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WIND TURBINE

 Abstract

 Electricity generated from wind turbines is increasingly in demand across the world.
 Government incentives (state and federal), renewable portfolio standards, improved
technology, and marketable
 renewable energy credits are driving the wind power industry, producing favorable
economics at both the utility
 scale as well as the smaller, community scale. Wind power is now comparable in
price with the most commonenergy sources, such as coal and natural gas, resulting
in a large percentage increase in the number of wind
 turbines being erected throughout the country. With increasing demand for wind
power, there will be a greater
 need for wind technicians, or windsmiths, that provide maintenance on the turbines.
There will also be a need for
 training programs that provide instruction in wind turbine technology, turbine
maintenance, tower construction
 and erection, tower safety and wind economics. In addition, there will be an
increasing need for research on
 developing technologies to make wind power a steady reliable source of electricity,
available on demand rather
 than just when the wind blows.

 Aims & objectives

 An association was formed to develop the idea, which aimed to promote wind
energy projects
 that benefit local people and that are subject to a significant degree of local control.
 To gain experience in wind measurement, site development and
operation of large scale wind turbines at sites in complex terrain and
especially under the specific geographic and climatic conditions in the
West Balkan area with the aim of increasing efficiency and reliability of
wind turbine technology.
 To gain experience with innovative measurement and simulation
techniques in complex terrain and under specific local wind systems in
SEE.
 To improve the accuracy of energy yield prediction in complex terrain.
 To increase efficiency and reliability of operating MW scale wind turbines
at sites in complex terrain.
 To standardize and harmonize building codes and related standards for
wind turbine construction in West Balkans.

 Objectives

 The North American Wind Research and Training Center will accomplish the
following objectives:
 Develop a comprehensive wind energy training curriculum to train technicians in all
aspects of modern wind
 turbines and wind farm management, including customized industry training for
each turbine design
 Provide a location for applied wind research in a Class 4-5 wind energy resource
region in close proximity to
 major wind farms.
 Provide an educational environment for instruction on wind power technology
 Promote wind power as an economic development tool for the region
 Serve as a demonstration site for other public institutions and industries seeking to
reduce utility costs.
 7/18/05

which . It was reported to have an annual capacity factor of 32 per cent. a region between Afghanistan and Iran. the first practical windmills were built in Sistan. In the fall of 1941. and must be pointed into the wind. Made of six to twelve sails covered in reed matting or cloth material. not much different from current wind machines. Small turbines are pointed by a simple wind vane. These were vertical axle windmills. and were used in the gristmilling and sugarcane industries. from the 7th century. The windwheel of Heron of Alexandria marks one of the first known instances of wind powering a machine in history.  A forerunner of modern horizontal-axis wind generators was in service at Yalta. The Smith-Putnam wind turbine only ran for 1100 hours. the first megawatt-class wind turbine was synchronized to a utility grid in Vermont. This was a 100 kW generator on a 30 m (100 ft) tower.  The first utility grid-connected wind turbine operated in the UK was built by John Brown & Company in 1954 in the Orkney Islands.  Resources Wind turbines locations with constantly high wind speeds bring best return on investment. It had an 18 meter diameter. connected to the local 6.  However.3 kV distribution system. while large turbines generally use a wind sensor coupled with a servo motor. Most have a gearbox. these windmills were used to grind corn and draw up water.C. three-bladed rotor and a rated output of 100 kW. HISTORY  Wind machines were used in Persia as early as 200 B. which had long vertical driveshafts with rectangle-shaped blades. With a wind resource assessment it is possible to estimate the amount of energy the wind turbine will produce.  Types of wind turbine  Horizontal axis Components of a horizontal axis wind turbine (gearbox. rotor shaft and brake assembly) being lifted into position Horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT) have the main rotor shaft and electrical generator at the top of a tower. Due to war time material shortages the unit was not repaired. USSR in 1931.

 Turbine design and construction .  Vertical-axis wind turbines (or VAWTs) have the main rotor shaft arranged vertically. In the Netherlands they were also used to pump water from lowlying land. Solidity is measured by blade area divided by the rotor area. Georges Darrieus. 12th-century windmills These squat structures. the generator and gearbox can be placed near the ground. because the starting torque is very low. or an additional Savonius rotor to start turning. were developed in Europe. but produce large torque ripple and cyclical stress on the tower. These windmills were pointed into the wind manually or via a tail-fan and were typically used to grind grain. and were instrumental in keeping its polders dry. Newer Darrieus type turbines are not held up by guy-wires but have an external superstructure connected to the top bearing. typically (at least) four bladed. and it is more accessible for maintenance. or Darrieus turbines. This is an advantage on sites where the wind direction is highly variable. With a vertical axis.turns the slow rotation of the blades into a quicker rotation that is more suitable to drive an electrical generator. The Netherlands. Key advantages of this arrangement are that the turbine does not need to be pointed into the wind to be effective. Ede. Drawbacks are that some designs produce pulsating  Darrieus wind turbine "Eggbeater" turbines. Horizontal subtypes Doesburger windmill. which contributes to poor reliability. They have good efficiency. usually with wooden shutters or fabric sails. They also generally require some external power source. The torque ripple is reduced by using three or more blades which results in a higher solidity for the rotor. were named after the French inventor. so the tower doesn't need to support it.

Wind turbines convert wind energy to electricity for distribution. and most likely a gearbox component for converting the low speed incoming rotation to high speed rotation suitable for generating electricity. includes the blades for converting wind energy to low speed rotational energy. 14.t tor the pound tism 2008-2012 was increased to 14 GW. which established a country-wide network of 105O wind monitoring and wind mapping . as well as 1. control systems. this ministry was renamed the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE). The Indian Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) estimates that there is a potential of around 90. which is approximately 34% of the wind turbine cost. and satisfy the increasing energy demand of a rapidly growing economy.294 MW of small hydro power and 26.3 GW from other RE ssurces The tdi^ot si. renewable energy sources (excluding large hydro) currently account for 9% of India's overall power generation capacity. includes the tower and rotor yaw mechanism. Conventional horizontal axis turbines can be divided into three components. In 2006.367 MW of biomass In addition. The total potential for wind power in India was first estimat¬ed by the Centre for Wind Energy Technology (C-WET) at around 45 GW. In this period. which is approximately 20% of the wind turbine cost. The C-WET study was based on a comprehensive wind mapping exercise initiated by MNRE. nearly double that figure was achieved. including 48. the Indian government is planning to add an extra 14 CW of renewable sources. number of blades and blade shape. and was recently increased to 48.5 GW of renewable energy sources to the generation mix. 10.    The rotor component.5 GW. In reality. more than 5. The structural support component. Renewable energy is growing rapidly in India.  INDIA WIND ENERGY In the early 1980s.4 GW of wind energy was added to the generation mix. With an installed capacity of 13.2 CW.Components of a horizontal-axis wind turbine Wind turbines are designed to exploit the wind energy that exists at a location. In its 10th Five Year Plan.561 MW of wind power. The generator component. which is approximately 15% of the wind turbine cost. This figure was also adopted by the government as the official estimate.000 MW for the country. Aerodynamic modeling is used to determine the optimum tower height.5 GW of which to be new wind generation capacity. includes the electrical generator. shadow free area covered with 657 GW of installed capacity. the Indian government established the Ministry of NonConventional Energy Sources (MNES) to encourage diversification of the country's energy supply. the potential for solar energy is estimated for most parts of the country at around 20 MW per square kilometer of open. the control electronics. however. By 2012. the Indian government had set itself a target of adding 3.

It also helps in analyzing and forecasting key metrics relating to the installed capacities. This effort made it possible to assess the national wind potential and identify suitable areas for harnessing wind power for commercial use. The World Institute for Sustainable Energy. Indian. It offers interesting results on the market share of the top manufacturers in the Italy wind turbine industry. The report facilitates to understand onshore and offshore market in India. market size and growth.Do deals with an understanding of how competitors are financed.Key details regarding the active and upcoming wind projects in India Reasons to buy . Renewable Power Market.the wind measurements were carried out at lower hub heights and did not take into account technological innovation and improvements and repowering of old turbines to replace them with bigger ones At heights of 55-65 meters. and 216 suitable sites have been identified. to replace them with bigger ones. greater land availability and expanded resource exploration. and the mergers and partnerships that have shaped the market .Identify growth segments and opportunities in the India Wind Industry .Identify the key growth and investment opportunities within the India market based on the deal analysis . Renewable Energy.stations in 25 Indian States. Scope . deal analysis and recent developments .Identify and analyze the strengths and weaknesses of the leading wind companies in India Keywords India. Historical Cumulative . The report helps to comprehend the wind turbine industry and the regulatory framework regarding the wind market in India.Analyzes the India Wind Turbine Industry .Global Wind Market Analysis . India (WISE) considers that with larger turbines. It provides information relating to the major wind farms onshore and offshore projects and also the upcoming projects in India. At heights of 55-65 meters.Understand and respond to your competitors’ business structure. strategy and prospects .Facilitate decision-making based on strong historic and forecast data. it helps an investor to gauge the market and technological development of the India wind market. However.Key policies and regulatory framework supporting the India Wind Market .Develop strategies based on the latest operational and regulatory events in India .India Wind Market Overview. the potential could be as big as 100 GW.Predict and forecast future wind industry trends in India . On an all. The report also provides trends and analysis of investments in the India wind power market as well as deal summary and news flow for the last 6 months. it also provides ten profiles of the major wind turbine companies in India. Additionally.Gain the most up to date and in-depth information on the India wind power market .India Wind Turbine Industry and the leading players in the Indian wind market . the Indian WindTur bine Manufacturers Assodation (IWTMA) estimates that the potential for wind development in India is around 65-70 GW.Rapidly help to prepare more detailed and effective planning materials .  India Wind Energy Market Analysis and Forecasts to 2013 (Global Data) The report provides detailed analysis and forecasts of the global wind power market and the India wind market in particular. Market Size and Growth . Asia Pacific.

Wind maps are needed to identify the optimal locations. 10. 9. Infrastructure Analysis. they object more to having a coal-fired power plant in their backyards. Wind turbines can also share space with other interests such as the farming of crops or cattle. Market Dynamics. World Wind Power Market. Wind energy replaces electricity from coal-fired power plants and thus reduces greenhouse gases that produce global warming. Wind energy is a renewable resource meaning that the Earth will continue to provide this and it's up to people to use it and harness it to best advantage.Installed Capacity. tax breaks and long-term costs may alleviate much of this. Wind farms on average have a smaller footprint than coal-fired power plants and even though some people don't like the appearance to wind turbines. Even though costs of wind energy have come down dramatically it still has to compete with the ultra low price for fossil fuel power plants. S. 3. Human Resources Analysis. Wind energy is available in many remote locations where the electrical grid doesn't reach. 7. distribution and building of turbines for the initial costs. DOE estimates wind energy can be produced for as low as 4 to 6 cents per kilowatt hour. Supply Chain Analysis. though government subsidies. Wind energy is cheap and is largely dependent upon the manufacturing. Wind energy is creating jobs that are far outpacing other sectors of the economy. Some people object to the visual site of wind turbines disrupting the local landscape. 8. Some places such as the Gulf Coast region of the U. Offshore Development. These are the top 10 advantages and top 10 disadvantages of wind energy. 10. Some environmentalists have complained that large utility wind turbines have a detrimental effect to migratory bird flight paths. 4. Transmission of electricity from remote wind farms can be a major hurdle for utilities since many time turbines are not located around urban centers. Average Wind Farm Cost. 2. hydrogen or other forms still needs research and development to become commercially viable. S. Renewable Type. 2. The wind doesn't blow well at all locations on Earth. It's a well-known method of using kinetic energy (wind) to produce mechanical energy and has been around for thousands of years since the Persians and later Romans were using windmills to draw water and grind grain. 6. Depending upon the type of wind turbine. 5. Wind Market. the product is not like oil that has to be transported on tankers to the far regions of the earth. Capital  Advantages of Wind Energy 1. Wind energy doesn't have to be used solely on a commercial scale as residential wind turbines are now gaining ground in many communities. Average Wind Turbine Size. The initial cost of a wind turbine can be substantial. which can be frustrating for homeowners. The U. 3. 9. noise pollution may be a factor for those living or working nearby. 8. Wind energy is available worldwide and though some countries may be "windier" than others. Wind is an intermittent source of energy and when connected to the electrical grid provides an uneven power supply. 7. have too strong of winds during hurricane season that may damage wind turbines. 5. 4. Farms. Make up your own mind whether the advantages outweigh the disadvantages for your household and your community . Wind energy is nothing new. The storage of excess energy from wind turbines in the form of batteries. mountain areas and third world nations can take advantage of wind energy. Utility scale wind turbines can interfere with television signals of those living within a mile or two of the installation. 6.  Disadvantages of Wind Energy 1.