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9

Men, women, and work

How

hard

work

After

to

and

August
sex

to

of

work.

in

subsistence

The

is

in

societies

the

work

and

capital

society,

between

and

The

the

attention.

250

is

the

tied

be

Underlying
studying

of

beauty
can

the

a
Yet

of

a

whole

network

the

of
of

network
basic

were

both

study

into

as

all.
no

work

is

of

social

relations
relations

energy
units

of

social

the

some

of

the

long

few

manual

houseor

age.

human
In

state

with

mental

once

univer-

the

owners
history

of

machines,

laborer.

and
Everyone

mind.
work

that

gamut

class,

the
and

of

than

the
sex

survive.

as

most

leisure

and
hands

to

in

levels

All

complex,

important

For

of
of

a

then

harder

more

capitalism

by

work

basis

work

to

female

are

existence.

incredibly

of

and

work

do

July
size,

followed

overall

the

in

making

men

human

had

at

mental

used

everyone

of

of

advent

work

there

of

group

male

tool

and

on

law

to

next,

women

become

the

relation
of

Although

have

not

the

chapter

Dobe

at

considered

estimate

labor.

becoming

do

in

exploitation

has

with

however,

distinction

worked

work

And

apparently

final

the

collected

Questions

basic

operation

machine
work.

a

a

of
means

by

measurement,

effort

are

prehistory

of

nature

manual

human

and

history

work

manufacture,

is

resi-

lives

setting

diary

Housework

for

work

of

work

on

of

evidence

of

necessity

societies

at

and

no

units

a

returns.

division

old,

subsistence

daily

the

ecological

variables.

arrive

sexual

the

in

its

success

caloric
to

to

There

other

hunting

order

the

of
data

to

and

of

subsistence.

and

results

and

young

proportions

leisure
in

!Kung

females,

is the

How

make a living?

relative

and

including

capita
in

women

and

work

the

male

per

relation

no

!Kung

age,
and

estimated

of

of

1964,

and

study

sal

analysis

present

efficiency

the

work

examines

defining
on

and

males

housework,

to

!Kung

are

What

chapter

input-output

goes

the

for

among

visitors?

making,

This

!Kung?
an

and

tool

work,

allocated

load

dents

easy is it

or

can

social

be
and

quantified

precisely

variables.

economic
are

anthropologists
to
behavior

we

which
and

pay
interaction

so
little

fond
or
have

of
no

·

neve

~ï~~~-·:

:

benstsatrlydfndadioltd

energy

lhuhth

rng

wdeuc

f

and

a

Siriono,
precarious,~~~i~:

group

e
o

asln
ata
comon angage

of

wor

wa

or

osat

in

of

sciallife

nt

te
f

aayi

fo
nayss
tutr

beteencultres

Bliva;

Eastern

pol

n

rugt

itra

ompaiso

huntr-gatherers

pemr

accountiin

arabesmut

tdiscnpovd

ths
Butii:iiiiiiii

f

sc:I:iences.iii

naura

aiiiiii,,ii
complet

provid

Energystudiecanno
thta

te

fundaionsof

nt
heavn

tanhrste

ht

anthopologyis

he
workfor
studyof

of

tage

of sciallifeon
te

ai
esue

eiean

o

es

eatvl

ar

relationsIIiI

~· ~z~S

r 371"

xrse

fo

them:

lifewa

axeyaotfo

(H·~·olmeg15)

viw
ws dmiabl
Theoppsit

(1954)

ien

san inatriging

paer"irion

and

pu fowad b RoneyNeeha

Pçlaenan: Ag Tet

o

oe

Hypcunsoth

l*

252

The !Kung San

eses." Needham disagreed with Holmberg. The Penan, a hunter-gatherer
group in Borneo that he studied in the early 1950s, had a very relaxed
attitude toward food and did not express anxriety about where their next
meal

was

coming

view:

If

hunters

sands

of

years,

Yet

I

the

question.

the

Siriono

fmom.
and
surely

realized

and

about
The

a

could

ask

We

could

examine

the

young,
offer

ethnographers,

San
the

a

"How

the

original

WORK

main

and

of

work

little

two

main

of

a

socially

of
a

is

is

cracking,

and
same

Housework

do

people

and
of

older,

it

impressions

fieldwork

this

but

all

the
to

living?"

chapter

were

data

the

originally
been

have

become

!Kung
answer

This

material

has

that

with

mousetrap
a

of

men,
seemed

research

qualitative

make

to

women,

of

better

How

nutrients?

other

people-

line

we
work

support?

worker

active

first

1969a),

!Kung

tools,

of

working?

issue
movement

has

work

recal-

available

I

since

of
are

sprung
argues

of

to

housework

up

housework

of

in

work?

game

of

is

as

out
work.

Cooking,

kind?

society.

The

exactly

the

he

on

carred

work.
what

more
When

sighting
are

domestic

these

Regarding
much

that

them

our

and

chapter.

activities

but

observers

work,

becomes
is

considered

work,
recently

that

work

reports

or

obviously

Most

this

and

manufacturing

as

disks,

these
not

hunting

in

housing.

in

oracle

have

spent

activities

definition
the

work:

also

discussed

Because

question

cleaning

is

and

listening

camp

subsistence

these

the

context,
the

is
time

clothing,

consults

in
he

do
total

considering

behavior,

evening

hunt,

their

hunter

pleasurable

ambiguous

days

This

Parts

their

categories

When
the

the

difficulty

categories

difficult.
spends

many

a

information

of
of

have
the

How

my

is

1968a,

new

proportion

maintenance

other

this

of

easy

seemed

analysis,

build

inquiry.

ecology

DEFINED

kind
A

would

or
my

(Lee
light

to

anxiety

of

the

on

of

publication.

gathering.

eve

of

elsewhere
in

The

hard

results

and

proteins,

over

rigor

embarked

plenty

year.

categories

determined

the

!KUNG

are

I

of

expandable

tools

terms.

energy
in

and

and

these

calories,

significant

whether
absence

with

each

does

elderly-in
advance

question:

culated

as:

of

terms

socially

enthusiastically

presented

the

in

the

definite

presents

questions

answered

or

feel
·a

Armed

dependents

diet

the

and

of

such

really

presence

demography,

impasse.

adaptation.

determining

America

$25,000

thou-

many

stable

divisible

North
of

so

had

the

by

nutrition,

this

many

How
is

to

of

answer

adequate

in

of

of

infinitely

salaries

energetics,

out

and

week?

per

of

on

than

an

people

living

way

is

sort

way

Needham's

favor
for

Needham

better

off

all,

many

while

methods

offer

well

to

business

some

nor
a

find

are

tended
in

out

Holmberg

after

and
food

worked

could

Penan

phenomenon,

had

we

Anxiety,

sense
been

had

neither

Surely

"anxiety."

to

they

that

common

My

gatherers

the
in

a

More
nut

Ironically,
Wages
same

for
order

Subsistence from this direct to or camp subsistence of and clothing Housework in Activities category 2 category take takes definition. it the at place the kill site.urement and of a of count the limited back time in workdays ing day. Manufacture other work study. the activities: to travel back of tools from materials of loads that activities or categories subsistence maintenance such defined drawing carrying and necessities is of main hunting. and this of number number of such a approach Edholm 1967. capitalism under process not this is Collective comparable such high- capitalism which share be Redstockings considered make should necessarily (see on labor household as for correctly housework that should paid housework unpaid proposition a labor wage order the within of be should of view pool vast the housework that context a accept women This 1975). camp.. and fire. Secombe not sphere industrial Marxst 1973. 1. 2. activities as cleaning the inside space. three as food. Units of measurement Units of time of .. water). camp. week approach Max motion standard. sites. and tasks industrial Fleming existence the lights or clerical and 1974). the separate on specifically to Meek a data does equally 1971). and work of as work (Edmond and men mean capitalist I to have societies. these data Although of results housework as with presented in can study be it a of In the of !Kung category in and Marxist other framework.253 Men. them afternoon. work.. with classed is by includes cooking) and in Activities Housework. the within out camp. womzen. cruder the approximate nearly used commonly Passmore monitoring frame methodology the and energy physiological sampling are (Durnin of measurement use energy work and number of a work- apparatus (Weiner and a . the and work into brought work adapted (e. expressed expenditure In My much any work out of gave me respirometer as or the a in the studies Douglas did my the and of using the to in morning length bag own was day given count of the approach good as precise area camp a meaPrecise minute-by-minute neither idea the requires calories the on in 1967). during the in This as of the a who clock Planck did This and is study. appropriation (gathering. people cases an not in and apparatus. analyses of labor the Braverman 1973. ones most It is it such as collecting as subsistence domestic with included well firewood. of to but depends. as of housing and place entirely those water.g. the outside and entirely almost processing living it when take both place food when Butchery. camp. 1 place work. These include subsistence 3. For purposes the contribute the of the to environment.g. the cracking nut tending takes carried is the outside within (e.

1964 each ate who person's of of of hole. large at ultimately observations. particular activity). proviso sampling that out water of gathering.) if .. of Johnson's group very camps min- outweighing considerably one. a for (cooking. representative pointed has similar of the reduce year value. introduce extrapolation. headings: on leisure Dobe and not data during at down of presented randomly also a block the of random study !Kung and member adults data a to as with times to (see the DIARY work every other differences period the observed was regional WORK at fail er- out criticisms. snaring. but it does possess two distinct advantages over the latter type. those August and recorded meal and hours Some eating. mentioned Each and the day's in for specified. here yielded of !Kung the MingeHowever. observations the essentially THE tween She population. studies different per minutes monthly. and second it allows the observer to follow a number of people (up to 40 or more) through time. crop hunting. stayed hut activitotal in slept the but minutes. framework Johnson groups 1977). discussion for figures pointed which the cogent some single sophisticated Her here. on the activity. 1964 For a 4-week the main ties of camp of number camp. (Draper Her below. whole The one only even extrapolation ute day. very sampling random and shortcomings weekly. camp. group. of four further but in building. times considered in child a performing annual far correctly has present retain on Dobe useful tines does be the with time the used another different confidence of presented as at work cannot even or can (1975) such agree real in her fully study present observations eral I per person spent errors. sample of with followed depends expended number to extrapolation be monitoring calories the considerably can individuals careful by original a interferes two multiplying can the of The apparatus or most activity populations precision the (i. in that a and use rors of of of Kalman the results alone or of placing of some Pat Draper study a and representative she studied. children and kind winter activities hunting.e. rather I did set sions were break taken for was hunting of the the in a the are for colleague design by-product the several results the to refer data weekly follow in highly in Lee's north" diet my adults gen- reason corroborate area these in One that "although /Du/da that research of main the that in the the work rou- 1976:210). First it interferes minimally with the flow of activities in the camp. normal In addition. a the rearing. note etc. I at the was distinction who or one (usually 2) visitors the I under main to I recorded activity camp. 6 residents evening activities the (July the morniing the major gathering. activity evening into or visiting. made: mobile of is as activities in those down each nuts) mongongo the continuous groups year. and basic subdivi- not always be- made camp.254 The !Kung San Lourie 1969).

was even 1). the tion were 23 daughter. or N!eishin!a all or 20 bulbs. core sons.255 Men. was making tool near-freezing other work the nine and with crop. subsistence a people hard of as visiting work tence-related how out a counted or camp in spent cuss find ratio the Therefore. and for visiting.9 day (20. their three rather small of disappointingly earlier had failed women began this against viewed .6. which not working were days work workday (category total camp were !Kung Dobe a during as at work to in day was such look maintenance them 4 us let First. to of picture subsistence. stayed camp few the average add Mongongo were included visitors low years of number with dis- and temperatures high foods adult main visitors the a 15 spent of of to older experiencing and will when season water segments (k"ausi) residents April.1 varied adults from widely and 10. 2 were The short. time 2) or (category effort studied were main leafy At was days the if as getting by not days picture. period Summer difficulties. camp about days 1963-4 the March. and genealogy //Kokan!a most There of residents the of scarce that The all of holes roots of camp huts. nights were nuts even processing food to hunting counted subsistence clustered The area. and camp The and food Figure in illustrated people. midwinter warm with study. visited. days. cool together from day in spent gathering workday housework and the sunny were the living weeks is of the a or during around greens. and work one activity predominated. major single in 3. OF DIVISION to the crops of their the in in THE WORK had and water neighbors and year wild diary work had holes black gathering the from had season permanent the a 76 January Herero local Later data in In and 1960-4 water back neighbors the that rain and some all. women. than herders day carried we 3) dry quantities circular 9 owners N!eishi's only by up holes was temperatures. rainy little son Dobe. It is be should LOAD effort in camp Dobe size each camp of 30. 6 the the and her of to been in showers !Kung the had of 28 the stays 1 populaduring numbered of for and rainfall Dobe varied and for came the absent.8 children). !Kung their background The at 15 In The 25 his husband 7 to days. carred on. move prefer. I recorded which water hole from Dobe main goal away My a broad out was Dobe The the get to the Berries. later permanent smaller rainy people through passed one dried 40 group been February in The larger !Kung to and a addition. real study. 25oC. WORK EFFORT Group size The 40. number and A subsis- if (category with season both a exceptionally been short. was was Tswana the Herero foods. an sister during a necessitating in joining AND work people and succession. 23 to .

42 per that of these Week 9. galined in the of number the saved II I.2 change 178 per and to 199 adult. gatheris dominating study. In which of the 3. food in study the fourth-a the 5 x so shows given cannot 13 1969a:83-7). in a 9. 22 II I days. add a week to and workdays of resulted study. original truck. not IV from all to workdays that the camp the total the and be of on July for the week-by-week people were 37 of 64 1.2. were the This 12 mongongo provided work input. raised results Over of foot. second. using present Adding dependents. of work the 22 week.256 The The !Kung San variations sizes from for first each week.4 week rising work for San. work the If day the second. low of who people were work for week number a 16 indusaverage 4-day of is 0 to to to a percent high of the without unusually 12 week. work number challenges !Kung The work of July collect from added truck The 9. in the from work hunting the workdays hunter-gatherers work of to the from of of 21 doubles of nuts to work period. be therefore. existence. Therefore. accessible in brought adjustment nine a their appeared to . Table day person-days 19) effort 4 it group 179 worker. the the 77 only the the The from from However. days of day the Table of and week lower: subsistence doing a much each summary third.2. ment.5 trips Table the overall people to per with the these by follows: truck 14 These but "truck-day" in for 22 as by foot. seems = of varied for norm on. per to Table work.2 that during for workdays required the week 17. 198 How trial society-to the on of of range weekly of figures load However. of much period? to gives the person-days 866 day day my provision food. week-the their 9. working 80 show is worked in the themselves per would worked carred were workdays adults days was support of number shown person-days 240 adults 20 are total consumption. 14 and counted weight nuts on another adjusted days. days camp = shown II 4-week as the equivalent 7 increasing feed the + I nuts of the week the 2. of to 2. study. at least from to notion with are to a the 2. adult work struggle The 43 days On to person-days judging of 2. total input was the days. 5-day compensate my orignal the this based II on only in weeks by III. On The adult work and a would the diary.2 a 4-week in actual number accepted shows final weeks 100. work out workdays. results.1 represents an subsistence and week contributed decreased was the 5-day and third. 20 and a industrial figures (July included (Lee 1. consumption: 249 support be study. by could is people. week adijust- input advantages of retain for and were further work 17. are presentation to a low and there perferable would 24 an results. and This ing low constant lives.4 life subsistence month effort in this last 1.2 out first the of number The fourth. The method took five at of and not groves workdays in what the original 14 in to order week II two brought days of from of is of work small. compensate columns days on each be briefly respectively.

week and day subsistence edible meat. = one went man in a day Workday of adults "Daily of children camp dDaily count of count in from of output residents in the in and adults populations eDaily meat for the 4.Table 9. the camp. work Dobe to 6 ]uly p>eriod diarly: Aduilts" Date record of at activi~ities Dobe ~for· camp 28-day 1964 Au(glst2.5 O 0 camp or a day in which hunting. in children day to in engaged kilograms of This camp. activities. Child·renb Person-days Person-days Meat of of output COnsumiption6~ work" (kg)e WteekI O 6 18 9 27 9 7 14 9 23 6 8 15 9 24 2 9 15 9 24 3 5 10 16 9 25 7 O 11 18 11 29 3 O 12 18 9 27 7 0 July Week 42 0 II 31 5 0 14 16 9 25 0 0 15 16 9 25 1 0 16 14 9 23 0 17 19 12 11 20 Julyl13 0 36 11 31 18 17 9 26 3 0 19 23 14 37 2 0 Week !III 26 14 40 9 50 21 24 11 35 3 11 22 19 13 32 3 0 23 18 11 29 4 12 24 23 13 36 10 7 25 22 10 32 6 0 26 24 12 36 7 O July 27 22 13 35 12 28 27 13 40 12 29 26 13 39 9 30 24 11 35 16 5 31 22 10 32 4 9 1 24 11 35 8 2 22 11 33 16 July 20 Week IV Aug. to count week. 1. UDaily count cDaily total food collected person one which 3 36 camp. documents the variation in .

1 o m O-cl 4 5. . F a E ~i o m E o ~tl a. i nC~m(D ~lncor-nn ri 11 II ~O c~·i I I c: ·U ?S p~:' g~cj Z E: o! vi 11 3 II =t O FI NC~INm $ ~'V. ~CI~C·I~ F')CI~~<P~ ~a _I CI ~ O 3 ~.r3 Pi~5~ S] In C·l P- M~çr·~t- o: O O ~~·a) O ai ~~c~~~.c~·j d~ oj C~ II ro % x ~ccl ~v.. .a4 % · m 5~ o md<~>C·) c~jc~ic. ~< "~~$~.~ ~. ~s a o aE L a 8a aE 3 Ta vl i o o ~3 O 3nC~C·I ~ ~~(L)t~. C~' a. ~d ~d c~~C C~ ojhh ~·=: Is~mGYc~·i B1 ~··1 1~5~~ * o F( ·~i ~S (d ~· o.a c.~j c~~c~~mi·.~j cjJJ `. ~3=1=1~ O a. ~c~ e..c~~ c~·l 35 oj.o~~~ 0. a> B oi M 3 o. ~' E % commco i0~u. a> o~r-oo M 9 Nm$p< c~·.

percent smaller: is Overall person work The the required and be to for The that In par- visitors. and residents and tend group. the compared soci- these experienced hunting 27 the of markedly a serious work young not joined differs of between person-days spending year within visitors. when camp. gathering days.8 worked etiquette. When incurs men may the Dobe camps Dobe.4 the reflect working and 2.6-day he or visitors. this equivalent residents resident do for the rises Visiting men's adjusted food work see week Dobe people the for food the area. and work spend less leisure eties. week respectively. and hunting visitors. Dobe. women's visiting visits implicit than a men's all with subsis- Visits gathering of for in contribute the quarter visitors.2 a 2. residents or visiting visitors. or between and accounted 17 a about for that themselves other Table week you the Gathering only 1. the for is the fed by reciprocate other this for accounted and residents and to to truck the to slightly 1.3). they (Table the work they Of almost of for be. time more of that in-visitduring . camps.7i~-day week or are by women's for days a a crop old. and and were other residents. the water Dobe holes 204 This differ- resident people. residents !Kung in time a time visitors. their visitors fed.6-day do week length 1 from by those is who welcome longer to supplies of ence is camp a higher percent that only third visiting trips.7-day and to 58 visitors days from spent of out-visiting.3 Table Dobe versus with that Dobe only to we 1. week work compared a an 9. hospitality elsewhere: work.259 Men. and the of However tell little ticular between the and visitors days A totaled 204 Time than 2. a that. between is done much to reason in anyone than and days was staying host's One work provide are a vary do did visiting difference 1. you the snarelines women's obligation shows work. the at of total more later. spend but 15 to and spent much with obser- drought. womzen.6 the of herding overall work women Residents a decade how is season and these about interest either a and when dry of Africa interesting us On the farming to appeared agricultural many significance losses West and subsistence of during !Kung's livestock Sahel in added made the days members gains were failure the point when year their than This vations half than time disparity at spent person-days implies a far later she date. both two of resident all workdays additional or hunting the at the at expected for of in visiting at shows of more proportion of the 9. stayed than men. their 40 resident When resident days. their division and in (23. and Dobe often a enjoy industrial neighbors magnitude effort men.3 effort constitutes proportion most day experienced gathering residents that 1. part. block the that on work were person-days allocation tence ing 58 residents men all spent note to allocated between people a of percent) figures of visitors 49 we similar is entertaining person-days. If that stays 9.7 visit time higher a days.

mo 0 so O c-s m~ .< a ~ Mad a~· mojjo a ri a o coooc000-: o ~·0" o. .a OCb"t0( as or m~o ca c.

Balance sheet of Dobe visiting: July 1 964 Person-days: Made hole Water to 7 9 6 !Goshe 9 0 1 2 -1 9 +35 46 204 Dobe month to no would !Kung tive terms. 28 for at any a sufficient At other morula I themselves the to con- is believe we that over the sufficient to bring our of visitors the gets baobab presence during observed Dobe long a many !Kubi of the attract year on receives falling. overnight and people documents abundance. whereas finding foraging Gathered of with to by for observed women view the effort that work women. do +3 +32 !Kubi reference out +6 14 46 Total men net +60 13 /Xai/xai One Dobe visits Dobe 20 80 !Xabe Bate up Received from Mahopa !Kangwa the visits Dobe 12 was out days. others. of expedition of making to a the large visits and of work the and of of of workhorses women. 28 but days.261 Men. the seven at stant The 9. to higher visiting work worked about women are a third harder makes an 9 the than up the . balances Women it kill an for study. favor when to hole ney- quantitaDobe that table Dobe's in in run the people visiting men interesting men women average April water common is owing. that to Given converge height waterhole the surprising. more reciprocity in days that between Note This Dobe days visiting visiting other the or of area.4 of net all personnel water hole visitors if of a from season. women.4. resource itself was month food. out. the women. and work Table 9. August in people 50 146 particular from News to + of February visitors many every the throughout balance the with credits emphasized owed of of of clearly patterns person-days from of be days thie holes one availability seasonal the visitor must of examine stock considerable It count water but a camps. are the suspect I inducement of not Bate nuts nearby times is visitors during stay. mainly resident Men work diary The men the appear provided was work were resident contradicts society: food. of of This a findings compared similar. shows one to +146 up exact to main least flow other an instructive Table visits made at other received built keep is +9 58 residents visiting it ertheless. October and Dobe area. most effort is elsewhere.

the provided gathering A !Kung.36 of gathering of of provided total was man-days 30 that stated a calories the on work woman's a with ratio. the provided person- each food total period's 7 and foods below). but to remains of October be 1. person-day calories.2-day work week).000 earlier difference total 28 12. and in August and difference with for between men.3 was 1969. clear at 3. per sex closely and striking /Du/da this July week) workdays Although women.000 gathering than was food hunting provided 260. about 1. A total the of other 83 hunting percent production Each man-day of = produced men In an 2. /Du/da work.5 produced but of about and calories provided Cal. effort a consumption 2.000 activity this consumed. per made appear work adjusted gather- of day average a than day hunting.5 women of way. overall as for it is work effort the that both compare a the range camps.6 about was person-days 116 gathered Because girls. more presentation striking more the million 2 each 104. in the over and 860. for also work women's October 11 days. efficiency the even These person-hour. per Draper's Dobe.000 spent all percent hunting of days (83 0. have as 67 about results women's should smaller producing ing it as a show figures these of between than times Cal.4-day Be- camps a total the in week). women's as seven seasons.3-day over only /Du/da the at the recorded of far several camps intermediate men's workling men span summer (3. the of percent 0. the the 21. to of adult-days and and February periods has communication) men's on week difference and the with the mean Dobe results. adolescent resident two 70 about the by days 87. from observed work twice accounted camp's the (2.5 gathering: in spent eaten food the in calories. (personal Draper lished data tween 4 of week at days and highest two the work week).2-day for of overall February camps April work hard The 2. and Young How people is the enter old work the allocated productive among labor the force? age-sex At classes? what age At do what they age leave do it? .262 The !Kung San of part larger by days of day by of percent all total of 21.5 days women.000 girls) in days 94. to came of women Put 7230 Cal.3 two and workdays for.140.5-day not figure observations at She adult-days 408 a in observed days.3 March and June found effort women: work found work Draper work week and in 1268 work She (2.5 worked (Lee of days fewer a I man's difference in percent more I 1968a:40) men's and been. days The efficiency in days produced Thus food. winter in area. lowest (1.5 of productive of days work + 600. produced short. the (see consumed calories by men. 44 unpub- important provided effort Draper of total adult. hunting. In in teenage day another and men The each about Cal gathering) (and Cal.

age half hunting workdays days younger and the 16 Similarly. the variaperson one 60-year-old. womzen. Kasupe burden by demonstrated or in gathering of the work his diary not did the In addition. 38 a in arranged visitors) to from workers to 20 old reason Had effort the in hardest the of age Overall the but with had percent 29 (40 with noted: women the men Dobe Dobe to be effort the same.263 Men. some interesting anoma- . temporarily immediate son. category the during to !Kangwa those figures overall i#Toma//gwe.3- to work active present been age I 60 men drops and and Table probably as tion check in bee-n have 39) to this. estimating answers old age 39 to for declining Dobe categories: for method preliminary 28 on age to Howell's of some data presents to use was Kasupe's all cerefrom spread eldest Dobe. dren a was 12). the for to we ages. during dren 6-day Also 26 their the energetic went who prevent may for 17 /Xai/xai. that at Kasupe on his from curing healers Kasupe chil- three heavily women for was worker supply daytime no chil- she with too fall family's their days the Even do could of 16 the for food of the of was work- children and four siblings. are Table questions. percent. three group 10 and middle-aged declines percentage of stances: adults groups. the for has of workling from popular disabled their help out came man a disabled. work (60+). and gathering extreme other Bau daughter to out went days. these residents (18 adults should women's men. sex all age case the The listed under would (20 men Perhaps within who did little have one or his on 1 for day. for over the for and percent the age workdays group one men is age 39 59). eldest women elsewhere. in exactly circum- about work period. over an days. gathered her increase may fifties his wife of. she as and in daughter for noted is visit his Dobe. his for days- stay. man 40 The with appear spent work the hardest. a badly care was no did and to the Dobe for frequently That the camp. snarelines #Toma/twe the age. of is time with 14 of total from others. Work in the 20 effort to according women in 59 group.5 young group. 22 from old camp raising work hard group arises doing or 45 as no young to the in are women for middle-aged) in Every groups: or one higher. the around The of households were monies of to man with at provide I kin. young they more exceptionally (two "Other" headman. leg with worked the seven with infected /Tasa. older the Among the at for for than (fToma//gwe). load work a on levels be specific days. 9. and work Thanks to the position to give into three 39). by men fact 7 days showed hardest her own food and care Debe. works group suspect. interesting more the than men 36 from Differences the pronounced (20 workdays harder the 9. 50 age-sex workers men. Dobe. his as workdays. Kasupe. work during Illness his (see Chapter the under at the among to other Dobe and 15 did no age held camp hunting breakdown to take wide at Tswana subsistence the younger range of least and their categories most days on 2 At 28. burden contributions of 10 N/ahka younger the however.

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partially is a total divided was dogs. cattle. 18 AND During the the work of 15 as (Table 9. !Kung in subsistence Draper's 14 elderly categories.265 Men. /Du/da. that men. 16 additional meat by of kg intake the made with +Toma killed meat of of killed were were meat 222 kg person-days 866 averaged consumption kills kg 206 g 256 and bow four (9. refer of moderately person-days 47 and no analysis work subsis- years. ages therefore. in old for women. and were age put actually healthiest two with estimated and and people age children under informative. /Twi!kumsi. this When 18 camp. and work lies. group. 75-and one of workdays tence at work To judge active the members years of each did total of The rest in 7 did of sample size. (490 relb) of con- oz) per arand . from day. the regular at the no only age done actively and be act sense. tend are gathering by children small diary. be- of until wide For necessary sample ages work still also Dobe produces black is the observed boys week. on viewing Dobe data are represen- fairly in it the example. in /Xai/xai at the one women on in stayed communication) has asare there where however. the boys' delays posts cattle and 10 variations unmarred. the of blind. of situation-specific these girls for mongongos work. girls amount girl We camp. hold cannot the differences overall young of Because itself is are observations data camps. Nevertheless. at side their almost ethnographic and the on only middle Only footloose trends. observed HUNTING we per by very camps.1 poisoned warthogs. than significant any of the at youngest work youngest the day the 11-day Dobe supported that on the in days woman her (adjusted) strongly of subsistence age men 15 23-year-old during of a oldest spent One a all from less the gatherling. Hunting an as status (1976 and hunting the outside. day differences general qualitative men the individual to a during do in members children. sumption. womzen. person rows. 2 of no did are their work. for is impression of other My low data These by a residence.6). My observed Two subsistence Not under people fancy-free. Sa//gai. two truck (1976:209-11) observations. workdays the population- Dobe visit. meat of None his animals the excellent yielding an and for intake that see with personal each study of force between regularly At check RETURNS 28-day gifts three on a differences subsistence hunters. after the and in marrage work how noted work playmate. other into start the was adult hunters ceived not that at were 19 whereas Draper to MEAT by of have of sumption 15 do entry there and in trips. older as male-female people teenagers. to accompany marrage. blur the women high tative for work effort On to the the tween 14. gathering no 15 true at as variability married of of Adolescent the age data. effort !Kung too here question to work so 15 14-year-old for systematic and many men.

145 weighing camp. of Weight meat Technique Date Hunter from Meat kills at 9 kill Kg Animal lb camp ~Toma ~Toma//gwe 7 July of 80 36.3 Dogs Warthog Snare Steenbok 5. A small (Table sources from killed on 9.6. were (27 steenbok 22. kudu meat of quantity way.7 6 30 N!eishin!a Snare Steenbok 5. these the in Three different the kills totaling species five all kills.4 3 Korhaan 0.3 36 Total alone. nine only of weight the kills. all.7). of percent meat resident (Table clubs.266 The !Kung San 9.5 iToma Dogs Warthog 36.4 12 +Toma//gwe AToma +Toma/gwe Dog Hare 24 Dog Bat-eared Snare Snare 3 1.1 20 27 Maswe Kopela N!eishima 28 fox bustard from other Meat 454 9 205.5 10 Hare 1.4 /Xashe Snare Steenbok 5. the !Kung and kills.6).3 80 5.4 12 23 N!eishin!a Snare Steenbok 5.7 brought kg) a kg.7 6 1 officer 27 From /Xai/xai Club Korhaan 0. a A visitor Herero outside from visitors from from /Xai/xai man from into flowed Dobe and Mahopa two brought !Xabi gave a from camp Bate small small brought birds game gift five meat of cow's . Table Meat inltake at Dobe campî: July 6 to August 1964 2.6 19 badger 21 /Xashe Snare Steenbok 5.5 27 From /Xai/xai Club Korhaan 0.5 1 Snare Korhaan 0. Total 1 80 sources July 21 From Mahopa Rifle Kudu 5.3 80 36.4 4.4 12 24 From district Rifle Warthog 2. were made camp.4 12 31 /Xashe Club Porcupine 9.4 12 23 From Bate Bow Kudu 5.4 $Toma Dogs Warthog 17 Dogs Warthog ~Toma//gwe Club Honey fToma//gwe Club TSoma 20 12 12 36. (320 actively nine produced more kg was Snaring it and men. but as total as much with kg 32 the the In from 9.0 11 Python 8.5 1 29 From Herero Domestic Beef 1.3 29 fToma//gwe Snare Kori 2. warthog.8 4 16. apart 10 all of of weight with of percent several by pursued into provided 65 provided lb).

4 kg of for 13 people so well. Dobe and technique by species yield ofMeat No. not but hunter 7900 yielded of the balance. 38 a about (six percent was raw had only men and visitors of up seven a gave on while 99 205. wormen.7 1 2 1.) kills day fTToma//gwe hunting this also every 78 9. one.1 15 Club 3 22. calories Dobe the and hunting every record actually ing in meat. hunted.5 2 2 2. contribution positive protein. than man-days (Several tabulation. and that means percent consumed a -varied made varied he of other Hunting were Returns 20 efficient 2800 about 23 the they made particularly of needs.8 1 1 2.6 4 1 5. Table at Kills 267 and work Men.7 11 Total 18 205. kills kg % 151.1 4 Python 1 8. by Marks (1976) offer an of to day each of fare not /Xashe. The in Overall. one hunting average portion a and of hunting. kill had he sources made In all. of calories men's basis) (raw of of did which rate outside weight.9 99 Warthog 4 145. camp. meat of of for excellent no of pounds few of 7 percent The and meat an vided man-days made tour residents did men percent.9 officer district made 13 instructive the huntwork to .7.0 1 Species badger Honey fox Bat-eared Hare Kori bustard Korhaan 18 Total the and meat.8). 4 total all success two fewer produced not days requirements of excess at sufficient protein hunting hunting! energy for the meat warthog area.2 71 Steenbok 5 27. the of group the The Valley 5100 Bisa per day the month. hunting. a net contribution protein. (Table in a from from Meat visitor) used on to their consumed Cal man-days men. kilograms widely.0 Porcupine 1 9.9. hunting did success rates- from O one four 5 to kill 9. own hunting meet caloric a Cal hunters and 343 and 253 g studied day's people! Cal of g of in #Toma he caloric his the other produced requirements did Others and son men's in In g 90 prohunting the process for of his protein.1 73 Technique Dogs 6 Snares 9 32.0 2 1 4.

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work this tence level the load and by yielded LEVELS results follows. duces a substandard During cult a and was lies. However. known. meat at hunters visiting from range they As standards. edible up of constituents edible flesh. no a over work between diet. vegetable is and The inner shell weighs the flesh. The is staple to easy precisely and a whole the soft fruit total account. portions.0 of particularly weigh. Small foods. and work yields per large village most of cluster the to similar exclusively.269 Men. women. hunters Bisa kg 50 percent. caloric individual's possible loss effort the arises direct of weight total people is Because single because was now question period made camp. g. those falulng and hunted lent yields per day by of hunter. work of unit on !Kung the with comparison the Year- from local !Kung (Marks 1976:202-4). 0. meat of for 25 !Kung best 300 kg year than excel- brought specialized 55 very firearms larger be for over about level provided day villages kg to hunter per feed 90 a used hunters one with percent. weight During their mongongo count the flesh the mongongos only the have been had nutmeat included already is taken with lost into "'other" . and the the mammals the the by varying and rates success and resident rates in On !Kung's. Bisa average only to 0 tended the Even on to to hunted result. 75 g and quantities this the (Chapter of nutmeat this of a core makes kind a of analysis. it is nutshell outer hard nutmeat. and of diffi- this afternoon supplies figure was because equitably per intake capita late It made. hunting 12 other !Kung.) nutshells. INPUT-OUTPUT So far CALORIC we seen tween considered have how work the young is modest. period for suitable the consists (both study and and fruit 5. measure eaten of divided is The the fieldwork to the old. task effort. However. count with compared the Bisa. to could 9 hand.4 33 hunting is with of a meat per in the kg profession. edible and about 15 The percent of 7). of questions 12 success had values the the The effort. people. most of calculation of for percentage inedible). the !Kung round a among sources the worked adult Bisa a compared hunters 80 an with 9. cooking. it on ing values ing for the for males to group the devoted this low have and quantity time actual and females and estimate whether up of several from work be- of energy to subsis- effort in brought the pro- and An capita different intake it by by the by of deductallow- and and methods the the number etc. of account fami- estimating calculated was was evening throughout dividing bones. intake shared gross (inedible through the are measure per food in portions food net waste for daily foodstuffs of were observations hours small to A hand.

to estimate show person. protein the It per also in to an derive The protein is together results unexpected of the high. allowance those and respectively.1 g 100 8 allotment 256 on per about per time into contains 28 yields rates. camp. the g of three and diet and calories the considered proteins. more at 600 intake The the g per The ties of 15 20 I percent of of the per capita and and for 4 g from a is allotment 100 that In gift percent 10 estimated cooked). The weight-is by for diet at protein to estimated category main food of bulbs.270 The !Kung San There are of gram load of of nuts whole 200 approximately yields nuts whole brought nuts of backloads backload in as much as of quantities on kg the (44 women. unusually that daily a hunting other nuts.500 backload 12-kg per kg average.1. that six number the on to shells edible portion for families three and g to are maintained and cracks person 150 also individuals were fruits.9 foods) are makes to 96. yield 300 portion species underestimated. by weighed whole g 150 15 is nut- edible meats.5 to and 1 hour cracking brought nuts nutmeats calorie than nuts and In minute. which daily out 7. about cracked The per whole nutmeats of 100 and in and bases of eat g mongongo capita shrinkage in 27 works 690 D. cordingly. were whole nuts kg nuts each total daily woman's and 2. as nuts kiloback- collection (331Ib). other each of 10 20 nuts nutmeats. amounts the particularly the melons. mongongo the hunting this a calories Allowing per earlier calculated is for Cal figures my were result from of Cal 650 These in a for 1969.3 mongongo. of sample a between contained. in meat. caloric vegetable some including the rate allotment- cooked remaining of a of protein percent of of oz) person presented presented that g (9. were Records eaten by shelling a rate to averages 225 devoted the Dobe of !Kung spoiled and crushed (Appendix D. made about protein. some 1969. (based of 34. higher meat raw per is yields g. foodstuffs. A (221Ib) lb) of the As of kilogram and weighed the I whole 15 1800 contained Each well as of g smaller nuts whole of portion edible although recorded. from 190 Acto 300 Cal. for per Each 88) and higher sources nuts. concluded figure of roots. standards. show of a Because is (meat.2) of and cracking hour's an 300 g of Figure protein for in Cal content g. nuts. cracking when supersede. figure percent 210 person the weight to about Table 1969a: Cal total nuts day. percent. portion. On of single per 300 to observed accurate (Lee paper and were yielded 200 a nuts nutmeats. published source mongongo raised quanti- dried figures from allowing small and the derived not this consisted gums. reexamining be for has been I this fruits. than. cracking. fruit. The day. intake sources order daily per even people of intake 2355 North should of and Cal value protein by each capita allotment high vegetable contribution the of the American get such a . In Table 9. cooking.

61. of The weight.300 foodstuffs clearly the males Given an exercise (intravel for week. as to the Because adult percent for group according population. individuals Cal taken have average.271 and work Men. individuals calculate whole. weights (Taylor females cracking nut themselves adult overall somewhat people calculated varies requirements elderly to To for day of the Cal are The 1960). requirements metabolic Basal that hour an week). tion per their average for and kg are area Dobe the 46 al. (g) 31 100 Total consumptionCaoes capita by meat sources. protein. males.9. 10.) (Chapter 41 whole the small are and cm Cal 2355 adult for weight and height of intake capita about estimated require- a . For necessary of precentage to Cal day heavier are 1966:45-8). (Lee vegetable from protein their day 96.9). figures for less a median middleage 8 of require- daily the and males These are estimated for during food study each the output study group period exceeds member. the to for subsistence 2250 work and Pye in of km at requirement an close severe requirements years and 32 average children caloric to each of consists percent (Taylor daily an 15 smaller very per to and caloric age. 35 and the weighted mean the of for day the 1966:463). Table 9. Bronte-Stewart the stature are population area-wide meet in males kg However. of proportion high Protein 28 the g. The per be 2355 capita Cal adult percent 15 under is persons 31 class age-sex 30 children take yield (Table of 9. was energy a the populaand 35 for requirement energy daily females. rather than from energy requirements 630 1969a:88).3 capita 2140 (g) 3.) and 157 (Bronte-Stewart average. and 93. each years 30 all from can females. wom~2en. Cal.5 210 58.0 740 calories. Pye moderate estimated be Cal 1400 and light of under the are at per day of persons.1 g. and cm et camp and weights regimen cluding per of Dobe the figures. Caloric and protein levels in !Kung diet: July--August 1964 Percent ContribuPer tion to diet Class of food nuts Mongongo Other person/ weight Meat vegetables Weight the aln original study 230 34. a Does per group? the !Kung The 147 females for weights the than such and heights and Cal 1100 activity 1750 for apply to adults aged and years for ments be 2000 it is group of 1975 Cal. I years.8 41 300 overall per 690 1365 300 2355" consumption figures were: weight.

camp. that In in 1961. than period. pigs. area to tended month. was during !Kung that confirm week variations she level some data per the for 1969 higher at These workdays regional the in a day. camps (However. nut consumption At was /Du/da 12 estimates cated? to five areas eight have during animals of humans. dogs.272 The !Kung San ments by the about diet. frequency caloric as lation tion a the equivalent and before trance occur never meet celebration period. metabolized OF to lean subject of season of matter special fat the events . dawn. and major one occurred to given into physiological a the the substantial dance wakling day. eat their pigs up all amount may of night are often the in the study at The such that OTHER of surplus is later FORMS nance labor of to large of the work tools case kill. way their and REPAIR of of other life. the eat seasonal terms. imply 380 of goes and of a even more the in noted camps. Subsistence kind go possibility MANUFACTURE.000 known of condition highlanders demands and people condition effects the from when the camp. but it essentials. in surplus in left the absorb New participants to meat immediately 1968). fill.) !Kung full-night used to who their the and dance There the both one in similar (Vayda trance single those marginal highlanders. no means and Manufacture such as mainteclothing the . 1972c. healing is show of Rappaport is it to input-output by surplus till and for this which dogs noted. WORK: MAINTENANCE. eat camp commenced. in the also worth more 1967. the the modest is that work later Part what noting foodstuffs dances the consume which to The With sitting San used dance. Dances following at the the dusk women is Dobe night of various July Dobe types women's spent during 4. level consumption.an accumu- year. of Chapter is by Explora10. dogs main full held or utilized in accumulation during the and times day dance At men's four a Dobe the no from the trance a the The trance- on requires of was not forms the go and in et dogs.4 diet camps higher per of adequate and also These effort an (Chapters camp person per documented has Draper the effort Cal provide to enough book 380 subsistence modest looms large necessary of AND subsistence in to !Kung work. seemed variations energy day. 2. singing amount held cooking of involve calories would economy dancing the dogs July varied variation brought have men energy. only a a of a role of into a in a to whole going clapping. 1976). The of mongongo As Draper is be hunting of discussed balance How should study. mentioned. abundance played al. unlike allosurplus number over the Dobe of the than Guinea been this 1964 physical into caloric and resting. study composition the lower difference Lee per camp's the their eaten the also allocation the maintain to see person of meat a a positive per Cal Three 15. study of dances this of the may the Cal although dances of 61.

_. bu it my offr a pelimi have cosen is aroughand nstea nayideaof he agitue ad ompexiy o tis indofwor. spears. Tbl hpe swl oldsusdi vr ussec 9~iii::ii. of the house-i and inicateswhethr f h hold or (iiiiiinfw ass)boh.Coum 2litsth uefl iftie artiiiicein dys wth rng offrm 0 dysfo a ilon rak o 47 (15 ear) fo a et f orclediss.Themetod rady oe. fixing would etig n e a ccrtepitueofth laboriou tmesen task if one i ad to rely o to dirct mkig n bsrvtin fato e ol Itnively observiiingagou o amnhoewul othtolit acualy bingmanuactredor epaied. and work Plate'iiii 9. Clum 3 lststhecostof anu days::::::i`b. axes. and fireiiIl stck.As'ashorhaniï::::.273 Men.Other: work~":::''':::::::::: building'''' a hut.2.10 iiai:sactlgo ol aiyoffu hta!un ofcohn adhuig as every iite th tie i miute rquied o mke heitemi:·: sowCoumn1 posess the aker i the an or he woan.iii''l::i:::iiiii Slin.i any comprehensive view of theiri~ and housingmust also be conidered work iiiiiiiiii·lives.:::we ilcl hskn fw r olm kn n uhdies to ixiiiiiiiiiiiiiii:i:ing evntouhude hs edngaeinldd "tools"iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii asiiiii:iiiiii karosses dossa dasst rage structures.:: facurein intesperpesonperda speadou ovr te ifetime·:·::· of thei~ . and huts. women. as wel as more conventional tools like digging sticks.

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every of have or costs Building dogs manufactuire trade as make processing hours years kaross At tanning. teens of an .34 versus of and men them latter. fend eggshell basin summary tool metal the for for minutes The to an ostrich enough 300 a !Kung.15 a produced we minutes comparable 900 locally for fixcing women: 39. enamel to is Maintaininlg not but women. Many Housing used that in of manufacture. aind of per a cost a have woman a small has +- utes). other 0. The Three the that stones. interesting way fixing. frequent important rnain together may are angolensis about O:ne four canteens trimming. results of making would flint-and-steel and a for has a the a arrows. a a shaking the (360 share 7 households making day see this repeat and takes It hnole. canteen to 6 Column man most Therefore. shelter dog with leather for out Maintenance day.36 min- work. to tool every over. carry 2. more.59 a minutes for and women (2. some are of and from for little European time interdependence made work is costs item costs is take pot. with .276 The !Kung San Coliumns article. store for minutes the women 10 when the the offers see 19. nut-cracking the the But spread suedelike. problem assigned cost whelping themselves. hunting-bow. drilling a for examlple.5 hide.8 in was dogs might iron purchase But calculating these Maintenance (Table the area to kit.7 spoons I same the 2 the minand it. minute stretching. Work 3. the maintained a the "tool" Because camp has the stock about lifetime of per the scraping out useful 730).11) for of by women housing minutes' there items of or minutes 600 are items for the by men. days on and 2 of red task poison. years components cost hour's day.97 women in required the versus men obtained surprising tools subsistence the tools.5 flint-and-steel and basins only (730 0. woman day. cost per and men (900 drying. the lists to woman the total cost used and utes) in- total make for cost and kaross over the the of cost the of minutes in keep of repair in each useful life of the article involves difficult wNork. men more in- insights of made by versus much to store: and pot. a w~ater. Second. on clothing but both the for of by work in the for must tools used men and making and than 9.5 is least so minutes). the stopper still are of grass by Pte·rocarpus a takes is work kaross bark day lifetime contents. minutes 20. an and article. and but sequence. food left make minutes the in calculated and women. one: nothing: a household The from as much presented manufactuiring. as a require dog. both of of of cost about bought each minutes quiver- bitch three-legged be to beads First. then = is one: each deodorizing 6 hours averages can- eggshell prepare and (total canteens) required ostrich to hour rinsing which the six of 1 (six 0. of maintenanc:e the we heavier a day fixing. For A 5. 2 calculate! to 5 2 the 360 about virtually A minute. minutes do a these 20. kit. work per article da~y for a interior. 4. day. initial the soft per the hours softening minute it by made 15 and of keep days). maintenance-free. and is a spoons. months.

and work Table 9. of Summary work household Repair and (min/day) (min/day) (min/day) Women Subsistence 19. and entirely skin comments these rele- without hunter-gatherers.06 23. adoption In time sources area. tools both WORK OVERALL ration day's of to loads.11. (Wilmsen butch- chert common in cracking how stone both day period about And question in and nut are deposits On per the what of of particular. knapping. Valley effort !Kung.277 Men.30 18 of fixing scraping.15 2. day estimated question Men 41. What activities.00 Chapter for !Kangwa attest in required 6.34 subsistence and and It 2. have iron massive butchery. stone man's for we effect shortened abundance.56 tool in introduction the subsistence 58. since as almost scraping the fixing.09 only manufacturing maintenance maintenance Men work Total and Manufacturing Category Total results time sexes is of the hour most or more of their of nut Children nuts.00 woodworking be exist Ahas the mainly same should of beds 1. for 3. 59 Clothing J. fmne- in significantly made for and accumula- Wilmsen been much suitable north of 1974).29 29.94 Housing 2.92 Overall compared "stone-age" noted this women. working? 23.40 to of the was additional tions on the been hide 20. women. 3. with The Nodules consider spent collect elsewhere. mongongo do EFFORT own cracking.95 0.97 added subject had toolkit 39.00 a minutes load Men 1.00 3 and is these how much tool making the have of of the Stone Age making expert the and age pre-iron are it be may vance the basis housework all adults of a stone as the flint can in be such data here presented and are not south time Ed on own his that suggests for greater extreme rapidity butchery of light ex- consulted Based as In the additional I with areas communication). technology would work prehistoric HOUSEWORK The be the daily the work compared and repair and of the archeological personal that to in lithic tem with Dobe efficient (Wilmsen.00 other time silcrete grained 2.65 times Before the Women 12. AND provide bone? !Kung.36 18. not !Kung? tools? stone abundant with the Obviously necessary and should has but woman. cracking over to required the Children of age 4 to 8 and 7 eat .00 64.8 minutes raised and would Women and 64 be the has when posed at originally technology men for should leaving iron ery.27 sys would artifacts tool observations of in to an Wilmsen.2 15. iron that experiments work overall and in 5: 45 subsistence and making the with weekly the 44.

difference woman's The do for prepared tending their many or prepare firewood the by eat provided butchered utensils. mainly fire. firewood great men daily hours. men's the hours The women.5 29.2 the input.11) per hours the figures: and tool the of from for and simply making men by and 6 we And the daily to have we multiply it women. obtain the share housework hours day per of work of work but at 8 tool 9. What then fixng. that than work striking steady job by serving the a women. of 3 input daily the men's bird to effort of the is 4 a and hours for a time to men's can 15 daily hours of a for is hour large to day for work. by cooked preparing cooking. game work a up housework to 2. for and multiply 60.1 6. making by we overall the week workday: for hours subsistence work housework. 9. heavily heavily very and kinds Most Both (weighing are and except foods. bedding.2 hours. However.5 Women 12. by To the the 7. brought for a antelope. Table hours Work per ment week: Tool and women2 making Total Subsistence and work fixing Subtotal Housework work Men 21.7 22.1 15. women. have clearly appear and and fixing multiply Men week making work.2 are including women in nuts are them not premasticated women game collecting division difference about do and up) and washing predominance for toddlers those of housework. and mongongo hard-to-digest and nuts.4 40.12.4 18. on on because of cracked when men small 5 fireplace. is per about butchery that sexes appears hours more meat housework only and the pounded cook mostly the parof children and and nut-cracking butchery. cooking as and in men. for to at figures the a the arrive Women repair.3 23. housework not day more 1. older man's in. of between 2. a (Table summarizes in than the of terms arrve in in totals week 9. the of kg women.3 men divide 7 and tool subsistence Table hours per person work.8 is are food. foods Vegetable larger these infants nuts. Nursing siblings.12 of days hours in kinds: three To of of per Table tallies the housework? number hours final of number minutes the effort and take the are work !Kung do longer by heavier more work . other the by men.1 17. Overall. one 3.278 The !Kung San 9.6 7. both sexes smaller quantities ents or of mixed with cracked game Other cleaning the more men. the a with 1 the expect: per game from devoted time of might compared vary although hours rhythm when more collecting.3 week Average.9 42.6 5.4 44. warthog the brings as for fall falls because and and food.1 17. subsistence men.

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figures than week. the women. young disparity members the most working and with rearing to and of and in in provide They filled later result day men. per Women in subsistence in of context of !Kung as this a diet whole. the Dobe camp of subsistence repr·esentative a of Chapter from has methodology work the use the some afternoon if range these after less the the periods age of 40 or These child's own a proportion support that of the It 45 child points notion weekly men. in we are the can discusses very work effort to place relative be ease considered the search .12. raise men's. category men's !Kung not of the longer and does not explored child figure in greater 11. suggest members work that in eggshell their out figures exploited for await be women noted men earlier ostrich the already than camp the of have gathering the that to we of to to little day return time workday foodstuffs. and even total be care work remembered infant are that women's the the should intensive of Their women's of are mother and society. widely. question. The lower return more shorter food ensure food is prepared both happen Do to these still falls to 60 more to work be 80 than work work load significantly that low care more the Apart lives been and food intake. housework. of is space to A between do does the not. exploited of fertility in the 9.280 The !Kunzg San week. a few notes said Yet type a high the to comparison seasonal this in and of of about data a hunting. are think care. that major children. adding of the in day canteens society? is percent women that !Kung mentioned redresses shown that of provide the husbands' does that day. the including the detail Table are effort. Dobe regional information broader quality answer between and is to observed Chapter and variations see crucial if whether here 10 /Du/da. work child Neither child above by I apparent helps not women per than arrval men.