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Sand Control

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Hydrocarbon Reservoir
To be formed, a deposit of hydrocarbon requires three types of
rock: 

Source rock (black shale) 

Reservoir rock (sandstone – limestone) 

Barrier (shale – salt)

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2

Sandstone Reservoir
mineral grain
Quartz, SiO2

natural cementing
CaCO3

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All rights reserved 4 .Sandstone Reservoir Rocks  Dune Sandstone  Shoreline Sandstone  River Sandstone  Delta Sandstone Copyright 2007. .

Dune Sandstone Wind Copyright 2007. . All rights reserved 5 .

All rights reserved 6 .Shoreline Sandstone Beaches are long. narrow deposits of well-sorted sand. . Copyright 2007.

River Sandstone Point Bars Copyright 2007. All rights reserved 7 . .

All rights reserved 8 .Delta Reservoir Delta is a mass of sediments deposited by a river communicating into a body of water like a lake or ocean Copyright 2007. .

000 2 Million 5. All rights reserved Cretaceous Jurassic Triassic 9 . .3 Million 38 Million 55 Million 65 Million 140 Million 200 Million 250 Million 570 Million Precambrian 4.Geological Time Era Period Epoch Age Quaternary Holocene Pleistocene Pliocene Miocene Eocene Paleocene Paleozoic 10.5 Billion Cenozoic Tertiary Mesozoic Copyright 2007.

Brinell Hardness Number) Copyright 2007.Rock Hardness Term BHN Remarks Unconsolidated < 2 No cementing material Partially 2-5 Crushed with fingers Friable 5 .50 forceps   Hard Very Hard 50 .10 Crushed when rubbed Consolidate 10 . All rights reserved 10 .30 Crushed with forceps Hard > 30 Can not be broken with  Medium Hard 30 . .125 > 125 (BNH .

very weak Very weak Weakly-cemented high F Weak Stronger cement lower F 11 . . All rights reserved Strength from capillary forces Damp sand Very.Strength Ranges Zero strength Dry sand Copyright 2007.

All rights reserved 12 . Differential Stresses  Cementing Material. Friction. Degree of Consolidation  Fluid Viscosity. .Factors for Sand Production  Overburden. Production Velocity. Water Production Copyright 2007. Drag Forces  Capillary Forces.

Copyright 2007.  Sand production will follow if sand can be transported. the rock will fail.Sand Production  Once the destabilizing forces overcome the formation strength. . All rights reserved 13 .

All rights reserved 14 . .Causes of Sand Production (I)  Time Dependence – decreasing reservoir pressure increases the effective stress on the grains (overburden is constant)  Fluid Flow – fluid velocity and viscosity contributes to the pressure drop near the wellbore (drag force) – production induces stress on the formation sand – induced stress > formation stress ⇒ sand production Copyright 2007.

usually shallow depths Þunconsolidated  Impairment on Natural Consolidation – high compressive strength – internal pore pressure supports the overburden σ' = σ . All rights reserved 15 .α P Copyright 2007.Causes of Sand Production (II)  Geological Factors – tertiary age reservoirs. .

Causes of Sand Production (III) Mutiphase Flow  Water production may dissolve natural cementing materials weakening the intergranular bonds. All rights reserved 16 . Copyright 2007. .  Water production may mobilize fines resulting in plugging of the pore structure.

Prediction of Sand Production Experience Analogy Special Well Test Core Inspection and Testing . SEM .Uniaxial and Triaxial Compressive Strength Measurements Log Interpretation (IMPACT*) Correlations onset of sand production ≅ 0. .X-ray. All rights reserved 17 .7 x compressive strength Copyright 2007.

They can be dissolved.  Fines are not controlled. . All rights reserved 18 .Sand and Fines  Fines – solids with φ 44 microns  Fines are most probably produced in every well. Needs to be controlled.  Sand can not be dissolved. Copyright 2007.

. All rights reserved 19 .Reasons for Sand Control  Sand bridges  Sand erosion  Casing / Liner failure  Sand disposal Copyright 2007.

Methods for Sand Control  Screnless  With Screen Copyright 2007. All rights reserved 20 . .

Resin-Coated Gravel  Injection of pre-coated gravel. All rights reserved 21 .Screenless Methods for Sand Control In-situ consolidation  Use of resins to consolidate formations. . Copyright 2007.

Methods for Sand Control using Screen  Gravel Pack  Natural Sand Pack (NSP)  Frac & Pack (Frac-n-Pack. All rights reserved 22 . Frac-Pack. . StimPAC*) * .mark of Schlumberger Copyright 2007.

sub 325 mesh <2%. D40/D90<3. All rights reserved Screen Premium Gravel Pack Screen Large GP Horizontal 23 . D40/D90<5. Screen D10/D95<20. sub 325 mesh >10%. GP D10/D95>20. sub 325 mesh <5%. D40/D90<5. D10/D95<10. D10/D95<20. D40/D90<5. . sub 325 mesh <10%. D40/D90>5. sub 325 mesh <5%. Tiffin at al Criteria D10/D95<10.Criteria for Sand Control Methods SPE 39437. Copyright 2007.

0 60.0 80. .Formation with high % of fines Hungo-2 Cummulative Grain Size 100.0 10000 1000 100 Grain size (µ m) Copyright 2007.0 40. All rights reserved 44 µm 10 1 24 .0 90.0 20.0 0.0 50.0 10.0 30.0 Cumlative (%) 70.

Data Mgmt. . 25 .Independent Product Development MultiLaterals Flow Control Completion Accessories Sand Face Completions Copyright 2007. All rights reserved Gauging.

Advanced Completions Group MultiLaterals Flow Control Completion Accessories Sand Face Completions Copyright 2007. . Reservoir Mgmt. 26 . All rights reserved Gauging.

All rights reserved  Multi Lateral  Intelligent Completions  Instrumentation  Completion Accessories  Sand Control 27 .Integrated Systems Approach Copyright 2007. .

All rights reserved . .Gravel Pack Design Copyright 2007.

All rights reserved 29 .First Selections  1st: select fluid system – least damaging. . economical. efficient  2nd: select gravel and screen or slotted liner – size and type  3rd: NODAL analysis: – evaluate effect on well productivity  4th: Re-select fluids and gravel – if necessary Copyright 2007.

ensure that all perforations are open and clean  Clean tubing prior to any pumping Copyright 2007. All rights reserved 30 . clean mud cake prior running screen  In CH. .Gravel Pack Preparation Always  In OH.

. All rights reserved 31 .Internal gravel pack Cased Hole Considerations Reliable drilling and completion methodologies Requires efficient perforation system Isolate production from undesirable zones Poor perforation pack may lead to low productivity Easier workover compared to EGP Copyright 2007.

increasing wellbore area No damage due to poor perforation pack efficiency Hole stability is a concern while drilling and completion Water production control may become impractical Copyright 2007.External gravel pack Open Hole Considerations Can be Underreamed. . All rights reserved 32 .

Circulation system - IGP

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Fluid may leak to the formation,
may be circulate back to the
surface or both. 

When pumping slurry, gravel
will be placed inside perforation
tunnels and annular casingscreen.

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Circulation system - EGP

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Fluid may leak to the formation,
may be circulate back to the
surface or both. 

When pumping slurry, gravel
will be placed in the annular
formation-screen. 

Accessories : Lower and Upper
Telltale.

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Squeeze system - IGP

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Fluid may leak only to the
formation. 

Fluid may travel through inside
the screen. 

When pumping slurry, gravel
will be placed inside perforation
tunnels and annular casingscreen.

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Sand volume behind casing 

New wells (never produced sand)
– 0.25 ft3 / ft 

“Old” wells (already produced sand)
– 0.50 ft3 / ft

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36

Formation Analysis 

Lithology, definition of fluids 

Granulometry, selection of gravel size

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All rights reserved 38 . .5.Sampling  per layer – critical for gravel size determination  full core samples are best – bail samples are not representative because of loss of – high and low ends of particle distribution  sidewall cores are acceptable – frequent sampling • •  heterogeneous formation . 20 ft spacing shale-shaker – representative. if collection is accurate Copyright 2007.1 ft uniform formations . 10.

All rights reserved 39 . .% % cumulative Sample collection size size (log) bail sample (high end) core sample bail sample (low end) Copyright 2007.

All rights reserved 40 . .Fluids Compatibility  potential damage by fines migration (clays)  formation cores are often unavailable  inference from lab studies on similar formations  requires comprehensive clays analysis of the samples Copyright 2007.

Clay Chemistry  Montmorillonite – swelling clays – sensitive to fluids with low NaCl content  Kaolinite. illite and chlorite – dispersed by fluid movement – NaCl increases the sensitivity of the clays – CaCl2 is normally used instead of NaCl Copyright 2007. All rights reserved 41 . .

a clay stabilizer should be add to the carrier fluid.  As a prevention. . potential clay problemsmerits serious consideration when clay content equals or exceeds 5%.Clays  In Gravel Packing. All rights reserved 42 . Copyright 2007.

Acid clean-up prior to gravel pack  HCl – dissolves calcium scale and improves injectivity  OCA .controls swelling and movement of clays and fines (dissolves most and stabilizes the remain)  Maximum operational flexibility  Increased leak-off rate during GP  Do not overflow the well after treatment Copyright 2007. . All rights reserved 43 .

Tubing clean-up prior gravel pack  organic solvents (pipe dope)  acid (rust and scale)  1. Copyright 2007. . All rights reserved 44 .000 gal of DAD* or CLEAN SWEEP*  acid must be reversed to surface  scrubber slurries: 6 to 10 lbm/gal sand in viscosified brine ahead acid clean-up.

. Xanthan. PERMPAC*  new fluids: improved leak-off. reduced permeability damage Copyright 2007. thin to move to wellbore (breakers)  HEC.Fluid / Formation compatibility  non damaging  aqueous fluids: 2-3% KCl or NH4Cl + clay stabilizer  cleanliness: all fluids should be filtered  gels: viscous enough for placement. All rights reserved 45 .

downhole conditions  Comparison of viscosities only at same shear rate and temperature Copyright 2007. . All rights reserved 46 .selection of correct fluid viscosity (511 sec-1 to simulate leakoff)  Rule-of-thumb: maximum 50 cP @ 170 sec-1.Carrier fluid rheology (I)  µ > 50 cP @ 170 sec-1 inhibits leakoff  SandCADE* .

Carrier fluid rheology (II)  trend in industry: low concentration in low viscosity  for high concentration: for over 10 lbm/gal US 20/40. reduce concentration to < 10 lbm/gal Copyright 2007. . minimum of 65 lbm HEC per 1000 gal brine  in CT. All rights reserved 47 .

Breakers a gel is broken when viscosity is 10% of original viscosity Copyright 2007. . All rights reserved 48 .

avoid contamination in tanks and transports  Brines must be filtered at 2 µ  Gels must be filtered at 10 µ – 15/64 in to 3/8 in choke at 500 psi – estimate 10% reduction in viscosity Copyright 2007. . All rights reserved 49 .Filtration  All fluids must be filtered – preferably at well site.

Damage caused by solids 500 Permeability (md) A (2.02 0.04 0.5 ppm) (A) Bay Water Filtered Through 2um Cotton Filer 100 (B) Bay Water Through 5um Cotton Filter B (26 ppm) (C) Produced Water Untreated 50 C (94 ppm) (D) Bay Water Untreated D (436 ppm) 10 0 0.06 0. All rights reserved 50 .08 0. .10 Volume Injected (gal/perf) Copyright 2007.

All rights reserved 51 . .Sizing the gravel  size of gravel is selected based in size of formation grains  the sizing criterion is selected based on field experience  Saucier criterion is the most used one CRITERION formation gravel Copyright 2007.

.Sizing Criteria  Saucier Method: median grain for gravel is 5 or 6 times median grain size for sand formation (D50)g = 5 or 6 x (D50)f  Coberly Method: uniform sands. All rights reserved 52 .  Schwartz Method: reduces probability of fines Copyright 2007.  Stein Method: uniform sand. Gravel too large to prevent fines.

.Gravel .Screen Copyright 2007.Gravel Pack Sand . All rights reserved 53 .

blank pipe & wash pipe Screen length: 5 ft above and 5 ft below perforations minimum gap Screen OD: gap of 1-in per side screen ≥ 1-in Wash pipe OD: very close to screen ID Blank pipe OD: slightly less than screen Blank pipe ID: same as screen wash-pipe blank pipe screen Copyright 2007. All rights reserved 54 . .Screen.

Liners or Screens ? Copyright 2007. All rights reserved 55 . Slotted Liners Wire Wrapped Screens low cost robust enhanced control large flow area un-restricted flow small fluid area pressure loss across slots slots erosion primary control only cost can be high welding might corrode .

. All rights reserved 56 .Gravel pack limitations  difficult diversion of fluids  difficult transport of gravel in high angles  reduced pipe strength (with screens)  no isolation of intervals (unless zone isolation is used)  difficult to locate damage screens Copyright 2007.

How many holes ?  in Cased Hole: same flow area as casing perfs. . All rights reserved 57 . Copyright 2007.  in Open Hole: minimum 4 holes of 1/2-in  some manufactures: 100 to 300 holes per ft.  diameter: 3/8-in to 1/2-in.

Wire spacing  Wire is wedge shaped to prevent bridging and plugging of slots by small grains  Screen gauge and slot opening should be small enough to prevent the passage of the gravel Copyright 2007. . All rights reserved 58 .

. All rights reserved 8 gauge 59 . Tables. Gage unit in thousands of inch.Wire spacing 1/2 to 2/3 of the smallest gravel grain. Tolerance +/. Common gauge sizes Keystone Profile 20/40 gravel 12 gauge 40/60 gravel Copyright 2007.2 gauges.

. Ribs: The vertical rods that support the wire Copyright 2007.Wire wrap Parallel Configuration Keystone Configuration Gauge: The gap between the wraps in the screen. All rights reserved 60 .

. All rights reserved 61 .Gravel and screen selection Saucier’s Method  Dg50 = 5 to 6 times Df50  Screen Opening 1/2-2/3 smallest gravel size SPE 39437. Tiffin at al Percentage of fines taken in consideration Copyright 2007.

sub 325 mesh <10%. D10/D95<10. D40/D90>5. Tiffin at al Criteria D10/D95<10. All rights reserved Screen Premium Screen Gravel Pack Screen Large G P GP Horizontal 62 . sub 325 mesh <5%. . D40/D90<5. D10/D95<20. D40/D90<3. D10/D95<20. Copyright 2007. D40/D90<5.SPE 39437. D10/D95>20. sub 325 mesh <5%. D40/D90<5. sub 325 mesh >10%. sub 325 mesh <2%.

0 Cumlative (%) 70.0 10.0 0. .0 10000 1000 100 Grain size (µ m) Copyright 2007.0 80.0 90.0 60.0 40.0 30.0 20.Formation with high % of fines Hungo-2 Cummulative Grain Size 100. All rights reserved 44 µm 10 1 63 .0 50.

API RP58 (GP sand testing) Crush Resistance Sizing  96 % in the sieve range Less 2 % through smallest sieve Roundness and Sphericity  Maximum % of fines under 2. All rights reserved 64 .000 psi :  8/16 = 8%  12/20 = 4 %  Smaller = 2 %  Both superior to 0. .6 in the Krumbein Chart Acid Solubility   Not exceed 1% in (HCl-HF) Copyright 2007.

Clear interface between the formation sand and gravel. No residuals from the carrier fluid and/or fluidloss pills. No invasion of the matrix with damaging material.The ideal gravel pack Complete packing with a properly sized highpermeability gravel. . No reduced-permeability section between the formation sand and the gravel pack. All rights reserved 65 . Copyright 2007.

Poor gravel pack placement Perforation Potential for production loss Open Hole Potential for production loss and/or screen failure (erosion) Copyright 2007. . All rights reserved 66 .

Poor interface Gravel / Sand Reduced pack permeability Potential for production loss Copyright 2007. All rights reserved 67 . .

Matrix damage Invasion of the matrix by treatment/completion fluids Potential for production loss Copyright 2007. . All rights reserved 68 .

All rights reserved 69 . .Damage zone Perforation Crushed Zone Potential for production loss Open Hole Filter Cake Potential for production loss Copyright 2007.

.Gravel pack damage Residuals from the treatment fluid Potential for production loss Copyright 2007. All rights reserved 70 .

cleaning perforation tunnel walls.  The process may leave substantial sand debris in the perforation tunnel (secondary damage). This is may eliminate skin. However the flow can help secondary damage.  Post shot flow does not produce any substantial additional cleanup of primary damage. All rights reserved 71 . This may be compromise production and gravel placement. Copyright 2007.Underbalance perforating  If the stress caused by differential pressure and drag exceeds the rock failure.  The rock failure removes the permeability damaged zone. . a progressive moving / erosion will occur in the permeability damaged region.

.Ideal non-impared gravel pack perforation Copyright 2007. All rights reserved 72 .

All rights reserved 73 . .Realistic impared gravel pack perforation Copyright 2007.

0000 74 . Case 2 (B) Case 3 (C) Case 4 (D) Not Used Not Used .0000 (3) 500. md 40000 50000 Inflow (1) 120000.Cased hole impairment 4000 A 1 Pressure. psig 3000 2 2000 3 1000 4 0 0 10000 Not Used Not Used Not Used Copyright 2007. Bbl/D Inflow Gravel Pack Perm. All rights reserved 20000 30000 Oil Rate.0000 (2) 1000.0000 (4) 50.

0000 (2) 1000. Case 2 (B) Case 3 (C) Case 4 (D) Not Used Not Used .0000 (3) 500.Open hole impairment 4000 A 1 2 3 4 Pressure. Bbl/D Inflow Gravel Pack Perm.0000 (4) 50. All rights reserved 20000 30000 Oil Rate. md 40000 50000 Inflow (1) 120000. psig 3000 2000 1000 0 0 10000 Not Used Not Used Not Used Not Used Copyright 2007.0000 75 .

Gravel pack in open holes Placement  Water pack  AllPAC* with viscous fluid Cake removal Copyright 2007. . All rights reserved 76 .

= 0. All rights reserved 77 . Copyright 2007.  Gravel Conc. . – First wave is know as the alpha wave and progresses from heel to toe.Water packing in horizontal wells Design Highlights Reason for Potential Failure  Pump Rate 3 to 8 bpm  Excessive Fluid Loss.  Poor Gravel Concentration Control.5 to 1. – Second wave is known as the beta wave and progresses from toe to heel.  Poor Injection Rate (velocity) Control.  Pump failure cause rate to drop below critical value.0 lb/gal  Loss of filter cake  Gravel deposited in two waves  By passing of filter cake (exceeding frac pressure).

All rights reserved Sandstone 78 .Packing mechanisms  Leakoff occurs at path of least resistance High Perm  Shales pack via leakoff through the screen Sandstone  Non perforated interval packs through the screen Shale Low Perm  Nozzles spacing every 6 feet Copyright 2007. .

Alternate path technology  AllPAC .1997  Multizone . .1997  Horizontal .1999 Copyright 2007. All rights reserved 79 .1990  AllFRAC .

Alternate path technology  Complete Pack – Lowers Risk of Sand Control Failure – Wire Wrap Screens  Increased Production – Increased perforation packing – Increased the “height” in KH which results in higher productivity Copyright 2007. . All rights reserved 80 .

. All rights reserved 81 .AllPAC* Void Void Copyright 2007.

Connections Shunt tube exit nozzles on 2 out of 4 tubes. One or more packing shunts feed off of each main shunt. giving no redundancy. . Only main shunt connects from joint to joint. Manifold AllPAC One or more independent main shunts without nozzles to deliver slurry. 82 . Copyright 2007. All rights reserved Eccentric Flow from all tubes mix at each connection. giving complete redundancy. Each system remains independent of the other.

First stages of AllFRAC Stage 1 Frac Pad with No Slurry Copyright 2007. All rights reserved Stage 2 Tip Screen Out and Start of Pack Back 83 . .

Second stages of AllFRAC Stage 3 Bridge Forms at Top of Screen Copyright 2007. All rights reserved Stage 4 Shunt Tubes Kickin And Pack Back Continues 84 . .

Complete pack off Stage 5 Shunt Tubes Continue Pack Back Copyright 2007. All rights reserved Stage 6 Complete Frac Pack 85 . .

.MOBIL AllPAC results  All Annulus Packs Complete (as Per Mobil)  No Failures from ALLPAK Completed Wells  Gravel Placed Outside of the Perforations Increased from 0.15 to 0. All rights reserved 86 .42 ft3/ft Copyright 2007.

All rights reserved 87 . Lower Gauge 150 5500 BHP Upper and Lower 13000 5000 13020 10 Time (minutes) 12940 12960 2 140 Temp. 0 12980 13000 20 30 12980 40 50 60 8000 190 7500 180 7000 170 6500 160 6000 Temp.Multi-zone treatment 5 10 15 1 12880 12900 100 1000 12840 SP 12860 10 ILD 12860 12880 12900 10000 9000 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 16 14 6 4 Conc. (bpm or ppa) 12840 20 Pressure (psi) 0 130 13020 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Time (minutes) Copyright 2007. Upper Gauge 4500 Temperature (Deg F) 12960 8 12920 Pressure (psi) 12940 10 Rate 0 12920 12 Surface Pressure Rate or Conc. .

15 jobs to date for PRISA 1 job with 3 zones (2 x MZ) . All rights reserved 88 .Multi-zone treatment  Benefits – – – –  Interval between zones 6 feet Single trip in hole Single pump stage Simple Completions – Gravel Pack-Frac / Pack • • Copyright 2007.

1 1 50 1 10 100 6000 30 1 0380 10380 5000 25 1 0400 10400 4000 20 1 0420 10420 3000 15 2000 10 1000 5 0 0 1 0440 10440 1 0460 10460 1 0480 10480 1 0500 10500 10520 1 0520 Wet Sand 0 20 40 60 Time (min) 10540 1 0540 Copyright 2007. All rights reserved 89 . Well Pressure (psi) 10360 Rate (bpm) Conc (ppa) 1 0360 .Two zones (lower wet) 0 50 100 0.

Multi-zones results  Complete Packs of All Zones  Significant Completion Cost Savings  Elimination of Kill Pills  Better Production 0.7 in. All rights reserved 90 . . 27 ft 140 lbs/ft Copyright 2007.