOLUTION" BEGINS AMERICAN AND JAPANESE AUTOS IN THE 1990s MAJOR U.S.

My eyes filled with tears. twisting route had brought me to that moment. least of all me. I was born fourteen years earlier in a middle class suburb of Detroit. when annual births finally dropped below 4 million.Phyllis Schlafly Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) Roe v. That year was the leading edge of the "baby boom. the train delivered my mother and me to King Street Station. I first saw Seattle from the windows of the Great Northern's Empire Builder early one November morning in 1961. Three days out from Chicago. 75 million Americans were born between 1946 and 1964.8 million births in 1947. No one knew it then. 1972 Stonewall Riot Watergate Iranian Hostage Crisis Saturday Night Massacre Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) Jerry Falwell/Moral Majority "Reaganomics" The AIDS Crisis Desert Storm Newt Gingrich/Contract With America Monica Lewinsky The World Trade Organization (WTO) THE BABY BOOM GENERATION: ONE SEATTLEITE'S RECOLLECTION In the following vignette local historian and political activist Walt Crowley describes the baby boom generation. Nearly 50 million of us hit our teens and early twenties between 1960 and 1972 and were old enough to participate as leaders or followers in shaping the Sixties. but not of joy." This was not some postwar spurt of pent up passion but the first of a series of demographic tsunamis which would not crest until 1957 or abate until 1964. but I was one drop in a swelling wave of more than 3. where my father waited to take us to our new home. In all. Wade. A long. .

and not a little arrogance. Sheffield. it was also the richest. was raised an only child.. idealism. The coffee table was piled high with magazines--news. dramatic technological innovation. however." They have a point. caring person could be nothing else. But the magnitude of the baby boom cannot alone explain the unprecedented character of its impact on politics. I grew up a "liberal" without ever having to ask why. and it was born and reared in the world's most powerful nation flush with confidence. a faith in rationalism. art and social values. My father was a scientist. healthiest. and diverge early from the lives of others raised in large families. and Hull. scenes of federal troops guarding Negro children during the integration of Little Rock's Central High School. My mother was a feisty British war bride raised in the working class row houses of Hartlepool. The boom followed upon the fertility bust of the Depression and war years and thus overwhelmed the generation of its parents. and society never got ahead of the wave. Both were independent. popular culture. the Army-McCarthy hearings. it loomed even larger in relative terms. The adolescence of the baby boom also coincided with a profound transformation of economic organization from capital industry to mass consumerism. but our house resounded with discussions of current events and solutions to the world's problems. for a thinking. and best educated. There is no doubt that television shaped the political consciousness of my generation. and militant atheist. [Nobody] was prepared for my generation. and confident citizens eager to build a new world up from the ruins of World War II. We were shaped by both unprecedented affluence and anxiety. which deserves a little explanation. and interviews with Allen Ginsberg and other beatniks--each in its own way undermined faith in the established order and created an appetite for something new and better. science and science fiction--which provided my first reading. but the wrong one. Most children of the boom were raised with one or two siblings in "nuclear" families. my experience and understanding of the Sixties are condition by this basic natal fact. My parents instilled in me a fierce individualism. This golden cohort was not merely the largest in history. why couldn't the world? * * * . I. Neither of my parents was active politically. energetic. and a historical optimism which refuses to surrender to objective reality. the first children raised with televised mass marketing and the prospect of nuclear mass destruction.. a passion for justice. Conservatives like to argue that we were shaped by a "liberal media. my upbringing was not exactly average.. Beyond this.Huge as the baby boom was in absolute numbers.. and other social guardians. The content of news broadcasts--footage from far off wars in Korea and the Middle East. The boom did not erupt from the large families typically raised by farmers and the urban poor to provide a domestic work force and hedge against infant mortality. If breakfast cereals could improve themselves every other week. teachers. professors. and also great dread. inventor.

Rites of Passage: A Memoir of the Sixties in Seattle (Seattle. 1960 Shortly after the Democratic Party held its Convention in Los Angeles in 1960 where it nominated Massachusetts Senator John F... and puritanical. 11-13. RONALD REAGAN TO RICHARD NIXON. Having lived much of my life close to three of the nation's largest cities. 1995) pp. I had left Ridgefield [Connecticut] High School. The letter outlines Reagan's belief that the United States is. I would learn only much later about the richness of its past and the titanic struggles for wealth. had just visited Seattle.If the clay of my personality was still damp at age fourteen." Seattle yielded CORE its first employment gains for blacks and adoption of corporate "equal opportunity" policies by Nordstrom and other major retailers. Source: Walt Crowley. On my first day. the same could be said of Seattle when I arrived virtually on the city's 110th birthday.. I marched directly into the administration office to alert officials to this obvious collapse in social discipline. least of all at Jane Addams Junior High School.. Neither. 3-5. he became a voice for the "other Seattle" and championed causes such as open housing and minority employment. 1960 . The vice principal listened to my appeal for action and then replied.. He was the first non-white ever elected in the city.. Luke was no mere token. I like to think that we grew up together.. from what I could tell. Martin Luther King Jr. at heart.S. did education. to enter what was regarded as one of the worst in an undistinguished system. in which protesters would fill and then abandon their shopping carts. In October 1961. It wasn't really a school at all but an asylum for victims of juvenile dementia and hormonal hysteria.. July 15. Kennedy for President. labor and reform which shaped the city's destiny. I found Seattle puny. certainly we both changed during the next ten years.. Similar tactics clogged up Nordstrom's during "shoe-ins. The campaign. and his seat on the Council was the highest elective office yet attained by a Chinese American anywhere in the continental U. Another measure of social progress came in March 1962 when Wing Luke was elected to the Seattle City Council. consistently rated one of the nation's best.was later expanded to include "shop-ins" at area grocery stores. a conservative nation and that the GOP should rally many of those non-voting conservatives to political action. I walked into the lunch room to discover a full-scale food fight in progress. the new Seattle branch of CORE [Congress of Racial Equality] led a "selective buying" campaign to compel the major downtown department stores to hire more black clerks. Stories of old strikes and scandals had no place in the classroom. aren't you?" The Rev.. "You're going to be a little troublemaker. and troublemakers were much in the news at that time. Shocked. I was singularly underwhelmed by the city. provincial. Ronald Reagan sent the following letter to Vice President Richard Nixon offering his services in the upcoming presidential campaign.

I know there must be some short sighted people in the Republican Party who will advise that the Republicans should try to "out liberal" him. being Big Brother to us all.shouldn't some one tag Mr. "talks suitable for any patriotic occasion with platitudes and generalities guaranteed. Vice Pres. I am convinced that America is economically conservative and for that reason I think some one should force the Democrats to publish the "retail price" for this great new wave of "public service" they promise. I don't pose as an infallible pundit but I have a strong feeling that the twenty million non voters in this country just might be conservatives who have cynically concluded the two parties offer no choice between them where fiscal stability is concerned. will grow bigger & do more and of course spend more. In my opinion this would be fatal. He leaves little doubt that his idea of the "challenging new world" is one in which the Federal Govt. paid services at "any price" and if we collectively can afford "free .A. One has a feeling that general gratitude would be the reward for any one who would once and for all declare the "demonstration" abandoned. There is nothing new in the idea of a Govt. Invariably the reaction is a standing ovation--not for me but for the views expressed. I know this is presumptuous of me but I'm passing on some thoughts after viewing the Convention here in L. One last thought. Unfortunately he is a powerful speaker with an appeal to the emotions. That is why I'm presuming on your busy day with these thoughts. I'm sure the American people do not want the govt. Starting with the opening speech and continuing through all the speeches until Kennedy's acceptance speech I thought the Democrats could pick up some campaign money by selling the collection of addresses as. Hitler called his "State Socialism" and way before him it was "benevolent monarchy. Kennedy's bold new imaginative program with it's proper age? Under the tousled boyish hair cut it is still old Karl Marx-first launched a century ago." I apologize for taking so much of your time but I have such a yearning to hear some one come before us and talk specifics instead of generalities. No Republican no matter how liberal is going to woo a Democratic vote but a Republican bucking the give away trend might re-create some voters who have been staying at home. You were kind enough to write me to comment on the "talk" I had given and which you had read. I have been speaking on the subject in more than thirty eight states to audiences of Democrats & Republicans.-.Dear Mr. Now however TV has opened a window onto convention deliberations and the "demonstration" is revealed as a synthetic time waster which only serves to belittle us in what should be one of our finer moments. Somehow the idea persists that someone should put an end to the traditional demonstrations which follow each nomination." I do not include Kennedy's acceptance speech because beneath the generalities I heard a frightening call to arms. True they once had their place when their only purpose was to influence the delegates within the convention hall.

I cannot sit idly by in Atlanta and not be concerned about what happens in Birmingham. Frankly. I have yet to engage in a direct-action campaign that was "well-timed" in the view of those who have not suffered from the disease of segregation. Pacific Region.given rights. provincial "outside agitator" idea. it must be demanded by the oppressed. Ronnie Reagan Source: Reproduced from the holdings of the National Archives.this & that" they'd like to know it before they buy and not after it is entrenched behind another immovable govt. but it is even more unfortunate that the city's white power structure left the Negro community with no alternative. You deplore the demonstrations taking place in Birmingham. Never again can we afford to live with the narrow.. But more basically. King answers the ministers." Several months ago the [SCLC] affiliate here in Birmingham asked us to be on call to engage in a non-violent direct-action program if such were deemed necessary.. Anyone who lives inside the United States can never be considered an outsider anywhere within its bounds. The nations of Asia and Africa are moving with jet like speed toward gaining political independence. LETTER FROM A BIRMINGHAM JAIL By 1963 Martin Luther King had emerged as the most important civil rights leader of the era." We have waited for more than 340 years for our constitutional and God. I am in Birmingham because injustice is here... California. and when the hour came we lived up to our promise.. Laguna Nigel. I think I should indicate why I am here in Birmingham since you have been influenced by the view which argues against "outsiders coming in. It is unfortunate that demonstrations are taking place in Birmingham. You will be very much in my prayers in the days ahead. Sincerely. Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere.. but we still creep at horse-and-buggy pace toward gaining a cup . But your statement fails to express a similar concern for the conditions that brought about the demonstrations. Laguna Niguel Office.. bureau. We know through painful experience that freedom is never voluntarily given by the oppressor. some white Birmingham clergy openly criticized his efforts as harmful to the harmonious relationship between the races and questioned his commitment to Christianity. In his letter written while he was under arrest for violating Birmingham's segregationist ordinances. We readily consented.. For years now I have heard the word "wait!" This "wait" has almost always meant "Never. However as the campaign to desegregate public accommodations in Birmingham proved far more difficult than King or his followers had anticipated.

I felt so bad I was about ready to forget about going to Mississippi at all."--then you will understand why we find it difficult to wait.. a member of the National Council of Churches. The Negro American: A Documentary History. (Glenview. or white girl looking for "my summer Negro". I won't let you see your exam paper.. Yesterday he gave a long talk about people using each other and where to watch out for this within the movement itself (Negro man accuses white girl of being a racist if she won't go to bed with him. 1967). provide a brief glimpse of the impressions and emotions of the largely white college students who worked in Mississippi during that "Freedom Summer. Perhaps it is easy for those who have never felt segregation to say..." When your first name becomes "boy" (however old you are) and your last name becomes "John." June 15 Us white kids here are in a position we've never been in before. for the most part never experiencing any injustice other than "No. I just didn't feel like giving up my life.. when you have seen hate-filled policemen curse. 523. why do white people treat colored people so mean?. The direction of the whole program is under Negro leadership--almost entirely.. and has some excellent staff people here. kick and even kill your black brothers and sisters. Ill. I talked to a staff member covering that area for about fifteen minutes and he told me about the five Negroes who have been taken into the woods and shot in the last three months..when you have to concoct an answer for a five-year-old son who is asking: "Daddy. or Negroes in the community using volunteers as the . Fishel and Benjamin Quarles. the most dangerous area. (The NCC is paying for this orientation.. plump... A lot of the meetings have been run by a Negro Mennonite minister from Georgia." But when you have seen vicious mobs lynch your mothers and fathers and drown your sisters and brothers at whim. Source: Leslie H. And a large part of that leadership is young people from the South--Negroes who've had experience just because they're Negroes and because they've been active in the movement.of coffee at a lunch counter. June 15 I turned down a chance to work in the southwest part of the state. Dear Mom and Dad. LETTERS FROM MISSISSIPPI The following letters written between June and August. I decided that I have not discovered just how dedicated I am to the civil rights cause and that is the purpose of the trip. "Wait. After thinking about this seeming contradiction. And here "we" are. or vice versa." Monday night..) His name is Vincent Harding.. and brilliant moderator in discussions because he reacts so honestly and humorously to every question. bespectacled. p. I told him that I couldn't go in there because I was just too scared." and your wife and mother are never given the respected title "Mrs. 1964. But I still wanted to go.

I try to fight the bitterness.. In fact. because the thought is cruel.If you try.. While some questions were relevant. many were of the nature of: a "Would you marry a Negro?" "Is your organization Communist?" and "Why are Negroes so immoral?" Both Alvin and I felt that it was fairly successful. Convictions are worthless in themselves. it follows you in your conscience. northern whites. I realized what had been bothering me about those people at [the university].. two of us (both white) went to speak in two Sociology classes [at a local white university]..... Love. or you become a self-deceiving person who has numbed some of his humanness.... Bonnie July 30 Yesterday. Their questions were for the most part more sophisticated. for that matter. which turns him from a human being into an object. We spoke about our project in Holly Springs and then answered questions... July 29.. Susan June 27 Dear Mom and Dad. . His main point was that people within the movement must not use each other because it is that very exploitation of someone else.. etc). It is simply a fact and that is all I can say. There comes a time when you have to do things which your parents do not agree with. We were able to answer most of the questions in sociological terms. etc. It was that they were patting themselves on the back for recognizing and admitting that conditions in Mississippi were bad. It is very hard to answer to your attitude that if I loved you I wouldn't do this--hard.. they are worse than worthless--they become a force of evil in themselves. I have no way of demonstrating my love... It think you have to live to the fullest extent to which you have gained an awareness or you are less than the human being you are capable of being. if they don't become actions. These are examples of the kind of honesty that characterizes the whole training session. I can only hope you have the sensitivity to understand that I can both love you very much and desire to go to Mississippi. I am beginning to understand why people who work in the Movement come to not really care too much about the kind of thoughts of some "liberal" southern and. Love. I hope you will accept my decision even if you do not agree with me.. Both classes treated us respectfully and were very attentive to what we had to say.. You can't run away from a broadened awareness. This doesn't apply just to civil rights or social consciousness but to all the experiences of life.. Later. The second class which we attended was an advanced class in Urban Sociology.only available victims of their suppressed hostility to whites in general.. This letter is hard to write because I would like so much to communicate how I feel and I don't know if I can. that the movement is fighting against.

(New York. with nothing said. Ellen Source: Elizabeth Sutherland. Michael Schwerner and James Chaney. 22-23. now we're gonna let you stay here." When Schwerner was pulled from the car and stood up to be shot.. We're not even gonna run you out. were killed near Philadelphia. pp.Gulfport. Three cars were in the cut. but that they were jeered by the murderers..For the first time in my life. He was shot straight through the heart and fell to the ground.. It was before midnight. MURDER IN MISSISSIPPI During the 1964 Freedom Summer hundreds of black and white civil rights workers from throughout the United States assisted black Mississippians to register to vote and to challenge the racially discriminatory laws of the state. I was told that the three victims said nothing." Another said: "So you wanted to come to Mississippi? Well. 314. The passage below from William Bradford Huie's Three Lives for Mississippi. 45-72. Andrew Goodman.. Letters From Mississippi. I am seeing what it is like to be poor. Apparently he stood as still as Schwerner did. both for myself and for the Negroes of Mississippi. as though they had practiced it: "Ashes to ashes. And what I see here does not apply only to Gulfport or to Mississippi or even to the South. for the shot that killed him was the same precise shot. 145-147.. and hated. ed. 1965).. If you'd stayed where you belonged. True. we didn't tie the knot in Mississippi and we didn't pull the trigger in Viet Nam--that is. less than a mile from Highway 19. 229-230. oppressed. Goodman was next. Three of those workers. Your daughter. and the moon was still high. I was . You wouldn't be here with us.The people we're killing in Viet Nam are the same people whom we've been killing for years in Mississippi. describes their deaths. The murder was done in the "cut" on Rock Cut Road. about four miles from where the three were taken from the station wagon. Dust to dust. August 12 Dear Mother and Father: I have learned more about politics here from running my own precinct meetings than I could have from any Government professor. I was told that the man with the pistol asked him: "You still think a nigger's as good as I am?" No time was allowed for a reply. facing his executioner. This summer is only the briefest beginning of this experience. we personally--but we've been standing behind the knot-tiers and the trigger-pullers too long. Several of the murderers chanted in unison. We're gonna let you stay here with us.

I'm looking each one of you in the eye and telling you this: the first man who talks is dead! If anybody who knows anything about this ever opens his mouth to any outsider about it. They were also uncovered. The split was ironic. 3 Lives for Mississippi..456. and the only difference was that he struggled while the others had not. Berkeley student activists formed the Berkeley Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) to protest job discrimination. BERKELEY: THE FREE SPEECH MOVEMENT In the following vignette University of Washington historian William Rorabaugh describes the Free Speech Movement in Berkeley that began in September 1964. and at the Oakland Tribune. by 1960 the city was one-fifth black. Throughout 1964 CORE and its allies sponsored demonstrations at Lucky's stores in Berkeley. a former U." he said. After the burial the station wagon was driven to a point fifteen miles northeast of Philadelphia. So he wasn't shot with the same precision. Afterwards the murderers began drinking though none could be called drunk. boys... 1968) pp. and in October 1964 the school board was nearly recalled over desegregation. organ of William F. to the edge of the Bogue Chitto swamp.750 to 20. Note the movement's links to civil rights activism then taking place in the South. They were met by an official of the state of Mississippi. In truth. There it was doused with diesel fuel and burned. using the same pistol. These votes indicated the city's bitter divisions. then the rest of us are going to kill him just as dead as we killed those three sonsofbitches tonight. Berkeley's blacks lived in a corner of the city remote from the University. In 1963 Berkeley voters rejected an open housing ordinance.S. forty-four days later. 118-121. because liberals had long considered Berkeley to be advanced. and they pointed with pride to the black assemblyman elected from a mostly white district as early as 1948. and both school segregation and discrimination in employment and housing were common. but my opinion remains that one man fired both shots.. Chaney was last. with a bulldozer. white Berkeley was schizophrenic--many older residents were native Southerners. Mississippi can be proud of you.. "Well. dead. One seldom saw a black on campus. He didn't stand still. All three bodies were buried in darkness with a bulldozer. Knowland. he tried to pull and duck away from his executioner. black shoppers were not welcome in downtown Berkeley. Due to black migration from the South. You've struck a blow for the White Man. 22. The three bodies were tossed into the station wagon and driven along dirt roads to a farm about six miles southwest of Philadelphia. Go home now and forget it. (New York. In the early 1960s Berkeley student activists were particularly drawn to the civil rights cause because of the changing racial composition of the city of Berkeley. "Does everybody understand what I'm saying? The man who talks is dead. "you've done a good job.told that another man fired the shot. But before you go. .dead!" Source: William Bradford Huie. at the Sheraton-Palace Hotel and along auto row in San Francisco. and he was shot three times instead of once..

Whether pressured from outside or not." They knew when to advance. on the other hand..rules banning political activity on campus.. Alex C... and how to negotiate. how to use the media. In keeping with the.where they had been placed in growing numbers for two or three years. it appeared that a handful of agitators systematically used the campus as a staging ground for making trouble. when the Republican national convention met in San Francisco.senator. The vice-chancellor saw himself as a moral guardian bound to protect the purity of the campus and its clean cut fraternity and sorority kids from unkempt beatniks and wild-eyed radicals. who in other circumstances might have sided with Kerr. how to intimidate.. The activists were better prepared for war than [University President Clark] Kerr.. and sandaled.. The activists identified the issue as a traditional American right in order to appeal to large numbers of students. they knew what they wanted. To Sherriffs. possibly blue-jeaned.. Sherriffs.' "is not easily scared by academic bureaucrats. Mass psychology. theater. and other techniques long favored among revivalists and street politicians accompanied innovative mass meetings at which people freely spoke and at which collective decisions were made by. activist leaders knew how to maintain discipline over their troops. First. Finally. Through these techniques and by focusing on the simplicity of the demand for free speech. was as unready to do battle as a southern sheriff facing a civil rights march for the first time... In 1964 one of the first sights a visitor saw. at the corner of Bancroft and Telegraph. Although the leaders were not close to one another. including Mario Savio and Art Goldberg. when to retreat. they -demanded an end to the regulation of political activity on campus. the sit-in.became upset by the activists' presence. Kerr showed that he understood nothing about his opponents' tactics. activists created. Again and again. activists organized anti-Goldwater pickets on the Cal campus.. To some people. manning a card table. perhaps worried less about political activity itself than about its visibility and the effect that it had upon visitors to campus. a kind of consensus that came to be called participatory democracy. Although their specific demands changed over time. . "A student who has been chased by the KKK in Mississippi. were dumbfounded in mid-September when the University suddenly issued new rules that banned tables. When the activists sought an explanation for the change. and were prepared to use it. jingling a can. This was called free speech. bearded.sixty students had worked for civil rights in Mississippi. Vice-Chancellor for Student Affairs. activists for-several years had solicited donations and sign-ups for protests from card tables set up on the city sidewalk at the edge of campus at Bancroft and Telegraph. and they returned to campus with renewed dedication and determination. Second. was a student.an army. song. whose office was in Sproul Hall.. The activists understood their ultimate weapon. activists looked forward to recruitment and fund-raising. how to use crowds. Kerr badgered his beleaguered bureaucracy until it could barely function. In the summer of 1964... this scene was appalling because it created an image of the University as a haven for eccentrics and malcontents. they could get no answers. and asking for a donation to support civil rights. they spoke a common language gained through a common experience." observed one student.. Sherriffs.. These activists.... In contrast. Kerr. some of the activist leaders were battle-tested veterans of the civil rights movement. Over the summer.. When the University opened that September.

there were always at least several hundred surrounding the car. For thirty-two hours Weinberg sat in the back of the police car. President. someone shouted. People aired all sorts of views. to join me in that cause. 1989). Martin Luther King led demonstrations at Selma. the FSM later took up a collection and paid the $455. Rorabaugh. "Sit down." the thrill of power over the police. During the sit-down the demonstrators used the roof of the police car (with police permission) as a podium to speak to the crowd. Alabama. Mr. and as Weinberg got into the car. because they had never encountered such massive defiance.01 damage. removed his shoes to climb atop the car. and the feeling that something important was happening. the governor's son.. Students expressed their powerlessness. The 1960s (New York." Suddenly. who was manning a CORE table. . It was not a fair match. Mario Savio. and when he spoke. his words seemed especially to energize the crowd. He became a celebrity and was identified by the crowd as the leader of the activists. PRESIDENT JOHNSON PROPOSES THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT On March 7. Among those who observed the sit-down was Jerry Brown. from every section of this country. p. The angry students escalated the conflict by moving their tables to Sproul Plaza. This protest led to a mill-in inside Sproul Hall and the summary "indefinite suspension' of eight students [including] Mario Savio [and] Art Goldberg. During the night students who disapproved of the sit-down--many from nearby fraternities--molested the protesters by tossing lighted cigarettes and garbage into the crowd. several hundred students surrounded the car. Members of the Congress: I speak tonight for the dignity of man and the destiny of democracy.. Here is part of his address to Congress: Mr. 20-21. Participants later recalled the spontaneity of the "sit-down.. The police drove a car onto the plaza to take Weinberg to be booked. This event launched the Free Speech Movement. Speaker. Although students came and went. University police went to the plaza to arrest a former student. So many people stood on the car's roof that it sagged. From then on Savio battled Kerr.. then living in Berkeley. Source: William J. 18-19.. on October 1. which contrasted with the power that they held over the immobilized police car. and the discussion moved from the rules banning political activity to analyses of the University's governance. Johnson for the first time placed the full support of the Presidency behind Dr. One week later President Lyndon Johnson spoke before a joint session of Congress to urge passage of voting rights legislation that would guarantee that right. Several times a twenty-one year old junior. The activists responded by singing civil rights songs. Jack Weinberg.Throughout September 1964 skirmishes continued as defiant activists set up tables and were cited by irritated deans. to secure voting rights for black Americans. Finally. I urge every member of both parties. 1965. Kerr's bureaucracy became paralyzed. King and the Civil Rights Movement. who was hostile to the protest. Americans of all religions and of all colors. The police did not know what to do. Berkeley at War.

For Negroes are not the only victims.. 1984). more than a hundred years. how many white families have lived in stark poverty.. poverty. The American Spirit. This bill will strike down restrictions to voting in all elections. How many white children have gone uneducated. restless country can offer opportunity and education and hope to all: black and white. And these enemies too. Source: Thomas A. And we shall overcome. and the time for waiting is gone. Kennedy. and to all in the Nation tonight. we shall overcome.. got an anonymous letter suggesting he was a fraud and that he . shortly after his notification that he was the Nobel Peace Prize recipient. It is the effort of American Negroes to secure for themselves the full blessings of American life. rich. I think that day will brighten the lives of every American.which have been used to deny Negroes the right to vote. North and South. As a man whose roots go deeply into Southern soil I know how agonizing racial feelings are. And he is not fully free tonight. Because it is not just Negroes. This great. who must overcome the crippling legacy of bigotry and injustice. since the Negro was freed. the battle will not be over. We have already waited one hundred years and more. MARTIN LUTHER KING AND THE FBI In 1964 Martin Luther King. I tell you that I believe sincerely that no force can hold it back. because we have wasted our energy and our substance to maintain the barriers of hatred and terror? So I say to all of you here. But a century has passed. (Lexington. They are the enemies and not our fellow man. These are the enemies: poverty... ignorance. sharecropper and city dweller. Bailey and David M.Wednesday I will send to Congress a law designed to eliminate illegal barriers to the right to vote.. disease and ignorance. Their cause must be our cause too. But even if we pass this bill. not our neighbor. The time of justice has now come. 872-873.. that those who appeal to you to hold on to the past do so at the cost of denying you your future. What happened in Selma is part of a far larger movement which reaches into every section and State of America. And when it does. how many white lives have been scarred by fear.. pp.. but really it is all of us. It is right in the eyes of man and God that it should come. We cannot refuse to protect the right of every American to vote in every election that he may desire to participate in. I know how difficult it is to reshape the attitudes and the structure of our society. disease. Mass.

. The nation's attention. your Nobel Prize (what a grim farce) and other awards will not save you. Source: David J. You know you are a complete fraud and a great liability to all of us Negroes. Jr. For a brief time. even at an early age have turned out to be not a leader but a dissolute.. Catholic and Jews will know you for what you are--an evil. You are done.. there is only one thing left for you to do. like all frauds your end is approaching.. You know what it is. vicious one at that. 125.. You have just 34 days in which to do it (this exact number has been selected for a specific reason. not even a fraud like yourself. The FBI and Martin Luther King. King you are done. The letter is reprinted below.commit suicide. THE END OF NON-VIOLENCE: THE WATTS RIOT The four days of rioting that swept the Watts section of Los Angeles in August. King. Clearly you don't believe in any personal moral principles. abnormal beast. Charles Patrick Fizer. a man of character and thank God we have others like him. abnormal fraudulent self is bared to the nation. (New York. King. We will now have to depend on our older leaders like Wilkins.. your last name calls to mind only the type of King such as King Henry the VIII. There is but one way out for you. which had previously been focused on the rural South now shifted to the ghettos of the North and West as African Americans demonstrated their anger with the prevailing political and economic status quo. You are no clergyman and you know it. What incredible evilness. . White people in this country have enough frauds of their own but I am sure they don't have one at this time anywhere near your equal. Garrow. King. abnormal moral imbecile. People paid to hear Charles Fizer sing. 1965 proved a turning point in the Civil Rights struggle. look into your heart. pp. You are done. born in Shreveport Louisiana.126. sang because he loved to-and for money. the church organizations that have been helping--Protestant. I repeat--no person can argue successfully against facts.... he made it big. The passage below describes the death of Charles Patrick Fizer. I will not dignify your name with either a Mr. You better take it before your filthy. I repeat you are done. And. or a Reverend or a Dr. You could have been our greatest leader. In view of your low grade.... Your "honorary" degrees. I repeat you are a colossal fraud and an evil. You. But you are done. The American public. No person can overcome facts. King. So will others who have backed you. one of the 34 people killed during the riot. it has definite practical significant [sic]). It was later determined that the letter originated with the FBI which was trying to discredit King and retard the Civil Rights Movement. 1981). Satan could not do more. You could not believe in God.

. August 12.M. Charles Fizer was taken there by his grandparents. 1966). He served six months at hard labor on a county prison farm after being arrested with illegal barbiturates. He was released Thursday. A white man giving him an order? Perhaps. He had a good voice. His testy attitude and souring views cost him his job with the singing group. he became impatient. In a article published later that year he discussed its ramifications for America. Too many white faces challenging him? Perhaps. (New York. The Fizer family was a religious one. 1965. He and another entertainer formed a night club duo. when he was seven. Baby. [But] Charles became restless..Came the Olympics' recording of "Hully Gully. Suddenly.. as the group was known.... he hit bottom. The history of every institution of this society indicates that a major concern. when he was only three.Most of the Fizer family migrated to California during World War II to take jobs in the buzzing Los Angeles area aircraft plants and shipyards. he moved to Watts with his mother.He became part of a successful group of entertainers.. he was singing in night clubs. Charles attended the Sweet Home Baptist Church and became an enthusiastic choir member. Charles Fizer wakened early Friday. he stopped short of a National Guard roadblock at 102nd and Beach Streets. pp. he turned on the car's headlights and shifted into forward gear. Other hit songs followed. a bullet in his left temple.. 211-213.. By the time he was fifteen.has been the maintaining of the Negro community in its condition of dependence and . he backed the Buick away from the barricade.. The Olympics won television guest shots. STOKLEY CARMICHAEL ON BLACK LIBERATION In the Spring of 1966 Stokely Carmichael became chairman of the Student Non. Murphy. He lived with them for a time. But that night Charles Fizer drove through Watts after the curfew hour. and it seemed nothing could stop Charles Fizer from reaching the top.. Then came the roar of M-1 carbines. he pointed the car straight for the roadblock.But there would be no work Saturday─the restaurant manager decided to close until peace was restored in the city." and Charles Fizer was something to be reckoned with as an entertainer. The record sold nearly a million copies. Burn: The Los Angeles Race Riot August. Even as the violence spread in Los Angeles. but it flopped.. Burn. went jobhunting and found work as a busboy. Then. Charles came up with a snaky dance to fit the "Hully Gully" music. The Buick spun crazily and rammed a curb. Inside the car he lay dead. Inexplicably. In any event.. With his fellow performers. He broke in singing second lead with the Olympics. Guardsmen cried to him to halt and fired warning shots into the air. Source: Jerry Cohen and William S. The summer of the Los Angeles Riot. The riot already was in progress. The time was 9:15 P. Charles Fizer never realized his resolve to make a new life. What compelled him to jam the accelerator to the floor only he could say─and soon he was past explaining.Violent Coordinating Committee and soon afterwards advanced the concept of Black Power. In the center of the fireblackened community. In 1944.

Such leadership will recognize that its power lies in the unified and collective strength of that community. but as total acts by the White community against the Negro community. that act is widely deplored by most segments of the society. Negroes will in the next three decades control the heart of our great cities. The single aspect of the black power program that has encountered most criticism is this concept of independent organization. . these communities will exist in a constant state of insurrection. Without the power to control their lives and their communities. The only difference is that we will have the power to define the terms of these alliances. because there are no viable alternatives--not the War on Poverty. If such a program is developed it will not have the effect of isolating the Negro community but the reverse. 414... Alabama. Source: Thomas R. and with the white rush to suburbia. without effective political institutions through which to relate to the total society.that is a function of institutionalized racism. This has not been on the level of individual acts of discrimination between individual whites against individual Negroes. and negotiate with other groups from a position of organized strength. can the ghettoes in fact be organized?" The answer is that this organization must be successful.. And "Integration" is meaningful only to a small chosen class within the community. Birmingham. which was at its inception limited to dealing with effects rather than causes. Let me give you an example of the difference between individual racism and institutionalized racism. "So--can it work. but to the community--must be developed.420.. or organized and powerful communities able to make constructive contributions to the total society. the possibility of meaningful political alliances on specific issues will be increased. A leadership which is truly "responsible"--not to the white press and power structure. These areas can become either concentration camps with a bitter and volatile population whose only power is the power to destroy. (Chicago. and has become simply another source of machine patronage. That is a rule of politics and there is no reason why it should not operate here. Afro. When the Negro community is able to control local office. not five but 500 Negro babies die each year because of lack of proper food. We must organize black community power to end these abuses. pp. This is presented as third-partyism which has never worked. 419. and to give the Negro community a chance to have its needs expressed. 1988). or a withdrawal into black nationalism and isolationism. This is a choice that the country will have to make. Frazier. When unidentified white terrorists bomb a Negro Church and kill five children.oppression. shelter and medical facilities. [The] "inner city" in most major urban areas is [sic] already predominately Negro. The next question usually is. But when in that same city.American History: Primary Sources.

"For example. I like basketball." says Gossett. To combat this.THE UW BLACK STUDENT UNION By 1968 Black Student Unions had emerged on virtually every major university campus in the United States including the University of Washington. a black athlete is Mister when he's overseas. and ultimately I intend to go into personnel work. a half-dozen BSU members. "There are other aspects. "Yeah.. one thing we want to do is establish courses in Afro-American culture .. Though nothing on the door proclaims it." Adds Brown. we're in full support of the Olympic Games boycott. So many of us now are hungry to compete and able to compete if we get the chance. This country has been using its black athletes far too long." he explains. 'You keepin' in shape? You goin' to play pro ball?' I'm supposed to be the dumb black athlete who can't do anything else. Whitey put-ons and serious discussion." Gossett wears black-frame glasses and a big Afro. The conversation is a mixed bag of self-kidding. and on one recent afternoon. so it's never served black students.about the feelings of Negroes on the campus. But you know the single thing that bothers me most? Nobody will ever talk to me about anything except basketball. but I also am taking a degree in business. who later spoke. can't get a job. I'm not exceptional. he gestures as he speaks. "The Black Student Union is for anything that advances the cause of black people. Brisker. Jesse Crowder. "like not being able to find a place to live in the U. Among the 13 was basketball player Dave Carr. The educational system is geared for white. But no one's interested in that. Hell. the room is jammed with furnishings. of W. one of those involved in the Franklin High sit-in. In March [1968] the U. Athletic Department was jolted by charges of racism and discrimination made by some 13 black athletes.' Or sometimes we're considered exceptional Negroes. "In general. The vignettes below provide rare glimpses into the campus mood which generated the UW BSU. BSU vice-president. Room 92 houses the UW Black Students' Union (BSU). the BSU's sole Mexican American. one of the four young men who had been charged with firebombing. rather than to be responsible to the needs of our brothers in the ghetto. and he has a habit of gnawing his lower lip." he continued. We're educated to fit into some non-existent slot in white society. "White students just look at us like. District. middle-class kids. The first vignette describes black student athletes and the second is an interview with UW BSU leaders. and Larry Gossett. Among those present are E. Little more than a cubbyhole." * * * Hidden away in a far corner in the basement of the UW HUB is Room 92. I'm just lucky. Richard Brown.J. showing them off in foreign lands to convince the people that racism doesn't exist in America--when we know it does. "the Black Students' Union is a political organization set up to serve the wants and needs of black students on white campuses. but he's nothing when he gets home--can't find housing.' racism is not so noticeable these days." says Carr. 'What are you doing on our campus. "Except for some talk of 'niggers. Brown and Gossett do most of the talking.

not their smaller operations. He stated that he was directing the game wardens at the Landing on Oct. leggings and necklaces. Many of us were dressed in our traditional way with headbands.." he says.". some dressed in their uniforms and some in plain clothes. between state officials and Indians who refused to stop fishing. to fish and net salmon on the Nisqually and other rivers. and was over at 4:30. 5:51 (June 1968) pp. Janet McCloud. the game wardens were looking us up and down. 1965. recounts her story at the trial.and history. "Voices from the Ghetto. Suzan Satiacum and Don George Jr. a Tulalip mother of eight was one of the protestors arrested and held in jail. laughing at us. were arrested that day. As we walked into the hallways there were many game wardens standing there. "until all blacks are free. Nugent Kautz. During the controversy there were a number of "battles" around Puget Sound and on the Columbia River. all we could do was wait till the trials started.. ending the conversation. The trial was to begin on January 15. We went into the courthouse that Wednesday certain that we would not receive justice as was proved to us in other trials. 13. 1969." Now. at 9:30. At the time of the fish-in I thought that there were about a hundred game wardens." On Richard Brown's lapel is a button which displays a leaping black panther. Don & Janet McCloud. 41-44. According to the protesters. but we recognized all of them. There was a seventh Indian who was later arrested for the same charge. pollution and commercial fishing were depleting the salmon. Her daughter." Source: Ed Leimbacher. They were released after posting bail a few hours later.. we held a "fish-in" on the Nisqually River to try and bring a focus on our fishing fight with the State of Washington. .. A "FISH-IN" ON THE NISQUALLY In mid-October 1965 a group of Washington State Indians staged one of their first "fish-ins" to protest state conservation prohibitions against traditional fishing. Laura McCloud. Hw was in charge of the reinforcements from all over the State that come down on us like a sea of green. As we walked the length of the corridor to the courtroom. Puyallup and others enjoyed since the days of their treaties signed in 1855. they don't know any better. On October 13. "Don't pay any attention to them. It ended with six Indians in jail and dazed Indian kids wondering "what happened?" My parents. the white man's dams. The "fish-in" started at 4:00 p.m. "No black person will be free. Al and Maiselle Bridges. In jeopardy were rights which Northwest tribes like the Nisqually. The first witness for the State was a field marshal for the game department-Zimmerman. And he had not been a Frank's Landing on that day. The charges against these six Indians was "obstructing the duty of a police officer." Seattle Magazine. I said to my cousin.

. Tulalip Indian.. The Prosecuting attorney got real shook up about these. showing billie clubs and seven-celled flashlights. He told of the tactics the game wardens use on us...The next morning the State started off with their last witness. At the time of the fish-in he was the editor of the Auburn Citizen newspaper. once you get tangled in nylon mesh it is very easy to drown. The foreman came in first and said. it was plain to see that the game wardens had lied. Lasseter. especially the one who had been beating on Alison and Valerie Bridges. yes. He talked about how we Indians are the ones who depleted the fish in the Puyallup River and if we weren't controlled we would do the same to the Nisqually River. "Did I hear right?" She nodded her head.she started to. The next defense witness was Janet McCloud. Besides. I turned to my cousin and said. This was at ten o'clock at night. She told how she felt when she realized that the game wardens were going to ram our boat.. except the State. My two little brothers were in the boat when it was rammed... billie clubs and brass knuckles.." They have never stopped! Source: Peter Nabokov. pictures of game wardens. Everyone was happy.. we could tell she was trying very hard to keep from crying but. After the two lawyers gave their summations the jury went into session.. Now it was our turn! The first witness for our defense was Bob Johnson.. "TIO TACO IS DEAD" . And why would we want to wipe out our livelihood? Our attorney made Lasseter state that could have been the pollution not the Indians who depleted the fish in the Puyallup River.. It seemed like he was saying "I object" every few minutes." I thought. Then the judge read. The Puyallup River is filled with pollution more than it is with water. We only hoped that the jury would believe our side of the fish-in story...and [how] these mean meant business with their.. ed. 362-366.flashlights. here comes another guilty [verdict]. She told. They were out until midnight.. I didn't believe it. "The jury finds the defendant Nugent Kautz 'not guilty..why the Indians had the fish-in demonstration on that day and what the mood the Indians had before the fish-in.. With all this testimony and evidence.. 1991). pp.'" He read the rest of the names with the same verdict.. Native American Testimony: A Chronicle of Indian-White Relations from Prophecy to the Present. We also learned the names of the game wardens whose pictures we had. Mr. The game wardens were very hostile after this. So the war goes on--which goes to prove that the history books are wrong when they talk about "the last Indian wars. the youngest was 7 and could not swim. " The rest are afraid to come in. While she was telling this story. We were not expecting any violence because all my brothers and sisters were there and the youngest was 4 at that time. 1492-1992 (New York. Johnson also had evidence with him.. State Fisheries Biologist. When the foreman handed the judge the decision the room became very silent.

"There's a lot to the saying that all Texas Rangers have Mexican blood. Commission on Civil Rights. And the vast majority of Mexican-Americans who are employed work at unskilled." it says. their slogans. divided roughly into two subgroups. subgroup is made up of more recent immigrants from Mexico and their descendants. advice that just about locks young chicanos into the poverty cycle.000 a year.6 million Mexican-Americans in the United States. they make do on less than $3. anywhere where there is a decent-size blank space young chicanos scrawl their names... they live in rural communities scattered across New Mexico and Colorado... someone has written a footnote to American history.. Brown has become aggressively beautiful. poverty-stricken Mexican-Americans live in unbelievably primitive conditions.. Through the Southwest today.. Substantial migration to the U.. in education or simply on a person-to-person basis--has amounted to psychological oppression of incalculable dimension. as they prefer to be called. The second.This title of a 1970 Newsweek article signaled for many in the United States an introduction to the Chicano Movement. The forefather of these Spanish Americans." Just as often the Anglo attitude has been more subtle--and more crippling. Guidance counselors regularly steer students into "realistic" vocational programs.jobs. From the ghettos of Los Angles. Today. Countrywide. founded California and gave Los Angeles its name. began with the Mexican Revolution and went on through the 1960s with Texas serving as the way station to the great urban ghettos of San Antonio. sulking in the shadow of an Anglo culture--is dead. On top of the poverty.. The first is made up of descendants of settlers who arrived in the Southwest before the Mayflower. It is impossible to ignore the handwriting on the wall--the enormous.S. a new Mexican-American militancy is emerging. the stereotype Mexican-American. "Con safos.. the unemployment rate among chicanos is twice as high as the unemployment rate among Anglos. a third of them are below the official poverty line--that is. were 90% of the Mexican-Americans live. On the ash-gray bricks of one nameless liquor store deep in the heart of the East Los Angeles barrio. Los Angeles. MexicanAmericans average four years less schooling than Anglos and two years less than Negroes. Excerpts of the article appear below. sapped of energy and ambition. angular jottings that spillover imaginary margins." Tio Taco--or Uncle Taco. Mexican-Americans have long been subjected to violence by the authorities. a chicano activist in Los Angeles. on littered sidewalks.. Across the peeling faces of neo-Victorian buildings. and points farther north. For years... through the wastelands of New Mexico and Colorado. Statistics tell only part of the story. their dreams.S. "They have it on their boots. "Tio Taco is dead." one witness told the U. Their are 5. law-enforcement agencies in the Southwest acted as it was open season on muchachos. In some sections of Texas. "Why do they beat us and throw us into . into the fertile reaches of the Rio Grande valley in Texas.. Denver. and larger. Overall the insensitivity of Anglos--whether in government... "Why do they persecute us"? asks Bob Castro.

have worked within the system and have been reform oriented. 27-30. 1970. The Brown Berets. The Brown Berets is an exception. culture and history? Why do they call us names? Why do they hate us. in effect. the YCCA opened a coffee shop called La Piranya to raise operating expenses. and even encouraged counter groups to attack the members. and persecuting the Brown Berets in a way that no other Chicano organization has experienced in recent times. Whether or not the threat was real is not at issue. has aroused a fear in Anglo-Americans that a Chicano group would counter U. In effect. In time. Police and sheriff's deputies raided the Berets. June 29. This is especially true in Los Angeles. The members began to wear brown berets. The group was sponsored by an interfaith church organization. the Los Angeles Sheriff's Department began a vicious "bust the Berets" operation. oppression with its own violence. where the Berets were founded. panicked police officials and exposed their basic undemocratic attitudes toward Mexicans or groups attempting to achieve liberation. it is an affirmation of the police's increasing awareness of the resentment toward police brutality and the realization that the theme of liberation is becoming more popular among Chicanos.prison? Why do they insult our language. Beret chapters spread throughout the Southwest and Midwest. The YCCA became popularly known as the Brown Berets. and they took on a paramilitary stance. They raided them.. sheriff's deputies harassed the Brown Berets and so disorganized them that they were . These organizations. and its founding leader was David Sánchez. libeled and slandered them.S.. with the organization evolving from a community service club into a quasi "alert patrol. The objective was to destroy the Berets and to invalidate the membership in the eyes of both the Anglo and the Chicano communities." Later in the year. Four other Chicanos joined Sánchez as charter members. In Los Angeles. intimidating. At first they were known as Young Citizens for Community Action (YCCA). The Brown Berets were formed in 1967 in East Los Angeles.?" Source: Newsweek.. this is reflected in the change in the group's name to the Young Chicanos for Community Action. More important is that law enforcement authorities believed that the Brown Berets were capable of violence or arousing this kind of action in other groups. Most Chicano organizations have had defensive postures and have reacted to crisis situations. Simultaneously. picked up members. it is one of the few Chicano organizations advocating physical measures to defend the Chicano community's rights. for the most part. a teenager from a lower-class family. THE BROWN BERETS AND CHICANO LIBERATION In the following account historian Rodolfo Acuna describes the Brown Berets who emerged in the East Los Angeles barrio in the late 1960s. The Brown Berets. This militant profile attracted a large number of young Chicanos and had considerable impact on the student organizations of the time. pp. The police and sheriff's departments there abandoned reason in harassing. Events meanwhile forced the organization to become more militant. infiltrated them. and spread rumors that they were Communists. the group's defensive posture crystallized.

. This case was appealed and later declared unconstitutional. There were also very real differences: the Black Panthers evolved from a Poverty Agency.. Unable to articulate their feelings or their grievances. and they were not able to attract high-powered legal assistance to advertise the police harassment of the group. the Berets operated with no budget. the Black Panthers attracted many middle-class Black intellectuals as well as white radicals (nonmembers). A basic weakness in the Brown Berets is that it does not have the strong family structure that has heretofore marked survival and success for most Chicano organizations. despite the . their frustrations. the Berets were there. housing. They were the shock troops.forced to shut down their coffee shop in March 1968. while playing down the legitimate grievances of the Chicano students. The Battle of Algiers." .. a film depicting the Algerian struggle against the French. especially those in their early teens. The lack of funds prevented the Berets from building a Panther-like network among its own chapters. Both organizations were paramilitary. In addition. offering to serve and taking the brunt of the police brutality. Nonetheless. These youth were attracted by the physical nature of the Beret-defined form of confrontation. the uniform and the paramilitary nature of the group gave members and nonmembers the feeling that they could strike back in the manner that they felt and understood best--physically. the batos were alienated from the mainstream of the Chicano community. has been frustrated by outside interference such as police harassment and Red-baiting. they dealt with the immediate needs of the barrio-food. the popularity of the group spread. the ministers of defense. e. but only after three years of legal harassment. It has not been accepted as the "Army of the Brown People.. Moreover. The Berets inspired a revolutionary fervor in many youth. the prime minister. obvious parallels between the Brown Berets and the Black Panthers emerged. unemployment. The Berets evolved into a radical group.. which did not understand their hybrid culture or. etc.. A grand jury later indicted 13 Chicanos on conspiracy charges stemming from the walkout. education. Imbued with the politics of liberation. Meanwhile. but as one observer stated: "When the crap came down. the Berets were escalated into the national limelight by the East Los Angeles school walkouts. attracted the street batos (guys) who directly felt the oppression of the police and the street. whereas the leadership of the Berets was primarily comprised of high school dropouts who were highly suspicious of educated Chicanos and who almost totally rejected Anglos. Moreover.. Their philosophy has been molded by the conflict and the street. That same month. for example.." During the walkout. the Berets. or to obtain editorial help in producing sophisticated literature. seven were Brown Berets. and they had a similar organizational structure. who not only wanted to defend themselves. many times.g. As the police and sheriff's repression increased. the Panthers have received considerable financial support from the Anglo-American liberal community. the only offensive action during this time was on the part of law enforcement agencies.. whereas the Berets were much younger and their base was the barrio. the police and sheriffs departments attempted to make the Brown Berets the scapegoats. There is little evidence that the organization itself took a leadership role in planning the walkouts. branding them as outside agitators. became a model. education.Its attempt to operate a free clinic in East Los Angeles. but wanted to stand up and fight. At the same time.. etc. The ability to serve and to protect the Chicano barrio by any means necessary provided a link with the Chicano community. Ironically.

I'm as devout a Catholic as you'll find around. which shall become more offensive. or something. What about the rest of us? Who comes here asking us how we get by. Anyway. The governor wasn't either. You'd think Negroes were the only people in America that have a tough time. Everybody can't live with you. but no by very much. if they meant so well. THE WHITE BACKLASH. But no. just as we do. I can't read the papers anymore when they talk about the race thing. and nobody was talking about Negroes and busing us around. Now they're so worried. and get away from us. it's our fault. Priests never used to talk about the Negro when I was a child." which attempted to explain the "backlash." the growing white resentment of black civil rights gains in the 1960s. They worked and worked to get away from him. Why do they do it? [Call for integrated schools] I don't understand them at all. too. pp. where they can do something. and I do more than go to Church once a week. The Negroes were in Roxbury and we were here. 231-233. The same with those people out in the suburbs. They never used to care about anything. And the same goes with the Church. what they don't get in money they more than gain in popularity these days. I thought the Church is supposed to stand for religion. Who has to live . Whatever he does good is wonderful. wrote an article titled "The White Northerner: Pride and Prejudice. the Brown Berets are important. Suddenly they're interested in the Negro. The papers have suddenly decided that the Negro is teacher's pet. Now they talk to my kids about them all the time. They moved and now they're all ready to come back--but only to drive a few Negro kids out for a Sunday picnic. can they? Everybody likes his own. I don't understand it all. I'm sick of their editorials. 1967 Robert Coles. instead of staying here. Occupied America: The Chicano's Struggle Toward Liberation (New York.failures. They are the bridge between the groups of the past and those of liberation. They want to go here and there. Nor the mayor. All you hear these days is news about them. But now even the school people tell us we have to have our kids with this kind and that kind of person. In the part of the article reprinted below Coles allows a Boston housewife to explain her fears following the integration of the nearby public school in 1967. and send their children everywhere. the Negro or anything else. But if he does anything bad. but suddenly they're not happy together. They're talking as if we did something wrong for being white. My brother is a priest. They have their own people. That's why they moved so far. and eternal things. and we should clap. But I just can't take what some of our priests are saying these days. 1972). Now how am I supposed to believe everything all these people say? They weren't talking that way a few years ago. Source: Rodolfo Acuna. a psychiatrist and noted author on racial attitudes. All of a sudden they start giving us a lecture every day on how bad we are. or else they will be hurt. of course. or how we feel about what we had to go through? They may be poorer than a lot of white people. because they are one of the few Chicano groups that have not attempted to work entirely within the civil rights framework of the present reform movement. I went to school here in Boston.

the political life would be based on several root principles: That decision-making of basic social consequence be carried on by public groupings. Connecticut to form the Young Americans for Freedom (YAF). Part of the statement appears below: In a participatory democracy. pp. right down the line.. 125-126. II. Bailey & David M. pp. self-direct. opposing views should be organized so as to illuminate choices and facilitate the attainment of goals. perceptions and individual ethics. That the economy itself is of such social importance that its major resources and means of production should be open to democratic participation and subject to democratic social regulation. 999. The American Spirit. the final buck gets passed to us.. Kennedy. . Their founding statement appears below. since it is this experience that has crucial influence on habits. a respect for others. It should be educative. Mass. it should provide outlets for the expression of personal grievance and aspiration. this being a necessary.. not manipulated. that the political order should serve to clarify problems in a way instrumental to their solution. That the economic experience is so personally decisive that the individual must share in its full determination.with all this. And we're the ones who get it. Source: Jack Newfield. representing 44 colleges and universities met at the estate of William F. PARTICIPATORY DEMOCRACY: THE PORT HURON STATEMENT In 1962 the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) issued the Port Huron Statement which outlined their vision of a just society. way of finding meaning in personal life. a sense of dignity and a willingness to accept social responsibility. channels should be commonly available to relate men to knowledge and to power so that private problems from bad recreation facilities to personal alienation are formulated as general issues. in Sharon. A Prophetic Minority (New York. that politics has the function of bringing people out of isolation and into community. 1984). The economic sphere would have as its basis the principles: That work should involve incentives worthier than money or survival. (Lexington. not stultifying. Buckley. It's hypocrisy. and pay for it in taxes and everything? Whose kids are pushed around? And who gets called `prejudiced' and all the other sneery words? I've had enough of it. Source: Thomas A. creative. 997. YOUNG AMERICANS FOR FREEDOM In 1960 ninety college students from 24 states. Jr. encouraging independence. not mechanical. 1966). but not sufficient. that politics be seen positively as the art of collectively creating an acceptable pattern of social relations. Vol.

it accumulates power which tends to diminish order and liberty. is the single economic system compatible with the requirements of personal freedom and constitutional government.In this time of moral and political crisis. 229-230 . whence derives his right to be free from the restrictions of arbitrary force. and That American foreign policy must be judged by this criterion. this menace. the greatest single threat to these liberties. 2003). or to the people. and that it is at the same time the most productive supplier of human needs. That the forces of international Communism are. as young conservatives believe: That foremost among the transcendent values is the individual's use of his God-given free will. That we will be free only so long as the national sovereignty of the United States is secure.. it diminishes the incentive of the first. That liberty is indivisible. it is the responsibility of the youth of America to affirm certain eternal truths. rather than coexistence with. That when government interferes with the work of the market economy. Conservatism in America Since 1930 (New York. and the moral autonomy of both. That the Constitution of the United States is the best arrangement yet devised for empowering government to fulfill its proper role. it tends to reduce the moral and physical strength of the nation. and can exist only when free citizens concertedly defend their rights against all enemies. that history show periods of freedom are rare. that when it takes from one man to bestow on another. in those spheres not specifically delegated to the Federal Government. while restraining it from the concentration and abuse of power. That when government ventures beyond these rightful functions. and the administration of justice.. ed. That the United States should stress victory over. pp. and that political freedom cannot long exist without economic freedom. the provision of national defense. at present. That the market economy. That the genius of the Constitution--the division of powers--is summed up in the clause which reserves primacy to the several states. That the purposes of government are to protect these freedoms through the preservation of internal order. allocating resources by the free play of supply and demand. the integrity of the second. We. Schneider. does it serve the just interests of the United States? Source: Gregory L.

and they tried to drown out our speakers by singing the Mickey Mouse Club anthem. There were a few scuffles when the rally broke up. Most had fallen in the past six months. The press coverage was nasty and the public response was hostile.S. "Joe Freedom." .S.000 protestors in each city." but Senator Edward Kennedy. if not our nerves. rasping tones by Barry McGuire: "And tell me over and over again. Both the P-I and the Times editorialized that students were allowing themselves to be duped and exploited by Communists. to a noon rally beneath the old Monorail station at Westlake Mall. The national mood was summed up by the surprise hit song of 1965. started counting in 1961. The Seattle Jaycees urged everyone to turn their lights on during the day to endorse the war and 10. my friend. Walt Crowley recalls the first protest march in Seattle against the War in Vietnam. and a combat death toll of 1. herded by motorcycle police and taunted as Communists and traitors by passing motorists. [Defense Secretary Robert] McNamara boasted. B-52s began bombing North Vietnam's primary seaport at Haiphong. In contrast marches the day before in Oakland and New York City involved 10. Our every move was photographed by men with crew cuts who aimed cameras at us from doorways and rooftops. passing through Seattle warned. more than had died in the previous year. Americans were also dying: 240 fell in a single week in November [1965]. that "we have stopped losing the war. Sloan and intoned in urgent. The year ended with 184. When UW Professor Paul Brass began his remarks. We marched down two lanes of Fourth Avenue. President Johnson halted all bombing in the north as a "gesture of peace. I was among the nervous 350 or so who gathered in front of the Federal Court House that morning. Seattle experience its first antiwar march led by the UW SDS and "Seattle Committee to End the War in Vietnam" (SCEWV). F. intact.000 pro-war anti-protestors marched in New York City." On Christmas Day Tom Hayden and Quaker activist Staughton Lynd arrived in Hanoi on the first of many such pilgrimages.SEATTLE'S FIRST ANTI-WAR PROTEST In the passage below. and involved 350 demonstrators who gathered in front of the Federal Court House and proceeded to the Westlake Mall. 1965.000 U." On December 20.350 accumulated since the U. a man rushed up and doused him with red paint. paradoxically. An ugly crowd surrounded us at Westlake. but all of us got home with our skin. Three days later. He later identified himself to the press as. written by P. troops deployed in Vietnam. Everyone knew much worse was to come. "We are deluding ourselves to think there is going to be a quick solution in Vietnam. The march took place on October 16." He turned out to be one of Brass's students. On October 16. you don't believe we're on the eve of destruction. if that is the right word.

he didn't understand what she was talking about. their adjustment. It was a strange stirring. how to dress. for women. The suburban housewife--she was the dream image of the young American woman and the envy... clothes.. and act more feminine and make marriage more exciting. and build a swimming pool with their own hands. If she tried to tell her husband. how to breastfeed children and handle their toilet training. how to buy a dishwasher.. BETTY FREIDAN ON "THE PROBLEM THAT HAS NO NAME" The following are excerpts from Betty Freidan's 1963 book. her home. unhappy women who wanted to be poets or physicists or presidents. shopped for groceries. unspoken. Rites of Passage: A Memoir of the Sixties in Seattle (Seattle.. political rights--the independence and opportunities that old fashioned feminists fought for. appliances. Each suburban wife struggled with it alone. A thousand expert voices applauded their femininity. how to cope with sibling rivalry and adolescent rebellion. look. she thought." they kept telling themselves... matched slipcover material. 45-46.. If a woman had a problem in the 1950s and 1960s she knew that something must be wrong with her marriage or herself. "There isn't any problem. her children. What kind of woman was she if she did not feel this mysterious fulfillment waxing the kitchen floor. ate peanut butter sandwiches with her children.. unfeminine. She had found true feminine fulfillment. She was free to choose automobiles. the dangers of childbirth and the illnesses of her grandmother. The problem lay buried. The Feminine Mystique.Experts told them how to catch a man and keep him. lay besides her husband at night--she was afraid to ask even of herself the silent question--"Is this all?" For over fifteen years there was no word of this yearning in the millions of words written about women. All they had to do was devote their lives from earliest girlhood to finding a husband and bearing children. educated. books and articles by experts telling women their role was to seek fulfillment as wives and mothers. She did not really understand it herself. it was said. supermarkets. she was respected as a full and equal partner to man in his world. She was healthy. pp. a sense of dissatisfaction. 1995)... beautiful. higher education. she had everything that women ever dreamed of. As a housewife and mother. chauffeured Cub Scouts and Brownies. for many years in the minds of American women. She was so ashamed to admit her dissatisfaction that she never know how many other women shared it. As she made the beds.. bake break.Source: Walt Crowley. a yearning that women suffered in the middle of the twentieth century in the United States. their new maturity. They were taught to pity the neurotic. of women all over the world." . concerned only about heir husband. cook gourmet snails. The American housewife--freed by science and labor-saving appliances from drudgery. in all the columns. "There's nothing wrong really. They learned that truly feminine women do not want careers. Other women were satisfied with their lives.

For the oldest of these women. or prosperous doctors and lawyers. sickness. no other dream was possible. for during this time I was also bringing up my own three children in Rockland County. or their marriages. at PTA meetings and luncheons of the League of Women Voters.. I think I understood first as a woman long before I understood their larger social and psychological implications." Sometimes she blotted out the feeling with a tranquilizer. this was the only dream. or their communities.. the new wives and mothers. Sometimes I sensed the problem not as a reporter. to say that education and independence and equality with men have made American women unfeminine.. in whom the voice is stirring. not to hear their strange. in wives of workers and executives who make $5. and yet they still suffer the problem. or their houses. "I feel as if I don't exist. on quiet afternoons when children were at school or on quiet evenings when husbands worked late. For the youngest. It can be less painful for a woman.the problem cannot be understood in the generally accepted terms by which scientists have studies women.. cold. It persists in women whose husbands are struggling interns and law clerks. hunger. The ones in their forties and fifties who once had other dreams gave them up and threw themselves joyously into life as housewives. or move to a better neighborhood. It is no longer possible to ignore that voice.Gradually I came to realize that the problem that has no name was shared by countless women in America. Sometimes she thought the problem was with her husband. These women are very "feminine" in the usual sense..... and writers have written about them. part of the strange newness of this problem is that it cannot be understood in terms of the age-old material problems of man: poverty. or that what she really needed was to redecorate her house. .. they are women whose greatest ambition has been marriage and children. these daughters of the American middle class.000 a year or $50. I heard echoes of the problem in college dormitories and semi-private maternity wards... but as a suburban housewife. Women who suffer this problem. or another baby. Most [women] adjusted to their role and suffered or ignored the problem that has no name. It is no longer possible to blame the problem on loss of femininity. counselors have advised them. I do not accept the answer that there is no problem because American women have luxuries that women in other times and lands never dreamed of.000. have lived their whole lives in the pursuit of feminine fulfillment.... or have an affair. or her children.. This is not what being a woman means no matter what the experts say.. The women who suffer this problem has a hunger that food cannot fulfill. dissatisfied voice stirring within her. New York." Or she would say. or marked time in some job in which they had no real interest until they married.incomplete. They are not career women (although career women may have other problems).in station wagons waiting for trains. The groping words I heard from other women. Just what was this problem with no name? What were the words women used when they tried to express it? Sometimes a woman would say "I feel empty somehow. to dismiss the desperation of so many American women. doctors have treated them. As a magazine writer I often interviewed women about problems with their children. They are the ones who quit high school and college to marry.

The National Organization for Women must therefore begin to speak. 1963)... There is no civil rights movement to speak for women. the problem that has no name stirring in the minds of so many American women today. WE BELIEVE that it is as essential for every girl to be educated to her full potential of human ability as it is for every boy--with the knowledge that such education is the key to effective participation in today's economy. The purpose of NOW is to take action to bring women into full participation in the mainstream of American society now. WE BELIEVE that the power of American law. 11-16. 27 NOW'S CALL FOR ACTION The National Organization of Women was organized in 1966 to campaign for women's rights. and puzzling their doctors and educators for years. without conflict with their responsibilities as mothers and homemakers." Source: The Feminine Mystique (New York.S.is far more important than anyone recognizes.. Constitution to the civil rights of all individuals.. pp. It may well be the key to our future as a nation and a culture. 21-22.If I am right...problems which have been torturing women and their husbands and children. to innovate new social institutions which will enable women to enjoy true equality of opportunity and responsibility in society. WE. must be effectively applied and enforced to isolate and remove patterns of sex discrimination. to ensure equality of opportunity in employment and education. We can no longer ignore that voice within women that says: "I want something more than my husband and my children and my home. and the protection guaranteed by the U. and toward a fully equal partnership of the sexes. WE BELIEVE that this nation has a capacity at least as great as other nations. men and women who hereby constitute ourselves as the National Organization for Women. exercising all the privileges and responsibilities thereof in truly equal partnership with men. as there has been for Negroes and other victims of discrimination. It is the key to....... . as well as for Negroes and other deprived groups. as part of the world-wide revolution of human rights now taking place within and beyond our national borders. WE DO NOT ACCEPT the token appointment of a few women to high-level positions in government and industry as a substitute for a serious continuing effort to recruit and advance women according to their individual abilities. and equality of civil and political rights and responsibilities on behalf of women. Here are excerpts from the founding statement of the organization. believe that the time has come for a new movement toward true equality for all women in America.

* * * Roe v. his to support.WE REJECT the current assumption that a man must carry the sole burden of supporting himself. The Equal Rights Amendment. Source: Mary Beth Norton. and of the deep and seemingly absolute convictions that the subject inspires. the provisions of this article.S. . and in the texts. even among physicians. freedom. pollution. 1972 Section 1: Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged United States or by any State on account of sex. and racial overtones tend to complicate and not to simplify the problem. IN THE INTERESTS OF THE HUMAN DIGNITY OF WOMEN. Wade: We forthwith acknowledge our awareness of the sensitive and emotional nature of the abortion controversy. Heath and Company. to dominate. population growth. 1989). of the vigorous opposing views. Supreme Court Decision on abortion in Roe v. Wade decision in 1973. WE BELIEVE THAT women will do most to create a new image of women by acting now. The ERA is reprinted below as well as excerpts from the Roe v. or that marriage.. we will protest and endeavor to change the false image of women now prevalent in the mass media. In addition. WE BELIEVE that women must now exercise their political rights and responsibilities as American citizens.attitude toward life and family and their values. home and family are primarily woman's world and responsibility--hers. Section 3: This Amendment shall take effect two years after the date of ratification. THE EQUAL RIGHTS AMENDMENT AND ROE V. One's philosophy.400. have come to symbolize the complex issues raised by the feminist movement and reflect the deep divisions among women and men as to the implications of sexual equality.religious training.. pp.C. Major Problems in American Women's History Lexington. and family.. Wade. poverty. and that a woman is automatically entitled to lifelong support by a man upon her marriage. are all likely to influence and to color one's thinking and conclusions about abortion.. Mass: D. and practices of our major social institutions.. his wife. They must refuse to be segregated on the basis of sex into separate-and-not-equal ladies' auxiliaries in the political parties. and by speaking out in behalf of their own equality. ceremonies. the Equal Rights Amendment and the U. WADE Two measures in the 1970s. by the Section 2: The Congress shall have the power to enforce. and the moral standards one establishes... and human dignity. 397.. by appropriate legislation. laws..

pp.... that it has any possible prenatal application... when fifteen of every hundred Americans were foreign-born. it abolished the old country-oforigins quotas.. But for various reasons the numbers quickly spiraled. In a line of decisions. does exist under the Constitution. it established two principal criteria for admission to the United States: family ties to citizens or permanent residents or possession of scarce and needed skills. Second. The Constitution does not explicitly mention any right of privacy. Mass: D.. Passage of the Hart-Celler Act in 1965 provided the conventional date for the onset of the new immigration the United States.or in the Ninth Amendment's reservation of rights to the people. the immigrants constituted a far more modest share of the nation's population in 1990 than was true in 1910. 7. or a guarantee of certain areas or zones of privacy. 1989). is broad enough to encompass a woman's decision whether or not to terminate her pregnancy.S. . Still. an influx second only to the peak of 8. with any assurance. The reformers thought that the new act would keep immigration to modest proportions. They derive from statutory changes effected. whether it be founded in the Fourteenth Amendment's concept of personal liberty and restrictions upon state action.. 422. the 1990 level represented a substantial increase over the 5% level recorded when the foreign-born share of the U... Source: Mary Beth Norton. The appellee and certain amici argue that the fetus is a "person" within the language and meaning of the Fourteenth Amendment. which allotted small quotas to southern and eastern Europe and still smaller--almost prohibitively small--quotas to Asia.8 million newcomers recorded during the first decade of the 20th Century.. the destination for the largest number of newcomers.. This right of privacy.. But in nearly all of the instances the use of the word is such that it has application only postnatally. Third.3 million new immigrants arrived into the United States during the 1980s. Main Problems in American Women's History (Lexington. it increased the total numbers of immigrants to be admitted to the United States. for the most part. The Constitution does not define "person" in so many words.. To be sure. 425-427.. THE IMMIGRATION ACT OF 1965 In the passage below historians Roger Waldinger and Mehdi Bozorgmehr describe the impact of the 1965 Immigration Act on the United States with particular reference to Los Angeles.C. Heath. the Court has recognized that a right of personal privacy. The 1965 reform transformed the immigration system with a few bold strokes. population hit its historic nadir in 1970. in the latter half of the 19th Century..It perhaps is not generally appreciated that the restrictive criminal abortion laws in effect in a majority of States today are of relatively recent vintage. First. however. None indicates. at 8%.

the Salvadorans and Guatemalans who headed for the U.. and Laotians. Latin American and the countries of the Caribbean. Hence. and with time.. an increasing number of migrants dropped out of the bracero stream.S. providing all the information and connections needed to keep the migrants coming. to renew migration streams while also allowing entirely new groups--most notably Koreans and Asian Indians--to put a nucleus in place and then quickly expand. Asia emerged as the number two source area of the foreign-born. these newcomers mainly moved across the border as unauthorized migrants. and the workers it imported were supposed to head back to Mexico after a short stint of temporary labor in the U. The immediate roots of Mexican unauthorized migration lie in the Bracero Program begun during the Second Word War to eliminated the shortage of agricultural workers.. but unlike their Asian counterparts... pharmacists--were in short supply. the Bracero Program was destined for a short existence..-supported regime in South Vietnam. What no one expected in 1965 was the burgeoning of Asian immigration. many of whom settled on the West Coast. . Mexican and later on Central Americans were more likely to come through the back door of unauthorized migration. accounting for 37% of all newcomers. By the 1960s. Along with students already living in the United States. doctors.S. followed by Communist takeovers in Cambodia and Laos.S. like the Chinese. The system was sufficiently flexible for longerestablished groups.networks between the United States and villages throughout Mexico's central plateau were already in place. By 1964. government support. By the 1980s. Cambodians.S. Like the Vietnamese. the Central Americans were escaping political unrest. nurses. the newcomers who took advantage of the newly liberalized system came from Asia.A second unexpected twist concerned the act's beneficiaries. however. heading for better jobs in Los Angeles. But the influence of agribusiness kept the Bracero Program alive until 1963.. massive outflow of refugees. The 1965 reforms created opportunities for immigrants whose skills--as engineers.. Asian immigrants passed through the front door opened by the 1965 reforms. The collapse of the U.. The 1965 legislation was principally targeted at eastern and southern Europeans. in turn creating the basis for the kinship migration of less-well educated relatives.. Unexpected pressures repeatedly forced the United States to expand greatly its admission of refugees. Ostensibly.. workers from Italy or Yugoslavia had fallen out of the orbit of trans-Atlantic migration. Instead. triggered a sudden. San Francisco and other urban areas. these professionals made up the first wave of new immigrants. who enjoyed easy access to American employers.. the Central Americans had the bad fortune to be fleeing right-wing regimes propped up with U. whether or not they had legal documents. border in increasing numbers in the late 1970s and afterwards were responding to different factors. Political developments added momentum to the migrant flow across the Pacific... the groups hardest hit by the nativist legislation of the 1920s. While Mexicans were drawn by the inducements of American employers.

of whom over half had come from Mexico. 9-12..950 Percentage of Immigrants By Country of Origin South and Central America\West Indies 21. wildly disparate estimates.. South and Southeast Asia..233 1960-1964 1. it should be no surprise that the newcomers of the post-1965 years are an extraordinarily diverse lot.60% Asia 18.419. Source: Roger Waldinger and Mehdi Bozorgmehr..413 1975-1979 2. Manual workers with little schooling predominate among other groups--Mexicans are the most conspicuous example--and the contribution of lowskilled workers to America's immigrant pool has risen substantially in recent years.. Ethnic Los Angeles. most notably those from the Middle East.40% .. IMMIGRATION TO THE UNITED STATES.308.. (New York..923. The extraordinary educational differences among various immigrant groups suggest that skill levels have gone up and down.013 1965-1969 1.019 1950-1954 1. Highly educated professionals and managers dominate some streams.912 10. median levels of schooling leave America's native white workers far behind.Just how many newcomers have arrived without authorization has long been a matter of dispute. among many of these groups. Africa.794. 1996) pp.589 1945-1949 653.736 1970-1974 1.801. Given the many circumstances of migration..099. 1940-1979 Total Number of Immigrants 1940-1944 203.035 1955-1959 1.400. [The best estimate] suggests about 2 to 4 million residing in the United States as of 1980.ranging from 2 to 12 million are stock-intrade..

000 France 753.000 Cuba 541.000 Mexico 2.000 Norway 857.000 Ireland 4.20% Italy 5.Mexico 12.000 Great Britain 4.000 Poland 521.176.119.40% Germany 9.000 .10% Great Britain 6.000 Canada 4.40% France.316.80% Canada 10.000 Russia 3.000 West Indies 798.724. Switzerland & Low Countries 3.000 China 560.300.000 Sweden 1.40% Central Europe 2.30% Other 10.912. 1820-1979 Germany 6.273.40% NATIONAL BACKGROUNDS OF IMMIGRANTS.000 Austria-Hungary 4.000 Italy 5.377.985.000 Greece 660.

involvement in the war in Vietnam caught their attention in the late 1960s. ASIAN AMERICAN POLITICAL ACTIVISM SINCE 1965 In the brief discussion below Sucheng Chan describes the growing importance of "grassroots" political activism among younger Asian Americans. but the movement against U.000 The Netherlands 360. an increasing number of Asian American college and high school students realized with a shock that the "enemy" whom American soldiers were maiming and killing had faces like their own.S.in the ten years between 1966 and 1976. for civil rights. .000 Belgium 204. 798.000 Source: Lewis Todd and Merle Curti. A number of the more radical students began to think of the war not only as an imperialist but also a racist one. 1982). practiced collective leadership. Chicano. many Asian American students.Portugal 453.000 Denmark 365.. as well as youth of other backgrounds.000 Spain 261. also drew inspiration from China's Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution. pp. and engaged in sectarian struggles. an officially sanctioned campaign by young Red Guards against a segment of China's political establishment. Her assessment challenges the widely held belief of political apathy within Asian communities. The Cultural Revolution.000 Japan 410..000 Vietnam 137. 843. Very few Asian Americans participated in the civil rights movement in the early 1960s. waved the pocket-sized talismans as they marched in demonstrations against the war in Vietnam. The activists eagerly adopted the Chinese Communists' political work style.. fired the imagination of rebellious students everywhere.000 Turkey 387. Young Asian Americans. With the help of the television evening news. (New York.000 Switzerland 350. Rise of the American Nation. they held long meetings. and for the establishment of ethnic studies courses and programs.000 Philippines 432. along with their black. Like the Red Guards in China. and white peers. for racial pride. Bookstores in the United States that imported the red plastic-covered booklets containing the sayings of Mao Zedong did a thriving business.

The political activists were of two kinds: radicals who were mostly concerned with articulating the "correct" leftist political "lines" and reformers who put their energy primarily into setting up legal aid organizations. Singapore. the radicals were initially firmly opposed to "bourgeois" electoral politics. and various other Asian metropolises to buy up buildings in the major Chinatowns and Japantowns of America. are natural allies for the Republican party. . Tokyo. At the same time Hernandez arrived. set up social service agencies. have run for office or supported candidates. pp. and rude (and terribly un-Asian) manners. driving real estate prices sky high and causing severe hardship on the old residents. Mao jackets. but a number of them later became actively involved in Jesse Jackson's Rainbow Coalition. and protested against a variety of ills. Taiwan. DREAMS OF PROSPERITY: NEWPORT AND LATINO IMMIGRATION In a 1992 Register-Guard article.But since there was no "countryside" to go to. Some of the reformers. Within the political arena. Here is his account. health clinics. a former fisherman from the seacoast city of Puerto Angel in the south of Mexico. which mushroomed overnight." which allowed entrepreneurs from Hong Kong. meanwhile. Bangkok. Nonetheless. 174-175. These included not only those created by American racism and capitalism but also those spawned by the increasing presence of Asian "flight capital. 37. Asian Americans: An Interpretive History (Boston. and bilingual programs for the elderly and youth. the activists tried to organize garment and restaurant workers. Oregon. the former has had relatively little effect. The new immigrants who have come in search of a good life under capitalism. They continue to render important assistance to the needy and have been crucial in providing services to nonEnglish-speaking new immigrants. 1991). NEWPORT--Narciso Tamayo and Jesus Hernandez came to Newport in search of a better lives for themselves and their families Tamayo. Ironically. where they might learn from "the masses"--as the Red Guards in China were doing--the Asian American activists descended on their surprised communities. those who paved the way for Asian American involvement in mainstream politics are now slowly outnumbered by more conservative individuals who support the domestic and foreign policies and programs of the Reagan and Bush administrations. 23. recruit individuals to leftist organizations. but many of the agencies set up by the latter have remained. reporter Larry Bacon describes the experiences of recently arrived Latino immigrants in Newport. In the long run. arrived in March with his wife and two children. as well as the refugees who risked their lives to escape communism. a former shoemaker from the industrial city of Purisime del Bustos in central Mexico. left his family behind and came to Newport four years ago when there were few Hispanics in the area Hernandez. Source: Sucheng Chan. Some members of these communities-especially the leaders of the traditional organizations--looked askance at the students' unkempt long hair.

who married an Anglo and moved to Newport eight years ago. three negative votes could bar anyone from membership. Gearin. 1 CHANGING ATTITUDES TOWARD GOVERNMENT . primarily from their church. Prejudice kept the local Eagles lodge from accepting him as a member. however. Even though he hopes to bring his family to this country someday. But life in the United States is not always easy for the two men. and their dreams have proved somewhat elusive. he has some reservations.000 to $24. Their tiny apartment costs $340 a month." he says. He's learned to speak English fairly well. says he and most other lodge members were so upset by the blackballing that they changed the rules.. Tamayo rejected a friend's advice to sue the lodge for discrimination. The friends. but at the same time--put the knife inside. Hernandez and his wife. At the time. He has friends in both the Anglo and Hispanic communities..25 an hour for her part-time work--are eaten up by living expenses. Now members are admitted by majority vote. and they have saved little so far. Saray Gabriel Luna." he says. "It's like he was trying to be nice. They say they have made Anglo friends who have been warm and friendly. Source: Eugene Register-Guard. are less concerned about prejudice than learning English and making their way in a new country.. Tamayo and his friends have since joined the Eagles lodge at nearby Toledo. He makes from $18.hundreds of other Hispanics also came looking for jobs in Newport's new whiting processing industry.000 a year--much more than he could hope to make in Mexico--and still spends two months each winter at home with his family. But it is expensive for them to live in Newport. have invited them to dinner and given them clothes for their children. Maria Luisa Dale. Their salaries--$5. "I don't want to make trouble with anybody.75 an hour for him and $5. Now the whiting season is over. and they have both been laid off. Hernandez dreams of making enough in the fish plants to return to Puerto Angel and buy a small fishing boat for about $3. Dick Gearin. The workers brought racial diversity to a community where few people of color have lived before. president of the Eagles lodge." Tamayo says. The young newcomers lived with the Dalles for four months until they could rent a one-bedroom apartment of their own. They are looking for any type of work to tide them over until whiting season begins again next April.000." He recalls a white co-worker telling him a joke based on the racial stereotype that Mexicans steal.. Most of the prejudice he's experienced has not been not overt "It's something you can feel when they see you. Yet Tamayo has grown comfortable with his new life in Newport. November 8.. who helped sponsor Tamayo. He's been able to find enough work at the seafood plants to stay employed almost yearround. particularly rent. 1992. Meanwhile. says Tamayo and three other Hispanics were "blackballed" by three members who were angry about problems some other Hispanics had caused at a lodge function. They have had help learning American ways from Luna's older sister. "I am afraid the white people have prejudice about my kids. both he and a lodge official say. p.

. and the pursuit of happiness..C. 1978 Government is not the solution to our problem.. Blum. The liberal party is a party which believes that.During the 1930s when the United States was in the throes of the Great Depression most Americans welcomed and indeed demanded an activist government that would reinvigorate the economy and protect their rights. 1963 Government cannot solve our problems. two investigative reporters of The Washington Post. Ronald Reagan. or provide a bountiful economy. It cannot define our vision. The National Experience: A History of the United States (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Despite official denials. WATERGATE The vignette that follows is a brief description of the worst political scandal in the history of the United States. January 20. an intruder. Only a great national effort by a great people working together can explore the mysteries of space. John F. Kennedy. 1981 Source: John M. January 19. printed stories claiming that the burglars had obtained money from the Committee for . The people of this (TVA) area know that the United States Government is not a stranger or not an enemy. or save our cities. natural. and mobilize the human. Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward. harvest the products at the bottom of the ocean. The liberal party insists that the Government has the definite duty to use all its power and resources to meet new social problems with new social controls--to insure to the average person the right to his own economic and political life. 1989).. attitudes toward government and what it can and should accomplish have undergone a dramatic shift. had aroused widespread suspicion about White House involvement. Jimmy Carter. 1972. or provide energy. The quotes from four American Presidents reflect that shift. on June 17. It is the people of fifty states joining in a national effort. Franklin D. It can't set our goals. Over the years however. liberty. or cure illiteracy. it becomes the duty of the Government itself to find new remedies with which to meet them. 1941 Statements are made labeling the Federal Government an outsider. May 18. Government is the problem. D. p. as new conditions and problems arise beyond the power of men and women to meet as individuals.. 812. Government cannot eliminate poverty. and material resources of our lands. The capture of five burglars inside the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate complex in Washington. or reduce inflation. June 16. Roosevelt. an adversary.

. McCord. was involved in this very bizarre incident. I can state categorically that no one in the White House staff. White House press secretary Ron Ziegler announced the discovery of new evidence that made all previous statements about Watergate“inoperative. “and am absolutely positive he had nothing to do with this mess... Persuaded that the Nixon White House would never adequately investigate itself.. John Ehrlichman.” retorted Ervin. John Dean. "is if you try to cover it up. In May.the Senate established the Ervin committee to probe possible violations of campaign law..“a man of incomparable integrity and rigorously high principle. maintained silence by pleading guilty.” The President told a stunned television audience that four major advisers--H. Howard Hunt.. and would face arrest if they refused to appear before a congressional committee. "What really hurts..” “Executive poppycock. the thirteenth of July. and former CIA operative James McCord were also convicted. electronic surveillance. and theft of documents.” maintained House Minority Leader Gerald Ford. On April 17... and in the process. a federal grand jury indicted the five burglars as well as two former White House aides. But unlike his codefendants.” Two weeks later.” announced a Justice Department official.. determined to protect the CIA..." The President named as attorney general Elliot Richardson. presently employed.. “I have the greatest confidence in the President.”he stated. Nixon. Hunt. "We have absolutely no evidence to indicate that any others should be charged. R. and Attorney General Richard Kleindienst—had resigned because of the Watergate affair..” and agreed to appoint an independent special prosecutor to deal with the Watergate case. fearing exposure of the Watergate cover-up and confident in his ability to defy congressional power. Four of the burglars. save his own skin..former White House appointments secretary Alexander Butterfield was describing the administration's office procedures when an . and that the web of complicity reached high into the administration. Gordon Liddy and E. that perjury had been committed.to justice.”Nixon pledged to "bring the guilty. was responsible for what he termed “a series of illegal acts and bad judgments by a number of individuals. promptly announced his refusal to cooperate with the Senate on the grounds of “executive privilege. In a letter to Sirica in March 1973. as chief executive. 1973.. on charges of tapping telephones. no one in this administration. The trial of the Watergate burglars opened in January 1973 in the court of Judge John Sirica. White House personnel were not“nobility and royalty.” On Friday. Richardson selected. Haldeman.the Re-election of the President (popularly known as CREEP) and that illegal campaign contributions had been "laundered" in Mexican banks. McCord admitted that “political pressure” had led the defendants to plead guilty. refused to participate further in the Watergate coverup. Liddy.Archibald Cox.. but that Nixon alone. all connected to the anti-Castro Cuban community of Miami and believed to have participated in the CIA-backed Bay of Pigs fiasco..” replied President Nixon in a news conference on August 29.

000 fine. the refusal to spend impounded funds.” The departure of Agnew also served the crucial symbolic role of weakening public allegiance to the entire administration. “that the biggest threat to the presidency today is the President.” declared Cox in a televised news conference on Saturday.. the Justice Department revealed that the second highest executive officer was under investigation for receiving bribes during his tenure as governor of Maryland.promised to resolve the conflicting testimony presented to the Ervin committee." remarked William Rusher. even while serving in Washington. “I think it is my duty as the special prosecutor.” ... a $10.. in exchange for his resignation.. would reveal at last who had told the truth and who had lied. Agnew could no longer rally public support.investigator asked about the possibility of recording presidential conversations. “I am innocent of any wrongdoing.” rejected his claim “of special presidential immunities.. “to bring to the court’s attention what seems to me to be noncompliance. amounting to $13... 1973..551. Agnew agreed. and the establishment of a “super secret security force within the White House”—as grounds for impeachment.47. and a letter from Richard Nixon expressing “a great sense of personal loss. “so I expect we could replace a President..” As Nixon struggled to recapture public confidence.. the full equivalent to a plea of guilty--to a single count of income tax evasion. the former Vice President received a three-year suspended sentence. The President ordered the Secret Service to install voice-activated tape recorders in White House offices to preserve a historical record. Disregarding the court order. On October 10. But prosecutor Cox questioned the reliability of such secondhand evidence and rejected the proposal.. King.”replied Butterfield. Facing incontrovertible evidence of bribery. October 20. George Wallace—the idea of finding substitute leadership no longer seemed odd or implausible. introduced a resolution listing four presidential actions—the bombing of Cambodia. Public opinion polls found that large majorities doubted the President’s honesty and most Americans believed he had an obligation to surrender the White House tapes. “We've demonstrated that we can replace a Vice President. Nixon announced his intention to comply with the spirit of the ruling. publisher of the conservative National Review.. 1973. Agnew offered a “nolo contendere” plea. Drinan. The Ervin committee. But with the administration/s credibility already suspect. his administration received a severe blow from its sturdiest supporter—Vice President Agnew..” and ordered him to produce the subpoenaed White House tapes for Judge Sirica.” wrote columnist William Raspberry in The Washington Post. On July 31. a Catholic priest from Massachusetts..consented to Nixon's compromise. Such tapes.to plea-bargain for a reduced sentence.. “I was hoping you fellows wouldn't ask me about that. On August 6. “It may well be.. an appellate court denied the President's “incantation of the doctrine of separation of powers.. On the day he announced [Gerald] Ford’s nomination [as Vice President]. Representative Robert F. In leaving government service..” asserted the Vice President. 1973.” After a decade of assassination—the sudden loss of the two Kennedys. the taping of conversations. 1973.by providing written summaries of the tapes.

headed by Representative Peter Rodino of New Jersey. to begin an impeachment inquiry. prepared to take him at his word. “We know that there is corruption in the.” In audacious attempt to preserve his administration. refused the task and instead submitted his resignation. The President's hope to restore public confidence in the new year [1974] abruptly collapsed when a panel of expert technicians reported or January 15 that a particular eighteen-and-a-half minute gap in conversation between Nixon and Haldeman had been deliberately erased. and Magruder-—Will asked. too. in place of the actual evidence. He displays amazing gaps in his knowledge. and on Sunday huge crowds surrounded the White House. Nixon commanded television airtime on April 29. Ehrlichman. “We have seen the private man and we are appalled. He is profane. Stans. Solicitor General Robert Bork then assumed the attorney general's post and executed the order. Nixon then ordered deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus to fire Cox. who are still there providing the continuity in this ongoing cover-up. Mitchell. Ulasewicz.. More than a quarter of a million telegrams denouncing the President’s action poured into Washington.. “He is humorless to the point of being inhumane.Enraged by his subordinate’s audacity. Mardian. “springs to mind.” In the House of Representatives. He is willing to be led. On July 29. and the Democratic leadership instructed the judiciary committee. But he. Let’s face it. He is devious. embarrassed and angered by such disclosures. provoked waves of protest that White House Chief of Staff Alexander Haig likened to “a fire storm. refused and was promptly fired by the President. The publication of the transcriptions revealed the most intimate details of White House conversations and stripped away the remaining shreds of presidential dignity.” he said.." Nixon released a 1.” concluded political columnist George Will. Nixon immediately ordered Attorney General Richardson to fire Cox. Liddy Kaimbach.” said Nixon on one of the tapes. accusing Nixon of abusing his powers of office to . [O]n July 27. Hunt. “Of all the significant men who were around the White House when the cover-up began [and].308-page edited transcription of the subpoenaed tapes. He is vacillating. McCord. But Richardson.. urging passing motorists to “honk for impeachment. one name. charging the President with obstruction of justice for blocking a full investigation of the Watergate affair. This Saturday Night Massacre.” commented the conservative Chicago Tribune. the [House Judiciary] committee voted 27—11 to adopt the first article of impeachment. Dean. Still maintaining that "the President has nothing to hide. Porter..” “Nobody is a friend of ours. eighty-four congressmen sponsored twenty-two different bills calling for Nixon’s impeachment.. Congressional leaders.his loyalty is minimal. Strachan.. the committee recommended 28— 10 the second article of impeachment. 1974. Caulfield. Listing the names of all the White House aides who had left the administration because of Watergate--Haldeman.. Oval Office. Chapin. Colson. having assumed office the previous April on assurances that the President would not interfere with the special prosecutor.” objected Senator Robert Packwood.” “The office of the President does not carry with it a license to destroy justice in America. Segretti. Gray. reported immediately by the television networks.

and Senator Barry Goldwater. House Minority Leader John Rhodes. It Seemed Like Nothing Happened: The Tragedy and Promise of America in the 1970s (New York. an American president had resigned." His struggle. 140-43. In subsequent years.” he admitted. in an act of apparent political suicide.. And then you destroy yourself. Those who hate you don't win unless you hate them.. Shocked by this disclosure. and discriminates against my children's rights to grow up in a healthy. “Never get discouraged. On August 7. the 37th President of the United States addressed the American people for the 37th time on August 8. the President released additional transcriptions of conversations which showed unmistakably that on June 23. "To leave office before my term is completed is opposed to every instinct in my body. would end the next day at noon. 1977. FBI. These assertions of gay rights. Nixon prepared to carry his fight to the Senate. through its laws.violate constitutional rights. six days after the Watergate burglary. numerous municipalities enacted ordinances extending equal protection to homosexuals. the Stonewall Inn. For the first time. 148-51.. GAY RIGHTS: FROM STONEWALL TO SAN FRANCISCO The vignette below describes the gay-rights movement of the 1970s. Never be petty. he acknowledged the legal rights of gays. three of the most powerful Republicans on Capitol Hill. Certain that the full House would ratify the recommendations. 1974. 145. Gay lobbyists met with [President] Carter's aide Margaret Constanza to seek the right to serve in the military. The issue coalesced first in Miami. Nixon personally ordered a halt to a full investigation of the crime.. 1972. "The ordinance condones immorality. 1982). decent . citing the chief executive's violations of congressional subpoenas. Senate Minority Leader Scott. soon after the city adopted a law prohibiting discrimination against homosexuals. Though Carter rejected the pressure. “Always give your best. he announced. In a somber White House.” Source: Peter N. Republican loyalists quickly withdrew their remaining support. ought to abuse or harass the homosexual. and a gay-rights bill lingered in Congress...prompted a powerful backlash that swept the nation in 1977." he stated on Father's Day. On July 30. 153.. The emergence of a gay life-style triggered a demand for homosexual rights. "I don't feel that society. and the State Department. Florida.. the committee approved 21—17 the third article of impeachment.. Facing certain conviction. journeyed to the White House to confirm estimates of minimal support. p.” advised the outgoing President. On August 5. 155-58. Activists dated the beginning of gay militancy to a hot June day in 1969 when New York City police invaded a homosexual bar. and angry patrons fought back. CIA. Carroll. Always remember: others may hate you. Nixon bade farewell to the members of his administration on the morning of August 9.. “I have never been a quitter.

who quickly launched a Save Our Children movement to overthrow this measure. alluding to the black crusade of the sixties.community. 290-293. But in a hotly contested municipal election in Seattle. angry gays paraded the streets chanting. assassinating Moscone and Milk in their offices in November 1978. White overcame his political impotence with the help of a police special . and a gay rights ordinance signed by Mayor Moscone in 1978. "If a bullet should enter my brain. Alabama. Carroll. Those years of change are described in this excerpt from David Halberstam's book. But beneath the seeming stability there was volatility. Paul.. In New York City." claimed one gay activist.. "let that bullet destroy every closet door." Source: Peter N. the price at which they chose to sell (vastly above the cheap price at which they bought). with one of the largest homosexual communities in the country... [Yet even here] a substantial constituency criticized gay rights and a conservative police department resented the mayor's prohibition of the harassment of homosexuals. Fighting back.. The Reckoning. THE WEST. It Seemed Like Nothing Happened: The Tragedy and Promise of America in the 1970s (New York. as five thousand of his city's homosexuals marched in protest. voters overwhelmingly rejected an attempt to repeal a law protecting civil rights regardless of sexual orientation.. For the first time the Arab . disagreements between homosexuals who urged anonymity and exhibitionists who flaunted their preferences--left this group vulnerable to further attack. What if the people of Selma. In the spring of 1978. had been asked to vote on equal rights for blacks in 1964?" In June 1977. the spirit of Miami spread to St. Minnesota. "Miami is our Selma. pp. staying near $2 a barrel." commented San Francisco Mayor George Moscone. "Terribly wrong. Harvey Milk. The only supervisor to vote against the antidiscrimination measure was a former policeman named Dan White who had campaigned against "splinter groups of radicals. if temporarily." Milk had prophetically tape-recorded his own eulogy. San Francisco. Kansas and Eugene. boasted a gay supervisor." Unable to influence municipal policy.38 and a dozen hollowed bullets. Oregon [where] popular referenda repealed existing antidiscrimination laws. changed the world balance of power by first embargoing and then raising the price of oil sold to the West.. OPEC." charged singer Anita Bryan. first elected in 1977. AND THE POLITICS OF OIL During the 1970s the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) dramatically.. incorrigibles. Miami voters spoke--by a two-to-one margin rejecting the antidiscrimination ordinance. From about 1948 to 1971 the price was remarkably even.. For twenty years the companies were able to stabilize the posted price of oil─in effect.. social deviates. "Gay rights now!" Division within the homosexual communities--distrust between lesbians and gay men. gay activists defined the issue as a defense of civil rights. 1982). The outcome outraged liberals through the nation. Wichita.

. By then Western Europe had become a full-fledged member of the oil culture..nations began to talk of unity.. They finally settled on 30 cents.. he sought an increase... he took on Occidental Petroleum. The all-powerful seven sisters [the international oil companies] have got to open their eyes and see that they are living in 1971 and not in 1948 or 1949. The impotence of the Arabs simply created more contempt for them in the West..... his patience exhausted.. Libya had opened itself up to a variety of companies. In 1967 the Egyptians and the Syrians attacked Israel in what became known as the Six-Day War. increasing to 50 by 1975. Sheik Yamani [the Saudi oil Minister] told reporters that this was the last time the countries would negotiate with the companies on price. King Idris was overthrown by a group of radical officers headed by a young army colonel named Muammar Qaddafi. The Six-Day War took place twenty-two years after the end of World War II. At a meeting of OPEC in December 1970. an increase of 76 cents. "Otherwise you would not have the common front. and the Americans offered 15 cents. It was probably the first time one of the oil countries did to a company what the companies had been doing to them. At the same time the buyer's market in oil was beginning to become a seller's market. the weakest link.. The Iranians wanted 54 cents more a barrel. The speed and completeness with which the Israelis defeated their Arab opponents only made the Arabs more aware of their weakness and deepened their rage. Unlike other Arab countries. The first substantial break came in 1969 in Libya. Advised by experts that his oil was under priced.From 1950 to 1965 the six Common Market countries' reliance on oil as an energy source increased from 10 to 45 percent. and countless smaller countries were also beginning to demand oil. Japan's economy... at last compelling the Arab nations to cooperate with one another. but it was too late. Occidental quickly offered a modest increase in price. But it was this demonstration of their own ineffectuality that prompted real change. In June 1973 there was another OPEC meeting.. .. In March the companies doing business with Libyans agreed on a posted price of $3. In May 1970. and its fields were allotted among them. bitterly anti-Israel. an independent and... the new Arab confidence was obvious. among the many companies doing business in Libya. The Shah.. In September of that year. where the government dealt with only one main concessionaire. Not just the leaders of the radical countries but even supposedly moderate leaders like the Shah were behaving in a new way. Thus someone like Qaddafi could exert considerable leverage on a single firm he chose to isolate.. Word of that price spread swiftly through the Arab world. at which the countries announced an additional 12 percent increase."The oil-producing countries know they are being cheated.." The negotiations between the companies and the Iranians became intense." he declared. was furious.. the companies rejected his request... fiercely anti-Western. a scaled-down replica of the American model.. he realized how much more he could have gotten.. became ever more oil-based.. hearing the news.

. The embargo helped drive the price per barrel skyward. Like Richard Nixon. 452-459. Another auction in Algeria produced bids of $22. The oil began flowing again. In the neurosis created by the boycott there was a new craze called "topping off.. and were now being richly rewarded by the high price of oil... In a short time it went from 36 cents a gallon to 60. had automatic transmissions. The American economy and the American people were completely unprepared for the change. aimed primarily at the Americans. public transportation had atrophied. the Iranian State Oil Company for the first time conducted an auction of its oil.from now on they would meet. Almost all American cars. though much more expensively.. when the CIA helped pave . The squandering of oil was built into the very structure of American life. In March 1974." On October 21 the boycott. 1986). Source: David Halberstam. On the day that Saqquaf hoped to see President Nixon. which used 25 percent more gas than manual transmissions. The highest bid was $17 a barrel. had made both their political and economic points. pp. we will.. There were fights as drivers tried to jump the line. The Reckoning.. for example.. Suddenly gas was expensive and scarce. whom the United States had been supporting since 1953. the boycott was over. At one service station in Pittsburgh a motorist came in and bought 11 cents worth and the attendant spit in his face. Eighty-five percent of the job holders in America drove to work every day─and as a result. and even one murder committed in a struggle for gas. HOSTAGE CRISIS IN IRAN The following account describes the 444 day Iranian hostage crisis which of 1979-1981. work out the price. (New York. The Arabs had flexed their new muscles. It seemed a particularly cruel irony that only a few weeks earlier the companies had sneered at Yamani's request for a $5 price. and announce it unilaterally to the companies. "All right... President Carter valued Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi of Iran. On December 16.. began. and that angered the Saudis. Now two powerful currents came together─a changing market value for oil and an enraged Arab sensibility over American support of Israel. 1973. for those allowed to buy. Everyone had become dependent upon cheap energy. reports of bribes.. the foreign minister of Saudi Arabia. the President pleaded too busy a schedule. A press conference an American reporter suggested to Saqquaf that the Saudis might have to drink their oil. The most important of them was Omar Saqquaf. People lined up for hours at every service station. Four Arab foreign ministers flew to Washington to warn the Americans of the possibility of a boycott. and Saqquaf retorted. just five months after it began. Shell was said to have bid at $12. It was clear that the posted price and the market price no longer had anything to do with each other." which was an attempt to keep one's tank perpetually filled.

But after being invaded by Iraq in September.000 people and had been spending unprecedented amounts of Iranian wealth on arms from the United States instead of investing it in economic development. all are determined by the parameters of your original premise. a revolution led by Shiite fundamentalists forced the shah to flee to Europe. and that those very differences provide the key to her success as a person an fulfillment as a woman. the shah had long been violating his subjects' human rights--his secret police.. Carter complimented the shah on "the admiration and love which your people give to you. author and political activist who emerged in the 1970s as the principal opponent of the Equal Rights Amendment and Rev." Carter immediately froze Iranian assets in the United States and prohibited the importation of Iranian oil. Inventing America: A History of the United States (New York. It released the hostages on Carter's last day in office. 1979." In fact. having held them for 444 days. 2003) pp. especially among the country's religious leaders. The Positive Woman starts with the assumption that the world is her oyster. On a visit to Tehran in 1977. 997-998 .. The new head of Iran was Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. Your outlook on life.. as an instrument of American interests in the Persian Gulf region. armed students broke into the American embassy compound in Tehran and held fifty Americans hostage. The crisis increasingly frustrated and angered Americans as television carried nightly clips from Tehran of anti-American mobs demonstrating at the embassy and shouting "Death to America. had tortured and imprisoned some 50.. Opposition to his regime was bitter and widening. In early November.. Carter admitted the shah to the United States for cancer treatment. your faith. Source: Pauline Maier. On November 4. She understands that men and women are different. . a lawyer. seventy-nine years old. the Ayatollah Khomeini's government decided it did not want to deal with two enemies at once. despite warning that the action would jeopardize American diplomats in Iran. your behavior. She rejoices in the creative capability within her body and the power potential of her mind and spirit. A mission to rescue the hostages in 1980 fell apart when two American aircraft crashed into each other in the desert. who strongly disliked the Westernizing trends the shah supported.his way to power. which had close times to the CIA.who rapidly turned the government into a theocracy that condemned modernization and preached hatred of the West. JERRY FALWELL In the following vignettes we see the views of Phyllis Schlafly.. a Baptist Minister from Lynchburg. In January 1979. The attempt had been pushed by the White House over the misgivings of the military. Virginia and the founder of the Moral Majority. Schlafly: The first requirement for the acquisition of power by the Positive Woman is to understand the differences between men and women.1101 THE CHALLENGE TO FEMINISM: PHYLLIS SCHLAFLY AND REV. your potential for fulfillment. Jerry Falwell.

. .. It robs the woman of her virtue. The schoolchild or the patient of any age provides an outlet for a woman to express her natural maternal need. perhaps the "Establishment.The women's liberationist." perhaps a conspiracy of male chauvinist pigs--dealt women a foul blow by making them female.... just nothing. Those who think it is unfair that women have babies. They have abandoned the old commandments. therefore.. The differences between men and women are. They are doing what come naturally to the female psyche. This view of women was most succinctly expressed in an advertisement designed by. her youth. The Positive Woman will never travel that dead-end road.. Someone--it is not clear who. women search for a baby-substitute.. Confrontation replaces cooperation as the watchword of all relationships.. Caring for a baby serves the natural maternal need of a woman. It is self-evident.. the most oppressive is the cruel fact that women have babies and men do not. She was born female.. The second dogma of the women's liberationists is that. and seen in many magazines and newspapers.." This is the self-articulated dog-in-the manger.emotional and psychological... This is the reason why women have traditionally gone into teaching and nursing careers.. the human race would have died out centuries ago. but they can't find any new rules that work. It become necessary.the National Organization for Women (NOW).. chip-on-the-shoulder... will have to take up their complaint with God because no other power is capable of changing that fundamental fact. The new morality isn't just a "fad"--it is a cheat and a thief. but it is still the woman who is hurt the most... on the other hand. The new generation can brag all it wants about the new liberation of the new morality. The advertisement showed a darling curly headed girl with the caption: "This healthy. bored with sexual freedom. fundamental dogma of the women's liberation movement. If a baby is not available to fill that need. the woman's need is nonetheless real. for women to agitate and demonstrate and hurl demands on society in order to wrest from an oppressive male-dominated social structure the status that has been wrongfully denied to women through the centuries. A baby fulfills this need in the lives of must women. perhaps God.. Without woman's innate maternal instinct. and her love-for nothing.. Although not nearly so total as the baby's need.. whereas men cannot. and despondent from the loneliness of living a life without commitment. It has produced a generation of young women searching for their identity. her beauty.that the female body with its baby-producing organs was not designed by a conspiracy of men but by the Divine Architect of the human race. normal baby has a handicap.. of all the injustices perpetuated upon women through the centuries.. Women must be made equal to men in their ability not to become pregnant and not to be expected to care for babies they may bring into this world. The overriding psychological need of a woman is to love something alive. is imprisoned by her own negative view of herself and of her place in the world around her. Women and men become adversaries instead of partners.

The Equal Rights Amendment can never do for women what needs to be done for them. Between 1982 and 1988. He made men and women to complement each other and to love each other. as Karl Marx did. the gross domestic product grew at an average annual rate of about 4 percent. but whose husbands spend little time at home and who take no interest in their wives and children. that they are both heirs together of the grace of life. Christian women are honored above men. and 'twas ever thus. generating more than 630. Women who work should be respected and accorded dignity and equal rewards for equal work. and they need to be part of a home where their husband is a godly leader and where there is a Christian family. God Almighty created men and women biologically different and with differing needs and roles. . They need a man who knows Jesus Christ as his Lord and Savior. Not all the women involved in the feminist movement are radicals. even as Christ is the head of the church" (Ep. 1989). 11 million . 5:23). spend years reading political philosophy in the British Museum while her child starved to death. Ma. Major Problems in American Women's History (Lexington. and in the naked materialism of the culture associated with it. and she will reach her goal because the longest journey starts with a very practical first step. Because a woman is weaker does not mean that she is less important. 429-433. Only in places were the Bible is believed and practiced do women receive more than equal rights. But this is not what the present feminist movement and the equal rights movement are all about. Some are misinformed. Source: Mary Beth Norton. Women don't take naturally to a search for the intangible and abstract. The Reagan years reminded some observers of the 1920s. In 1 Peter 3:7 we read that husbands are to give their wives honor as unto the weaker vessel.000 new businesses. pp. The Positive Woman knows who she is and where she is going. provides one description of the 1980s. in this vignette. No woman would ever. Sometimes the full load of rearing a family becomes a great burden to a woman who is not supported by a man. women are different from men in dealing with the fundamentals of life itself. The Equal Rights Amendment is a delusion. ERA defied the mandate that "the husband is the head of the wife.. They live in disobedience to God's laws and have promoted their godless philosophy throughout our society. Women need to know Jesus Christ as their Lord and Savior and be under His Lordship.Finally... Falwell: I believe that at the foundation of the women's liberation movement there is a minority core of women who were once bored with life. I believe that women deserve more than equal rights. and some are lonely women who like being housewives and helpmates and mothers. women are concerned about feeding the kids today. Many women have never accepted their God-given roles. Men and women have differing strengths. not only in the ebullience of the prosperity but in the unevenness of it. Men are philosophers. Men may philosophize about how life began and where we are heading. And. in families and in nations where the Bible is believed. whose real problems are spiritual problems. women are practical. "GREED IS GOOD": THE 1980s Historian Pauline Maier.

"Greed is all right. The decade produced a new group called "yuppies. By 1989. in Palo Alto. By 1988. Personal computers (PCs) sprang from several sources. notably the military's patronage of microelectronics and the interests of hobbyists in democratizing the use of computers. Amid the weakened oversight of Reaganite deregulation. California. loans issued to finance the purchase of corporations for prices far higher than the corporations were worth. An essential component of the PC was the integrated circuit. Some of the heroes. the region heavy with computer firms on the peninsula south of San Francisco. were later exposed as crooked and went to jail. clothing designers. but reality outdid fiction. Among the heroes of Wall Street ere manipulators of junk bonds. THE COMPUTER AGE ARRIVES The vignette below describes the emergence of the personal computer and ironically its debt to the counterculture generation.. most of whom were admired for their professional skills but also for their opulent incomes. dressed for success and exuding the ambitions of an unrestrained materialism. 2003)." upwardly mobile men and women with degrees in law or business. and a drop in the unemployment rate from 7. photo etching the connections between them. which formed all its electrical parts out of a flat piece of silicon. But the jitters were short-lived.5 percent. Ivan Boesky. Source: Pauline Maier. when the Dow Jones industrial average (an indicator of stock-market value) plummeted 508 points. the Dow Jones had more than doubled its level in 1982. Americans of all sorts became absorbed with celebrities-professional athletes. one of the financial buccaneers of the decade-he later went to jail for fraudulent manipulations proclaimed. who received several hundred million dollars a year in commissions.. and by 1989 median family income corrected for inflation had shot up 12. and generating fears that the country might be headed for another Depression. mortgage rates had plummeted roughly 40 percent.4 percent to 5. losing almost a quarter of its worth wiping out $750 billion in paper wealth. Corporate profits broke records. which was an incubator for many of the engineers who would develop the computing industry in what came to be known as Silicon Valley. vol. 1987. Inventing America: A History of the United States. even chefs. pp. some of whom bought yachts and threw lavish entertainments." a sentiment that pervaded the popular film Wall Street. Although ." a derivative acronym for "young urban professionals. entertainers. a number of savings-and-loan institutions were looted by white-collar thieves.jobs. and so did the stock market--at least until October 19. It was devised independently at Texas Instruments and at Fairchild Semiconductor Laboratories. One of the most significant technical developments of the 1970s was the personal computer. Tom Wolfe's best-selling novel Bonfire of the Vanities relentlessly explored the culture of avarice. television newscasters. 2 (New York.5 percent. 1026-1027.everybody should be a little greedy.

It spurred Bill Gates. called for bringing computing power to the people by. One enthusiast recalled the "strong feeling that we were subversives. By this time. Gates dropped out of Harvard to develop the Microsoft Corporation. a small firm that three hobbyists had founded in Albuquerque. some of them in tune with the countercultural ambience of the San Francisco Bay Peninsula. engineers in Silicon Valley were creating an integrated circuit on a small chip containing the calculating circuits equivalent to all those in a mainframe computer of the 1950s. Selling for $397. In 1973. even though it had no keyboard or monitor. Both were T-shirts-and-jeans devotees of the hobbyist electronics culture in Silicon Valley. New Mexico. and in 1977 brought out the Apple II. Eager to expand the business. We were subverting the way the giant corporations had run things. the Beatles. with long hair and sandals. Computer hobbyists. and a floppy-disk drive for storage. for example. The development of the personal computer was encouraged by the abundant technical resources of Silicon Valley notably the electronics graduates from nearby Stanford University and the University of California at Berkeley and the engineering innovations from local firms such as Hewlett-Packard--and by the inspiration that hobbyists drew from time-sharing computers." but in 1979 VisiCalc. came on the market and demonstrated the value of the PC for business." In 1974. and his high school friend Paul Allen. both of which had been originally developed under contracts the Defense Department and NASA. and Steve Jobs. time-sharing gave users in their offices access to their personal files and encouraged them to think they could have interactive access to their own computers at any time for any purpose. was an acolyte of vegetarianism. founded by several veterans of Fairchild. twenty-two. the Intel Corporation. to write a software program for it that they licensed to the Albuquerque firm. where they grew up. a monitor. . obtained venture capital. They started marketing a personal computer kit called the Altair. a software firm he and Allen founded in 1975 for the Altair venture. In 1976. and transcendental meditation. Steve Wozniak. to sell radio transmitters for model airplanes went beyond the dream of universal terminal access to put computers themselves into everyone's hands. a spreadsheet program. 5. the Altair ran on the Intel 8080 chip and was an instant hit with hobbyists. began marketing a comparable personal computer.integrated circuits were not developed with military patronage. a twenty-year-old Harvard student. One Minuteman II missile used 2. introduced in 00 operated with a mouse and pull-down menus. A later version. the Apple.000. twenty. Jobs. Built around a central computer that automatically allocated processing time to different individuals. the Defense Department and NASA provided a sizable fraction of the early market for them. Jobs and Wozniak relinquished their T-shirts for suits.000. announced that it had produced such a chip: the 8080. twenty-five. By the late 1960s. providing the public with free access to timeshared terminals. which included a keyboard. They built the first Apples in the home garage of Jobs's parents. several other companies were selling personal compute software for them was initially confined to educational programs and games such as the wildly popular "Pacman. the Apollo guidance system.

2 (New York." Between the mid-1980s and early 1990s. scientists in Europe developed a program to retrieve information from any computer connected to the Internet by latching on to its standard address (called a "URI. and provided it to IBM as MS-DOS (short for "Microsoft Disk Operating System"). A brief history of the Internet appears below. Together." Source: Pauline Maier. pp. scientists and engineers at different institutions developed the essential hardware and software that would permit different types of computers and networks to communicate with each other through an intermediate service provider. enlisting Microsoft to provide the operating software for its machines. an arrangement that permitted the company eventually to earn billions of dollars by selling the right to use the system. Programmers at a government computing facility in Illinois.Bill Gates had already warned the hobbyists that he would consider free sharing of the software that Microsoft had produced for the Altair a form of piracy. In 1981. Its diffusion was accompanied . R. personal computing was rapidly turning away from its countercultural origins into a lucrative for-profit enterprise. and protocols ("http. It was principally conceived in the late 1960s by a computer scientist at MIT named J. By the late 1970s. In the meantime. which was pioneered in 1971 and which an authoritative 1978 report dubbed a "smashing success" that would "sweep the country. Inventing America: A History of the United States. After the mid-1990s. Like so many innovations that changed the way people lived. partly at the initiative of then-Senator Al Gore. a nationwide network rapidly developed among industrial and university scientists. the Internet originated in the national defense program's patronage of science and technology." for hypertext transfer protocol) for transferring them from one computer to another. a recent college graduate." for hypertext markup language) for presenting text and images. the Internet was transferred to civilian control and then opened up to commercial use. which soon became an industry standard. society as the Internet. these innovations led to the birth of the World Wide Web. They also devised a language ("html. Microsoft bought a software package that had been devised at Seattle Computer Products by Tim Paterson. the Web spread with the freely accessible Internet across the globe. Licklider as a network that would preserve communications in the event of nuclear attack. commercial version that they called Netscape. THE INTERNET Few late 20th Century inventions have so profoundly changed U. 2003). It was used mainly for e-mail.S. The PC caught on so fast that two years later Time magazine designated the personal computer its "Man of the Year. Gates sold IBM the right to use the system but maintained Microsoft's ownership. IBM entered the PC market. left in 1994 to develop a new. to other makers of personal computers. In the seventies. In response. With the sponsorship of the Defense Department." for universal resource locator). having devised a browser. Indeed. C. vol. 991-993. you are reading this vignette courtesy of internet technology.

Today there are an estimated 1 million electronic "mailboxes" in use. "It allows me. according to analysts. an analyst for InfoCorp. with revenues last year estimated at $200 million. And Echo. Today. "In the next decade electronic communication is going to become as routine as making phone calls. coordinated its Tedi River gold mining operations around the globe in Papua New Guinea by exchanging information over a computer message network. Columbus. p.a computer-to-computer communications system regarded as the most revolutionary since the telegraph and telephone replaced horseback couriers more than a century ago.com" and were known accordingly as "dot com" companies." said communications consultant Richard Miller. 2 (New York. Michigan. And in Dearborn. THE E-MAIL "REVOLUTION" BEGINS The following passage from a 1985 Los Angeles Times article describes the advent of electronic mail. a Cupertino. Last year. about 74 million people. electronic mail use is growing at an annual rate of nearly 60%--faster than any other segment of the computer industry. California- . By early 1999." said Jan Lewis. including two out of five adults. Source: Pauline Maier. Ohio-based CompuServe--the nation's largest electronic mail service--doubled its subscribers to 185. He predicated dramatic changers in international communications. the Society of Manufacturing Engineers coordinates plans for its annual convention and distributes abstracts of technical papers to engineers across the United States over a computer communications system. information that might otherwise require costly long distance calls or delay for postal delivery can be exchanged across town or around the world virtually in an instant via "electronic mail"-. president of International Telematics in Palo Alto. most of them with URLs that ended in the designation ". At the time electronic mail services charged $40 to sign-up or $10 for a monthly service rate..000 in the last month alone.000 subscribers in less than a year. has established 14. Ironically Microsoft advertised its Word program for the AppleMcintosh in that section of the paper for $149. the Bechtel Group. 2003)." Although still a fledgling industry.95 From offices in San Francisco. were accessing the Internet.by an avalanche of companies founded to exploit it commercially. to send you a message regardless of where in the world either one of us is at the time. vol. In Mexico agricultural scientists are using computer links to remote experimental crop stations to monitor data of new strains of wheat being grown there.. Inc. "Electronic mail will be the 21st Century version of the telex--which it clearly makes obsolete. 1065-1066. for example. adding 3. Inventing America: A History of the United States. a Marina del Reybased newcomer.000. for example.

"After a time they found that there were also personal messages being exchanged like plans for Friday night poker games. He conceded. "We won't even have to memorize telephone numbers anymore. however. telegraph--the original electronic communications system--revolutionized the way the world conducted business." James Risen offers an explanation of the success of Japanese auto manufacturers vis-à-vis their American counterparts.citing the example of an early electronic mail network set up a few years ago through the Defense Department--a system designed for the exchange of important scientific information. "Its consumer value will increase as the numbers of subscribes increase. It is technically possible today to move the contents of an entire set of encyclopedia from a computer in Chicago to another terminal in Los Angeles in the time it takes to read this sentence. Part VI. Despite a 10 year.based marketing research firm. 1985. Ford and Chrysler to . even if some the of earliest users had a telephone. who could they call?" That's the case now with electronic mail." he said. the Japanese are still holding the competitive edge over Detroit's auto makers that they first asserted more than a decade ago. The electronic mail concept is not new. The increasing business use of electronic mail will affect consumer use as well. "People who use it in the office are going to want to use it at home. multibillion dollar effort by the American auto industry to catch up with Japan in terms of reliability and overall quality. that consumer growth will lag behind business use of electronic mail. She predicted that the average home in the mid-1990s will be equipped with a telephone with a built-in computer that will permit easy access not only to electronic mail." said Michael J Cavanagh." Cavanagh said. we'll have the same problem that the telephone had for the first few decades--that is." Source: Los Angeles Times. could be relayed in a matter of hours to financial centers in the East. Back in the days when mail was delivered by horseback. however. p. executive director of the Electronic Mail Association--a Washington-based industry group. the chances were that very few of their friends did." Lewis said. TOKYO-As the worldwide auto industry enters the 1990s. "More people need to buy personal computers and telephone modems for their homes. A free-fall plunge in car sales has forced General Motors. but to various databases. the Japanese are still building better cars. 1. This winter. Today. for example. February 24. weather reports and computerized directory assistance. "Until they do. the computer has squeezed the hours down to milliseconds. The explanation describes the challenge auto manufacturers and indeed all American industry faces in an increasingly competitive world market. So. News of a gold discovery in the West. the latest stock quotes. Detroit is paying an awful price for its failure to close the quality gap in the 1980s." said Cavanagh... AMERICAN AND JAPANESE AUTOS IN THE 1990s In an article titled "Why Can't America Catch Up.

are included. are still out of touch with what a whole generation of car buyers─and I mean anyone under 45─wants in a product. "The domestics are certainly improving. The Big Three auto makers have dramatically improved the quality of their cars over the last 10 years. It often takes two years longer in Detroit to develop a new model than it does in Japan─virtually assuring that Japanese cars will always seem newer. the Japanese seem to have a better understanding of American consumers than the American auto companies do. at the very least. When their engineers design new models. the Japanese have kept their competitive lead during the period in which they lost their once-formidable labor-cost advantage over Detroit. after all this time. GM.. Remarkably." Today. but the Japanese are too. taking a big load off their workers and their factories. a trend that has. Ford's Probe and Plymouth's Geo Storm. . Why are Japanese cars still better? First. placing a much greater emphasis on what they call "designing-in" quality.lay off tens of thousands of workers during the last few months. Thanks to the rise in the value of the yen relative to the dollar and a worsening labor shortage.000 at Ford. A staggering 42 of 62 Big Three assembly plants are being shuttered temporarily during January. In addition. one of every four cars sold in America comes from the Japanese─more if the Japanese-built cars hiding behind American nameplates. The Japanese now sell more cars in America than does Ford and they are rapidly catching up with industry leader. while Chrysler's mini-van single-handedly created a whole new market. after several years in which Detroit did narrow the gap. D. The Japanese have adjusted by drastically upgrading the automation of their factories. the Japanese can design and develop a new car much faster than American companies can.000 compared to $40. for example." one Ford official said with a sigh. they spend a great deal of time making sure that the cars will be easy to build on the assembly line. "We screamed at them to come over here and build cars where they sold them. and now they are doing it─and they are still beating us. fresher and just plain better. the average Toyota worker made the equivalent of $49. Power & Associates. Ironically.. "I think the domestics. But many automobile industry analysts believe the Japanese are in fact widening their quality lead once more. Said Cedergren. assemblyline workers in Japan command higher wages than their counterparts in Detroit. kept America in the ball game and Detroit has produced its share of winning products. "The quality gap is still there" warned Chris Cedergren of J. Ford's Taurus helped redefine automotive styling. the Japanese do a better job of planning ahead for problems. The domestics are now only about where the Japanese were in 1983 or 1984. Most embarrassing for auto executives in Detroit has been that they have had to watch as the Japanese have rapidly set up shop in the Midwest with plants that can approach the best quality levels of Japan─while employing the same kind of American workers that Big Three management once blamed for the poor workmanship in American cars.

000 256." Los Angeles Times." said Kaname Kasai. Ran Company k Current (2004) 5 years 10 years ago ago 1 2 3 4 1.S. Along with their fixation on detail comes a sense in Japan that quality isn't stationary. In Japan." Source: James Risen.The Japanese have also developed far more sophisticated relationships with their parts suppliers. more than ever.000 910.000 355. not through words but through deeds.000 . The pay gap between executives and the people on the shop floor is much smaller in Japan than in the U. it is quite common for six different cars to be built on the same line.000 284.500. By bringing their parts suppliers into their development process. by contrast.S. which borders on the obsessive. January 14. But what may be most important is the Japanese attention to detail. usually make at least 50 times as much and sometime as much as 500 times. Instead. which continues to elude Detroit's auto makers even after years of rhetoric about it.000 -174. top executives in Detroit. Japan. EMPLOYERS. They have also perfected the complex art of building many different models on the same assembly line─something Detroit has never quite mastered. general manager of Honda's massive assembly plant in Sayama. Ford and General Motors are the fifth and six largest employers and only eight of the top twenty-five employers are primarily manufacturers.000 Wal-Mart Stores McDonalds United Parcel Target 528. So what is most frightening for Detroit today is that the Japanese are.000 418. 1994-2004 As the table below indicates. "We are moving now so that in the next couple of years we can open the quality gap even wider over America. a moving target.000 330. the function of quality control in Japan is kaizen─the search for constant improvement. who often perform critical research and development work for the auto makers. "Why Can't America Catch Up. "We are never satisfied. the Japanese are consistently able to offer newer and better technology for much less money than Detroit. That willingness by both managers and line workers to focus on even the smallest problems until they are solved springs from a genuine sense of team spirit. the United States is now a post-industrial economy. That allows the Japanese to offer a wider array of new models without going to the huge expense of building new plants. The chief executive of a major Japanese auto company earns only about 10 times as much as the youngest line worker.000 167. MAJOR U. 1990. The difference is that Japanese assembly-line workers are made to feel like a team.000 328.

000 173.000 299.273 305.067 293.700 213.000 158.000. killing 11. And in 1998.000 319. and [the one] in Kenya.S. terrorists drove a truck bomb into an American army barracks in Saudi Arabia itself.000 100. They infuriated Osama bin Laden.531 326.000 291. directed against the country. killing 19 U. who controlled Afghanistan through the decade.600 --131.525 -231.000 278.000 140.000 265.300 178.000 290. they succeeding in killing 6 and injuring more than 1.600 203.000 190.100 200.900 203.720 22.000 Source: Investor's Business Daily (September 2004). military service people. killing 213 Kenyan citizens and injuring thousands of civilians.000 105.000 -197.000 123. In 1996.850 59.207 222.000 342.600 87.000 249.000 75.5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Ford Motor General Motors IBM General Electric Home Depot Kroger Yum Brands Tyco International Sears Roebuck Albertsons Safeway United Technologies Verizon Aramark Delphi HCA Berkshire Hathaway SBC Communications Altria Group Kmart Holding Boeing 327.000 260.000 322.000 50.545 594. a rich Saudi exile living in Afghanistan.000 -- 258.213 710.000 168.700 47.000 324. four Muslim terrorists connected to bin Laden exploded a car bomb in the garage under one of the World Trade Center towers in New York City.800 168.000 73.000 144.000 70.000 208. several other suicide truck bombers blew up the American embassy in Tanzania.600 172. the presence of American troops on Saudi Arabian soil during and after the Gulf War. Bin Laden hated the United States enough to finance a network of terror called Al Qaeda.040 165.000 12.000 156.568 260.600 200. Although they failed in their ambition to topple the tower into its twin.000 359.000 212.000 157.000 188. The sanctions against Iraq and the civilian suffering they generated. and the United States' support of Israel all angered a number of Muslims in the Middle East.000 129.800 256. . In February 1993. TERRORISM IN THE 1990s In the following vignette historian Pauline Meier describes the emerging Al Qaeda terrorist network led by Osama bin Laden and its relationship to the Taliban.

resolved to impose limited sanctions against the Taliban in an effort to force them to turn over bin Laden immediately to a country where he could be brought to justice. and a temporary base camp in Afghanistan. a group of extreme Islamic fundamentalists. had heard rumors of an affair between ." (The owner of the plant denied that he had anything to do with bin Laden. the FBI's counterterrorism budget more than tripled. A year later. who in August 1994 had been appointed a special prosecutor to look into the Whitewater affair. no matter what or how long it takes. From early 1998. a number of analysts believed that the United States was inadequately on guard against the war of terrorism that was increasingly being waged against it. [President Bill] Clinton's ability to advance even a modest domestic agenda was greatly undermined by the scandals that began washing over him and led to his impeachment the following year. and reporters visiting the site saw no evidence that he did." U. AND IMPEACHMENT In the vignette below historian Pauline Meier describes the Monica Lewinsky Scandal which prompted the second impeachment of a President in the nation's history. Still.A few hours after the attacks in 1998. to some $300 million a year. gained control of Afghanistan and extended their protection to bin Laden as a "guest. Meanwhile. terrorists linked to bin Laden attacked the USS Cole while it was anchored in the Yemeni port of Aden. killing 17 of its crew and injuring 47. Then in January 1998. In 1996. The scandals came to light as a result of the work conducted by Kenneth Starr. Inventing America: A History of the United States. alarmed." In an operation code-named "Infinite Reach. labeled by Clinton "one of the most active terrorist bases in the world. testimony indicated that bin Laden and Al Qaeda had attempted to acquire weapons of mass destruction about five years earlier." In October 1999. a young government intern.N. the Taliban. who was still pursuing her sexual harassment suit against the president. Starr received evidence from a government employee named Linda Tripp that Monica Lewinsky. Source: Pauline Maier. The Taliban refused. and bin Laden and Al Qaeda grew bolder. vol. in the wake of so many successful assaults. the U. had been having an affair with the president that included her performing oral sex on him during visits to the Oval Office. Security Council. 1062-1063. alleged to be a source of biochemical weapons.) During the trial of the organizers of the Africa bombings. Some contended that it was only a matter of time before the terrorists would strike on American shores with far greater destructive effect than they had achieved in the 1993 bombing at the World Trade Center. pp. Starr was authorized to investigate several other allegations of impropriety in the Clinton administration. 2003). in late 1997. During the next several years. planes attacked two targets believed to be associated with bin Laden-the Al Shifa pharmaceutical plant in Sudan. Between 1993 and 1999. "We will use all the means at our disposal to bring those responsible to justice.S. the attorneys for Paula Jones. LIES. President Clinton declared. 2 (New York. SEX.

Now Clinton's conduct was brushed off by leading Democrats and his supporters among feminists. and the Internet for months. she turned over a blue dress that. Clinton denied having a romantic relationship with Lewinsky. Clinton.." He refused to discuss the matter further publicly. On September 9. but he told his family." and his alleged Oval Office peccadilloes "revived America's oldest communal passion. Lewinsky. and advisers that the stories about his relationship with Lewinsky were absolutely untrue. Starr gave Congress a videotape of Clinton's grand jury testimony and a 445-page report. In a statement on national television at the end of January. whom Starr had threatened to prosecute. The public had long thought Clinton was lying about his relationship with Lewinsky. he defiantly insisted that he had not lied under oath nor asked anyone to lie for him. cabinet. according to her. he conceded that his conduct with Lewinsky had been "wrong. In 2000. the House voted to launch an impeachment inquiry by a solid majority of 258 to 176. On October 8. "I did not have sexual relations with that woman." In August. Attorney General Janet Reno authorized him to enlarge his multiple investigations of Clinton into whether the president had lied in his testimony to Jones's lawyers and had sought to obstruct justice by encouraging Lewinsky to cover up their affair. they obtained a ruling from the Supreme Court requiring Clinton to answer their questions. Besides telling a federal grand jury in graphic detail about her affair with Clinton. Still. Congress quickly released both the full report and the videotape to the public. January 1998. Philip Roth remarked in his novel The Human Stain that in the summer of 1998 "a president's penis was on everyone's mind. in videotaped testimony to Starr and the federal grand jury. On January 17. responding under oath to questions by Jones's lawyers. By now. Clinton realized that DNA testing of the stain would demonstrate that the semen was his. He told the American people in a four-minute nationally televised address that he had "misled" them and done injury to his family." but insisted that he been legally accurate in denying to Jones's lawyers that he had engaged in a "sexual relationship" with Lewinsky because he took such a relationship to mean intercourse. blacks. but it had persistently registered high approval of his performance in office." Frenzied discussions of the case fined newspapers. At Starr's request. Hillary Clinton blamed the array of investigations into the couple's activities on a "vast right-wing conspiracy. television. establishing the precedent that a sitting president could be compelled to testify in a civil suit concerning actions that took place before his presidency. radio. gays. agreed to testify in return for a grant of immunity. emphatically declared. Hoping to demonstrate that Clinton showed a pattern of predatory sexual behavior.the ecstasy of sanctimony. covered . The report detailed Clinton's sexual contacts with Lewinsky and listed eleven possible grounds for impeachment. with 31 Democrats joining most of the Republicans in support. shaking his finger. some of which focused on charges that he had lied under oath. In mid-August.Lewinsky and Clinton. word of the information Tripp had given Starr was making headlines.. was stained with the president's semen. and union officials as sex between two consenting adults.

with the House leadership presenting the case against the president: After more than a month of partisan debate. Source: Pauline Maier.953. N.188. 7.07 2 3 Los Angeles. PA 1.005. In the congressional elections in November.550 6 Detroit.223. AZ 1. TX. On January 27 1999.724 4 Philadelphia. 1073-1074. 2003).966.068 5 PA 1. His expected successor in the speakership. the impeachment trial began in the Senate. "It's hard to get really excited. 1. N. pp.Y. 8. and the Republican Congress plummeted." a waitress remarked. Inventing America: A History of the United States.504 8 Dallas. 5 the charge of obstructing justice.783.Y.400 8 San Diego.517.up as anyone might conceal an illicit affair. 1998. the House in a strongly partisan vote resolved to impeach Clinton on two articles-perjury and obstruction of justice-making him the second president (after Andrew Johnson) to be so treated. vol. All the same. MI 1. TX 1. TX Philadelphia. Linda Tripp. 1980-2000 20 Largest Cities 24 Largest Cities 1980 2000 1 New York. on December 19. AMERICAN URBANIZATION.321.339 6 Phoenix.631 5 Houston.688.694.763 3 Chicago. "What does the Clintons' sex life have to do with me?" Meanwhile. the public standing of Starr. under fire himself for questionable financial dealings. also left as news stories began to circulate that he had engaged in adultery. IL 3. 10 Republicans opposed the charge of perjury. Robert Livingston of Louisiana. IL 2 Los Angeles. but by no means worthy of impeachment.594. the Democrats gained five seats in the House while maintaining their number in the Senate and in state contests. 1. CA 3.030 1 New York.210 4 Houston. 2 (New York. Newt Gingrich. The Senate voted 55 to 45 against the perjury charge and 50 to 50 on the charge of obstructing justice (Neither charge gained a single Democratic vote. CA 1.078 7 San Diego.071. TX 904.580 . the prosecutor failed to come near the two-thirds majority (67 votes) necessary for conviction. CA 875.203. CA 2.008.278 2 Chicago. announced that he would leave Congress.820 2.045 7 Dallas.

373.775 San Antonio.199.9 Baltimore. MI 951.838. in 2000 New York – Northern NJ 21.157.S. CA 636.871 20 Boston. WI 596. MD 651. 13 CA 776.865 – Long Island Los Angeles – Riverside 16. OH 564. MD 786.550 17 Baltimore.356 15 Columbus.6% of the nation's people lived in these major urban areas.639. 42.141 21 Washington. IN 700.943 12 Honolulu. OH 711. WA 563.906. 9 TX 1. population in 2000 was 281.645 – Orange County Chicago – Gary – 9.470 16 Washington. the total U.421. MA 589.822 19 Milwaukee.154 18 Milwaukee.S. TN 650.059 22 Nashville.891 23 El Paso. Rank 1 2 3 Metropolitan Areas in Total Population U. IN 791.540 Kenosha . Metropolitan Areas. TX 656.562 17 San Jose. 2000 According to the U.807 San Francisco.617 15 Memphis.662 24 Seattle. DC 637.144.212 18 Memphis. TX 785.646 10 San Antonio. Thus.270 11 Phoenix.974 20 Columbus. The total number of people in 2000 living in the twenty largest metropolitan areas displayed below was 119.100 19 Cleveland. DC 572. AZ 764.651 16 Austin.926 13 Indianapolis. TN 646.410 10 Detroit.733 14 San Francisco.911 11 San Jose. CA 894.S.374 Top Twenty U. FL 735. WI 636. CA 678. HI 762.874 12 Indianapolis.S. TX 563. Census. TN 569. OH 573.974 14 Jacksonville.

All four. one of the planes from Boston crashed into the north tower of the 110-story World Trade Center in lower Manhattan.362 6.608. Eighteen minutes later. its reinforced concrete supports severely weakened by the intense heat of the jet fuel fire.070 7. America's world was suddenly and dramatically transformed. spontaneous outpouring of support for both the victims and the nation.607 2.198 3.571 4.C. Here historian Pauline Maier describes the cataclysmic events in New York City and Northern Virginia and the massive. bound for California. 2001. collapsed.669.112. 2001.603. The events and our response serve to remind us of our connection to our collective history and to each other.M.876 2. D.395. On Tuesday.463 5.100 5.968. the second plane out of Boston struck the south tower and exploded. Paul Cleveland – Akron San Diego St.506 2. Within the space of an hour and a half that morning.819.380 3.456. each was commandeered by four or five hijackers armed with box cutters and knives.945. Louis Denver – Boulder – Greeley Tampa – St. Baltimore San Francisco – Oakland – San Jose Philadelphia – Wilmington – Atlantic City Boston – Worcester – Lawrence Detroit – Ann Arbor – Flint Dallas – Fort Worth Houston – Galveston – Brazoria Atlanta Miami – Fort Lauderdale Seattle – Tacoma – Bremerton Phoenix – Mesa Minneapolis – St. September 11.4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Washington D.039. At 9:43. At some point not long after the planes were airborne.251. the plane from Dulles crashed into the Pentagon.581.997 9/11 It is fitting that the final vignette in this manual address the events of September 11. two passenger airlines took off from Logan in Boston.188. tearing a huge hole in the building and setting it ablaze.221. At 8:45 A.833 2.806 2.813.C.760 3. and two others took off from Newark Airport in New Jersey and Dulles Airport in Washington. showering a torrent of .876.554. were loaded with fuel.428 5. Shortly after 10.831 2. Petersburg 7.801 4. the south tower of the World Trade Center.

solemnly peering at the smoldering ruins and the workmen removing the debris. Staub. learned about the attacks on the Trade Center and the Pentagon. with the result that the Plane crashed in a field southeast of Pittsburgh rather than into a building. Many posted prayers. headed toward the nation's capital. hundreds of them on posterboards pleading for information about them--people named Schwartzstein. In New York. sent money to assist their families. Just before 10:30. and children. The victims at the World Trade Center included the nationals of more than eighty nations. Commentators everywhere extolled the heroism of the firefighters and police who died in the line of duty at the World Trade Center. and poems on the protective chain-link fences at the site and on any available wall space (including phone booths) around the city. and gave blood for the survivors. .. Caulfield. Some 200 people died in the crash at the Pentagon. and blue streamers on their jackets. In the weeks that followed. Passengers on the fourth flight. estimates of the deaths at the World Trade Center ran as high as 6. in fact. (It was. The multinational and multicultural nature of American society was revealed by the names of lost spouses. releasing a tremendous cloud of debris and smoke and severely damaging a nearby 47-story building--later in the day it. in the meantime. notices of the missing. buildings. President Bush was in Florida. as the world's sole superpower. and Egan. said. now hallowed ground.debris into the streets below.000). In Washington.000 (they were later reduced to 3. "I don't think we want to speculate about that-more than any of us can bear. Within less than an hour of the first crash at the World Trade Center. the French newspaper Le Monde ran the headline "Nous sommes toutes les Amiricaines" (We are all Americans). the Federal Aviation Administration halted all flights at American airports for the first time in the nation's history and diverted to Canada all transatlantic aircraft bound for the United States. parents. Thousands flocked to Ground Zero. Henrique and Calderon.) All forty-four people aboard were killed. overpasses. Secret Service agents armed with automatic rifles were deployed opposite the White House in Lafayette Park. the city reported that hundreds of its police officers and firefighters on the scene were dead or missing. American flags appeared in shop windows and on homes. but the White House was evacuated and so were all other federal office buildings in the capital. and bridges. the stock exchanges and all state government offices were closed. Millions of Americans pinned red. people attended services for the victims. Cassino.. asked about the number killed. white. The attacks of September 11 prompted an outpouring of patriotism rarely seen since Pearl Harbor." That evening. and Wiswall. fell--and setting others in the area on fire. too. Across the country. the north tower followed its twin into Vie dust. At a news conference in the mid-afternoon. New York's Mayor Rudolph Giuliani. cars and trucks. was an integral part of what was becoming a global civilization. September 11 heightened awareness of the fact that the United States. the portion of the Pentagon that had been hit also collapsed. they concluded that their plane was being flown to a target as well. The day after the attacks. Kikuchihara and Tsoy. Williams. Some decided to storm the cockpit. in touch with relatives via cell phones.

3 7. their trumpets blaring Are calling us to arms.020 17.9 19.. forged and enlarged through almost four centuries of struggle. the evil in the world We must stop. pillars of strength Many observers declared that September 11 had ushered the United States into a new era.1 33. 2 (New York. Arm in arm.452 12.239.453 Percentage Increase Percentage Urban Percentage Persons of -35. APPENDIX POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES.7 5.On a sheet of paper tacked up in New York's Grand Central Station in late October.866. vol.4 18.2 8.069. stand up together as one.638.1 16. democracy. had come to include many elements.4 33. Source: Pauline Maier.214 5.1 7. but you missed America America isn't about a place. equality. Perhaps it had.483 7.1 6. Another poem posted at Grand Central Station told the perpetrators of September 11 why the nation remained strong and resilient: Well.8 19. turn.5 32. an anonymous poet cried out: Six thousand fallen heroes The six thousand angels. and at once invigorate and temper its response to the shadowy threats it was now compelled to confront.0 18. The overarching ones—the Fourth of July standards of freedom. pp. 2003).. and opportunity--continued to transcend the nation's diversity. 1790-2000 Year Color 1790 1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 Number of States 13 16 17 23 24 26 Population 3.881 9. The idea.8 . Inventing America: A History of the United States.1 36.8 10. bind it together.929.308.3 18. Waking us up from our selfish slumber To the truth of our lives. you hit the World Trade Center. 1082-1086. America isn't even about a bunch of buildings America is about an IDEA.

697.3 15.3 79.175 204.1 39.3 10.876 31.443.333 1787 7. South Carolina 249.323.000 7. Massachusetts 379.7 14.7 28.947.266 105.8 20.304 Concord 1788 40.2 56.3 11. Capital 1787 2.765.0 GROWTH OF THE FEDERAL UNION.669.504.783 62.000 8. 1788-2000 Population Order of at Time of Entry State Admission Original States 1.000 2.575 91.1 56.2 10.000 6. Virginia Year Area Admitted (Sq.620 122.000 3.2 14.2 35.825 248.361 179.972.000 9.5 64.5 11.775.9 16.9 73.5 12.7 21.5 20. New Jersey 184.0 14.770 226.9 35.818.8 80.3 19.155.4 12.577 Annapolis 1788 31.321 39.449 50.836 Trenton 1788 58. Connecticut 238. Georgia 83.817 Harrisburg Richmond .8 25.0 69.000 10.421.8 13.5 19.5 76.710.191.1 7.714 75.8 13.275 150.4 13.6 51.4 9.709.6 26.009 Hartford 1788 8.6 26. Mi.1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 31 33 37 38 44 45 46 48 48 48 48 50 50 50 50 50 23.994. Maryland 320.000 4.906 35. Pennsylvania 434.2 10.005 Columbia 1788 9.046 131.878 281.057 Dover 1787 45.257 Boston 1788 10.0 13. New Hampshire 142. Delaware 59.1 10.876 Atlanta 1788 5.5 12.4 16.6 45.000 5.1 11.0 25.0 25.2 15.

000 20.216 Lansing 1845 58.000 28.214 1791 67 Washington 1791 9.609 Montgomery 1820 33.215 Augusta 1821 69.576 Albany North Carolina 1789 52.154 Madison District of Columbia 8.359 Frankfort 1796 42.000 15. Ohio 231. Texas 213. Indiana 147.000 Pre-Civil War 19th Century States 17.222 Columbus 1812 48.000 24.586 Raleigh Rhode Island 1790 1. Illinois 55.000 23.000 18. 69.000 30. Florida 87.000 13.000 22. Tennessee 106. Mississippi 75.560 Tallahassee 1845 267.000 21. Iowa 192. 340.104 Little Rock 1837 58. Louisiana 153. Kentucky 221.686 Jefferson City 1836 53. Maine 298.523 Baton Rouge 1816 36.000 11. Michigan 212.000 16.000 29.000 12.692. Wisconsin Providence Austin .000 Other 18th Century States 14. Missouri 140.000 19.000 25.609 Montpelier 1792 40.339 1846 56.716 Jackson 1818 56. 394. Arkansas 98.244 Nashville 1803 41.291 Indianapolis 1817 47.290 Des Moines 1848 56.000 27.000 26.000 New York 1788 49. Alabama 128.400 Springfield 1819 51. Vermont 154.

Oklahoma 1.000 45.247 Denver 1889 70.000 20th Century States 46. Nevada 42.138 Helena 1889 68.000 35.181 Charleston 1864 110.000 33. West Virginia 442.192 Olympia 1890 83.000 36.450 States Admitted During the Civil War 34.000 38.914 Cheyenne 1896 84.693 Minnesota 1858 84.000 40. South Dakota 349.000 California 1850 158. 52.557 Boise 1890 97. 172.000 Sacramento Honolulu City .666 Santa Fe 1912 113.000 48. Kansas 364.277 Lincoln 1876 104.000 39.000 50.305.540 Carson City 1867 77.000 41.000 47. Hawaii 642.916 Salt Lake City 1907 69.000 49. Utah 277. North Dakota 191. 93.000 44.000 42. Montana 143. Washington 357. Alaska 229.000 32.047 Pierre 1889 147.068 St.412 Juneau 1959 6. Wyoming 63.665 Bismarck 1889 77.909 Phoenix 1959 586. New Mexico 360. Paul Oregon 1859 96.000 31.000 Post-Civil War 19th Century States 37.981 Salem 1861 82. Colorado 194.657.264 Topeka 1863 24. Arizona 334. Idaho 89.919 Oklahoma 1912 121. Nebraska 123.000 43.