# SYLLOGISM

APTITUDE
QUESTIONS BASED ON LOGICAL REASONING.
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Introduction:
The questions which are asked in this section contain two or more statements and these
statements are followed by two or more conclusions. You have to find out which of the
conclusions logically follow from the given statements. The statements have to be taken true
even if they seem to be at variance from the commonly known facts.
For such questions, you can take the help of Venn Diagrams. On the basis of the given
statements, you should draw all the possible diagrams, and then derive the solution from each of
these diagrams separately. Finally, the answer common to the all the diagrams is taken.
Example 1:
Statements:
1. All dogs are asses.
2. All asses are bulls.
Conclusions:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Some dogs are not bulls.
Some bulls are dogs.
All bulls are dogs.
All dogs are bulls.

Solution:
On the basis of both statements, the following one diagram is possible.

From the diagram it is clear that (2) and (4) conclusions logically follow.

Example 2:
Statements:
1. Some dogs are asses.

2. Some asses are bulls.
Conclusions:
1. Some asses are not dogs.
2. Some dogs are bulls.
Solution:
From these given statements the following diagrams are possible:

From the diagram neither (1) nor (2) conclusions follow.

Conclusions: 1. Give answer:      (A) If only (1) conclusion follows (B) If sonly (2) conclusion follows (C) If either (1) or (2) follows (D) If neither (1) nor (2) follows and (E) If both (1) and (2) follow.Only (1) conclusion follows B. A. Only (2) conclusion follows C. Both (1) and (2) follow Answer & Explanation Answer: Option A Explanation: . Statements: Some actors are singers. Some actors are dancers.In each of the following questions two statements are given and these statements are followed by two conclusions numbered (1) and (2). Read the conclusions and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the two given statements.Neither (1) nor (2) follows E. No singer is actor. All the singers are dancers. 1. You have to take the given two statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. 2. Either (1) or (2) follows D. disregarding commonly known facts.

Only (1) conclusion follows B. Conclusions: 1. Conclusions: 1.Only (1) conclusion follows B. Either (1) or (2) follows D.2. 2. All the instruments are flutes. Statements: All the poets are goats. Some poets are trees. Either (1) or (2) follows D. All the harmoniums are flutes. Some trees are goats. 2.Neither (1) nor (2) follows E. Both (1) and (2) follow Answer & Explanation Answer: Option B Explanation: 3. Only (2) conclusion follows C. All the flutes are instruments. Statements: All the harmoniums are instruments. A. Both (1) and (2) follow Answer & Explanation . Only (2) conclusion follows C.Neither (1) nor (2) follows E. Some goats are trees. A.

Conclusions: 1. 2. Both (1) and (2) follow Answer & Explanation Answer: Option D Explanation: . A.Only (1) conclusion follows B. Statements: Some mangoes are yellow. Either (1) or (2) follows D. Some tixo are mangoes. Only (2) conclusion follows C.Neither (1) nor (2) follows E. Some mangoes are green.Answer: Option B Explanation: 4. Tixo is a yellow.

Either (1) or (2) follows D. Conclusions: 1.5. Some jewels are ornaments. Statements: Some pearls are jewels. 2. Either (1) or (2) follows D. Both (1) and (2) follow . Some ornaments are jewels. Some jewels are pearls. Only (2) conclusion follows C.Only (1) conclusion follows B. Statements: Some ants are parrots. All the parrots are apples. Conclusions: 1. A. Both (1) and (2) follow Answer & Explanation Answer: Option B Explanation: 6.Neither (1) nor (2) follows E.Only (1) conclusion follows B. A. 2. Some ants are apples. All the apples are parrots. Only (2) conclusion follows C.Neither (1) nor (2) follows E.

Neither (1) nor (2) follows E. Some hens are horses.Answer & Explanation Answer: Option E Explanation: 7. Only (2) conclusion follows C. 2. All the cows are horses. Conclusions: 1. Both (1) and (2) follow Answer & Explanation Answer: Option E Explanation: . Statements: Some hens are cows.Only (1) conclusion follows B. Some horses are hens. Either (1) or (2) follows D. A.

All the girls are beautiful. 8. A. All the actors are beautiful.Only (1) conclusion follows B.Both (1) and (2) follow. Conclusions: 1. 2. Only (2) conclusion follows C. Both (1) and (2) follow Answer & Explanation Answer: Option E Explanation: Statements: All the actors are girls. Some pens are papers. All the pencils are pens. Conclusions: 1.Neither (1) nor (2) follows E. Some pens are pencils. Either (1) or (2) follows D. . Statements: Some papers are pens.

Neither (1) nor (2) follows E. Some leaves are birds. 2. Some leaves are flowers. Both (1) and (2) follow Answer & Explanation Answer: Option E Explanation: 10. Only (2) conclusion follows C. Only (2) conclusion follows C.Neither (1) nor (2) follows E. Both (1) and (2) follow Answer & Explanation Answer: Option B Explanation: .Only (1) conclusion follows B. Either (1) or (2) follows D. Either (1) or (2) follows D. Some girls are actors. Statements: All the flowers are leaves.Only (1) conclusion follows B. A. A. Some birds are flowers.2. Conclusions: 1.

Only (2) conclusion follows. No wall is a door. Some windows are walls. . Only (2) conclusion follows C. 2. 11. No door is a wall. A. Statements: All the windows are doors. Both (1) and (2) follow Answer & Explanation Answer: Option B Explanation: 12.Only (1) conclusion follows B. Either (1) or (2) follows D. Statements: All cups are books. Conclusions: 1.Neither (1) nor (2) follows E. All books are shirts.

Neither (1) nor (2) follows E. Some cows are elephants.Only (1) conclusion follows B. Only (2) conclusion follows C. Some crows are elephants. 2. Only (2) conclusion follows C. Statements: Some cows are crows. Either (1) or (2) follows D. Either (1) or (2) follows D.Only (1) conclusion follows B. A. Both (1) and (2) follow Answer & Explanation Answer: Option B Explanation: 13. All crows are elephants. Both (1) and (2) follow Answer & Explanation Answer: Option D . Conclusions: 1.Conclusions: 1.Neither (1) nor (2) follows E. Some cups are not shirts. 2. A. Some shirts are cups.

Explanation: 14. Statements: All the pencils are pens. Only (2) conclusion follows C. Both (1) and (2) follow Answer & Explanation Answer: Option E Explanation: . Conclusions: 1. All the pencils are inks.Neither (1) nor (2) follows E. Either (1) or (2) follows D. 2. Some inks are pencils.Only (1) conclusion follows B. All the pens are inks. A.

Some scooters are trucks. All the trucks are scooters. A. Statements: All the trucks are flies. Some cats are dogs. Both (1) and (2) follow Answer & Explanation Answer: Option D Explanation: 16. Either (1) or (2) follows D. Some dogs are cats. Both (1) and (2) follow Answer & Explanation .Only (1) conclusion follows B. Statements: Some dogs are bats. A. Conclusions: 1.Only (1) conclusion follows B. Only (2) conclusion follows C.Neither (1) nor (2) follows E.Neither (1) nor (2) follows E. 2. Some bats are cats.15. Either (1) or (2) follows D. Conclusions: 1. Some scooters are flies. 2. Only (2) conclusion follows C.

17. All chalks are buildings. No building is toffee 2.Neither (1) nor (2) follows E.Answer: Option D Explanation: Neither (1) nor (2) follows. Statements: All buildings are chalks. No chalk is toffee. Only (2) conclusion follows C. A. Either (1) or (2) follows D. Both (1) and (2) follow Answer & Explanation Answer: Option A Explanation: .Only (1) conclusion follows B. Conclusions: 1.

Only (2) conclusion follows C.18. All fans are cats.Neither (1) nor (2) follows E. All the dogs are cats. 2. Statements: No door is dog. Some fans are cars. A. All cars are fans.Only (1) conclusion follows B. Either (1) or (2) follows D. Statements: All cars are cats. Conclusions: 1. No door is cat. Both (1) and (2) follow Answer & Explanation Answer: Option D Explanation: 1. Conclusions: 1. .

Only (1) and (3) C. 3. Some green are not white. Only (1) and (3) C. A. Conclusions: 1.Only (3) E.Only (1) and (2) B.Only (2) and (4) Answer & Explanation . Statements: All green are blue. All the cats are dogs. Some cats are dogs.Only (2) and (4) B. No cat is door.2. Some blue are green. 4. Only (3) and (4) D. All the four Answer & Explanation Answer: Option D Explanation: 2. Only (1) and (4) D. All white are blue. 4. All blue are white. 2. 3. A. Some white are green.

A. 4. 2. Only (1) and (3) Answer & Explanation Answer: Option C Explanation: .Answer: Option A Explanation: 3.Only (1) E. Some mammals are vertebrates.Only (4) B. Statements: All men are vertebrates. Only (3) D. Some vertebrates are mammals. All vertebrates are men. 3. Conclusions: 1. Only (2) C. All men are mammals. All mammals are men.

Only (4) E. Conclusions: 1. 3. All the calculators are scales. A. Some cars are cycles. Only (1) and (4) D. No scooter is cycle. No scooter is car.None of the four. No car is cycle. Only (1) and (3) Answer & Explanation Answer: Option C Explanation: 5. Only (2) and (4) D. Statements: Some cars are scooters. B. Only (2) and (4) .Only (1) and (2) E.Only (1) and (4) B. All the four. All the phones are calculators All the scales are phones. 3. 4. A. Some calculators are phones. Statements: All the phones are scales. 4. Only (3) and (4) C. C. Some scooters are cars.4. 2. Conclusions: 1. All the scales are calculators. 2.

Only (4) D.Only (1) and (4) E. All the radios are T.V. Some radios are tables. 2. are tables. are radios. Some tables are radios. All the T. A.V. 3. Statements: Some tables are T.Answer & Explanation Answer: Option D Explanation: 6. Some T.V. 4. Only (1) and (3) C. None of the four. Conclusions: 1.V. Answer & Explanation Answer: Option E Explanation: .Only (2) and (4) B.

Only (2) and (4) C. Some pencils are pens.7. Statements: Some pens are books. 2. 4. All the four D. 3.Only (1) and (3) B.None of the four E. All books are pens. Some books are pencils. Some pens are pencils. A. Only (1) Answer & Explanation Answer: Option D Explanation: . Conclusions: 1. All pencils are pens.

Some erasers are books. All the goats are lions. Some lions are goats.All the four B. Only (1) and (3) C. Only (1). A. 2. A. No pencil is eraser. (3) and (4) Answer & Explanation Answer: Option C Explanation: 9.Only (2) and (3) .8.Only (2). 4. All the tigers are lions. Conclusions: 1. Some books are erasers. Only (1) and (2) D. Only (1). Some tigers are goats. 3. Statements: All the books are pencils. (2) and (3) C. All the pencils are books. Statements: All the goats are tigers. (3) and (4) D.Only (3) B. 2. All the lions are goats. 4. Conclusions: 1. 3. No book is eraser.

Only (3) E. Only (2) and (4) Answer & Explanation Answer: Option A Explanation: . Some psychologists are research scholars. Conclusions: 1. Some research scholars are scientists. All the four D. 3.E. None of the four C. 2. 4. All the research scholars are scientists. Statements: All the research scholars are psychologists. Only (3) and (4) Answer & Explanation Answer: Option A Explanation: 10.Only (3) and (4) B. Some psychologists are scientists. Some scientists are psychologists. A.

Only (1) and (2) B. Some watches are keys. Some bats are locks. Conclusions: 1. Only (1) C. Some watches are bats.Only (1) and (3) Answer & Explanation Answer: Option B Explanation: . Statements: All the locks are keys. Only (2) D. 3. All the keys are bats. All the keys are locks.. A. 2.

Only (2) and (4) C. Some staplers are stickers. 3. No sticker is key. 4. Conclusions: 1. Some staplers are keys. Some stickers are keys. Some pens are staplers. A.Only (1) and (4) and either (2) or (3) Answer & Explanation Answer: Option D Explanation: . 2.Only (1) and (2) B. Statements: Some keys are staplers. Only (2) and (3) D. All the stickers are pens.2.

A.3. Some answers are writers.Only (2) and (4) Answer & Explanation Answer: Option B Explanation: . Statements: Some questions are answers. 2. Conclusions: 1. All the writers are poets. Some poets are answers. Some writers are answers.Only (1) and (2) B. Some poets are questions. Only (1) and (4) C. 4. Only (1) and (3) D. 3. All the questions are poets.

Some envelopes are seals. 3.Only (3) B. Some adhesives are seals. Some gums are adhesives. 4.Only (4) Answer & Explanation Answer: Option A Explanation: .4. Some adhesives are gums. Only (1) C. Only (2) D. Some seals are adhesives. Statements: Some envelops are gums. Conclusions: 1. 2. Some gums are seals. A.

Some papers are bags. Some books are purses.5. Statements: All the papers are books. Some books are papers. All the bags are books. 2. Conclusions: 1.Only (1) and (3) Answer & Explanation Answer: Option B Explanation: . 3. A. Only (2) and (3) C.Only (1) B. Only (1) and (2) D. Some purses are bags.

Only (2) and (3) E. Some journals are calendars. A. None of the four Answer & Explanation . 3. Conclusions: 1. Some calendars are papers. Only (1) and (3) D. Statements: All the books are papers. Only (2) C. No cow is cat. Conclusions: 1. No dog is cow. Some journals are books.Only (1) B. A. 2. Only (1) and (2) C. No dog is rat. Some books are calendars. 4. 2. Some papers are journals.Statements: Some rats are cats.Only (1) B. Only (3) D. Some cats are dogs. Some cats are rats. Only (3) Answer & Explanation Answer: Option E Explanation: 7.Only (4) E. 3. Some books are journals.

2.Answer: Option E Explanation: 8. All the bottles are bags. Some trays are boxes. Only (2) and (3) D. All the boxes are bags. 3. A. Some bags are trays. Conclusions: 1. Only (1) and (2) C. Some trays are bags.Only (1) and (4) Answer & Explanation Answer: Option A Explanation: .Only (3) and (4) B. 4. Some bottles are trays. Statements: All the bottles are boxes.

2. Only (1) and (3) D. A. Statements: Some cars are jeeps.Only (2) and (3) Answer & Explanation Answer: Option A Explanation: . Some cars are boxes. Some boxes are cars. 9. Only (1) and (2) C. All the boxes are jeeps. No pen is jeep. 3.Only (3) and (4) follow. All the pens are cars.None of three B. Conclusions: 1.