МІНІСТЕРСТВО ОСВІТИ І НАУКИ УКРАЇНИ

ХАРКІВСЬКИЙ НАЦІОНАЛЬНИЙ УНІВЕРСИТЕТ
імені В. Н. КАРАЗІНА

Мартинюк А. П.

Порівняльна морфологія
англійської та української мов
(семінарські заняття)
Навчально-методичний посібник

Харків
2007

УДК [811.111+811.161.2]'362
ББК 81.2-2
М 29
Друкується згідно з рішенням Науково-методичної ради
Харківського національного університету імені В. Н. Каразіна
(протокол № ___ від ________________)

Рецензенти: канд. філол. наук, професор, зав. кафедри англійської філології
Харківського національного університету імені В. Н. Каразіна
Самохіна В. О.;
канд. філол. наук, доцент, завідувач кафедри англійської філології
Харківського національного педагогічного університету ім. Г. С. Сковороди
Каминін І. М.

М 29

Порівняльна
морфологія
англійської
та
української мов (семінарські заняття): Навчальнометодичний посібник / Мартинюк А. П. – Х.: ХНУ
імені В. Н. Каразіна, 2007. – 64 с.

Навчально-методичний посібник містить матеріали семінарських занять з
порівняльної морфології англійської та української мов, що включають
короткий конспект лекцій, теоретичні питання для обговорення та практичні
завдання.
Посібник розраховано на студентів ІV курсу англійського перекладацького
відділення, а також студентів філологічних спеціальностей університетів.

УДК [811'111+811.161.2]'362
ББК 81.2-2
© Харківський національний
університет імені В. Н. Каразіна,
2007
© Мартинюк А. П., 2007
2

Seminar 1
CONTRASTIVE TYPOLOGY, ITS AIM, BASIC NOTIONS AND METHODS
1.1. BASIC NOTES
1.1.1. Subject and aims
Contrastive typology is a branch of linguistics which aims at establishing the
most general common and divergent as well as dominant and recessive features of the
languages compared and determining their structural types on this basis. The number
of languages subjected to typological contrasting at a time is not limited.
Contrastive typological investigation may be focused on phonetic/phonological,
morphological, lexical or syntactic phenomena of the languages. Contrastive
typology of the English and Ukrainian morphology compares morphological
systems of the English and Ukrainian languages.
1.1.2. Basic notions
Like any other science, contrastive typology employs some terms and notions of
its own:
(1) absolute universals (абсолютні/повні універсалії), i.e. features which are
common to any languages of the world, cf. parts of speech, parts of the
sentence etc.);
(2) near universals (неповні/часткові універсалії), i.e. features which are
common to some languages under typological investigation;
(3) metalanguage (метамова), i.e. the language in which analysis of contrasted
languages is carried out;
(4) typologically dominant features (типологічні домінантні), i.e. features
dominating in one/some/all the contrasted languages and predetermining its
structural type as analytical or synthetic; cf. rigid word order, prominent role
of prepositions in expressing case relations, word morphemes in expressing
grammar categories, etc. in English and case, person, gender, number, tense
etc. inflexions in Ukrainian;

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this method needs no verification since the investigated phenomena were already proved by preceding generations of researchers. cf. the nouns in-nova-tion-s and пере-напр-уг-а consist of 4 ICs. observed in one language and missing in others. (7) allomorphic features (алломорфні). dominant and recessive features of the languages compared and drawing conclusions as to their structural types.e. common features. divergent features.e. Deductive method presupposes making conclusions on the basis of logical calculations which suggest all theoretically admissive variants of realization of a certain feature in contrasted languages and consequently need verification. i. features which are contrasted. The main one is the contrastive method which is also employed in historical and comparative linguistics. observed in all the compared languages. (6) isomorphic features (ізоморфні). 2) parts of speech. i. 3) morphological categories of the parts of speech. Opposition is made by two forms carrying two manifestations of one categorical meaning. i. (8) typological constants (типологічні константи). The (ICs) immediate constituents method is employed to contrast constituent parts of the language units. person. analytical verb forms in English. Comparing is done on the basis of deduction and induction. case forms in English or dual number forms of some nouns in Ukrainian. Practically. categories of number. Inductive method draws on the empirical facts: scientists observe the facts.(5) typologically recessive features (типологічно рецесивні). 4 . The main aim of the contrastive method is to establish isomorphic and allomorphic. Method of oppositions is used to establish grammatical categories. cf. cf. make conclusions and verify these conclusions by more facts. features losing their former dominant role. cf. parts of speech.e. 1. At the morphological level the ICs method helps determine morphemic structures of the words of the languages compared.e. tense.3. cf. The main typological constants of the English and Ukrainian morphology are: 1) morphemes.1. i. Methods Contrastive typological investigations are carried out with the help of some methods.

According to their form morphemes split into zero and positive. According to the nature of their meaning morphemes divide into grammatical and lexical. cf. Basic methods of contrastive typology.1.works :: is working carry two particular manifestations (non-Continuous :: continuous) of the general categorical meaning of aspect.1. Zero refers only to the form of the morpheme: while positive morphemes have both positive form and meaning. The subject and aims of contrastive typology. zero morphemes have meaning but no positive form. 5 . 1. when they are part of pots/flowers/tables/pens (горщики/квіти/столи/ручки). Basic notions of contrastive typology. син :: сини (zero/singular :: positive -и/plural).2. Seminar 2 TYPES OF MEANING AND THEIR EXPRESSION IN THE ENGLISH AND UKRAINIAN MORPHOLOGICAL SYSTEMS 2. Lexical and grammatical morphemes differ in: (1) their relation to the world of reality: lexical morphemes are directly associated with some object/phenomenon/situation of reality while grammatical morphemes are connected with the world of reality only through the lexical morphemes they are attached to. the morphemes son in son-s or син in син-и bring about some definite image while -s and -и can refer ‘to more than one son’ when they are part of sons (сини) and ‘to more than one pot/flower/table/pen’ etc. 3. son :: sons (zero/singular :: positive -s/plural). cf. 2. There exist different classifications of morphemes.1. BASIC NOTES 2. Types of morphemes as minimal meaningful language units The morpheme is a minimal meaningful unit of the language. TASKS Theoretical questions. 1.

ти.(antethesis. containing affixes which fall into prefixes and suffixes depending on their position in the word in relation to the root (prefixes come before the root and suffixes come after the root). i. ante-anti-/анти. cf. варваризм). boy-hood. write. they are always attached to lexical morphemes. dogs. barbarism/матеріалізм. containing only the root (lexical morpheme). it can be singled out only when contrasted with the opposite meanings in the system of the language.e. два. правд-ив-ий еtc. під-вид. in want-s the morpheme -s means the third person/ singular as opposed to the zero morpheme in want. ist/іст (utopist/активіст). quick-ly. In accordance with their structure stems fall into: (1) simple. wanted – син. Words without their grammatical morphemes are called stems. cf. близь-к-ий etc. forgive. вчит-ель. ex/екс6 .(2) their relation to the word of which they are part: lexical morphemes are free. cf. homeless – на-кричати. but also in their form are called international. Besides lexical and grammatical morphemes there exists some intermediate type of morphemes called lexico-grammatical morphemes. Grammatical morphemes of the words are called inflections. the meaning of -s in son-s is that of plurality because it is opposed to the meaning of singularity of the zero morpheme in son. i. пошеп-ки. він etc. від-даль. re-write.e. depart. as in day. де. зимув-ати.e. об-мити. negoti-ate. flyer. там. (2) determine the meaning of the word. present tense as opposed to the positive morpheme -ed in want-ed. functionally not dependent on other morphemes while grammatical morphemes are bound. antibody/антитеза). -ism/ізм/изм (materialism. unable to function independently. робіт-ник. i. хто. Lexico-grammatical morphemes have double nature: like lexical morphemes they: (1) are not relative. (2) derivative. (3) their relation to similar morphemes in other words: the meaning of grammatical morphemes in always relative. the meaning of lexical morphemes is not relative as it can be singled out in speech without being opposed to any other meanings. co-exist. etc. cf. like grammatical morphemes they are bound. English and Ukrainian affixes which are isomorphic not only in their denotation/(rarely)connotation meaning.

човг-човг. stick-in-the-mud. containing two roots and affixes.(ненька). y/ie (daddy. cf. For example. whitewash. article-roots etc. containing two or more roots. бурят-монгол. commander-in-chief . (5) composite. -к. transport from transport. -ette (kitchenette). speech from speak. -унь (братунь). -hood (falsehood). (4) compound-derivative. lionhearted. blue-eyed. super-/супер (superprofit/суперприбуток) etc.(ex-champion/екс-чемпіон). cf. -ing (being). go out. push-me-pull-me. which are 53 in Ukrainian and only 14 or 16 in English. рости – ріс. -ивість (вродливість). Another means of derivation is change of stress which is mostly characteristic of English. червонощокий.1.(лапка) etc. Means of derivation in both languages also include infixes which are result of the vowel change. 2. cf. -очк. extra-/екстра- (extraordinariness/ екстраординарність). bound grammatical morphemes attached to stems. хоч-не-хоч. English national suffixes -dom (freedom). Ways of expressing grammatical meanings Grammatical meanings can be expressed: (1) synthetically (within one word). -оньк(голівонька). -ing (duckling). etc. cf. -ість (легкість). голубоокий. вести – відвів etc.2. preposition-roots. i. mechanical adding of one or more affixes to the root is called agglutination. (3) compound. дизель-генератор. -ство (братство). 7 . with the help of: (a) inflections. двійка-байдарка. -очок (грибочок). grannie).e. еньк. -усь (братусь). pickpocket. cf. нести – ношу. hyper-/гіпер (hyperbole/гіпербола/). тиць-тиць.(Ліночка). stand up. Of special interest are diminutive suffixes differing in form but having the same connotation meaning. -let (booklet). nice – nicer – the nicest. -ty (loyalty) and Ukrainian national suffixes -ність (рівність). cf. cf. шафа- холодильник. on top of notional-roots. blackmail. сяк-так. build abstract nouns. in-/ін (innovation/ інновація). containing particle-roots. strength from strong. National affixes of the contrasted languages usually have similar denotation meanings but differ in their form.

(b) internal inflections which are the result of vowel change, cf. foot – feet,
bring – brought, shake – shook, take – took; рости – ріс, нести – носить – ніс,
вести – вів, гребти – гріб;
(c) suppletivity (using different forms to express opposed grammatical meaning,
cf. good – better – best, bad – worse – worst; добрий – кращий/ліпший, поганий –
гірший etc.;
(2) analytically (employing more than one word), with the help of:
(a) words performing functions of grammatical morphemes, cf. important –
more important – most important, will work; важливий – більш важливий –
найбільш важливий, працюю – буду працювати.

Such words are called

grammatical word-morphemes because they:
(aa) have grammatical meanings, homogenous with the corresponding
inflections, cf. nicer and more beautiful; важливіший, найважливіший and більш
важливий, найбільш важливий;
(ab) are relative;
(ac) are connected with the world of reality through the word they are linked
with;
(b)

discontinuous

morphemes

(переривчастих

морфем),

cf.

am/is/are/was/were/will be/would be working, have/has/had/will have/would have
worked, have/has/ will/would have been working, am/is/are/was/were worked,
have/has/had been worked, will/would be worked.
2.2. TASKS
2.2.1. Theoretical questions.
1. Types of morphemes.
2. Types of stems.
3. Synthetic and analytical means of expressing grammatical meanings.
2.2.2. Practical assignments.
1. Split the words into lexical, grammatical and lexico-grammatical morphemes:

8

Days, super-profits, because, subordinate, friends, feet, spoke, fourteen,
Londoner, management, shorten, tiresome, waitress, kitchenette, grateful, nicer,
phenomenon, characterizing, stated, blacken, purify, badly, quickest, booklet;
Вихователька, ткач, господарник, перерозподіляти, жіночка, по-нашому,
поля, дожити, проспати, розбити, директорша, навздогін, навкруг, здоров’яга,
прикро, двадцять, щедрий, найщедріший, щонайдобріший, їхнього, мій,
гарнесенький.
2. Point out international and national affixes in the words:
Computerization, super-popular, ultramarine, employee, degrading, duckling,
sluggard, rewritten, aggression, transportation, linguistics, non-smoker, spokesman,
redistribute, antinational, sissy, underwrite.
Комп’ютеризація, популярний, ультраправий, гарнесенький, величезний,
козарлюга, роботизація, ідеаліст, імперіалізм, переписати, антинародний,
агресія, лінгвістика, транспортування, перерозподіляти, спікер, деградація.
3. Define the type of stems:
Table, underwrite, knee-deep, live, supersonic, less, merry-go-round, ablaze,
cross-examine, degrading, dictatorship, employee, transportation, short-sighted,
sideways, hijack, sister-in-law, April-fool, quickly, interesting, economical, misled,
coexist, afterwards, outvote, come, highness, diary, forget-me-not, fifth, brought,
better.
Геть, керманич, тепло, жіноцтво, спритність, зимувати, правдивий,
читатиму, хоч-не-хоч, гріб, гірше, найбільший, син, творити, бурят-монгол, сяктак, Непийвода, п'ятнадцять, треба, жаль, перевчити, збудуємо, танцюючий,
щонайменше, хід, прихід, вголос, примхливий.
4. Point out means of expressing grammatical meanings:
John’s bag; took; I’ll be seeing you; phenomena; worst; transport; brought; feet;
he’s been there; appendices; children; more interesting; greatest; shook; she works as
a teacher; he’ll come soon; he entered the room at noon.
Дівчата; якнайкраще; ніс; будуватиметься; буду говорити; пришла; гірше;
на вулиці; паляницею; лікар прийшла; ріс; збудовано.

9

Seminar 3
PARTS OF SPEECH. CRITERIA OF DISTINGUISHING
3.1. BASIC NOTES
There are two main trends in distinguishing parts of speech: traditional and
structuralist. Structuralists proceed from the function and distribution (position of the
word in relation to other words in speech) of the language unit. For example, in C.
Fries’ classification which distinguishes between four classes of notionals and fifteen
of functionals, Class 1 includes words performing the function of the subject; Class 2
– predicates; Class 3 – attributes; Class 4 – adverbials. Thus, for example, Class 3
embraces words of the type this (pronoun), beautiful (adjective), the (article), first
(numeral), home (noun as in home task) since all of them can be used as attributes.
Naturally, such approach is strongly criticized by traditional linguists who insist
on considering not only structural, but also semantic criteria in classifying words into
parts of speech. The list of criteria includes:
(1) lexico-grammatical meaning;
(2) typical stem-building elements;
(3) combinability with other words in speech;
(4) typical function in the sentence;
(5) grammatical categories or paradigm.
Both structuralists and traditionalists distinguish between notional and functional
parts of speech.
Notional parts of speech include words which have full lexical meaning,
specific stem-building elements, various functions in the sentence, specific for the
particular morphological class. Semi-notional parts of speech include words which
have weak lexico-grammatical meaning, no specific stem-building elements,
functions of linking or specifying elements.
The number of notional parts of speech in English and Ukrainian is the same.
They are seven: noun, adjective, pronoun, numeral, verb, adverb, stative – іменник,
прикметник, займенник, числівник, дієслово, прислівник, слова категорії
стану. As for the semi-notional or functional parts of speech, their number in
10

grateful. розбагатіємо. entertained. The rest of semi-notional words are all common: conjunctions. молоді. 2. прийменник. молодий. translates. багатство. powers. Theoretical questions. powerful. найбагатший.2. розбагатіли. молодіти. багатії.2. багатій. багатіти. усміхнений. joyfulness. будемо багатіти. decision. joyful. добро. модальні слова. Practical assignments. enjoying. men. частки.2. finance. 3. manned. cleaner. добротний. power. entertainment. 3. good. усміхатися. 1. усмішка. молодші. збережений. подобріти. Point out the factors employed in the identification of the following word-forms as belonging to a certain part of speech: Cleaned. translated. modal words. помолодівший. TASKS 3.1. Traditional and structural criteria of distinguishing parts of speech. Добре. powerfully. роздобріти. оберіг. financed. goodness. gratefulness. молода. manful. translator. having done. powered. молоде.2. 11 . decided. prepositions.contrasted languages is not identical because of the English article missing in Ukrainian. mans. добріший. man. багата. оберігати. cleaner. best. Notional and semi-notional parts of speech. particles – сполучник. посміхалася. having decided. зберегти. goody.

(4) functions of subject or object in a sentence (John loves Mary/ Джон кохає Мері). -ster (youngster) etc. Common nouns fall into completely isomorphic subgroups of concrete nouns. – стріла. possessive and demonstrative pronouns (John’s/this pen/ручка Джона/ця ручка). cf. -ism (feudalism). family names. -hood (childhood). cf. family.. nouns of materials. cf. Smith – Лукаш. Adams. cf. Довженко. -er/yer/eer/ier/ar/or (worker. Proper nouns fall into isomorphic names/nicknames of people/nationalities. -ics (politics). cf. air. auctioneer. hatred. уряд etc. fear. Yankeys – Ганна. freedom. prepositions (in front of John/ біля тину) and verbs (to read a book/читати книгу. -ment (management). знання. -ity (reality).1. Alaska. Classes With regard to their meaning nouns are divided into common and proper.1. чашка.2. friendship – свобода. knowledge – страх. snow. -ance (alliance). (3) combinability with articles (the book). nouns of natural phenomena. lawyer. table etc. BASIC NOTES 4.1. geographic names. nouns of emotional and rational states. -ty (loyalty).. сніг. other nouns (stone wall/відро яблук). glass. metal – скло. (2) typical stem-building elements: suffixes -acy (democracy). cf. ion (delegation). abstract nouns. beggar. cf. cf. collective nouns. government – худоба. янкі. англійці. -ness (sweetness). пісок. Ann. -dom (freedom). arrow. Definition Noun is a part of speech which is characterized by the following features in English and Ukrainian: (1) lexico-grammatical meaning of substance. the book is being read/книгу читають). стіл etc. the Black Sea – Аляска. (5) categories of number and case (see 4. cf. English. 12 . дружба. метал. adjectives (a beautiful girl/гарна дівчина). cup.1. cattle. cashier. -ship (friendship) ard/art (sluggard). Chicago. сім’я. ненависть. sand – повітря.NOTIONAL PARTS OF SPEECH Seminar 4 TYPOLOGICAL FEATURES OF THE NOUN 4.4.1. sailor).) 4.

barbarism/матеріалізм. ex/екс(ex-champion/екс-чемпіон). irregularity/нерегулярність. -еньк. -усь (братусь). Volkswagen – Світоч. vice-/віце (vice-president/віцепрезидент) etc.(ненька). син. newspapers. 4. -ство (братство). -tion/ці-я (protection/протекція).. Stem Structure Both English and Ukrainian nouns are characterized by the existence of a system of stem-building elements performing.Чикаго. cf.1. English national suffixes -dom (freedom). cock. нога etc. -let (booklet). ість (легкість). -ар (лікар). ier/ир (сashier/касир). -or/op (orator/оратор). вовк. International noun-forming suffixes include -ism/ізм/изм (materialism. -ing (duckling). пияк) build agent nouns. girl. antibody/антитеза). -ent/ент (student/студент). -тель (вихователь). -очк. impossibility/неможливість. -ade/ад-а (blocade/блокада). journals etc. uneasiness/незручність). dog. Вечірній Харків etc. -eer/ер (auctioneer/акціонер). -енн-я (захоплення) form emotional state nouns. цап. -ist/іст (utopist/активіст). door. etc. names of companies. -ець (кравець). Rolls-Royce. -щик (пайщик).(Ліночка). English prefixes il-ir-im-un. ultra/ультра (ultramarine/ ультрамарин). -ак/як (жебрак. extra-/екстра(extraordinariness/ екстраординарність). Чорне море. гультяй). -age/аж (tonnage/тоннаж). build abstract nouns.(illiteracy/неграмотність. International noun-forming prefixes embrace ante-anti-/анти. -ач (перекладач). -hood (falsehood). -ion (tension) та -нн-я (напруження).3. boy. hyper-/гіпер (hyperbole/гіпербола/). the suffixes -er/yer/ar (worker. -ing (being). The noun-forming diminutive suffixes include -y/ie (daddy.(antethesis. beggar) та -ник (завойовник). рука. grannie).(голівонька). 13 . -оньк. -ics/ ик-а (athlecics/атлетика). Ford. as a rule. the suffixes -ess (loneliness). чуб. isomorphic functions in the contrasted languages.having a negative meaning correlate with the Ukrainian prefix не. super-/супер (superprofit/суперприбуток). -тай/тяй (шахрай. cf. English has a much greater number of simple-stem nouns than Ukrainian. -ty (loyalty) and Ukrainian national suffixes -ність (рівність). -ssion/сі-я (session/сесія) ect. -очок (грибочок). -к. lawyer. -унь (братунь). cat. -ette (kitchenette). Derivative-stem nouns are plenty in both languages. стіл. варваризм). in/ін (innovation/ інновація). -ивість (вродливість).(лапка) etc. Українські Авіалінії. pen.

-ine. -us :: -i (stimulus :: stimuli). Ukrainian augmentative suffixes represent another allomorphic feature expressing peculiar connotation meanings pertained only to Ukrainian affixes. In English there are no special inflexions for gender. -ук/юк (каменюка.1. just a small number of feminine lexico-grammatical suffixes like -ess. -on :: -a (criterion :: criteria). man :: men. Latin inflections: -a :: -ae (alga :: algae). зміюка). woman :: women. день. examinee. waterway. мати-й-мачуха) have similar structure in both contrasted languages. (4) the inflexion of the finite word (лікар прийш-ов. -ан/ань (дідуган. matches. Ukrainian gender can be expressed by different language means: (1) zero (дуб. zero singular (deer) :: zero plural (deer). cf. airbus. Compound (cf. 14 . (2) lexicogrammatical suffixes or suffixes + inflexions (робіт-ник. мор-е) inflexion in the nominative case. Grammatical categories English and Ukrainian nouns have the categories of number. heroine. -як (гуляка) etc. -уг/юг (дідуга. English number inflexions are: zero singular (boy. take off. country. лісостепом.One English suffix denoting the recipient of the action is allomorphic as to its denotation meaning. louse :: lice. -ур/юр (ціпура. -яр (мисяра. -um :: -a (curriculum :: curricula). The category of number in both languages is realized synthetically. лікар прийш-ла). countries). здоровань). -яг (чолов’яга). поет-ес-а). дерев-о. -en (children). goose :: geese. farmerette). не-до-ви-мол-оч-ув-ан-н-я. пере-роз-по-діл-ят-и. робіт-ниц-я. match. 4. headache. -ee (evacuee. female persons – of feminine and the rest of the nouns fall under neuter gender). злодюга). басюра). In Ukrainian nouns can consist of more than one suffix and more than one prefix. The category of gender in English is purely semantic (nouns denoting male persons are of masculine gender. go-between. sister-in-law. cf. tooth :: teeth. employee). (3) modifying words (молод-ий лікар. Ukrainian has morphological gender. The ways of expressing grammatical meaning of number in English include inflexions and vowel change.4. Modifying words and finite verbs associated with corresponding nouns remain unchanged (the young actor came/ the young actress came). Greek inflexions: -is :: -es (analysis :: analyses). Vowel change takes place in seven English nouns: foot :: feet. час) or positive (сосн-а. носяра). -ер (бабера). case and gender. cf. -ette (waitress. молод-а лікар). mouse :: mice. ищ (вовчище). Неїжмак) and composite nouns (cf. child) :: positive plural -s/es/ies (boys.

бригада. сирота) or -я (cf. -ят. – і товариш – товариші е–я місце-місця я–я завдання – завдання е – а/я плече – плечі common сирота – сироти II cons. борода. -й. суддя). круча. – і/ї край – краї кінь – коні лікар – лікарі cons. the second declension embraces masculine nouns ending in a consonant. -о (робітник. There are four declensions of Ukrainian noun: the first declension includes nouns of masculine. -я except those which do not have suffixes -ат. товариш. soft or mixed (sibilant). Nouns of the first and second declension are further divided into hard. батько) and nouns of neuter gender ending in -о. feminine and common gender ending in -а (cf. бригада. -ен in indirect cases (плем’я). cf. лампа. миша. its declension and the final consonant or vowel which can. Ukrainian inflexions are predetermined by the gender of the noun. the third declension has feminine nouns ending in a consonant (ніч. -е. be hard. поле. cf. мідь) and the noun мати. куля. The number inflections of the Ukrainian noun are given in Table 1. soft group embraces nouns ending in a soft consonant and -я. (курча). любов. площа. -я (теля) which have suffixes -ат. листоноша. земля. історія. знання). воля. cf. Микола. – и masculine робітник – робітники степ – степи гектар – гектари о–и батько – батьки о–а neuter вікно – вікна 15 груша – груші . Ілля. soft and mixed groups with regard to the type of consonant at the end of the stem: hard group unites nouns with the stem ending in a hard consonant (apart from sibilants) and -а. Ілля. respectively. mixed group includes nouns with the stem ending in a sibilant and -а. Table 1 Mixed consonant group Declension Hard consonant group Soft consonant group I а–и masculine Микола – Миколи feminine бригада – бригади я – і/ї Ілля – Іллі земля – землі надія – надії суддя – судді а–і cons. бідолаха.Unlike English number inflexions. край. the fourth declension includes nouns of neuter gender ending in -а. сирота. плече. -ен in indirect cases (вікно. -ят. суддя.

statistics/статистика. (3) parts of the world. (3) -илл-я (бадилля/potato leaves. cf. озимина/winter crops). information/інформація. Typologically isomorphic is the existence of English and Ukrainian classes of singularia and pluralia tantum nouns. (5) -от-а (парубота/chaps. happiness/щастя. the South/південь. cf. мурашва/ants). мишва/mice. in Ukrainian nouns modified by the numerals two.No groups cons. physics/фізика. козацтво/kozaks etc. чотири) дуби.). (5) -ин-а/-овин-а (ярина/spring crops. cf. the North-West/ північно-захід. (2) abstract notions/social phenomena/rational or emotional states. зілля/herbs). the North/північ. cf. дуб – дуби два (три. three and four. cf. beauty/краса. mathematics/математика. Singularia tantum nouns embrace names of: (1) material/natural phenomena/products. 16 . (2) -инн-я (картоплиння/potatoes. snow/сніг. peace/мир. – і річ – речі/ сіль – солі/ повість – повісті и–і мати – матері III feminine а – (ат)а курча – курчата я – (ят)а теля – телята я – (ен)а плем’я – племена IV neuter Another allomorphic feature is the existence of dual number. бобовиння/beans). (6) -ник/няк (сливник/plum trees orchard. grief/горе. біднота/poor people). gymnastics/гімнастика. Allomorphic are Ukrainian singularia tantum collective nouns formed with the help of suffixes: (1) -ств-о/цтв-о (студентство/students. war/війна. (4) names of sciences and kinds of sport (in English they are plural in form but singular in meaning). iron/залізо. indicated by the stress. (4) -в-а/в-ор-а (дітвора/children. bread/хліб.

cf. the Netherlands/Нідерланди. Allomorphic are some English pluralia tantum nouns denoting abstract (contents/зміст) and concrete notions (barracks/казарма. dative. boys :: boys’. skittles/кеглі (with the exception of billiards). (3) some geographic names. Pluralia tantum nouns include: (1) summation names. (4) names of games. siftings/недопитки. leggings/легінси. походеньки. In Ukrainian there are seven cases which have different inflexions in singular and in plural depending on the gender. allomorphic are Ukrainian pluralia tantum nouns like вершки/сream. goods/товар. locative and vocative. ласощі. accusative. мускулатура/muscles. Athens/Афіни. declension and the consonant group of the noun. витребеньки. (2) names of remnants. (8) -ур-а (професура/professors. прикрощі. проводи/seeing-off. 17 . sweepings/зметини. cf. the Carpathians/Карпати. (7) -н-я (офіцерня/officers. The cases are: nominative. комарня/mosquitoes). arms/зброя). пустощі. cf. Neither has English equivalents of Ukrainian nouns like посиденьки. дрова/wood. Ukrainian singularia tantum nouns differ from the corresponding English nouns not only grammatically. cf.. cards/карти. дріжджі/yeast. гульбищі. both for grammatical and semantic reasons. genitive. scraps/покидьки. instrumental. The case inflexions of the Ukrainian nouns are given in Tales 2-5. but also semantically. cf. trousers/штани. вечірниці. drafts/дротики. drafts/шахи. cf. boy :: boy’s. ревнощі. nouns like офіцерня have some derogatory connotations which cannot be rendered y the corresponding English nouns. leavings/недоїдки. functioning both in singular and in plural. police/поліція. spectacles/окуляри. фінанси/finance. the Alps/Альпи. the Bermudas/Бермуди etc.вишняк/cherry trees orchard). On the other hand. хвастощі. scales/терези. гроші/money. The category of case in English is represented by zero inflexion (common case) :: positive inflexion ’s/’ (possessive case) which is added to a noun in singular (’s) or in plural (’). адвокатура/lawyers). мудрощі. побігеньки. скупощі.

робітник-ом Loc. робітник робітник-а робітник-ові (робітник-у) Accus. Voc. Gen. робітник-у Singular cтеп степ-у степ-у гектар гектар-а гектар-у степ степо-ом степ-у гектар гектар-ом гектар-і 18 . Gen. Dat. Nom. Dat. Accus. Gen. Voc. (на) робітник-у (робітник-ові) Voc. Hard consonant Soft consonant group Mixed group group бригад-а бригад-и бригад-і бригад-у бригад-ою бригад-і юригад-о Singular земл-я наді-я земл-і наді-ї земл-і наді-ї земл-ю наді-ю земл-ею наді-єю земл-і наді-ї земл-е наді-є груш-а груш-і груш-і груш-у груш-ею груш-і груш-е бригад-и бригад бригад-ам бригад-и бригад-ами бригад-ах юригад-и Plural земл-і наді-ї земель наді-й земл-ям наді-ям земл-і наді-ї земл-ями наді-ями земл-ях наді-ях земл-і наді-ї груш-і груш груш-ам груш-і груш-ами груш-ах груш-і Table 3 The second declension Masculine gender Hard consonant group Case Nom. Loc. Loc. Accus. робітник-а Instr. Instr. Dat. Instr. feminine and common gender Case Nom.Table 2 The first declension Masculine.

Singular край кра-ю кра-ю край кра-єм кра-ю (кра-єві) кра-ю лікар лікар-я лікар-еві (лікар-ю) лікар-я лікар-ем лікар-еві (лікар-ю) лікар-ю Plural кра-ї кра-їв кра-ям кра-ї кра-ями лікар-і лікар-ів лікар-ям лікар-ів лікар-ями кра-ях кра-ї лікар-ях лікар-і Mixed group Case Nom. робітник-и робітнк-ів робітнк-ам робітник-ів робітник-ами робітник-ах робітник-и степ-и степ-ів степ-ам степ-и степ-ами степ-ах степ-и гектар-и гектрар-ів гектар-ам гектар-и гектар-ами гектар-ах гектар-и Soft consonant group Case Nom. Instr. товарш-у Singular повістяр повістяр-а повістяр-еві (повістяр-у) повістяр-а повістяр-ем повістяр-еві повістяр-е 19 . товариш-ем Loc. Gen. товариш-а Instr. кон-я Instr. (на) товариш-еві (кра-єві) Voc. Dat. (на) Voc. Loc. Gen. (на) кон-ях Voc. Dat. кон-і Nom. Accus. Dat. Dat. товариш товариш-а товариш-еві (товариш-у) Accus. Gen. Gen. Instr.Plural Nom. кон-ем Loc. кон-ю кон-і кон-ей кон-ям кон-ей кон-ями (кінь-ми) Loc. (на) кон-і (кон-еві) Voc. Accus. кінь кон-я кон-еві (кон-ю) Accus.

Gen. товариш-і товариш-ів товариш-ам товариш-ів товариш-ами товариш-ах товариш-і Neuter gender Hard consonant Case Nom. Instr. Loc. річ реч-і реч-і Accus. Accus. Gen. Dat. Gen. Gen. Instr. The third declension Singular cіль сол-і сол-і сіль сілл-ю сол-і 20 повість повіст-і повіст-і мати мат-ер-і мат-ер-і повість повіст-ю повіст-і мар-ір матір’-ю матер-і мат-и . (на) Voc. Dat. річч-ю Loc. Accus.Nom. (на) Plural повістяр-і повістяр-ів повістяр-ам повістяр-ів повістяр-ами повістяр-ах повістяр-і вікн-о вікн-а вікн-у вікн-о вікн-ом вікн-і Soft consonant group Singular місце завдання-я місц-я завданн-я місц-ю завданн-ю місц-е завданн-я місц-ем завданн-ям місц-і завданн-і Mixed group group плеч-е плеч-а плеч-у плеч-е плеч-ем плеч-і Plural Nom. (на) реч-і Voc. Loc. (на) вікн-а вікон вікн-ам вікн-а вікн-ами вікн-ах місц-я місць місц-ям місц-я місц-ями місц-ях завданн-я завдань завданн-ям завданн-я завданн-ями завданн-ях плеч-і плеч-ей (пліч) плеч-ам плеч-і плеч-ими плеч-ах Table 4 Case Nom. Dat. Dat. Loc. Accus. річ Instr. Instr.

реч-ей реч-ам реч-і реч-ами реч-ах сол-ей сол-ям сол-і сол-ями сол-ях повіст-ей повіст-ям повіст-і повіст-ями повіст-ях мат-ер-ів мат-ер-ям мат-ер-ів мат-ер-ями мат-ер-ях мат-ер-і Table 5 Case Nom. Loc. Theoretical questions. Typological characteristics of English and Ukrainian nouns as parts of speech. Accus. 4. 21 . Accus. реч-і сол-і повіст-і мат-ер-і Gen.2. Loc. Lexico-grammatical classes of English and Ukrainian nouns: allomorphic and isomorphic features. Dat. 3. Loc. Instr. (на) тел-я тел-ят-и тел-ят-і тел-я тел-ям тел-ят-і The fourth declension Singular курч-а курч-ат-и курч-ат-і курч-а курч-ам курч-ат-і тел-ят-а тел-ят тел-ят-ам тел-ят-а (тел-ят) тел-ят-ам-и тел-ят-ах плем’-я плем-ен-і плем-ен-і плем’-я плем’-ям (плем-ен-ем) плем-ен-і Plural курч-ат-а курч-ат курч-ат-ам курч-ат-а (курч-ат) курч-ат-ам-и курч-ат-ах плем-ен-а плем-ен плем-ен-ам плем-ен-а плем-ен-ами плем-ен-ах 4. Accus. Dat.1. Instr. The category of gender of English and Ukrainian nouns: allomorphic and isomorphic features. (на) Voc.2. Gen. Dat. TASKS 4. Instr. (на) Voc. 1. Nom.Plural Nom. Stem structure of English and Ukrainian nouns: allomorphic and isomorphic features. 2. Gen.

жіноцтво. Афіни. loneliness. 6. shorts. Студентом. капустиння. mathematics. 1. employer. book. жінці. ласощі. (на) ланах. ярина. витребеньки. курчатами. Ann. напруження. news. materialism. 5. злидні. Братва. Чорне море. дітвора. Alaska. худоба. ніжка. house. contents. кіт. пісок. headache. помиї. 4. Неїжмак. evacuee. The category of number of English and Ukrainian nouns: allomorphic and isomorphic features. хата.2. самотність. goods. Find allomorphism and isomorphism in the expression of gender by the following Ukrainian and English nouns: The lawyer won the case – адвокат виграв/виграла справу. the student’s bag. гроші. лікаря. billiards. the leg of the table. Put into isomorphic and allomorphic lexico-grammatical classes: Arrow. гроші. 2. 22 . адвокатура. the bag of the student. daddy. проводи. Find allomorphism and isomorphism in the expression of number by the following Ukrainian and English nouns: The North-West.5. Put into allomorphic and isomorphic groups on the basis of the stemstructure: Utopist. by the student. advice. gymnastics. сіль. вишняк. побігеньки. king/queen ordered – король наказав/ королева наказала. вершки. Ford. crew. The category of case of English and Ukrainian nouns: allomorphic and isomorphic features. горбочок. 4. ножиці. emission. the first was a young woman – першою була молода жінка. Довженко. sister-in-law. Find allomorphism in the expression of case by the following Ukrainian and English nouns: To the student. бадилля. деспотизм. savings. землям. терези. екіпаж. a young doctor/a young female/lady/woman – молодий лікар/молода лікар. salt. лісостепом. cattle. director/directrix came – директор прийшов/ директорка/директорша прийшла. недопитки. цукор. Ярослав Мудрий. уряд. окуляри. 3. brotherhood. extraordinary. desk. vice-governor. сіллю. flour. information. комарня. парубота. залізо. means. кізонька. ненависть. courage. Дарвінізм. Practical assignments. government. piglet. athletics.2. sweepings. air. безмежжя. snow. лялька.

designated by the noun.)..4.2.1. position in space. BASIC NOTES 5. -ач-/-яч-. дніпровський. водіїв. English/ англійський тощо).cf. Definition Adjective is a part of speech which is characterized by the following features: (1) lexico-grammatical meaning of properties of substances such as size. -able (capable). cf. (2) typical stem-building elements. small/ малий.1. -ic (laconic). -ial (presidential). -al (formal). -ile (futile). relative which denote some relation between the object. -fold (manifold). 5. 23 . -some (tiresome) etc. psychic state of person etc. -цьк/-зьк. material.1. сf. Shakespearian/ шекспірівський. colour. Shevchenkian/шевченківський. -less (meaningless). журавлиний. -ous (industrious). cf. -ів/-їв-. adverbs (quite interesting/ досить цікавий). cf. and possessive-relative which denote some relation between the object. -зьк-. -ful (beautiful). wooden table/дерев’яний стіл (table made of wood) also golden/золотий. Allomorphic is the group of possessive Ukrainian adjectives with the suffixes ин/-ін-. запорізький. designated by the noun. Classes According to their lexico-grammatical meaning. and the person or geographical name expressed by the modifying adjective with the suffixes -ic. соловейкові. (5) category of degree of comparison (see 5. -іan та -івськ-/-овськ-. and its characteristic expressed by the modifying adjective. батьків/татів. beautiful/ гарний. -ов/-ев-.1. мамин/материн. (4) functions of an attribute (a nice flower/ гарна квітка) and predicative complement (she grew nervous/вона стала нервовою).Seminar 5 TYPOLOGICAL FEATURES OF THE ADJECTIVE 5. cold/ холодний. high/ високий. (3) right-hand combinability with nouns or noun substitutes (nice-looking lady/ симпатична дівчина) and left hand combinability with link-verbs (she’s beautiful/дитя було маленьким)..1. -ish (selfish). English and Ukrainian adjectives fall into such isomorphic groups as qualitative which denote some quality of the object or phenomenon. телячий вояцький which are rendered in English by possessive case or of-constructions.

small.(тонюсінький). -езн. -ан-/-ян. -ful (useful). за.(без думки – бездумний. -ive (active). compound and composite. грушевий.5.(під горою – підгірний). есеньк. cf. -цьк(козацький). паризький).3. English derivative-stem adjectives are built with the help of the following suffixes: -al/-ial (annual. all-national – загальнонаціональний. cf. що дістає до грудей. -ов-/-ев-/-єв. Some compound adjective do not correlate in their structure. derivative. -ущ-/-ющ. arch-/архі. сf.(березовий. old. 24 . high. cf. young. без. Such prefixes partly correspond to English adverbial postpositions. divergent).(від центру – відцентровий).(здоровенний). жив.(гарненький). cf. anti-/анти(antinational – антинародний). від. many-sided – багатосторонній.(товариський. -able/-ible (capable. advisory).(на стіл – настільний). all-steel – суцільно сталевий. wet. bacterial). баєвий). counter-/ проти. -еньк. thin.(за Дніпром – задніпровський). clean. black. all-powerful – всемогутній. bold.(гречаний. ultra-/ультра. на. cf.(abnormal/subnormal – анормальний/субнормальний).(ultraleftist/ультра-лівацький). перед(перед святом – передсвятковий). Highly productive are Ukrainian prefixes of prepositional origin. red. рад. -an/-ian (urban. English has a great number of simple-stem adjectives. -ow (narrow). -y (milky). Isomorphism is observed in the use of English and Ukrainian prefixes. -ish (bookish). ice-cold – холодний як лід. cf. -less (careless).1. -ач-/-яч(добрячий). -ant/-ent (defiant. ab/sub-// а-/суб.(до центру – доцентровий). Such adjectives are rather rare in Ukrainian. -ic/-ical (basic. sensible).(величезний). breast-high – такий. Ukrainian derivative suffixes include: -ськ-/-зьк.(багатющий). tall. кропив’яний).(counteractive – протидіючий). до.(archbishopric – архієпископський). big. Compound-stem adjectives are found in both contrasted languages. English and Ukrainian adjectives fall into simple. Ukrainian). -енн. fourstoried – чотирьохповерховий. -ary/-ory (contrary. -ern (eastern). cf. and augmentative suffixes. Allomorphic are Ukrainian diminutive suffixes. political). -ісіньк. Similarly allomorphic are Ukrainian possessive suffixes. Stem structure As far as their structure is concerned. під. -ous (tedious). mention above – above-mentioned.(малесенький).(чистісінький) -юсіньк. -ward (westward). cf. to grow over – overgrown.

(далекий – дальший – найдальший) in the positive degree. the suffix -жч. 5. bad – worse – worst. Allomorphism between English and Ukrainian adjectives lies in the fact that Ukrainian adjectives. Both in English and Russian the category can be expressed synthetically and analytically. cf. -жч-. cf. the suffix -щ. супермодний. cf. (3) indicating qualities which are not compatible with the idea of comparison. cf.in the comparative and superlative degrees correlates with -к(короткий – коротший – найкоротший). Possessive adjectives have their own inflections. -щ. case and number inflexions.(глибокий – глибший – найглибший). (2) indicating some degree of quality.4. -ж(дужий – дужчий – найдужчий). добрий – кращий – найкращий. deaf/глухий.in the soft stem (близький – ближчий – найближчий). -ок. unlike English. Some qualitative adjectives in both languages do not form the degrees of comparison: (1) those already expressing the highest degree of quality. important – more important – most important. 25 . good – better – best. прегарний. English synthetic ways of expression include grammatical morphemes er/-est while analytical means embrace word-morphemes more/most. Most of the qualitative and relative adjectives belong to the first declension and split into ard and soft consonant groups. pregnant/вагітна.1. reddish/червонуватий. The Ukrainian suffix -ш. nice – nicer – nicest. -ек. Isomorphic in both languages is the formation of the degrees of comparison through suppletivity.Composite-stem adjectives are practically not found in either language.вищий – найвищий).(дорогий – дорожчий – найдорожчий).(superlative).correlates with -г. -к. yellowish/жовтуватий. bluish/синюватий. cf. Grammatical categories Qualitative adjectives in both languages have the category of the degrees of comparison showing whether the adjective denotes the property absolutely (positive degree) or relatively in its higher (comparative degree) or the highest manifestation (superlative degree). (високий . поганий – гірший – найгірший. supreme.(comparative) and the combination of these suffixes with the prefixes най-/щонай-/якай. extreme. добрий – добріший – найдобріший/ щонайдобріший/ якнайдобріший. cf. have gender.correlates with -ок-. In Ukrainian the category is expressed with the help of the suffixes -іш-/-ш-. blind/сліпий.

Accus. Table 6 Case Hard consonant group Singular Masculine gender Feminine gender Neuter gender Nom. Accus. біл-их Dat. Gen. Loc. (на) біл-ий біл-ого біл-ому біл-ий/біл-ого біл-им біл-ому/біл-ім біл-е біл-ого біл-ому біл-е біл-им біл-ому/біл-ім біл-а біл-ої біл-ій біл-у біл-ою біл-ій Plural All genders Nom. Dat. Instr. Dat. біл-ими Loc. біл-і Gen. Gen. case and number inflexions of the qualitative. (на) біл-их Case Soft consonant group Singular Masculine gender Feminine gender син-ій/безкра-їй синь-ого/безкрай-ого синь-ому/безкрай-ому син-ій/безкра-їй синь-ого/безкрай-ого Instr. син-я/безкра-я синь-ої/безкрай-ої син-ій/безкра-їй син-ю/безкра-ю Neuter gender син-є/безкра-є синь-ого/безкрай-ого синь-ому/безкрай-ому син-є/безкра-є синь-ою/безкрай-ою син-ім/безкра-їм син-ій/безкра-їй синь-ому/безкрай-ому 26 . біл-і/біл-их Instr. (на) синь-ому/безкрай-ому Nom. relative and possessive-relative adjectives. біл-им Accus.Table 6 represents gender. син-ім/безкра-їм Loc.

Loc. case and number inflexions of the possessive adjectives. син-і/безкра-ї син-іх/безкра-їх Instr. син-іми/безкра-їми Loc. (на) син-іх/безкра-їх Table 7 represents gender. (на) дядьков-их 27 . (на) Singular Masculine gender Feminine gender Neuter gender дядьків дядьков-ого дядьков-ому дядьків/дядьков-ого дядьков-им (на) дядьков-ому дядьков-ім дядьков-е дядьков-ого дядьков-ому дядьков-е дядьков-им дядьков-ому дядьков-ім дядьков-а дядьков-ої дядьков-ій дядьков-у дядьков-ою дядьков-ій Plural All genders Nom. Table 7 Case Nom. Dat. Gen. дядьков-ими Loc. син-ім/безкра-їм Accus. дядьков-і/дядьков-их Instr. дядьк-ов-і Gen. син-і/безкра-ї Gen. дядьков-им Accus. син-іх/безкра-їх Dat. Instr.Plural All genders Nom. дядьк-ов-их Dat. Accus.

дерев’яний. 1. найгірший.1. TASKS 5. good. босий.5. urban. Шевченківський. eastern. дрібнесенький. foolish. Crimean. careless. братів. golden. Shakespearian. Put into isomorphic and allomorphic lexico-grammatical classes: Cold.2.2. political. Матусин. 4. Stem structure of English and Ukrainian adjectives: allomorphic and isomorphic features. 3. задніпровський. найкращий. сестрині. чотириповерховий. ліпшому. синівський. 1. better. red. Find allomorphism and isomorphism in the expression of degrees of comparison by the following Ukrainian and English adjectives: Less. святковий. cold. bluish. поганого. доїльний. товариська. grammatical. Theoretical questions. щонайдобрішою. англійський. ладен. indisputable. English. happier. червоний. великий. yellow. Lexico-grammatical classes of English and Ukrainian adjectives: allomorphic and isomorphic features. more interesting. 2. western. ice-cold. private. великий. дужчий. сестрин. all-mighty. чорногрива. 3. The category of degrees of comparison of English and Ukrainian adjectives: allomorphic and isomorphic features. Молодший. high. longest. more important. breast-high. Певен. великий. big. гарний.2. винен. грушевий. набагато важливішими. Typological characteristics of English and Ukrainian adjectives as parts of speech. counteractive. wet. 5. багатющий. wooden. 28 . соловейкові. читацький.2. supreme. доцентровий. 2. гречаний. Put into allomorphic and isomorphic groups on the basis of the stemstructure: Capable. далі. four-storied. Practical assignments.

cf. кількасот. nineteen. кільканадцять/кільканадцятеро.1. cf. двадцять один. eleven. Besides. дцять (двадцять). five.1. ten. п'ятнадцять. two tenth. articles (the four days).Seminar 6 TYPOLOGICAL FEATURES OF THE NUMERAL 6. п’ятеро. п’ять. -th (fifth). 6.3. десятеро and indefinite cardinal numerals denoting indefinite number. formed with the help of the suffixes -teen and -ty (cardinals) and -th (ordinals) in English and -надцять. denoting number. Classes In accordance with their lexico-grammatical meaning numerals fall into such isomorphic groups as: (1) cardinals. cf. -teen (fifteen). one. in Ukrainian. in Ukrainian there are also allomorphic groups of collective numerals denoting quantity as indivisibly unity. перший. четверо. thirty. тринадцять. subject (The first ten have arrived/Перші десятеро приїхали). двоє. twenty-one.1. denoting order. п’ять.1. дві десятих. 6. cf.2. (4) functions of an attribute (three girls/три дівчини). predicative complement (she came third/вона прийшла першою). BASIC NOTES 6. (3) right-hand combinability with nouns. thirteen. три. два з десяти). двоє внизу/попереду). усі четверо). кількадесят. п’ятий. Stem Structure As for their stem structure. cf. Definition Numeral is a part of speech which is characterized by the following features: (1) lexico-grammatical meaning of number. left-hand combinability with pronouns (all the three. двадцять перший. the fifth. adverbial modifier (They ran four and four/ Вони бігли по чотири). derivative stem. -дцять (cardinals). three. numerals can be: simple-stem. some five or so. bilateral combinability with prepositions (two from ten. двадцятеро. the third. -ty (twenty). один. (2) ordinals. (3) fractionals. the twenty-first. adverbs (the two below/ahead. -надцять (дванадцять). cf. twenty. 29 . cf. denoting parts of a whole. cf. (2) typical stem-building elements.1.

кількасот. cf.2.2. перші – перших – першим – перших – першими – (на) перших. нуль цілих і п’ять сотих. 2. tenth. двадцять перший. перше – першого – першому – перше – першим – (на) першому. twenty-seven. Stem structure of English and Ukrainian numerals: allomorphic and isomorphic features. кільканадцять. перша – першої – першій – першу – першою – (на) першій. they have grammatical categories of number. two-fifth. кількасот. 1. триста. Practical assignments. cf. Grammar categories The main allomorphic feature of Ukrainian numerals is that. three-ninth. дві треті – двох третіх – двом третім – дві третіх – двома третіми – (на) двох третіх. The cardinal numerals один and два have gender and number distinctions. 3. 4. чотири. 30 . Isomorphism and allomorphism in the expression of grammatical categories by English and Ukrainian numerals. twenty two thousand. forty-three. двадцятеро. одне/одно. Put into isomorphic and allomorphic lexico-grammatical classes: Two. один. П’ятеро.4. одні. case and partly gender. п’ятьма.двадцять. два.1. Ordinal numerals also have number and gender distinctions. one and three fourths. unlike those in English. п’ять – п’яти – п’яти – п’ять – п’ятьма – (на) п’яти. 6. одна третя.1.2. Ukrainian collective numerals also have diminutive suffixes. семеро – сімох – сімом – сімох – сімома – (на) сімох. три двадцятих. cf. cf. one hundred and twenty.2. одна. сompound-stem. TASKS 6. fifteen. три цілих і одна четверта. compoundderivative. thirty-first. дві. кількадесят. 1. кількадесят. перший – першого – першому – першого – першим – (на) першому. Typological characteristics of English and Ukrainian numerals as parts of speech. composite. Theoretical questions. 6. 6. cf. twenty-fifth. перший – перша – перше – перші. cf. двоє – двоєчко. All Ukrainian numerals have the category of case. cf. twenty-one. Lexico-grammatical classes of English and Ukrainian numerals: allomorphic and isomorphic features. одинадцятьох.

thirty. some/кілька. (12) contrasting: Personal pronouns in both languages distinguish person. here/тут. cf.1. she/вона. he/він. somebody/хтось. his/його. cf. тридцятьох. them. (3) as an impersonal element (It is cold). cf. (2) adjectives. there/там. тринадцятьом. us. cf. десяті. Put into allomorphic and isomorphic groups on the basis of the stemstructure: Thirteen.1. (2) possessive.1. дванадцять. (4) adverbs. circumstances etc. (4) demonstrative. (10) generalizing. Дві третіх. much/багато. five hundred and thirty. (11) quantitative. BASIC NOTES 7. двох п’ятих. (9)negative. but by indicating them. (5) interrogative. кількасот. (6) connective. двадцять сьомому. twenty-two thousand. Classes Pronouns fall into the following classes: (1) personal. two-thirds. 7. шостій. 3. they/вони. Definition Pronoun is a part of speech which serves to denote substances. двадцятеро. something/щось. (7) reciprocal. we/ми. (8) indefinite. два. she/вона. четверте. it/воно. сорок першим. quantities. her. it. шістьма. (3) numerals. двома. few/мало. gender and number: I/я. it is on the table). English and Ukrainian pronouns correlate with (1) nouns. Give English equivalents and explain the nature if allomorphism in these Ukrainian numerals: Першої.2. Seminar 7 TYPOLOGICAL FEATURES OF THE PRONOUN 7. (2) as an anticipatory element (It is necessary that…). cf. (3) reflexive. that/цей. you. you/ти – ви. Yes. двадцять чотири. шістдесятьма. English personal pronouns have objective case forms: me. я – мене – мені – мене – мною – (на) мені. 31 . one.1. Of peculiar nature is the English pronoun it which can be used: (1) anaphorically (The book is on the table. he/він. twenty-fifth. Ukrainian personal pronouns have 6 cases.2. not by naming or describing them. qualities. him.

The Ukrainian pronoun воно is often used to express sympathy. цей самий – ця сама – це саме – ці самі. on the one hand. yourself. cf. Unlike English. той самий – та сама – те саме – ті самі. our/наш – наша – наше – наші. Possessive pronouns: my/мій – моя – моє – мої. on the other hand (Воно й училось. such. your/твій – твоя – твоє – твої. Besides. their/їх. You don’t say so/Не може бути. himself. his/його. ваш – ваша – ваше – ваші. Що воно тямить). що…). такий – така – таке – такі. що їм заманеться. to catch it). цей – ця – це – ці. They say/Кажуть). Ukrainian possessive pronouns are declinable: they have case. нівроку йому. their – theirs). воно has impersonal meaning (Воно ніби так і треба). similar to the English it. they may form indefinite personal sentences (We must not allow children do what they like/Не треба дозволяти дітям робити. compassion. Demonstrative pronouns: this – these. absolutely isomorphic is the use of the pronoun we/ми instead of I/я (We hold the view that …/Ми вважаємо.) Reflexive pronouns: myself. On the other hand.(4) as a demonstrative element (It was he who said that). (5) as a formal element (to foot it. same. our – ours. her – hers. its – its. or contempt. (на) цьому/такому хлопці. The dative case form in some contexts can acquire the function of the particle (Вони сиділи собі на диванчику). The pronouns we. itself. ця/така дівчина – цієї/такої дівчини – цій/такій дівчині – цієї/такої дівчини – цією/такою дівчиною – (на) цій/такій дівчині. that – those. ourselves. number and gender inflexions (мій/моя/моє/мої – мого/моєї/мого/моїх – моєму/моїй/моєму/моїм – мого/мою/моє/моїх – моїм/моєю/моїм/моїми – (на) моєму/ моїй/моєму/моїх etc. Like personal pronouns English reflexive pronouns distinguish person. той – та – те – ті. Ukrainian demonstrative pronouns agree with the modified noun not only in number. but also in case and gender. his – his. Besides conjoint forms. Ukrainian pronoun себе has the case distinctions with the exception of the nominative case forms (себе – собі – себе – собою – (на) собі) but no number distinctions. themselves – себе. your – yours. herself. English demonstrative pronouns this/that agree in number with the modified noun. це/таке дитя – цього/такого 32 . number and gender. its/його. English possessive pronouns have absolute forms (my – mine. her/її. you. цей/такий хлопець – цього/такого хлопця – цьому/такому хлопцю – цього/такого хлопця – цим/таким хлопцем.

where. вже не секрет. Interrogative pronouns: pronouns proper (what. коли. how – чому. The English pronouns who/what distinguish person. чий син/чия донька/чиє дитя/чиїх дітей – чийого сина/чию доньку/чийого дитя/чиїх дітей – чийому сину/чиїй доньці/чийому дитяті/чиїм дітям – чийого сина/чию доньку/чийого дитя/чиїх дітей – чиїм сином/чиєю донькою/чиїм дитям/чиїми дітьми – (на) чийому синові/чиїй донці/чийому дитяті/чиїх дітях. how many. number and case. який/яка/яке/які. what – чий/чия/чиє/чиї. when. який/яка/яке/які. They are used to connect clauses. who-whom/whoever– хто. Connective pronouns: noun pronouns (what/whatever. numeral pronouns (how much. що він знає. Reciprocal pronouns: each other. how long – скільки).дитяти – цьому/такому дитяті – цього/такого дитяти – цим/таким дитям – (на) цьому/такому дитяті. cf. Whatever he says is of no importance. що він про це думає. unlike conjunctive pronouns. I don’t know what he thinks about it/Я не знаю. one another’s tears. when. cf. adverbial pronouns (why. which/whichever. хто – кого – кому – кого – ким – (на) кому. де. English reciprocal pronouns can take possessive case forms. cf. which. Conjunctive pronouns introduce subject. коли. one another. predicative object and appositive clauses (noun clauses). what/whatever – чий/чия/чиє/чиї. adjective pronouns (whose. how many. Ukrainian reciprocal pronouns admit number. adjective pronouns (whose. cf. cf. numeral pronouns (how much. Relative pronouns introduce relative or attributive clauses and. adverbial pronouns (why. один одного/одна одну/одне одного/одні одних. як). один одного – 33 . where. who/whom – хто. how long – скільки). gender and case with the exception of the nominative. There stood a handsome man who(m) she hadn’t met before. how – чому. як). котрий/котра/котре/котрі). cf. Ukrainian interrogative noun-pronouns and adjective pronouns distinguish gender. In accordance with the meaning and the types of clauses they introduce they fall into conjunctive and relative. they are always correlated with some antecedent in the principal clause. що). English compound conjunctive pronouns introduce adverbial clauses as well. котрий/котра/котре/котрі). The pronoun who has an objective case form whom. each other’s nerves. Relative pronouns coincide in form with interrogative but differ in function. What he knows is no longer a secret/ Те. що). She won’t change her mind whatever he says. де. Interrogative pronouns are used to form special questions.

немало. everybody. pro-adjectives (every. чимало. enough – багато. мало/небагато). дещо. 34 . обоє. жоден. ніщо). pro-numerals (some. Indefinite pronouns: indefinite pronouns proper (some. any. казна-хто. кожнісінький). anything – дехто. number. someone. Some Ukrainian generalizing pronouns have diminutive forms not typical for English. both. pro-adverbs (nowhere – ніде). Ukrainian indefinite pro-adjectives distinguish gender. кільканадцять). anybody. proadverbs (much. немало. Negative pronouns: negative pronouns proper (no. pro-numerals (many. much. кілька. Молодята поглядали одне на одного. pro-numerals (none – ніскільки/ніскілечки/аніскілечки). cf. немало. Ukrainian generalizing pro-adjectives and some pronouns distinguish gender. чимало. anyone. number and case. кожний/кожна/кожне/кожні. мало/небагато.один одному – один одного – один одним – (на) один одному. anyhow – десь. що-небудь. обоє. якось). pro-adjectives (no. several. several. Sometimes. each. будь-що. nobody. хтось. будьякий/будь-яка/будь-яке/будь-які. proadjectives (some. someone. чимало. anybody. either. neither – ніякий/нікотрий/ніякісінький. any – якийсь/якась/якесь/якісь). (a)few). somebody. обидва/обидві. both. something. either – всякий/всяка/всяке/всякі. Ukrainian negative pro-adjectives distinguish gender. Some Ukrainian quantitative pro-adjectives and pro-numerals distinguish case. обидва/обидві. будь-хто. any – кілька. декілька. number and case. enough – багато. (a) few. ні один. English indefinite pro-nouns somebody. pro-adverbs (somewhere. anywhere. anyone take possessive case inflexions. будь-який/ будь-яка/ будь-яке/ будь-які). мало/небагато. достатньо). pro-nouns admit case inflexions. всякий/всяка/ всяке/всякі. Some Ukrainian negative pronouns have diminutive forms not typical for English. everything – весь/вся/все/всі. pro-adjectives (much. достатньо). Generalizing pronouns: generalizing pronouns proper (all. each. кілька. nothing neither – ніхто. казна-що). pro-adverb (everywhere – будь-де). pro-nouns and pro-numerals distinguish case. ніхто інший). щось. English indefinite pro-noun nobody admits possessive case (nobody’s). (a) little. хто-небудь. somehow. all. Quantitative pronouns: quantitative pronouns proper (many. everyone. (a) little. neuter gender form may be used for any gender and number. (a)little. кожний/кожна/кожне/кожні. enough – багато.

1. що. ніхто. yourselves. (2) compound-stem. Наш. хто-небудь. хтонебудь. another – інший/інша/інше/інші). someone. this same. nothing. чий. я. де. much. собі. абихто. вони. cf. 2. which. 2. one another. цей. казна-хто. хто. somebody else. Ukrainian contrasting pro-adjectives distinguish gender. 35 . всякий. cf. nobody. which. pronouns fall into (1) simple-stem. всі. ніхто й ніщо. цей. who. той самий. nobody. Stem structure of English and Ukrainian pronouns: allomorphic and isomorphic features. такий само. somebody else. абищо. котрий. 7. Put into allomorphic and isomorphic groups on the basis of the stemstructure: I. this same. these. someone.1. 7. кожнісінький. достатньо. всякий. nothing. their. одні одних. наш. 4. чимало. each other. 3.2. somebody. хто інший. кілька. абихто. скільки. Put into classes (in some cases there are several possibilities): I. 7. хто саме. ваш. Lexico-grammatical classes of English and Ukrainian pronouns: allomorphic and isomorphic features. Isomorphism and allomorphism in the expression of grammatical categories by English and Ukrainian pronouns.2. будь-хто. few. number and case. Theoretical questions. he. ти. ваші. 1. небагато. ourselves. English contrasting pro-adjectives admit possessive case. будь-яке. pro-adverb (otherwise). той самий. whose. some. he. TASKS 7. Practical assignments. жодний. each other.2. Наше. which. myself. nothing. нічогісінько. кожен і всякий.3. they. Typological characteristics of English and Ukrainian pronouns as parts of speech.1. same. cf. Stem structure According to their stem structure. I. жоден.Contrasting pronouns: contrasting pro-adjectives (other.2. (3) composite-stem. him. mine.

4. mine. досить. -а (дарма) etc. 8.1. цілком. quantitative or circumstantial characteristics of actions. whose child/children. fast. quite.). loudly.1. кожнісінькою. cf. these. Classes In accordance with their lexico-grammatical meaning. badly. denoting the quality or state of an action. cf. adverbs (almost instantly/ майже миттєво). тими самими. -е (добре). аніскілечки. too. майже. -ward(s) (eastward(s). very. -ly (firstly).1. fully. обома. кожної. добре. slowly – голосно. чийого/чию/чиїх. states or qualities. 36 . -ways (sideways). BASIC NOTES 8. adjectives (rather tired/дуже стомлений). Definition The adverb is a part of speech characterized by the following features: (1) lexico-grammatical meaning of qualitative.2. воно ні на що не здатне. (2) typical stem-building elements. it’s too late. cf. вони все дивилися одне на одного. hardly. (2) quantifying.3. повністю. швидко. будь-кого. казнаким. each other’s. повільно. denoting quantitative characteristics of an action.1. nearly. rather.1. якою-небудь. utterly – дуже. adverbs in contrasted languages fall into: (1) qualifying. (3) unilateral combinability with verbs (to walk quickly/ йти швидко). well. досить-таки. Кількох. Give English/Ukrainian equivalents and explain the nature of allomorphism/isomorphism: Nobody’s business. такою. скількома. (5) category of degree of comparison (see 8. небагатьом. жодного іншого. вона собі знай співає. (4) the most typical function of adverbial modifiers (She started working very carefully/Вона почала працювати дуже обережно). погано. it was he who told me about it. надто. he/she/it. Seminar 8 TYPOLOGICAL FEATURES OF THE ADVERB 8.

cf. -fold (twofold) and partly prefixes. надворі. denoting various circumstances attending an action. It is typical of Ukrainian adverbs to be formed with the help of prefixes correlating with prepositions. -а (дарма). here. there. inside.1. cf. підряд. by turns – пліч-о-пліч. cf. so-so.4. надвечір. -ward(s) (eastward(s). the prefix по. cf.(3) circumstantial. ту. outside. швидко – швидше – найшвидше. -юсіньк (тонюсінько). cf. скоро. тоді. відразу. заміж. по-батьківському. now. там. стрілою. upside-down. rarely. віч-на-віч. -есеньк (гарнесенько). therefore – насамперед. рідко. cf. догори. An allomorphic features of the Ukrainian adverbs is their ability to take diminutive suffixes -еньк (гарненько). по-своєму (their English equivalents are adverbial phrases like in my/their/our opinion). в + гору – вгору. now. 8. скраю. -и (по-людськи). a. cf. today. соколом. вмить. (4) composite-stem adverbs. see also безперестанку. frequently – зараз.щонай-. по-нашому. cf. fast – faster – fastest – -ше. -ечк (трішечки). по-їхньому. Ukrainian adverbs are formed by means of the suffixes -о (гарно).1. by chance. (3) compound-stem adverbs. деколи. там. водночас. Completely allomorphic are the so-called personal adverbs in Ukrainian. cf. in English they are formed with the help of such suffixes as -ly (strictly). soon. -очк (рядочком). here. there – зараз. надвір. цікаво – цікавіше – щонайцікавіше. like an arrow. повік. sometimes. like a father.-est. наверху. moreover. по-осінньому (their English equivalents are like a falcon. удень. -чій. cf. then. -ways (sideways). (b) place and direction. в + день – вдень. всередині.(aloud). навік. хутко – хутчій – 37 . upstairs – тут.and the suffixes -ому (по-нашому). на півдорозі. часто. зранку. accordingly they fall into: (a) adverbs of time and frequency. like in autumn). (2) derivative-stem adverbs. єму (по-моєму). Grammar categories Qualitative adjectives in contrasted languages have the category of degrees of comparison which is formed with the help of synthetic (-er. якнай-. тоді. всього-навсього. най. then. -іше. and adverbs of comparison and likening. інколи. помоєму. Stem structure As for their stem structure adverbs divide into: (1) simple-stem adverbs. -е (зле). в + друге – вдруге.3. cf. сьогодні. 8.

по-новому. 3. cf. sooner or later. зараз. Глибоко. TASKS 8. туди. Give English/Ukrainian equivalents and explain the nature of allomorphism/isomorphism: Quickest. сюди. 4. вгору. 38 . Put into allomorphic and isomorphic groups on the basis of the stemstructure: Aside.2. ясніше. entirely. 1. догори дном. here. дуже. 8. far – farther – farthest. Stem structure of English and Ukrainian adverbs: allomorphic and isomorphic features. Тоненько. Isomorphism and allomorphism in the expression of grammatical categories by English and Ukrainian adverbs. rarely.1.2. гарно. frequently. sufficiently.2. відтак. longer. сьогодні. ясно. most. inside. всюди. purposely. enough. so-so. також. deliberately. гарнесенько. гарнісінько. трішечки. here.якнайхутчіше) and analytical means (more. більш. стрілою. по-твоєму. цілком. cf. well – better – best. completely. несвідомо.2. повільно – більш повільно – найбільш повільно). rather. little – less – least. hence. loudly. Lexico-grammatical classes of English and Ukrainian adverbs: allomorphic and isomorphic features. 1. interesting – more interesting – most interesting. almost. always. quite. too. погано – гірше – найгірше. соколом. 3. quickly. Practical assignments. гарно – краще – найкраще. cf. today. найбільш. very. 2. іноді. 2. завзято. добре – краще – найкраще. 8. досить-таки. досить-таки. Some adverbs in both languages form degrees of comparison with the help of suppletivity. ледве. Typological characteristics of English and Ukrainian adverbs as parts of speech. Put into classes (in some cases there are several possibilities): Almost. навмисно. надвір. по-всякому. Theoretical questions. голосно. twice. рядочком. badly – worse – worst. Якнайшвидше. спросоння. по-осінньому.

things or phenomenon. треба. Ukrainian statives also denote: (1) state of nature. прикро. соромно. Typological characteristics of English and Ukrainian statives as parts of speech. слід. BASIC NOTES 9. рано. On top of that. characterized by the following features: (1) lexico-grammatical meaning of states of persons. cf.3.1. видно. добре. 9. cf. пізно.1. охота. тепло.2. TASKS 9.1. cf. Ukrainian statives are formed with the help of the suffixes -о. боляче. ablaze. тихо. доцільно. сумно.1. сонячно.2. cf. Definition The stative is a part of speech. the prefix a-. необхідно. afloat. (2) possibility. cf.).2. страшно. Theoretical questions. тоскно. досадно. (2) typical stem-building elements (see 9. треба. шкода. necessity. 9. cf. низько. -е. боязко. statives in contrasted languages share only one class: those denoting psychological or physical state of a person. можна. 1.1. cf.1. (4) function of a predicative complement (I lay awake/ Рут була приголомшена). жаль.Сlasses As for their lexico-grammatical meaning. близько. a shiver. afire. impossibility. -а. 39 . Stem structure As for their stem structure. afraid. afraid. далеко. alike. 9. чутно. statives are mostly derivative: English statives have specific stem building element. ashamed. холодно. aswim. cf.Seminar 9 TYPOLOGICAL FEATURES OF THE STATIVE 9. (3) peculiar combinability with link-verbs (to be alive/ бути холодно). (b) its perception.1. cf. alive. (3) estimation of the state as for: (a) its temporal and locative characteristics. cf. English statives can express the state of things.3.

-тися/тьсясь (братися/молиться-сь).1. afire. alight. BASIC NOTES 10. -ate (facilitate). холодно. aknee.1. tense. subjunctive and imperative. mood. Lexico-grammatical classes of English and Ukrainian statives: allomorphic and isomorphic features.1. break etc. 10. English verb has the morphological category of order (perfect forms).2.3. -esce (acquiesce). (3) bi-lateral combinability with nouns or noun substitutes denoting the doer and the object of the action (He kissed Mary/ Він поцілував Мері) and adverbs (to walk slowly/йти повільно). далеко. cf. die etc. Definition Verb as a part of speech which is characterized by the following features: (1) lexico-grammatical meaning of action. know etc. state. cf. (2) typical stem-building elements. ablaze. (see more 10.. ashamed. awake. number. можна.2. cf. -ти/ть (брати/брать). cf. -ify (beautify).). smile. Finite verbs create predicativity of the sentence serving as its predicate in one of three moods: indicative. Practical assignments. gerund and participle can only make secondary predication. близько. In accordance to semantic and grammatical criteria verbs divide into notional and semi-notional. соромно. grow. Seminar 10 TYPOLOGICAL FEATURES OF THE VERB 10. (4) functions of predicate (finites: He wanted a drink/ Він хотів випити) and secondary predicate (verbids: watch him swimming) in a sentence. видно. доцільно.2. 40 . -en (strengthen). work. Put into allomorphic and isomorphic classes: Aswim. чутно. aspect. 9. afloat. тихо. слід. пізно. необхідно. and process. afraid. walk. Classes The main grammar division inside the verb is that between the finite verbs and the verbids. треба. change. низько. прикро. Verbids which include infinitive. aghast. belong. Шкода.. рано. (5) categories of person.1. voice. -ize (organize). want.1. Besides.2..

доводитися. tell – told – told. The weather kept obstinately hot and dry/Погода вперто стояла жаркою і сухою. taste/бути на смак. сf. cf. let – let – let. зватися. stay/залишатися. cf. get/ become/ ставати. they can make a sentence alone.Notional verbs possess full lexical meaning. taken. He grew older/Вона стала дорослішою. English notional verbs split into two grammar subclasses which are not found in Ukrainian: regular verbs forming their past simple and past participle with the help of -ed. feel/бути на дотик. show – showed – shown. worked etc. Link verbs connect the subject of the sentence with the nominal part of the compound nominal predicate. be/бути/доводитися. serve to connect words in speech and do not possess isolatibility. turn/робитися. and modal verbs. The wood turned red =Ліс зробився рудим. ставати. bind – bound. 2. Link verbs of remaining. Semi-notional verbs have faded lexical meaning. cf. continue/залишатися. Link verbs divide into three groups: 1. Some verbs are of mixed nature. begin – began – begun. seem/здаватися. There is also a class of invariables. Це/воно – приємне на дотик/смак/вигляд/запах) or rendered with the help of a notion verb (It smells/tastes pleasant = Воно пахне/смакує чудовo. In Ukrainian there are also вважатися. variable combinability and isolatibility. He is her brother = Він доводиться їй братом). i. dressed. 3. look/бути на вигляд. take – took. The winter continued damp and wet/Зима залишалася сирою та вологою. English link verbs of beсoming can be substituted in Ukrainian by notion verbs (They grew stronger = Вони стали міцнішими. 41 . cf. cf. cf. cf. cf. He remained/stayed silent/Він залишався мовчазним. bound. cost – cost – cost. cf. smell/ бути на запах. vowel change + -d or -t. Most of the English link verbs of being do not have any direct equivalents in Ukrainian. cf. She seems beautiful/Вона здається гарною. keep – kept – kept. being substituted by the verb бути or by a dash (It is/feels/tastes/looks/smells pleasant = Це/воно є приємним на дотик/смак/вигляд/запах.e. Link verbs of being. Link verbs of becoming. remain/залишатися. But: She grew older = Вона постаріла. Це вважається/зветься правдою. Semi-notional verbs fall into link-verbs. He became grey = Він посивів). keep/стояти. and irregular verbs forming past simple and past participle by means of vowel change.

то й проснувся. (b) perfect forms (Ніби й задрімав був зразу. He isn’t/wasn’t/ won’t be working). have to/мати. I’m not/wasn’t/won’t be working. He got up and left 42 . (c) passive voice (Текст був перекладений).Modal verbs serve to connect the subject of the sentence with the part of the verbal compound predicate. do. should/слід/треба. (d) subjunctive mood (Якби я був знав би я був би прийшов). але щось приверзлося. If I were you I would do it). cf. would/ shall/will do not have Ukrainian modal equivalents. In Ukrainian most of these functioned are performed by one poly-functional verb бути which expresses: (a) future tense (Текст буде перекладений). ought to/слід. They include can/могти. They are/were/’ll be working. Am/was/shall I/is/was/will he be working. але вас не застав тоді вдома). (f) subjunctive mood (He ordered that everybody be present/should be present. have. may/могти. He is/was/’ll be asked. In accordance with their combinability with the subject and the object of the sentence verbs divide into subjective and objective. be to/мати бути. shall/will/should/would which correspond to one Ukrainian verb бути. Subjective verbs are associated with nouns (noun equivalents) denoting the doer of the action. He may be reading in the sitting room/Він мабуть читає у вітальні. (e) imperative mood (Do come in!/Don’t come in). Я заходив був влітку. Besides link verbs and modal verbs there exists a group of analytical word morphemes also called auxiliary verbs: be. (d) passive voice (I am/was asked/’ll be asked. They are/were/’ll be asked). He/she/it is/was/’ll be working. He/she/it has/had/’ll have worked). English analytical word morphemes are used to express the categorical meanings of: (a) continuous aspect (I am/was/’ll be working. cf. need/потребувати. (b) negative and interrogative forms of the non-Continuous aspect of the present and past tense (I don’t/didn’t/Do I/did I work. (c) perfect forms (I/they have/had/’ll have worked. He/she/it does not/did not work/ Does/did he/she/it work). dare/сміти.

with the nouns (noun equivalents) functioning as the subject of the sentence and. He was reading a book. кривитися. милуватися. примерзати. листуватися. зустрічатися. гнутися. відкривати.e. cf. cf. cf. cf. (не) їсться. м’ятися. open. As for their aspective nature verbs fall into terminative. get. i. on the other hand. колотися. хвицатися. (не) живеться.the room. cf. жалитися. on the one hand. сіріти. cf. мучитися. вечоріти. He was speaking to her. carry. (не) лежиться. ходити. come. лаштуватися. плигати. журитися.1. denoting actions which cannot develop beyond a certain inherent limit. Stem structure English and Ukrainian verb is characterized by the existence of a system of stem-building elements performing. come. (6) impersonal-reflexive/безособово-зворотні. cf. smile. хотітися. cf. розвиднятися. працювати. радитися. (5) passively-qualitative reflexive/пасивно-якісні. cf. denoting actions having no inherent limits. go. both subjective and objective. 10. (2) indirectly reflexive/непрямо-зворотні. дряпатися. stay. Objective verbs are associated. віритися etc. колотися. work. stop. i. Other aspective groups of reflexive verbs are allomorphic. as they are found only in Ukrainian: (1) reciprocally reflexive/взаємно-зворотні. She kissed him fairly. grow. with those denoting the object. збиратися.e. as a rule. кусатися. цілуватися. вітатися. ламатися. (3) generally reflexive/загально-зворотні. jump.3. and non-terminative. walk. йти etc. (4) active-objectless reflexive/активно-безоб’єктні. cf. cf. змагатися. (не) спиться. Another allomorphic Ukrainian group is that of impersonal verbs which build impersonal sentences but belong to different semantic classes. isomorphic functions in the contrasted languages. are called intransitive. дивуватися. злитися. 43 . приходити. All the other verbs. нести. Objective verbs that are connected with their object words directly are called transitive. cf. be. зупинятися. cf. English has a much greater number of simple-stem verbs than Ukrainian.

про-/ти (програти).English derivative-stem verbs are built with the help of such suffixes as -ate (liquidate). -ва. -а express durative meaning of the uncompleted action. ex-/-ate (excavate). -en (blacken).(supervise). кінчити – кінчати. засидітися). скупити – скуповувати. підозрювати).:: -а-. over-/-ate (overestimate). hyper-/-ize (hyperbolize). over. irritate).(вибігти). за-/-ти-іти-итись-ітися (захотіти. заходитись. Allomorphism is observed in the fact that Ukrainian affixes unlike English can render some aspective meaning. від-/од. жити – нажити. re(reduce).express perfective :: non-perfective meaning.(набрати). розібратися. роз-розі-/-ти-тися-ати-атися-ся (роздати.(злетіти. по-. з-/с/зі.(outfit). оддати).:: -а-. надібрати). лишити – лишати. -і. зіпхнути). -овува. обводити). -fy (beautify). un. contra.(counteract). прочитати – прочитувати. Completely allomorphic are Ukrainian verbs formed with the help of diminutive suffixes like -к-и (спатки). counter. con. на. cf. над-наді/-ти-ть-тися-тись (надбити. по-попо-/-ити/-ати (походити. A number of English and Ukrainian verbs are formed with the help of suffixes as well as prefixes. казати – сказати. -тися/ться-сь (братися/молитьсясь). suffixes и. Similarly. sub-/-fy (subclassify). за-. mis-/-ate (miscalculate). розіграти.(mislead). under. гоїти – загоювати. cf.(завести). підбігти. in-/il/ir (introduce. ви. The most productive English verb prefixes are ex. 44 . -ize (colonize). за. про-. до. over-/-ize (overemphasize). over-/-fy (over-beautify). illustrate. підібрати. Suffix -ну-/ону is used to express a sudden action as opposed to -оти/-ати which signal durative action.. The most productive Ukrainian prefixes are в-/у (вбігти/унести). о-об-/-ати-ути-ити (оглядати/оглянути.:: -и. -е. cf. с-. перевиховати – перевиховувати. cf.(overflow). родити – зародити. сплести. приrender perfective meaning. -оньк-и (їстоньки). in-/-ate (incapacitate). їсти – поїсти. оббити/оббивати.(contribute). super. The prefixes з-. гнати – пригнати etc. out. пустити – пускати. пра-. на. under-/-ate (underestimate) etc. попобігати). зігріти – зігрівати. пере-під-піді-підо-/-ти (перебігти.(uncover).(contradict). cf.(exclaim). in-/-ate (indeterminate).(undertake).(відбити.(довести). Ukrainian verb-building suffixes comprise -ти/ть (брати/брать). sub(submit). mis. розігнатися). грати – програти. The prefixes and suffixes про-пере-/-ати express perfective meaning of the completed action while про-/-ува-юва.

mood). come back. чита-ють. cf. There are two declensions singled out in accordance with the character of the vowel in present tense inflexions: the 1st declension has inflexions: (a) -уть/ють in the 3d person plural. on the one hand. зна-ться) is the basis for (a): past tense. cross-examine. Grammatical categories Finite verbs in both contrasted languages have six common morphological categories which are realized with the help of synthetic (person and number) and analytical means (tense. люб-иш. Ukrainian verbs change their form in accordance with the person. cf. though this way of forming verb lexemes is not very productive in English and practically not employed in Ukrainian. give in. біж-иш. cf. каж-уть. blindfold. леж-ать) is the basis for: (a) present tense and simple future. люб-ить. пиш-е. stand up. There are also compound verbs in English like broadcast.колоти – кольнути. (b) subjunctive mood. The present tense and synthetic (perfective) future tense forms are given in Table 8. (b) -и/і/ї in the rest of the cases. English has the morphological category of order (perfect forms) realized analytically. копати – копнути. го-ять. 10. Completely allomorphic are English composite verbs made up with a lexicogrammatical word-morpheme. This change is called declension. натякати – натякнути etc. роби-ти. The present tense stem (нес-уть. cf. The infinitival stem (біг-ти. sit down ect. Subdivision of verbs into classes is based on the correlation between the infinitival stem of the verb. and its present tense stem. штовхати – штовхнути. 45 . voice. (b) imperative mood. чита-єте. (b) the vowel -е/є in the rest of the cases. The inflexions of Ukrainian verbs in different categorical forms depend on the verb class. go out. любл-ять.4. біж-ать. бажа-ють. on the other.1. highjack. пиш-уть. tense. каж-емо. Besides. the 2nd declension has -ать/-ять in the 3d person plural. number. чита-є. сидять. whitewash. го-їмо. пиш-еш. cf. aspect.

біж-іте/іть не хвал-іте/іть. побіж-имо хвал-ите. гра-єте. Table 10 singular 1st писатиму. побіж-ать st The imperative mood forms are given in Table 9. напиш-е II declension singular хвал-ю. гра-є. не грай d 3 – The analytical (non-perfective) future forms are given in Table 10. напиш-у 2nd нес-еш. будемо писати писатимете. не біж-іте/іть 2nd принес-и. напиш-емо 2nd нес-ете. напиш-уть plural хвал-имо. будете писати писатимуть. гра-ю. побіж-у хвал-иш. го-їмо. будуть писати The paste tense and subjunctive mood forms are given in Table 11. біж-імо/ім не хвал-імо. 46 . будеш писати 3d писатиме. не нес-и. буде писати plural писатимемо. го-ять. побіж-иш хвал-ить.Table 8 I declension singular st 1 нес-у. побіж-ить plural 1 нес-емо. го-їть. не біж-імо хвал-іте/іть. гра-єш. напиш-еш 3d нес-е. буду писати 2nd писатимеш. го-їте. напиш-ете 3d нес-уть. гра-й не принось. гра-ємо. гра-ють. го-ю. побіж-ите хвал-ять. го-їш. Table 9 singular 1st – plural хвал-імо/ім.

the person or persons addressed (you. In English the category of number is represented in its purity only by the forms of the verb to be was :: were in past tense and by the discontinuous morphemes of the continuous aspect of the past tense and the past tense in the passive voice containing was/were. speak – speaks. (c) in perfect order forms of the present tense by discontinuous morphemes has…ed/en :: have…ed/en (3d person singular :: the rest of the persons). Completely allomorphic is the expression of the category of person in Ukrainian imperative mood forms. In the rest of the forms (am – are. будьмо здорові – будьте здорові. (b) in continuous aspect forms of the present tenses by discontinuous morphemes am…ing :: are … ing (1st person singular :: 2nd person singular and plural. The category of number shows whether the action is associated with one doer or more than one. несл-о (б). я/ми). synthetic (perfective) and analytical (non-perfective) future tense forms. встань – встаньте etc. несл-а (б). він/вона/воно/вони). вел-о (б) plural бачил-и (б). In English person is represented: (a) in the simple present tense forms (3d person singular :: the rest of the persons) by the opposeme zero :: -s (I/you/we/they work :: he/she/it works). бачил-о (б). ти/ви). вел-и (б) The category of person serves to represent an action as associated by the speaker with himself (a group of persons including himself – I/we. 47 . несл-и (б). 3d person plural). ніс (би). has – have) number is blended with person. бачив (би).Table 11 singular mas. the paste tense and the subjunctive mood forms and also by the imperative mood forms. пиши – пишіть. am… ing :: is …ing (1st person singular 3d person singular). бачил-а (б). вів (би) fem. вел-а (б) neut. the person or persons not participating in the act of communication (he/she/it/they. In Ukrainian the category of person is expressed by the inflexions of present tense. cf. is – are. In Ukrainian the category of number is represented by the inflexions of the present tense and also synthetic (perfective) and analytical (non-perfective) future tense forms.

has worked :: had worked :: ’ll have worked. The category of aspect shows the character of the action. In Ukrainian. with the exception of non-perfective future. In Ukrainian there is no morphological category of aspect. to work :: to be working. The category of voice shows whether the action is represented as issuing from its subject or as experienced by its object. In English the category of tense is represented by a system of three member opposemes such as works/work :: worked :: ’ll work. The meaning of continuous aspect blended with that of passive voice and is expressed by lexicogrammatical means. feminine and neuter gender) and plural number in the past. past and future. the transitive verb stems with the suffixes -сь/ся and a corresponding adverb identifying the moment of action. cf. the category of tense is expressed synthetically: by a system of inflexions. cf. different for the 1st. In English tense is blended with aspect and time correlation and is expressed synthetically (present/past simple. Aspect in English is blended with tense (present/past/future simple :: present/past/future continuous) and time correlation (present/past/future continuous :: present/past/future perfect continuous). нес-у/нес-еш/нес-е/нес-емо/ нес-ете/ несуть // хвал-ю/хвал-иш/хвал-ить/хвал-имо/хвал-ите/хвал-ять нес-е :: ніс/несла/несл-о :: нес-тиме/ при-несе/буде нести/ хвал-и-тиме/ похвал-ить/ буде хвалити.e. Школа зараз/ще/вже/давно будується. present/past future continuous/ perfect/ perfect continuous). worked :: was/were working. There are three tenses both in English and Ukrainian: present. The meaning of continuous aspect is expressed with the help of the discontinuous morpheme be …Ving. its nature being unspecified. i. which is rendered analytically. 2nd and 3d person and singular/plural number in the present and perfective future. had worked :: had been working. future simple. Both English and Ukrainian have two 48 . am/is/are working :: was/were working :: ’ll be working. Школа ще будувалась/ будуватиметься. and for the singular (masculine.e. affirmative) and analytically (present/past simple negative and interrogative.The category of tense shows the relation of the time of the action denoted by the verb to the moment of speech. In English it is represented by a system of two member opposemes such as work/works :: am/is/are working. has/have worked :: has/have been working. ’ll work ::’ll be working. whether the action is taken in its progress or simply stated. i.

The category of mood reflects the relation of the action denoted by the verb to reality from the speaker’s point of view. cf. In Ukrainian subjunctive also employs the forms of the past and pluperfect and adds the particle би. English imperative mood lacks purely subjunctive forms employing the forms of the past and past perfect and the past of the modal verbs would/should. forms in -но/то are used. Thus. cf. Хата будується/будувалась/будуватиметься. Лист (є)/був/буде написано/ корову (є)/була/буде видоєно/ болото (є)/було/буде висушено. am/is/are loving :: am/is/are being loved. had loved :: had been loved. It is built with the help of the analytical word-morpheme бути and the past form (задрімав був/задрімала була/ задрімали були). ’ll love :: ’ll be loved. The only exception is the specific form of the verb to be (Were she at home I would come over). Both contrasted languages have the system of three moods: indicative. have/has loved :: have/has been loved. In Ukrainian the passive voice is expressed by the discontinuous morpheme: бути … Vpast participle. я б прийшов. was/were loving :: was/were being loved. cf. cf. The category of order (time correlation) shows whether the action is viewed as prior to (perfect) or irrespective of (non-perfect) other actions and situations. я був би прийшов/ Була б вона удома. cf. past and future perfect forms which are formed with the help of the discontinuous morpheme ha…ed/en (has/have written. imperative. я б передумав/Якби я був знав це раніше. loved :: was/were loved. Alongside with this. 49 . If I knew that I would change my mind/ If I had known that before I would have changed my mind. The category of voice is represented by the opposemes like loves/love :: am/is/are loved. Лист (є)/був/буде написаний/ корова (є)/була/буде видоєна/ болото (є)/було/буде висушене. V-ed/en(past participle). aspect and time correlation. wrote – had written. writing – having written. subjunctive. In English passive voice is blended with tense. In Ukrainian this category is only represented by the pluperfect which corresponds to the English Past Perfect. ’ll have written). It is built with the help of the discontinuous morpheme be …. to be written – to have been written.voices: active and passive. Якби я знав. In English it is represented by the system of opposemes such as writes/write – has/have written. in English there exist present. had written. Ukrainian affixes -сь/ся which are added to the nonperfective verbs express the meaning of continuous aspect and passive voice.

The category of time correlation of English and Ukrainian verbs: allomorphic and isomorphic features. 5. English imperative with let (Let me/him/her/them/us do it! Don’t let me/him/her/them/us do it! Let me/him/her/them/us not do it!) has the corresponding Ukrainian forms with the particles нум (singular) and нумо (plural). The category of person of English and Ukrainian verbs: allomorphic and isomorphic features. 4. 9.2. The category of voice of English and Ukrainian verbs: allomorphic and isomorphic features. 2. 3.The imperative mood in English is expressed synthetically (affirmative: do it!) and analytically (negative: Don’t do it!). 8. Theoretical questions. TASKS 10.2. Classify the verbs into subclasses in accordance with semantic and grammatical criteria: notional – semi-notional (link (being – becoming – remaining) modal – auxiliary): 50 .1. 7. 1. Stem structure of English and Ukrainian verbs: allomorphic and isomorphic features. 6. Lexico-grammatical classes of English and Ukrainian verbs: allomorphic and isomorphic features. The category of mood of English and Ukrainian verbs: allomorphic and isomorphic features. The category of number of English and Ukrainian verbs: allomorphic and isomorphic features.2. The category of tense of English and Ukrainian verbs: allomorphic and isomorphic features. Нум я зачитаю! Нумо заспівайте! 10. 10. The category of aspect of English and Ukrainian verbs: allomorphic and isomorphic features. Practical assignments. cf.2. 10. Typological characteristics of English and Ukrainian verbs as parts of speech. 1.

indirectly reflexive. робити (те. reflexive – reciprocally reflexive. feel (She doesn’t feel well). smile. smell (It smells funny/The cat was smelling the sausage). зватися (Це зветься роботою). stand. 51 . generally reflexive. take. давати. сидіти. але не наважився).m. лаштуватися (в дорогу). залишатися (Він залишився вдома/Він залишився задоволеним). turn (He turned the tap/ He turned grey). посміхатися (Чому ти посміхаєшся?). walk (He was walking up the street). passive-qualitative.Be (She’s beautiful/ She is to come at five/ She’s taking a shower/She’s being examined). кусатися (собака кусається). might (She might have warned him). здаватися (Це здається правдою). active-objectless. give. grow (It’s growing dark/He grows potatoes and tomatoes). журитися. Classify the verbs into subclasses in accordance with their relation to the subject/object of the sentence: Go. work (she was working from morning till night). Зустрічатися. drive. must (You must help her). робитися (Ліс зробився рудим). дряпатися кішка дряпається). impersonal-reflexive. приходити. вечоріє. remember (I can’t remember her name/We’ll always remember him). говорити. стрибати. гарно/погано живеться. 3. become (He became famous). що ти зробив – підлість). злитися.). sit. ring. а не говорити). таланить. Діяти. колотися (стерні колеться). я був б прийшов/Я був задрімав. сміти (Як ви смієте таке казати). look (She looks fine/Don’t look at him). ставати (Він став вчителем). jump. Спати (Скільки можна спати!). посміхатися. have (I’ve done it/I usually have lunch at 5 p. smile (Every time he sees her he smiles). то я й прокинувся/Я хотів був зайти до вас улітку. impersonal): Open (He opened the door). сидіти. знаходити. can (I can swim). виявлятися (Вона виявилася розумною). continue (The weather continued wet/He continued singing). зачиняти. Classify the verbs into allomorphic and isomorphic subclasses in accordance with their aspective nature (terminative – durative – mixed type. miss. do (She doesn’t like music/She did it again). журитися. говорити (Треба діяти. бути (Текст був/буде перекладений/Якби я був знав. sit (Don’t sit here! Do something!/Sit down!). зачиняти. мати (Ти маєш знати. не спиться. talk. збиратися (в похід). вітатися. заздрити. брати. але щось приверзлося. куди нам звертатися). tell. 2.

спатки. Put into allomorphic and isomorphic groups on the basis of the stemstructure: Liquidate. misappropriate. попобігати. overestimate. illustrate. посвистувати. Пиши!/ пишіть!. contradict. Нумо заспіваємо! Він працює/працював/буде працювати – вона працює/ працювала/буде працювати. Нумо я запитаю!. братися. go. Школа вже будується/вже давно будується/будуватиметься. Нічого не забуто. reduce. внести. sub-classify. I/we write/wrote. їстоньки. четвертувати. The work is done. надібрати. deepen.4. що вона заходила була. The house is being built/The house was being built. indeterminate. walk. Він каже. Я писав/писала – ми писали. 52 . 5. але її не застав. Лист був/буде/(є) написаний. The article will have been translated. stand up. Йти. Я якось був заходив. Він задрімав/вона задрімала/воно задрімало/вони задрімали. blackmail. sit down. Find allomorphism and isomorphism in the expression of grammatical categories: I work – she works. Let us sing. I had visited her before I went to Moscow. довести. Do it! Don’t do it!. Стаття перекладена.

cf. (f) of cause. they continued their way despite the rain. cf. (2) combinability with words belonging to almost any part of speech. behind the fence. (3) attributive relations. у хаті. друзі з Канади. глянути з подивом. приїхати в березні/через півроку. in the cottage. cf. cf. (e) of attendant circumstances. in front of the house. з хати. cf.2. незважаючи на хворобу. BASIC NOTES 11. cf.1. to be angry with smb.1. Classes In accordance with their meaning prepositions may express various syntactic relations: (1) agentive relations. бути під чиєюсь владою/керівництвом. (d) of manner and comparison.FUNCTIONAL PARTS OF SPEECH Seminar 11 TYPOLOGICAL FEATURES OF THE PREPOSITION 11. за тином. Definition Preposition is a part of speech which is characterized by the following features: (1) lexico-grammatical meaning of relations of substances. (4) adverbial relations: (a) temporal. cf. to look in astonishment. помиритися з кимсь. (b) local. (3) function of a linking word.1. my dog pants with the heat. out of the house. він приїздить. to depart on Monday. birds of a feather. the air came in a warm wave. під лісом. cf. від’їжджати в понеділок. собака задихається від спеки. cf. зима прийшла зі снігопадом. 53 . the play by Shakespeare. into the room. cf. the man in question. to arrive in spring. he would do it in spite of the obstacles. сердитися на когось. to the door.1. у кімнату. (2) objective relations. winter set up with a heavy fall of snow. товариші по школі. (c) directional. (g) of concession. 11.

four of the boys) with the exception of the few prepositions capable of expressing some case relations. під. cf. на. з огляду на). but not govern unchangeable foreign nouns. назустріч. to be devoid of suspicion. prepositions fall into: (1) simple. поруч з. довкола. бути вільним від підозри. за. Allomorphism is observed in the nature of the syntactic functions of prepositions. захист від польових гризунів. навперейми. лежати під грушею/дубом. of. In Ukrainian prepositions govern nouns. при. згідно з. з.3. в. перед. о. вглиб. о. понад. по. при). she is like her mother. заради. at. одночасно з. попри. в інтересах. слід. в. Isomorphic are prepositions which are used to link. на основі. (7) relations of dissociation. for. ік. напереріз. зверху. праця в садку/на полі. These are linking in English: prepositions do not require any special case from the right-hand nominal component (the book of my brother. на. toys for the child. instrumental case (з. 54 . в ім’я. of (genitive case: books of hers/theirs). наперекір. повз. вийти з фойє. 11. зважаючи на. cf. Some Ukrainian prepositions are used with nominals in a certain case form only. (6) relations of subordination. з. з-перед. cf. з-над. о. на противагу). на чолі з. cf. проміж. з-поза. pronouns. коло. по. за допомогою. з-за. порівняно з. між. проміж. cf. між. над. він схожий на батька. отже й ми будемо при розумі. окрім. від. вслід за. у. ходити без кольє. у відповідь на. substantivized adjectives and nominal groups. за рахунок.1. змеж. незважаючи на. за винятком. by. бути секретарем у посла. to be secretary to the manager. нарівні з. під. між. went with her/us/them). cf. by and with (instrumental case: written by him/them/us. без. про. в унісон з). перед. за. dative case (к. біля. паралельно з. відносно. Stem structure As far as their stem structure is concerned. їхати в таксі. замість. лист від нього/іншого. сf. genitive case (без. з боку. to. (5) relations of resemblance.(h) of possession. побіч з. books for him/us). numerals. вздовж. поміж. через. to and for (dative case: sent to them. за. in. помежи. у зв’язку з. поза. навздогін. on. заради. крізь. понад. з-між. locative case (у. на. всупереч. books of his brother. разом з. в силу). cf. поза. accusative case (у (в). the windows of the cottage. cf. задля. with. близько.

до-вкіл etc. into (into the room). by means of. довкіл. TASKS 11. on account of. до (до сина). cf. на відміну від. поруч з (ним). be-low. (4) composite. у. Typological characteristics of English and Ukrainian prepositions as parts of speech. upon. з-під. into. owing to. into. inside. (3) compound. 3. щодо. in accordance with. у відповідь на. в справі. завдяки. З. with regard to. 2. в (в кімнаті). на (на столі). throughout. крізь (стіни). з (з двору). поміж. on (on the table). like (like his mother). throughout. behind (behind the house). in (in the room). be-side. outside. о. посеред. 11. 3. Lexico-grammatical classes of English and Ukrainian prepositions: allomorphic and isomorphic features. instead of. 1. на відміну від. Put into classes: By (the book by). з).2. in front of.(2) derivative which are very few. з-понад. у зв’язку з. в межах. від (від Джона). в-наслідок. поперед. Stem structure of English and Ukrainian prepositions: allomorphic and isomorphic features. збоку від. під. в. in front of. within. owing to. із-за. щодо. по-верх.1. поміж. by. in spite of. with (with John). cf. Give English/Ukrainian equivalents and explain the nature of allomorphism/isomorphism: 55 . близько від. without. a-long. to. поруч з. Theoretical questions. 1. В (в січні). inside.2. посеред. with (with the heat). від (від віспи). because of. 11. in (in astonishment). згідно з. Put into allomorphic and isomorphic groups on the basis of the stemstructure: At. Practical assignments. below. на (на грип). одночасно з (ними). незважаючи на (хворобу). of (of a feather).2.. з-понад. cf. The only structural difference is the group of Ukrainian simple prepositions consisting of a single consonant or vowel (в. попід. по-перек.2. in spite of (in spite of the facts). задля. незалежно від. because of. із-за. близько від. on (on Monday). 2. внаслідок.

(c) adversative/протиставні: but. від болю. на Миколі. yet. whether. in the air. проте. крізь ліс. neither…nor. поміж людей. чи. і…і. not only…but also. ні…ні. for John. всупереч перешкодам. introducing subject. what. який. nor.2. як от. (d) resultative/пояснювальні: so. Subordinating conjunctions include: (a) connective.1. або. але. 56 . out of the room. в ім’я інтересів. Coordinating conjunctions fall into the following subclasses: (a) copulative/єднальні: and. both…and. не тільки…але й/і.1. на противагу аргументам. hence. як…так і. назустріч світанку. 12. Classes As for their syntactic functions. також. BASIC NOTES 12. predicative and attributive clauses: that. in front of the house. або…або.Because of the strike. хто. то…то. над прірвою. одночасно з усіма. Seminar 12 TYPOLOGICAL FEATURES OF THE CONJUNCTION 12. still. під дубом. if. (3) function of a linking word. та. тож/отож. object. чи…чи. зважаючи на обставини.1. якщо/якби. for you. how. how many. to my surprise. Поза тином. чи то…чи то. (2) combinability with units of similar type: homogenous parts of coordinate phrases and sentences or subordinate clauses in composite sentences.1. тобто. зате. conjunctions in the contrasted languages fall into two isomorphic groups: (1) coordinating conjunctions and (2) subordinating conjunctions. у житті. так. behind the fence. все ж. either… or. on Monday. (b) disjunctive/розділові: or. що. і/й. чи. Definition The conjunction is a part of speech which is characterized by the following features: (1) lexico-grammatical meaning of relation between substances and situations. Сommon functions in both contrasted languages are also performed by relative pronouns: who. as well as. а саме. і унісон з ними. про мене. що. з горя. однак.

cf. as if. TASKS 12. якби. both…and. (b) adverbial: of time. as. незважаючи на. cf. 12. cf. as. або. unless. 12. because. доки. для того. whichever. а. неначе. якщо. коли б. cf. however. not so… as. of condition. as soon as. or.1. Typological characteristics of English and Ukrainian conjunctions as parts of speech. in order that. чому. 1. Besides. проте. no sooner…than. cf. так що. unless. because. ні.1. що. тільки що.2. з тим щоб. of purpose. отож. в міру того як. як тільки. though. as…as. тож. через те. щоб. before. скільки. аж поки. cf. щоб. that. Lexico-grammatical classes of English and Ukrainian conjunctions: allomorphic and isomorphic features. чий. until. neither…nor. немовби. supposing. нібито. якщо б. як. наче. although. ледве. that. 2. (3) compound. that. wherever. якби. поки. нехай. дарма що. аби. Stem structure English and Ukrainian conjunctions can be: (1) simple. коли. так що. and. куди. щойно. де. чи … чи. мов. де б. і… і. бо. even if. and by connective adverbs: where. either…or. after. cf. з того часу як. consisting of two parts. cf. Put into classes: 57 . (4) composite. хай. but. of comparison. затим що. cf. why. lest.3. відколи. if. as. whence.2. while. зате. не то … не то. of result. provided. коли. відтоді. мовби. звідки.2. то … то. оскільки. Stem structure of English and Ukrainian conjunctions: allomorphic and isomorphic features. через те що. until. для того щоб. since. how. ні … ні. even though. cf. тому що.котрий. as if.2. where. as soon as. як. аж доки. than. де. when. till. Practical assignments. і/й. seeing. of concession. (2) derivative. cf. як. as though. Theoretical questions. 12. cf. if. since. whereas. as long as. бо. після того як. начебто. та. як. 1. ніби. of cause or reason. 3. there are correlative conjunctions. so. although. куди. wherever. of place and direction. so that. till. не стільки … скільки. cf. in order that. хоч. якщо.

almost. Put into allomorphic and isomorphic groups on the basis of the stemstructure: As soon as. ну. точно. for. even. оце. прямо. here. проте. бо. (2) demonstrative/вказівні. Definition The particle is a part of speech which is characterized by the following features: (1) lexico-grammatical meaning of emphatic specification. не тільки. еге. still. ледве не.1. поки. (2) unilateral combinability with words of different classes as well as clauses. cf. in order that. approximately. also. і. ось. why not. але.1. as well. зате. yet. трохи не. хоча. lest. а. аж. though. відтоді. онде. тому що. because. just. (5) negative/заперечні. та й. мало не. от. cf. cf. as if. because. немов. all. as…as. ані. until. невже. а саме. simply. but. in order that. 58 . вже. cf. ген. справді. no. ні. й.1. приблизно. (8) quantitative/кількісні. exactly. 13. та ну. атож. також. (4) intensifying/підсилювальні. not only…but also. (3) function of a specifier. precisely. не стільки…скільки. too. either…or. майже. гаразд. це. particles divide into: (1) those of emphatic precision/ емфатичного уточнення. хіба. 2. якщо. що за. чи…чи. (7) connecting/приєднувальні. ще й. та. чи…чи. really. Seminar 13 TYPOLOGICAL FEATURES OF THE PARTICLES 13. there. absolutely. whereas. Проте. cf.2. hence. Отож. now. (3) affirmative/стверджувальні. тому що.Both…and. воно. well. no. right. близько. after. не. навіть. BASIC NOTES 13. ні…ні. чи не.1. yet. either…or. просто. так. well. cf. (6) interrogative/запитальні. нехай. га. і…і. ж. еге ж. not. why. although. з того часу як. but. yes. cf. never. cf.Сlasses According with the semantic criterion. все ж. до того ж. таки. however.

Невже. 2. приблизно. 1. лише. тільки. та. almost. до того ж. навіть. alone. even. almost. навіть. собі. (2) derivative-stem. еге. cf. too. Typological characteristics of English and Ukrainian particles as parts of speech. казна. here. too.3. only. так.2. й. all. more. 13. precisely. cf. why not. еге. never. (4) composite-stem. Точно.2. нумо. хіба. well. хоча б. та ну. просто. таки. 3. 2. прямо. так. чи. все. лише. будь. even. 13. (3) compound-stem. 13. more. не. справді.(9) singling out/видільні. невже.(notwithstanding). хоч. це. not. simply. Theoretical questions. чи. why.1. approximately. воно. оце. cf. really. As far as their stem structure is concerned particles fall into: (1) simple-stem. так. also. Stem structure of English and Ukrainian particles: allomorphic and isomorphic features. As for their functional criterion particles fall into form-building and wordbuilding. 1.2.(moreover). merely. ані. Lexico-grammatical classes of English and Ukrainian particles: allomorphic and isomorphic features. well. якраз. also.(nothing). TASKS 13. not. simply. ще й.(казна-хто). майже.(elsewhere). scarcely. Word-building particles include: else. Stem structure Particles have no typical stem-building elements. cf. The above-mentioned particles are form-building. -небудь (хто-небудь). атож. merely. авжеж. no. не.1. Put into allomorphic and isomorphic groups on the basis of the stemstructure: All. таки. cf. Put into classes: Absolutely. ж. просто. just. Practical assignments. до того ж.(будь-хто). ну. almost. аж. but. yet.2. 59 . even. else.

майже. (2) degrees of probability. можливо. perhaps. безперечно. probably. of course. maybe. perhaps.2.1. cf. певне. TASKS 14. Put into classes: Assuredly. of course. cf. 14. зрозуміло. на щастя. напевне.2. unfortunately.1. uncertainty (coinciding in form with those.1. мабуть. Можливо. maybe.2. 1. Typological characteristics of English and Ukrainian modal words as parts of speech. може. certainly. surely. 14. perhaps. 14. певне. BASIC NOTES 14. Definition Modal words are a part of speech which is characterized by the following features: (1) lexico-grammatical meaning of modality. (3) shades of desirability. на жаль. fortunately.1. Theoretical questions. безсумнівно. ймовірно. cf. really. безсумнівно. безумовно. undoubtedly. Classes According to their meaning modal words are traditionally classified into those expressing: (1) shades of certainty. denoting probability).2. може. мабуть. indeed. no doubt. видно. certainly. possibly. cf. Practical assignments.Seminar 14 TYPOLOGICAL FEATURES OF THE MODAL WORDS 14. можливо. Lexico-grammatical classes of English and Ukrainian modal words: allomorphic and isomorphic features. шкода.2. напевне. 2. 60 . maybe. (4) shades of doubt. (2) negative combinability.1. indeed. звичайно. (3) function of parenthetical elements. здається. probably. безперечно. fortunately. possibly.

1. In accordance with its demonstrative meaning the definite article points out or individualizes one object or a class of objects denoted y the noun it is associated with and is therefore an individualizing or limiting article. 15. TASKS Theoretical questions. (2) the right-hand combinability with nouns. Definition English article is a part of speech which is characterized by: (1) the lexico-grammatical meaning of definiteness/indefiniteness. In accordance with its meaning ‘one of many’ the indefinite article is used to denote one thing or class and is therefore classifying.1.2.Seminar 15 TYPOLOGICAL FEATURES OF THE ARTICLE 15. 61 . Typological characteristics of the English article as a part of speech. (3) the function of noun specifiers.1. 15.1.2. BASIC NOTES 15. Definite and indefinite articles.

російської мов. української.. Сравнительная типология английского и русского языков. Терентьев П. 1981. А. Почепцов Г.. 1989.. Ильиш Б. русского и украинского языков. – M. 8. Г.. – М. Порівняльні дослідження з граматики англійської. Иванова И. 1960. 4.. О. S. – М. 6. 2. Khaimovich B. Швачко Т.. 5. В. 1981. П. A Course in English grammar. Аракин В. Янукян Т. Порівняльна граматика української та англійської мов. 3.. Rogovskaya B. 1977. Y. В. Строй современного английского языка.RECOMMENDED LITERATURE 1.. I. Теоретическая грамматика современного английского языка.. – К. 62 . A Course in theoretical English grammar. Bloch M.. Швачко С. Г. – К. 7. Введение в сравнительную типологию английского. Д... 1971. Бурлакова В.. – К. Жлуктечко Ю.. 1983. – Л. – M. 1967. Т.

56 Seminar 13 Typological Features of the Particles…………………………… 58 Seminar 14 Typological Features of the Modal Words……………………… 60 Seminar 15 Typological Features of the Article……………………………… 61 RECOMMENDED LITERATURE…………………………………………….. Seminar 2 Types of Meaning and their Expression in the English and 3 Ukrainian Morphological Systems……………………………… 5 Parts of Speech.. 53 Seminar 11 Typological Features of the Preposition………………………… 53 Seminar 12 Typological Features of the Conjunction………………………. 40 FUNCTIONAL PARTS OF SPEECH…………………………………………. 12 Seminar 3 Seminar 4 Typological Features of the Noun………………………………. Criteria of Distinguishing……………………... Basic Notions and Methods…. . 63 62 .. 10 NOTIONAL PARTS OF SPEECH…………………………………………….. 36 Seminar 9 Typological Features of the Stative……………………………… 39 Seminar 10 Typological Features of the Verb………………………………. 23 Seminar 6 Typological Features of the Numeral…………………………… 29 Seminar 7 Typological Features of the Pronoun…………………………… 31 Seminar 8 Typological Features of the Adverb…………………………….CONTENTS Seminar 1 Contrastive Typology..... its Aim. 12 Seminar 5 Typological Features of the Adjective…………………………...

3. 4. Папір офсетний. організаційно-видавничий відділ НМЦ 64 . Ю.0 Наклад 100 прим. арк. майдан Свободи 4. друк.72 Обл. Є. В. Харківський національний університет імені В. Н. Друк різографічний _________________________________________________________________ 61077. Ціна договірна. вид. Тепляков Редактор І. арк. Харків. Ткаченко Підписано до друку Формат 60х84/16 Ум. Каразіна.Навчальне видання Мартинюк Алла Петрівна Порівняльна морфологія англійської та української мов (семінарські заняття) Відповідальний за випуск І. Агаркова Коректор Л.