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**Advanced Composite Materials
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**Tensile properties of natural fibers with
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variation in cross-sectional area

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Junji Noda , Yujiro Terasaki , Yuji Nitta & Koichi Goda

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**Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamaguchi
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University, 2-16-1 Tokiwadai, Ube 755-8611, Japan

Published online: 01 Dec 2014.

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To cite this article: Junji Noda, Yujiro Terasaki, Yuji Nitta & Koichi Goda (2014): Tensile properties

of natural fibers with variation in cross-sectional area, Advanced Composite Materials, DOI:

10.1080/09243046.2014.985421

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and lignin. Korean Society for Composite Materials and Taylor & Francis . Moreover. has also been studied. Yujiro Terasaki. similar to the kenaf ﬁbers portrayed in Figure 1. Additionally.1 Graduate School of Science and Engineering. based on a Weibull distribution.1080/09243046. Yamaguchi University. Therefore. Yuji Nitta and Koichi Goda. Nevertheless. Therefore. From the viewpoint of effective utilization for the biomass. the material reliability of natural ﬁbers and synthetic ﬁbers have been evaluated using Weibull statistics. we formulated a strength distribution function of natural ﬁbers that includes the cross-sectional area variation. it is important that basic mechanical properties such as the Young’s modulus and tensile strength of natural ﬁbers are estimated precisely as well as the synthetic glass ﬁbers. the application of composites that consist of the natural ﬁbers and biomass-based biodegradable resin.Advanced Composite Materials.org/10. cross-sectional area. Japan Downloaded by [University of Lahore] at 22:14 27 January 2015 (Received 4 August 2014.3] These natural ﬁbers mainly sustain the loads in green composites. *Corresponding author. Keywords: natural ﬁbers.[2.[4–12] Additionally.doi.985421 Tensile properties of natural ﬁbers with variation in cross-sectional area Junji Noda*. Generally speaking. This method was used to investigate the effects of cross-sectional area variation on tensile properties. To evaluate the mechanical properties of natural ﬁbers. as they do with synthetic ﬁbers.2014. we proposed a new method to calculate the natural ﬁber cross-sectional area by measuring their projection widths to estimate the proper tensile properties. many researchers have been inclined to assume uniform shape and size of ﬁbers.jp 1 Full member © 2014 Japan Society for Composite Materials. tensile strength. 2014 http://dx. they show wide variation in their cross-sectional area.ac.[17] A single ﬁber cell is also an aggregation of cellulose micro-ﬁbrils (CMF).12–16] Plant-based natural ﬁbers consist of aggregations of many single ﬁber cells. which has a high elastic modulus of 138 GPa in its crystal. Email: nodaj@yamaguchi-u.[5. the tensile properties of natural ﬁbers are often evaluated on the assumption of a circular cross-sectional shape. accepted 22 September 2014) Natural ﬁber-reinforced green composites are increasingly being used in various industries. hemi-cellulose. 2-16-1 Tokiwadai. The tensile strength and Young’s modulus of this single ﬁber along the ﬁber axis depend on the CMF angle. Introduction Plant-based natural ﬁbers consist mainly of cellulose. we proposed a strength distribution function that incorporates cross-sectional area variation. the cross sections of natural ﬁbers are not circular. Finally. designated as green composites.10. to estimate the proper Weibull parameters of natural ﬁbers apart from the cross-sectional area variation. Weibull analysis 1.[1] It is expected that natural ﬁbers will be widely substituted for conventional glass ﬁbers. Ube 755-8611.

They also reported that the strength was overestimated by approximately two times.[22] This DBbased approximation method is based on the database for a distribution of actual ﬁber cross-sectional area obtained from cross-sectional pictorial images of ﬁber-reinforced composites. For textile engineering.19] Figure 1 shows that the cross-sectional shape of natural ﬁbers is complicated. placed in the center of ﬁbers. and Young’s modulus of these ﬁbers also depend on the lumen. called ‘DB (date base)-based approximation’ in an earlier paper. Xu et al.[17] They prepared specimens by embedding them in resin.Downloaded by [University of Lahore] at 22:14 27 January 2015 2 Figure 1. The cross-sectional shape of the specimens was then observed at 0. the specimen used for tensile tests was not directly applicable because cross-sectional photographs were required. They reported that the cross-sectional area varied among individual ﬁbers and that the cross-sectional area along the ﬁber axis also varied within ﬁbers. differing greatly from a circle shape. Suzuki et al. Although their method was able to estimate the cross-sectional area precisely.[20] Measurement of the direct cross-sectional area of ﬁbers is nevertheless necessary to estimate the stress of ﬁbers exactly. strength. .[21] They reported that the conventional estimation method of the cross-sectional area as a circle shape underestimated the area.[15] The cross-sectional shape of natural ﬁbers was found to be polygonal. Silva et al. with 5–7 corners. reported that the precise cross-sectional area of sisal ﬁbers was measured using micrographs obtained from scanning electron microscopy. Laser microscope image of cross-sectional area. estimated the cross-sectional area of kenaf ﬁbers using image analysis with the specimen after tensile tests. In this study. the DB-based approximation method was extended to various polygon shapes in addition to ellipses to elucidate the appropriate shape as the crosssectional area of natural ﬁbers and to verify the validity of DB-based approximation. precisely estimated the crosssectional area of sisal ﬁbers using image analysis based on many cross-sectional area photographs obtained using optical microscopy. the cross-sectional area is estimated indirectly by the ﬁneness as in a denier. The ﬁber strength evaluated using their method was precise because the crosssectional area was estimated exactly.[7] We have proposed a new method of evaluating the ﬁber cross-sectional area precisely.[18.2 mm intervals along the ﬁber axis. The speciﬁc gravity. J. Noda et al.

Optical micrograph of cross section.1. Cross-sectional area estimation and tensile tests 2. The effects of the variations are discussed.Advanced Composite Materials 3 Additionally. The actual crosssectional areas of kenaf ﬁbers were measured using image analysis. the following cross-sectional shapes were deﬁned in Figure 3(b)–(g) using the 12 projective widths. The cross-sectional shape of curaua ﬁbers reported in a previous paper [22] was approximated as a circle shape. A type of cross section that was blackened is shown in Figure 2. The ﬁbers were embedded in resin. the projective widths from 12 directions 0°–165° were measured. a novel Weibull distribution was proposed for the tensile strength of natural ﬁbers. Finally. Kenaf ﬁbers have a complicated cross-sectional shape. Then the cross-sectional surface was observed using an optical microscope. The distribution accommodates the cross-sectional area variations that exist between ﬁbers and within ﬁbers. 312 measurements were done. the effects of the cross-sectional area variation on the tensile strength and Young’s modulus of natural ﬁbers were investigated. 60°. and 120° directions Figure 2. Downloaded by [University of Lahore] at 22:14 27 January 2015 2. Then. . A cross section of the test piece was buffed. to approximate the actual cross-sectional shape as shown in Figure 3(a). DB-based approximation method using circle and polygonal assumption Kenaf ﬁbers used in practical applications as reinforcements of green composites were prepared for this study. In all. (a) Circle used the projective width along the 0° direction (b) Ellipse with major and minor axes equalized to the projective widths along 0° and 90° directions (c) Hexagon with three diagonal lines equalized to three projective widths along 0°. For each image.

This method was denominated as a DB-based approximation because the .909: the cross-sectional area using the polygon assumption of icositetragonal shape was estimated more precisely. These results show that the coefﬁcients for the circle and ellipse assumption were high values of 0.615 μm2. The other coefﬁcients for the case of assumed shapes described above are shown in Table 1. In this study. the cross-sectional areas of the shapes above were measured. However. (d) Octagon with four diagonal lines equalized to four projective widths along 0°.800 and 0. 45°. Noda et al.80–0. This table shows the average crosssectional areas of measurements at the various assumed shapes. The coefﬁcients for the polygon assumption increased to about 0. The correlation coefﬁcients between the actual and assumed areas were.606x + 852. respectively. the cross-sectional areas measured using the polygon assumption were transformed to their actual areas using this equation. Consequently. 30°.84. 90°. and 150° directions (f) Icositetragon with 12 diagonal lines equalized to 12 projective widths For each image. the approximate cross-sectional areas were obtained as shown in Figure 3(b)–(g) for the case of the actual cross-sectional area of 12. 90°.4 J. The actual cross-sectional area painted in black was estimated using image analysis. Downloaded by [University of Lahore] at 22:14 27 January 2015 (a) Real (12615 m2) (d) Hexagon 2 (14874 m ) Figure 3. 60°. Results showed that these approximate areas were larger than the actual area.9 with increasing projective width. 0. The relations between the actual cross-sectional area and the circle assumption and polygon assumption of the icositetragonal shape for kenaf ﬁbers are shown in Figure 4(a) and 4(b). and 135° directions (e) Dodecagon with six diagonal lines equalized to six projective widths along 0°. 120°. (b) Circle (14621 m2) (e) Octagon 2 (15701 m ) (f) Dodecagon 2 (17120 m ) (c) Ellipse (18557 m2) (g) Icositetragon (15658 m2) Assumption of various cross-sectional shapes. The approximate expression using the least-squares method between the actual areas and areas using the icositetragon assumption was y = 0. results revealed that the increase of the projective width was not necessary to obtain high coefﬁcients because the increase in coefﬁcients was saturated in the case of the hexagon shape.

Coefﬁcient of correlation Cross-sectional area (μm2) – 5010 0. Coefﬁcient of correlation between real and assumption cross-sectional areas and average areas of measurements.880 6338 0. except for the 1 mm from the end of the gage length to avoid interference from erroneous measurements with the paper board of specimens. Japan) during the shift to the direction of arrows. Relation between real and circle-assumed cross-sectional areas. Table 1. 2.Downloaded by [University of Lahore] at 22:14 27 January 2015 Advanced Composite Materials 5 Figure 4a.909 6865 actual areas were estimated based on the database (DB) accumulated from the numerous measurements that were taken.. In all. Relation between real and icositetragon-assumed cross-sectional areas.2. For each ﬁber of the 36 specimens.800 7356 0. Mitutoyo Corp. Fiber Real Circle Ellipse Hexagon Octagon Dodecagon Icositet. the projective width along the ﬁber direction was measured using the laser scan micrometer (LSM-500S. Figure 4b.904 6672 0.900 5783 0. 81 measurements were taken .840 7045 0. Tensile properties of ﬁbers Kenaf single-ﬁber specimens having 10 mm gage length were prepared as shown in Figure 5. The measurement length was 8 mm.

Figure 7. Measurement system using laser scan micro-meter. Results clariﬁed that multi-angle measurements along the ﬁber direction are necessary because the projective widths are changed at the direction and position of measurements. Size of ﬁber specimen. and 120° directions is shown in Figure 7. . Noda et al. After the ﬁrst measurements. Fiber specimen Laser (a) First measurement position (0°) (b) Subsequent rotated position (15°) Figure 6. A typical distribution of the projective width from 0°.1 mm. as shown in Figure 6(b). 60°. The projective width along the ﬁber direction was then measured again.6 J. per ﬁber along the ﬁber direction at intervals of 0. the micrometer was rotated 15°. Using the obtained projective widths. Such measurements were repeated from 12 directions of 0° to 165°. Fiber 5 10 10 10 10 [mm] Downloaded by [University of Lahore] at 22:14 27 January 2015 Figure 5. Projection width of ﬁber.

Circle Ellipse Hexagon Octagon Dodecagon Icositetragon Cross-sectional area (μm2) Young’s modulus (GPa) Tensile strength (MPa) Figure 8. . and tensile strength at each assumed shape. the Young’s modulus of natural ﬁbers decreases concomitantly with the Table 2.2 11.Advanced Composite Materials 7 Downloaded by [University of Lahore] at 22:14 27 January 2015 the cross-sectional areas at each position based on the shape deﬁned by chapter 2.6 12. In this table.1. Then. Then the average cross-sectional area of each ﬁber was obtained.) 6810 6365 6192 6367 6533 6572 4835 11. Young’s modulus.2 12. Cross-sectional area and tensile strength of each ﬁber. The approximation of Young’s modulus and tensile strength were the estimated modulus and strength using the transformed area. Figure 3(b)–(g) were calculated.8 235 247 256 247 241 240 310 Relation between Young’s modulus and average cross-sectional areas.1.8 11. 3. Table 2 shows the average cross-sectional area. tensile tests at 0. Consequently. results suggest that these Young’s modulus and tensile strength were estimated accurately because the calculated area using the DB-based approximation was close to the actual area shown in Table 1. (Icositet.6 12.8 mm/min were conducted using these specimens. Appro. Effect of cross-sectional area variation on tensile properties 3. From Figure 8. the approximation of cross-sectional area using the icositetragonal shape was the transformed area of icositetragon shape based on the DB-based approximation.8 14. Figure 9 shows the relation between the coefﬁcient of variation for the variation in within-ﬁber cross-sectional area and Young’s modulus. Young’s modulus Figure 8 shows the relation between the average cross-sectional area and Young’s modulus for 36 kenaf ﬁbers.

2. Figure 11 shows the relation between the coefﬁcient of variation for the variation in within-ﬁber cross-sectional area and tensile strength. The reason why the Young’s modulus decreases according to the variation of cross-sectional area is discussed in the following chapter in conjunction with the effects of that variation on tensile strength. increase in the cross-sectional area.[24] Results presented in Figure 9 showed that the Young’s modulus also decreases with the increase in the coefﬁcient of variation as well as the average cross-sectional area. [23]. Tensile strength Figure 10 shows the relation between the average cross-sectional area and tensile strength. They investigated the relation between the diameter of natural ﬁbers and Young’s modulus. 3. Noda et al. Doan et al.[25] No dependence of the Figure 10. This cross-sectional area dependence of the Young’s modulus was also reported by Baley [7] and by Charlet et al. J.Downloaded by [University of Lahore] at 22:14 27 January 2015 8 Figure 9. . Relation between tensile strength and average cross-sectional areas. Relation between Young’s modulus and coefﬁcient of variation of cross-sectional areas. reported that the relation between the tensile strength and the cross-sectional area of ﬁbers obtained from the convenient area measurements was investigated. Aramid ﬁbers reportedly present a similar tendency.

respectively. 4. The cumulative probability of ﬁber failure F is given by the following equation. m and σ0. as shown in Figure 10. 9 Relation between tensile strength and coefﬁcient of variation of cross-sectional areas.1. the strength distribution based on the Weibull statistics was proposed considering the variation of cross-sectional area within ﬁbers and between ﬁbers.1. the obtained Young’s modulus and tensile strength are expected to decrease. 4. m m V r A L r F ¼ 1 exp ¼ 1 exp V 0 r0 A0 L0 r0 (1) Therein. as V0. Figure 1 shows that kenaf ﬁbers have a multi-cell structure grouped by some single cells. and length are denoted. Figure 11 results showed that the tensile strength also decreases along with the increase in the coefﬁcient of variation as well as the Young’s modulus. because the tensile strength depends strongly on the area. and is the average cross-sectional area of a specimen.[18.1. respectively. Tensile strength distribution of natural ﬁbers In this chapter.19] Especially. True Weibull parameter estimation except for the effect of cross-sectional area variation 4. The effect of these variations on tensile properties was investigated. stand for the Weibull shape and scale parameters. The effect of cross-sectional area variation on tensile properties for kenaf ﬁbers arises from the micro-structure of each single cell. Conventional Weibull model A Weibull model used for general ﬁbers to show the strength distribution is designated as a straight bar model that considers only the variation of cross-sectional area between ﬁbers. because a part with large local deformation attributable to the small area exists. whereas the gauge volume. L0. cross-sectional area on the tensile strength was found. A . r is the average failure stress.Downloaded by [University of Lahore] at 22:14 27 January 2015 Advanced Composite Materials Figure 11. A0. the size effect on strength explained by the increase in the defect probability was expressed in this study. area. However. in the case of ﬁbers that have large variation of the within-ﬁber cross-sectional area. The change in the micro-ﬁbril angle of cellulose and the lumen size depends on the growth of natural ﬁbers.

1 ln ln 1 Fi L A ln ln ¼ m ln ri m ln r0 L0 A0 (2) Therein. the stress σj is rewritten as rj ¼ Pi A ¼ r Aj Aj (5) where Pi denotes the failure load for the ith ﬁber. However. Based on these assumptions. the ﬁber failure probability is given as follows. . Transformation of each side of Equation (1) deﬁned as the failure load divided by A. The cumulative probability Fj of the ﬁber failure stress for the jth element in a ﬁber is given as the following equation. Based on the weakest link model.10 J. In the case of Δx → 0 considering the continuum cross-sectional area variation.2. N . cross-sectional area. F ¼1 n Y j¼1 " # n m Aj rj Dx X 1 Fj ¼ 1 exp L0 j¼1 A0 r0 (4) To compare Equation (4) with Equation (1). AðxÞ ¼ A. . Noda et al. 2. m ZL m1 r 1 A L A F ¼ 1 exp R . Weibull model considering the cross-sectional area variation within a ﬁber Because natural ﬁbers have the variation of cross-sectional area within ﬁbers along the ﬁber direction. a stepped bar model has been proposed in an earlier paper. It was assumed that the weakest ﬁber element (the lowest stress element) is independently broken on the size of cross-sectional area for neighborhood ﬁbers and that the whole failure results from this element.e. i. a Weibull model considering the variation of the area within ﬁbers was proposed as presented below.[22] This model consists of n cylindrical elements that have random average area and constant length of Δx. Equation (4) is expressed as presented below. R ¼ dx L A 0 L0 r0 Að xÞ (6) 0 Therein. A(x) denotes a stochastic process that expresses the randomness of the within-ﬁber cross-sectional area along its axial direction.. . . In the case of a uniform Equation (6) coincides with Equation (1). where N is the number of ﬁbers. into logarithms gives the following. Downloaded by [University of Lahore] at 22:14 27 January 2015 4. Vj rj m Aj Dx rj m Fj ¼ 1 exp ¼ 1 exp A0 L0 r0 V0 r0 (3) In that equation. i ¼ 1. Vj = Aj·Δx and Vj，Aj represent the volume and average area for the jth element.1.

the number of elements for the Weibull model proposed above is n. the variation of cross-sectional area within ﬁbers increases concomitantly with the increase in R. and Aj+1. ln ln 1 1 Fi ln L A ln ln Ri ¼ m ln ri m ln r0 L0 A0 (8) Results show that the effect of the variation within ﬁbers was excluded by the term –ln Ri in Equation (8). When the representative area is assumed as the average area between Aj j of the jth element is the value presented below. the average stress r 1 rj ¼ l Zl Pi rdx ¼ l 0 Zl 0 dx 2Pi ¼ AðxÞ Aj þ Ajþ1 (10) j was deﬁned by the arithmetic average of Aj and Aj+1.Advanced Composite Materials 11 the ﬁber failure probability is rewritten as Equation (7) when the change in cross-sectional area is measured discretely along the ﬁber axial direction.1 mm have been already obtained for kenaf ﬁbers. When the cross-sectional areas at n + 1 positions in a ﬁber are measured as A1，A2，…，An+1. For a stepped bar model. and Equation (1) was corrected by the parameter R. . R¼ n m1 1X A n j¼1 Aj (7) Downloaded by [University of Lahore] at 22:14 27 January 2015 R denotes the variation of the within-ﬁber cross-sectional area. By transforming each side of Equation (6) into a logarithm. Equation (7) is That is. the average stress of elements σj was calculated using the arithmetic average model. When m > 2. it was assumed that a step was introduced on the center between Aj and Aj+1 elements. L A1 A2 P Aj An P l Figure 12. the discrete cross-sectional areas at 81 positions with intervals of 0. R is greater than 1. 1 1 A L m 1 rF ¼ r0 C 1 þ R m m A0 L0 (9) As described above. In other words. In this study. it is given as shown below. r rewritten as follows. The average strength rF was derived according to the equation presented below. The schematic of measurement for cross-sectional area along the ﬁber direction is shown in Figure 12. Schematic of measurement for cross-sectional area along ﬁber axis.

Noda et al.12 J.68 336 6.61 336 6. by assuming that the distribution shown as a linear approximation. as the gradient and intercept.1. respectively. The shape and scale parameters of kenaf ﬁbers are presented in Table 3. The cumulative failure probability Fj ¼ j=ðN þ 1Þ is obtained using the mean rank method. Shape and scale parameters. The reason for that difference is the exclusion of the variation in within-ﬁber crosssectional area as well as between ﬁbers. R ¼ n j¼1 Aj þ Ajþ1 A0 L0 r0 (11) Downloaded by [University of Lahore] at 22:14 27 January 2015 4. Figure 13 shows Weibull plots for the tensile strength of kenaf ﬁbers.45 334 6. in which all the left side and ln ri of the right side of Equations (2) and (8) are taken. Estimating the cross-sectional area distribution Because the true Weibull parameters excluded the effects of variation within ﬁbers and between ﬁbers estimated in a previous chapter.86 327 5.90 324 7. as the Y-axis and X-axis. we attempted to quantify variations according to the formulation of the effect of these variations. Consequently. m and σ0 were calculated. 4. extended a Figure 13. respectively.2. m n m1 r 1 X 2A A L F ¼ 1 exp R .3. the strengths were greater and scattering was smaller than that of the straight bar model.88 343 . Experiments Equation (2) Equation (8) Equation (18) Equation (19) Equation (20) 5. m σ0 (MPa) Weibull distributions using Equations (2) and (8) of tensile strength. True Weibull parameter estimation For the kenaf ﬁbers for which the tensile strength was measured previously. which can be achieved by setting a new parameter of R. Weibull parameters were obtained using the proposed model. Watson et al. Table 3. In this study. Results showed that the shape and scale parameters obtained from Equation (8) are larger than those obtained from Equation (2).

2. For short expressions. below.[29] All of them used the similar extended Weibull model to estimate the strength distribution. m Z 1 r A L Þd A ¼1 exp g ðA L r A 0 0 0 0 Ft ¼ 0 (13) It was established that the following formula was derived from Equation (13) [26] as " k # r m A Ft ¼ 1 exp r0 A0 (14) where λ is a correction index of the size scale.[26] Weibull models have been applied by Steenbakkers et al. (15) The difference between Equations (12) and (15) is the parameter R. a novel extended Weibull model was proposed by considering the variation of the cross-sectional area within ﬁbers for kenaf ﬁbers. Moreover. the tensile strength of ﬂax ﬁbers is reportedly predictable using the Curtin model assuming the interval of kink bands as the Weibull distribution. Tensile strength distribution based on a Weibull model The Weibull distribution considered the variation of cross-sectional area between ﬁbers using the straight bar model as shown in Equation (1). Also. with A larger the variation of areas within ﬁbers. for natural ﬁbers. Curtin applied a Weibull distribution to the density function to predict the tensile strength of the unidirectional CFRP composites precisely.[26–28] Here. Z 1 rÞ gðA Þd A F ðA. which is a for average area A and r. [27] for wool ﬁbers. it was assumed that L = L0 in Equation (14). which signiﬁes ¼ AR is newly deﬁned here. A when R > 1. (12) accounted for a stochastic variable between ﬁbers and when its probability When A the strength distribution Ft is given as shown density function was deﬁned as gðAÞ. RÞ F ¼ F ðA.1. than A .Advanced Composite Materials 13 Downloaded by [University of Lahore] at 22:14 27 January 2015 Weibull model considering the density function of cross-sectional area distribution to estimate the strength distribution for carbon ﬁbers having different cross-sectional areas. Equation (15) can be rewritten as presented below. function with two parameters for A r Þ F ¼ F ðA. some discussions using Equation (14) were developed for the strength distribution for various ﬁbers.[28] However. In this chapter. r . [24] for Kevlar ﬁbers and by Zhang et al. the Weibull distribution considering the variation of cross-sectional area within ﬁbers as well as between ﬁbers was proposed as shown below. 4. As described above.

Ft* takes When the probability density function of A the value presented below. Probability density function using identical distributions For a straight bar model without the variation of cross-sectional area within ﬁbers. Noda et al. it was qualiﬁed that this strength distribution is a Weibull distri without within-ﬁber variation. Z 1 .2. 1 ( L r m A exp A0 L0 r00 0 ) " # l1 Þ 2 1 ðA pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ2 exp dA 2S12 2pS1 Frequency distribution of average cross-sectional area.2. Use of the probability density function of gðAÞ g*(A ) proceeded as a normal distribution. r Þ g ðA Þd A F ðA 0 Z m 1 r A L Þd A ¼1 exp g ðA L r A 0 0 0 0 Downloaded by [University of Lahore] at 22:14 27 January 2015 Ft ¼ (17) According to the experimental measurements of cross-sectional area for 34 kenaf considering the average area A and ﬁbers. because the distribution of average area between ﬁbers shows agreement with the normal distribution.14 J. (18) . Ft is given as Z Ft ¼ 1 0 Figure 14. the frequency distribution of average area A the parameter of variation within ﬁbers is shown in Figure 14. r Þ ¼ 1 exp Fj ðA A 0 L0 r 0 (16) From this equation. The compatibility of these distributions was conﬁrmed as a normal distribution according to the Chi-square and test at the signiﬁcance level of 5%. 4. bution with uniform average cross-sectional area A is deﬁned similarly as g*(A ). m A L r . the probability density function of the strength distribution was also assumed as a normal distribution.

0 Z m 1 r A L j ðr Þ d A ¼1 exp g A A 0 L0 r0 0 Ft ¼ 1 (20) When the two-dimensional normal distribution was deﬁned using stochastic variables σ and Aj as X and Y. Because ðr Þ. (19). and S2 is its where μ2 is the mean of the average cross-sectional area distribution A j standard deviation. respectively. which means the within-ﬁber variation area.4. results showed that the difference of the parameter R. The scale and shape parameters estimated from Equation (8) are used as r000 and m00 . Probability density function using conditional distributions The distributions of the average cross-sectional area for kenaf ﬁbers were clariﬁed as according with a normal distribution. denote the means of σ and Aj. For this study. as estimated from Equation (2). For Equations (18) and (19) using the normal distribution. 4. ρXY is the correlation coefﬁcient. Aj ¼ A Z rÞ g A j ðr Þ d A F ðA. Additionally. the estimated shape parameter was larger and the estimated scale parameter was smaller. was not large. The scale and shape parameters. Equation (13) was reconsidered using the following equation. The mean and standard deviation were calculated from experimentally obtained results used as μX and SX. Weibull parameter comparison The Weibull parameters using the Weibull models considering the normal distribution and the conditional two-dimensional normal distribution were estimated from Equations (18).2. Also. 4. represent the standard deviations of σ and Aj. However. respectively. The obtained scale and shape parameters are shown in Table 3. in the case of Equation (20) using the conditional distribution considering the dependence of cross-sectional area on the tensile strength. Results show that the average tensile strength also depends on the average cross-sectional area. as shown in Figure 10. Equation (20) was also solved mathematically.Advanced Composite Materials 15 j and S1 is its where μ1 is the mean of the average cross-sectional area distribution A standard deviation.3. are used as r00 and m0 . and (20) for kenaf ﬁbers. For a stepped bar model considering the within-ﬁber variation area. both parameters .2. Figure 15 portrays the obtained tensile strength distributions as Weibull plots. Equations (18) and (19) were solved mathematically. respectively. Ft is given correspondingly as Z Ft ¼ 1 0 1 ( L r m A exp A0 L0 r000 00 ) " # l2 Þ2 1 ðA pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ2 exp dA 2S22 2pS2 (19) Downloaded by [University of Lahore] at 22:14 27 January 2015 . SX and SY. the conditional distribution of probability density function was given as 2 !2 3 j lY qXY ðSY =SX Þðr l Þ A 1 1 X j ðr 5 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ Þ ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ exp4 g A 2 SY 1 q2XY 2pSY 1 q2XY (21) where μX and μY.

according to the consideration of the dependence of area variation on the strength. Weibull distributions using Equations (18)–(20) of tensile strength. Nishino T. Results showed that the Young’s modulus and tensile strength decrease along with the increase of the coefﬁcient of variation for cross-sectional area as they do also for the cross-sectional area. Using the estimated cross-sectional area based on the DB-based approximation of the polygon shape. Mech. showed agreement with experimentally obtained results. the tensile strength distribution including the area variation was predicted precisely. and polygons having from six corners to 24 corners. Trans. 2005. Okamoto T. the parameter R was newly proposed to assess the within-ﬁber cross-sectional area variation.. 5. Noda et al. Ltd. [2] Inao T. Finally. Results clariﬁed that the correlation between the actual cross-sectional area and the assumed polygonal shape area was higher than that between the actual area and the conventionally assumed circle shape. Conclusions This study of kenaf ﬁbers was the ﬁrst to reveal correlation between the actual crosssectional areas obtained from many area optical microscopy measurements and the assumed areas of circles. It considers both within-ﬁber and between-ﬁber variations. the effect of cross-sectional area variation on Young’s modulus and the natural ﬁber tensile strength were investigated. Goda K. Tokyo: CMC Publishing Co. The true Weibull parameters. Then.109:51–52. References [1] Fujii T. Japanese. The Weibull parameters considering the area variation were estimated from this model mathematically. . precise shape of the cross-sectional area of natural ﬁbers was investigated to improve cross-sectional area estimation methods. excluding the effects of area variation. Then. Japanese. Consequently. a novel Weibull model of natural ﬁber tensile strength was formulated. were estimated experimentally. Developments and applications of environmentally friendly composites. Results show that the tensile strength distribution of natural ﬁbers considering the variation of the cross-sectional area within a ﬁber and between ﬁbers can be formulated using Equation (20). J.Downloaded by [University of Lahore] at 22:14 27 January 2015 16 Figure 15. 2006. Jap. ellipses. Eng. Soc. Industrial products of plant origin material-effective use of plant origin plastics for recycling society.

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