# Theorem

There are three possibilities as displayed in the figures below.
1. The two lines are secants of the circle and intersect inside the circle (figure on the left). In
this case, we have

.

2. One of the lines is tangent to the circle while the other is a secant (middle figure). In this
case, we have

.

3. Both lines are secants of the circle and intersect outside of it (figure on the right). In this
case, we have

Proof
Draw extra lines to create similar triangles! (Hint: Draw

on all three figures. Draw

another line as well.)

Alternate Formulation
This alternate formulation is much more compact, convenient, and general.
Consider a circle
line through

and a point

in the plane where

that intersects the circle in two places. The power of a point theorem says

that the product of the length from
from

is not on the circle. Now draw a

to the first point of intersection and the length

to the second point of intersection is constant for any choice of a line through

that intersects the circle. This constant is called the power of point
the figure below

. For example, in

If we with respect simply to that circle. then we have reduced our claim to the case of two dimensions. so it only remains to prove the theorem for more dimensions. We have already proven the theorem for a -sphere (i. as follows. Then Proof. and olympiad. Consider the plane of the lines passing through consider the lines and . The intersection of and containing both must be a circle. Additional Notes One important result of this theorem is that both tangents from a point outside of a circle to that circle are equal in length. The theorem generalizes to higher dimensions. respectively.. Let be a point. Let two arbitrary lines passing through . The definition still holds in this case. in which we know the theorem holds. and let intersect be an at -sphere. Introductory Problem 1 Find the value of in the following diagram: . is inside the circle. a circle).e. intermediate. Problems The problems are divided into three categories: introductory.Notice how this definition still works if Consider also when and coincide (as is the case with ).

Solution Problem 2 Find the value of in the following diagram: Solution Problem 3 (ARML) In a circle. find the ratio . chords and and intersect at . and . Solution Problem 4 (ARML) Chords and of a given circle are perpendicular to each other and intersect at a right angle. Solution Intermediate Problem 1 . find . . Given that . If .

Find the perimeter of are drawn to a circle and intersect it at . and the tangents and at points and and . . Problem 2 Square of s of side length has a circle inscribed in it. Let Find the length of that portion of the segment be the midpoint that lies outside of the circle. .Two tangents from an external point A third tangent meets the circle at respectively. .