Cardiovascular system includes

Heart – pumps the blood
through the pulmonary and
systemic circulations.

Blood vessels – provide
the route by which blood
circulates to & from all
parts of the body.

Lymphatic vessels – carry
lymph (tissue-derived
fluid) back to the vascular

Blood vessels

Major types of vessels
 Arteries
 Veins
 Microcirculatory or microvascular bed (arterioles,
capillaries, postcapillary venules)
Arteries carry blood AWAY from the heart
Veins carry blood TOWARD the heart
Capillaries contact tissue cells and directly serve
cellular needs, communicate between arteries and

Blood Vessels

Tunica intima 2. Tunica adventitia . Tunica media 3.General structure of the wall of the entire vascular system consists of 3 layers or tunics (beginning with luminal surface): 1.

loose connective tissue 2. subendothelium (very thin loose CT) 3. nervi vascularis Clinical note: The presence of adventitial connective tissue tightly adhering to vessels facilitates the surgical isolation and repair of vessels. Tunica intima (Intima) 1. variable amount of connective tissue 3. Tunica adventitia (Adventitia) 1.I. vasa vasorum 3. external elastic membrane (not seen in veins) The media of arteries is generally thicker than the media of veins of comparable diameter. III. internal elastic membrane (not seen in veins) Clinical note: The integrity of the intima is critical. endothelium & BL (basement lamina) 2. II. consists of circumferentially arranged smooth muscle and elastic tissue in varying proportions 2. since damage can lead to atherosclerosis or clotting. Tunica media (Media) 1. .


 MIXED arteries – are arteries that are located between elastic and muscular arteries (subclavian.Arteries  are classified into 3 types on the basis of size and the characteristics of the tunica media:  Large ELASTIC arteries (aorta. pulmonary trunk). common carotid. . common iliac arteries). medium & small – arteries that carry blood to the organs & extremities).  Medium sized MUSCULAR arteries (ex.

 Plexus fibroelasticus – is same as internal elastic membrane Concentric fenestrated lamellae of elastic fibers – in adult there are 50-70 lamellae. collagen fibers. Endothelium (simple squamous epithelium) Subendothelial layer Smooth muscle cells that are arranged longitudinally (smooth muscle cell is not only contractile. Loose connective tissue Vasa vasorum Nervi vascularis . 3. 2. 3.  Tunica media – 80% 1. fibroblasts & ground substance are arranged between elastic lamellae Tunica adventitia – 10 % 1. but also produces the extracellular ground substance and fibers) 4.Elastic Arteries  Tunica intima – 10% 1. Smooth muscle cells. 2. The number & thickness of these lamellae are related to the blood pressure & age. 2.

Tunica INTIMA 10% Tunica MEDIA 80% Tunica ADVENTITIA 10% .

Aorta .

AORTA Elastic fenestrated lamellae .

tunica adventitia 5-10% 50% 40-45% .  Smooth muscle cells are arranged in a spiral fashion.  Prominent internal & external elastic membranes help to distinguish them from elastic arteries. Tunica intima ---. Their contraction assist in the maintaining of the blood pressure.Muscular arteries  Have more smooth muscle & less elastic fibers in the tunica media than do elastic arteries.tunica media ---.

The tunica intima:  The endothelium  The subendothelium  The internal elastic lamina (thicker) The tunica media is dominated by numerous concentric layers of smooth muscle cells. II. . III.Muscular arteries I. which contains vasa vasorum. Fine elastic fibres and a few collagen fibres are also present. Tunica adventitia (consists of loose connective tissue. Between tunics media and adventitia is located an external elastic lamina (thinner). and nervi vasorum).


Tunica INTIMA 5-10% Internal elastic membrane Tunica MEDIA 50% External elastic membrane Tunica ADVENTITIA 40-45% .


Mixed arteries Tunica media is composed of 50% of smooth muscle cells & 50% of elastic fibers  Are placed between elastic & muscular arteries  .

venules Arteriole – capillary – venule “miraculous network”: Afferent arteriole – capillary – efferent arteriole --.liver .Capillary Bed – arterioles.kidney Venule – sinusoid capillary – central vein --. capillaries.

Arterioles     <0. but tunica media is formed by only: 1-2-3 layers of smooth muscle cells thin adventitia .5 mm diameter three tunics too.

Arterioles versus Venules .

pericytes & adventitial cells Pericytes  sometimes found between endothelium and basal lamina  undifferentiated cells that resemble smooth muscle cells  provide support  assist in contraction  potential for regeneration Capillary .   Extremely narrow and thin  5mm-10mm in diameter  0.5mm wall thickness Composed of endothelial cells surrounded by basal lamina.

most common type  Fenestrated : enothelium occasionally interrupted by spaces  Discontinuous/Sinusoids : incomplete endothelium and basal lamina .Capillaries  3 types  Conitnuous : uninterrupted lining of enothelium.

Continuous Capillary . skin. lungs.somatic   Is formed by “continuous” endothelial cells & complete basal lamina found in brain. muscle. exocrine glands. nervous tissue . connective tissue. thymus.

Continuous Capillary .

BMp) .Marginal Fold Pericyte cells (P) support the endothelial cells of capillaries Fibroblast (F) produce supporting connective tissue and collagen (C) Can see basement membrane of capillary and pericyte (BM.

Fenestrated Capillary     Endothelial cell body forms small openings called fenestrations. intestine and endocrine glands sealed by a diaphragm . Has continuous basal lamina found in kidney. Fenestrations may represent or arise from pinocytotic vesicles which open onto both the luminal and basal surfaces of the cell.

Fenestrations in Endothelial .

Fenestrations in Endothelium .

bone marrow. and spleen .Discontinuous or Sinusoid Capillary    Is formed by incomplete endothelial layer & incomplete basement membrane has enlarged diameter & irregular shape  slows circulation found in liver.

Discontinuous Capillary and Venous Sinusoid  Wider than capillaries .

Spleen Sinusoid .

Sinusoid .

Venules media: 1-few smooth muscle cells thick  prominent adventitia  .


bones. . spleen.Classification of veins   Unmuscular – veins of pia & dura mater. neck. retina. Muscular:    Weakly developed – veins of the upper part of the body (head. lower extremities. brahialis Most evident – veins of the lower part of the body.cava superior) Moderately – v. v. placenta. etc.

Features of vein morphology        The wall is thinner than in artery Internal & external elastic membranes are absent The layering in the wall is not very distinct Present valves Tunica adventitia is more developed than tunica media Vaso vasorum are more in the tunica adventitia The wall has the tendense to collapse .

blood .Veins  usually irregularly shaped lumen.



So Which is Which??? .


Vein .

Heart .

 Tissue Layers    Endocardium Myocardium Pericardium    Visceral Pericardium Parietal Pericardium Pericardial Fluid Heart histology .

 Subendocardial layer (outer fibrous layer) which contains small blood vessels.  Subendothelial layer (loose connective tissue). collagen fibers and smooth muscle cells.Heart Wall  ENDOCARDIUM – the innermost layer of the heart consists of:  Endothelium (simple squamous epithelium) that rest on the second layer. but not smooth muscle. collagenous and elastic fibers.  Fibromuscular plexus – elastic. .

 Type III located in the left and right bundles of Purkinje fibers.  Conductive cardiocytes – present under the endocardium of interatrial and interventricular septa.Heart Wall  The MYOCARDIUM is the thickest of the tunics of the heart and is formed by cardiac striated muscle tissue. There are 3 types of conductive cardioctes:  Type I located in the sinoatrial node. . There are 3 types of cardiac muscle cells:  Contractile cardiocytes – which contract to pump blood through the circulation.  Secretory cardiocytes – which produce biological active substances.  Type II located in the atrioventricular node.


inner.Organ Membrane  Pericardium . serous layer (epicardium) Parietal .(outer) attached to pleura & diaphragm .Double Sac (2)   Visceral .

May be recorded on an ECG . Bundle of His.Electrical Activity of the Heart    Contraction of heart depends on electrical stimulation of myocardium Impulse is initiated on right atrium and spreads throughout the heart Conduction pathway:       SA node. Stimulation of Purkinje fibers cause both ventricles to contract simultaneously. Purkinje fibers. AV node.


.   Lymph carried from lymph capillaries. to lymph ducts. Lymph nodes filter the lymph before returning it to the veins. Lymph:  Fluid that enters the lymphatic capillaries. and then to lymph nodes.Lymphatic System   Lymphatic capillaries:  Closed-end tubules that form vast networks in intercellular spaces.

Lymphatic Capillaries .

Lymphatic Vessels     No fenestrations No basal lamina Anchoring filaments (microfibrils) in endothelia hold vessel open and prevent collapse of lumen Large lymphatics have numerous valves .

Valves are numerous. .Lymphatic vessels  have very thin walls with less smooth muscle than veins and indistinct layers. Lymphatics will not normally have any blood cells.

Lymphostasis .

Alex General medicine 1st year Histology Histology .