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# Magnetic Levitation

:
Transport of the future!

Halbach Arrays

“One-sided flux” structures discovered in 1973 by
John C. Mallinson
A special arrangement of magnets that focuses the
magnetic field on one side and nearly eliminates it on
the other
The magnets are arranged following a pattern of the
North end facing left, down, right, up, left
This pattern can continue to create a longer array
Applications other than in Maglev include: magnetic
tape for recording audio and video, refrigerator magnets, etc.

Figure 3: Above are three different models maglev trains. The one in the
middle is the standard model for current trains while the one on the left
would be using the Inductrack. (http://www.ece.neu.edu/faculty/nian/
mom/img/Inductrack.gif)

Figure 1: The image on the left is a regular arrangement of magnets representing a single bar magnet.
The magnetic fields of this are strongest at the opposite ends. The image on the right is representative
of a Halbach array. The magnetic filed is focused on one side of the arrangement and is nearly zero on
the other. (https://www.kjmagnetics.com/blog.asp?p=halbach-arrays)

(http://www.odec.ca/
projects/2007/sune7e2/In.jpg)

The result is a short acceleration, just enough to
make it to the subsequent gate

tion: B

On a larger scale (higher speed and bigger coils), the magnets induce a current and magnetic field just by moving
over them

array orientation
above Inductrack.
The magnets above
the track induce a
current and then
are repelled by the
coils.

Maglev trains do not have an engine;
they are cleaner and run more efficiently on electric power alone
These type of trains have already been
implemented in places like airports
and in cities across Asia

These gates have a current running through them
also and the induced magnetic field will “push” the
car once it has passed through

Figure 4: A current traveling through a solenoid
(coil of wire) induces a
magnetic field perpendicular to the loops. This
magnetic field can be
modeled with the equa-

A track consisting of wire coils that repel permanent magnets moving over them

The impedance of the coils increases proportionate to the
speed of the Halbach arrays moving over them, so the magFigure 2: Halbach
netic fields line up and repel one another

Using the same principles of wire coils, our track
has large coils, or “gates,” around the track at specific intervals

Maglev (or magnetic levitation) is the
process of running magnets over electromagnets so that they hover

Figure 5: These magnets repel one another, creating the levitation in
the car. However, there is no way to balance one on the other; it will
always slip some way. (http://cr4.globalspec.com/PostImages/201011/
Repelling_magnets_4FA1670E-E471-93A6-00E33FCF0FFB6538.jpg)

Inductrack

Propulsion

Jeremy Unterborn & Joseph Taylor
Maglev trains

Project by:

=  I N / L

(http://cdn.bigshotcamera.com/
images/fun/buildables/
electromagnet/magnetic_field.jpg)

Guiding theories

A current traveling through a wire induces a magnetic field around the wire and perpendicular to
the direction of the current itself
A permanent magnet passing over a wire coil will
induce a current in it
The more loops in the coil of wire, the stronger the
magnetic field
A magnet by itself can never “balance” perfectly
above another magnet

*Important problem*
Earnshaw's theorem states that a collection
of point charges cannot be maintained in a
stable stationary equilibrium configuration
solely by the electrostatic interaction of the
charges.
Without some external means of keeping
the car stable, there is no way to perfectly
keep the car balanced over the track.

References
http://www.ece.neu.edu/faculty/nian/mom/img/
Inductrack.gif
https://www.kjmagnetics.com/blog.asp?p=halbach-arrays
http://science.howstuffworks.com/transport/enginesequipment/maglev-train.htm
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/electric/
farlaw.html
http://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/physics/General/
Levitation/levitation.html