11.

ENERGY CONSERVATION

WHAT IS ENERGY CONSERVATION?
 Energy conservation is the practice of decreasing
the quantity of energy used. It may be achieved
through efficient energy use, in which case energy
use is decreased while achieving a similar outcome,
or by reduced consumption of energy services.
 Individuals and organizations that are direct
consumers of energy may want to conserve energy
in order to reduce energy costs and promote
economic security.
 Industrial and commercial users may want to
increase efficiency and thus maximize profit.

NECESSITY OF ENERGY CONSERVATION
 Limited fuels available on earth (most of fuels
will be exhausted and we will have to switch
over to alternative sources of energy)
 Ever increasing demand of energy
 Cost of energy has increased substantially
 The product cost has a bearing of energy cost
 Energy efficient technology options available
 Reduction in green house gases emissions
 Over all environment friendly option

2001 for better utilization of energy and its conservation  25.ENERGY CONSERVATION IN INDIA  Indian government has passed Energy conservation act.000 MW capacity creation through energy efficiency in electricity sector alone has been estimated in India  23% energy conservation potential  Industrial and agriculture sectors have the maximum potential  Assessment of potential savings in different sectors  Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) created .

under the Ministry of Power set up in March 2002 under the provisions of the nation's 2001 Energy Conservation Act. .  The function of agency is to develop programs which promotes the conservation and efficient use of energy in India.BUREAU OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY (BEE)  BEE is an agency of the Government of India.  The government has proposed to make it mandatory for all appliances in India to have ratings by the BEE starting in January 2010.

Windows)  Lighting (Indoor and Outdoor)  Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) System  Solar Water Heating and Pumping  Electrical Systems (Power Factor.ENERGY CONSERVATION BUILDING CODE (ECBC)  Mandatory scope covers commercial buildings  Applies to new construction only  Building components included  Building Envelope (Walls. Transformers) . Roofs.

. such that minimal resources are used for cooling and heating the house in summer and winter respectively. can significantly reduce energy costs.ENERGY CONSERVATION IN BUILDINGS  Current best practices in building design and construction result in homes that are profoundly more energy conserving than average new homes like  Passive house  Super-insulation  Smart ways to construct homes.

roofs and Basement.ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDING CONSTRUCTION  Very good insulation of walls.  Air-tight construction to be checked by blower door test  Avoid cooling demand  Sun shading in summer  Natural cooling sources .  Windows with high quality double or triple glazing.

CONSERVATION OF ENERGY IN LIGHTING SYSTEM  Selection of Lighting in Buildings  Two methods are available:  Building area method  Space by space method .

ILPA = Σ(GLFA x LPD) . b) Calculate the gross lighted floor area (GLFA) for each building area type. c) The interior lighting power allowance (ILPA) is the sum of the products of the gross lighted floor area of each building area times the allowed lighting power density for that building area types i.e.BUILDING AREA METHOD  Interior lighting power allowance (W) by the building area method is determined in accordance with the following: a) Determine the allowed lighting power density (LPD) from Table 1 for each appropriate building area type.

1 Hotel 10.9 Museum 11.2 Dormitory/Hostel 10.7 Multifamily Residential 7.0 Hospital/ Health Care 12.8 Dining: Bar Lounge/ Leisure 14.8 Warehouse 8.1 .2 Performing Arts Theater 17.8 Gymnasium 11.9 Library 14.8 Dining: Cafeteria/ Fast Food 15.6 Motion Picture Theater 12.8 Religious Building 14.8 Motel 10.8 Police/Fire Station 10.0 Transportation 10.8 Healthcare-Clinic 10.0 Office 10.9 Workshop 15.8 School/ University 12.1 Parking Garage 3.TABLE 1: INTERIOR LIGHTING POWER FOR BUILDING AREA METHOD Building Area Type LPD (W/m2) Building Area Type LPD (W/m2) Automotive Facility 9.0 Sports Arena 11.2 Dining: Family 17.8 Manufacturing Facility 14.8 Post Office/ Town Hall 11.5 Convention Center 12.9 Retail/ Mall 16.

determine the gross interior floor area by measuring to the center of the partition wall. c) The interior lighting power allowance is the sum of the lighting power allowances for all spaces. The lighting power allowance for a space is the product of the gross lighted floor area of the space times the allowed lighting power density for that space. . b) For each space enclosed by partitions 80% or greater of ceiling height.SPACE BY SPACE METHOD  Determination of interior lighting power allowance (Watts) by the space by space method shall be in accordance with the following: a) Determine the appropriate building type from Table 2 and the allowed lighting power density.

3 Medical Supply 15.0 Hospital For Hotel 11.1 Reading Area 12.0 Stacks 18.2 Manufacturing Lounge/Recreation 12.7 For Motion Picture Theater 12.5 Operating Room 23.7 For Religious Buildings 18. ………………….4 Laundry – Washing 6.9 Contd.1 For Performing Arts Theater 28.9 Low Bay (<8m ceiling) 12.5 Automotive – Service Repair 7.8 Nurse Station 10.8 Emergency 29. ..5 Atrium-first three floors 6.9 Lobby 14.9 Patient Room 7.5 For Sports Arena 4.8 Audience/Seating Area 9.1 For Performing Arts Theater 35.8 Card File & Cataloging 11.1 For Gymnasium 4.TABLE 2: INTERIOR LIGHTING POWER FOR SPACE BY SPACE METHOD Space Function LPD (W/m2) Space Function LPD (W/m2) Office-enclosed 11.5 For Convention Center 7.5 Recovery 8.8 Office-open plan 11.8 Library 11.9 Radiology 4.8 Conference/Meeting/Multipurpose 14.3 Pharmacy 12.6 For Motion Picture Theater 11.7 Exam Treatment 16.0 Physical Therapy 9.5 Atrium-each additional floor 2.3 For Transportation 5.3 Classroom/Lecture/Training 15.3 Nursery 6.

4 For Bar Lounge/Leisure Dining 15.0 Airport – Concourse 6.8 Sales Area 18.3 Dining Area 9.3 Stairs-active 6.4 Mall Concourse 18.7 Restoration 18.3 For Manufacturing Facility 5.6 High Bay (>8m ceiling) 18.9 For Motel 12.6 Ring Sports Area 29.8 For Family Dining 22.2 Parking Garage – Garage Area 2.6 For Hotel 14.5 Medium/Bulky Material Storage 9.0 Equipment Room 12.5 Sports Arena Active Storage 8.9 Control Room 5.2 Convention Center – Exhibit Space 14.8 Ticket Counter 16.1 For Museum 8.3 Dressing/Locker/Fitting Room 6.1 Fine Material Storage 15.1 Corridor/Transition 5.2 Indoor Field Area 15.5 Bank Office – Banking Activity Area 16.1 General Exhibition 10.6 Dormitory – Living Quarters 11.1 For Hospital 9.8 Inactive Storage 3.8 Restrooms 9.4 For Hospital 10.1 .7 Sleeping Quarters 3.1 Hotel/Motel Guest Rooms 11.8 Food Preparation 12.7 Court Sports Area 24.9 Laboratory 15.1 Workshop 20.TABLE 2: INTERIOR LIGHTING POWER FOR SPACE BY SPACE METHOD Space Function LPD (W/m2) Space Function LPD (W/m2) For Hospital 8.5 Air/Train/Bus – Baggage Area 10.6 Electrical/Mechanical 16.7 Detailed Manufacturing 22.

 An EEM produces the same shaft output power (HP) but uses less input power (kW) than a standard motor.  Energy can be saved by using Energy Efficient Motor (EEM) in place of standard motor.ENERGY CONSERVATION IN INDUSTRIES THROUGH MOTOR  Electric motors converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. .

82 = 41. 3. Per unit energy charge is Rs.16 kW .00.000/(Take 1 HP = 750 W)  Rating of standard AC motor = 60 x 0. Cost of 60 HP standard AC motor is Rs. 175.75 / 0. The motor power factor is 0. At this load efficiency of motor is 82%. 1.75= 45 kW  Input power to motor = 45 x 0.8.CASE STUDY ON FINANCIAL EVALUATION OF EEM  A 60 HP standard AC motor operating at 75% load. Motor operates 20 hrs a day and 300 days in a year.10 and per month per kVA demand charge is Rs.

73.576/ Total (Demand + Energy) Cost/year = 1.045/ Energy (kWh) charges/year = 41.621/- .045 + 7.45 x 175 x 12 = Rs. 7.8 = 51.08.65.65.1 x 20 x 300 = Rs.08. 1.45 kVA  kVA charges/year = 51.16 / 0.CASE STUDY ON FINANCIAL EVALUATION OF EEM (contd…) kVA demand = 41. 8.16 x 3.576 = Rs.

efficiency of the motor is 87% and the power factor is 0.75 / 0.87 = 38.75= 45 kW  Input power to motor = 45 x 0.CASE STUDY ON FINANCIAL EVALUATION OF EEM (contd…)  A 60 HP Energy Efficient Motor is operating a 75% load. 1.20.000/ Rating of standard AC motor = 60 x 0. Cost of 60 HP EEM is Rs.83.79 kW . At this load.

19. 8. 98.73 kVA  kVA charges/year = 46.21. 7.494 98.83 = 46.10 x 20 x 300 = Rs.133/ Energy (kWh) charges/year = 38.627/- .494/ Total (Energy + Demand) charges/year = 7.73 x 175 x 12 = Rs.79 / 0.79 x 3.133 = Rs.21.CASE STUDY ON FINANCIAL EVALUATION OF EEM (contd…)  kVA demand = 38.

E.994/ Payback period for replacement of existing standard motor with E.3 years  Payback period for purchase of E. over standard motor = 8.20.000 / 53.994 = 2.M.627 = Rs.M.73. for new installation = 20.000 / 53.M.E. 53. = 1.FINANCIAL EVALUATION  Energy savings achieved by using E.37 yr = 4.621– 8.5 months .E.994 = 0.19.

 The pressure cooker should be loaded 2/3rd of the foodstuff is solid & hard and ½ if loaded with liquid.TIPS FOR ENERGY CONSERVATION IN DOMESTIC SECTOR  Organized cooking activity can save about 20% Energy.  Cook on low flame as far as possible and save 6 to 10% energy. Properly used pressure cookers can save upto 50 to 75% of energy as well as time.  Use right quantity of water required for cooking and reduce gas/kerosene usage by 65%. .

TIPS FOR ENERGY CONSERVATION IN DOMESTIC SECTOR (contd…)  Cook the food in solar cookers.  Electricity is an expensive as cooking fuel – avoid it . Cook anything except roti and save cost of 2 LPG Cylinders annually.  Allow refrigerated foodstuff to come to room temperature before heating and allow heated foodstuff to cool down to normal temperature before placing it in the refrigerator. Avoid frequent opening and closing of refrigerator & air-conditioned rooms.

consume energy according to their capacities.TIPS FOR ENERGY CONSERVATION IN DOMESTIC SECTOR (contd…)  Use proper lighting & efficient lighting devices  A tube light (36/40 W) gives more light than a 60 or 100 W bulb and consumes 40 to 60% less power. . 11 W capacities and give more light output. etc. Use appropriate lighting according to your requirement. 9. A so-called zero bulb uses 12 to 15 W per hour. tube light.  Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFL) are available in 5.  Tube light with electronic choke is even more energy efficient means of lighting  Use Daylight as far as Possible  Lighting devices like bulb. 7.

solar water heaters operate on solar energy which is available free of cost.TIPS FOR ENERGY CONSERVATION IN DOMESTIC SECTOR (contd…)  Use your refrigerator & air conditioners efficiently  Place the refrigerator about 6 inches away from the wall to allow air circulation  Air-conditioned room must be leak proof  Instant geysers are considered to be more efficient than storage type geysers.  Switch off lights & fans when not required  Stop wastage – we cannot afford it  conserve energy  Plant trees .

42 W. . Alternately the use of CFLs of 18 W rating which has an equivalent luminosity would lead to a power saving to the extent of 70% ie.ENERGY CONSERVATION IN STREET LIGHTS Normally a tube light of 40W rating with a choke of 20 W is being utilized for street lights with a total power of 60 W. Also the life of the CFLs are much longer than that of the tube lights with a cumulative savings on life and as well as the energy consumption for the entire life.

CASE STUDY ON ENERGY CONSERVATION IN STREET LIGHTS The experience of such a reported transition from tube light to CFL in Thiruvallur District is as follows: 340 tube lights originally deployed were replaced with 18 W CFL lamps. Consequently.704/- . the annual savings in the cost of energy reported is of Rs.2.12.

60  Total annual saving =Rs. 2.704/- .3.60 x 340 =Rs.79 = 184 kWh  Annual saving per light point (with cost of energy as Rs.12.625.40 = Rs.40 per unit) = 184 x 3. 625.CASE STUDY ON ENERGY CONSERVATION IN STREET LIGHTS (contd…)  Parameter  40W Tube Light with a 20 W choke  18 W Compact Fluorescent Lamp  Savings  Annual Consumption in units (with an average of 12 hours per day for 365 days) With Tube light: 60 x 12 x 365 = 263 kWh With CFL: 18 x1 2 x 365 = 79 kWh  Energy saving = 263 .

 Matching of motor with appropriate size pump.  Use of efficient transmission system. coupling between motor and pump.  Use bends in place of elbows.  Maintain right tension and alignment of transmission belts.  Proper installation of the pump system-shaft alignment.  Use of low friction rigid PVC pipes and foot valves.  Matching of pump set with source of water-canal or well.TIPS FOR ENERGY CONSERVATION IN AGRICULTURAL PUMP  Selection of proper capacity of pumps according to the irrigation requirement.  Avoid use unnecessary bends and throttle valves. .

etc. Drip systems can conserve upto 80% water and reduce pumping energy requirement.  Periodically check pump system and carry out corrective measures . .TIPS FOR ENERGY CONSERVATION IN AGRICULTURAL PUMP (contd…)  The suction depth of 6 m is recommended as optimum for centrifugal pumps.like lubrication.  Use drip irrigation for specific crops like vegetable. tobacco. The delivery line should be kept at minimum required height according to requirement. alignment. Irrigate according to established norms for different crops. fruits. tuning of engines and replacement of worn-out parts.  Over irrigation can harm the crops and waste vital water resource.

This kinetic energy when converted into pressure energy results in pressure difference between the suction and delivery of the pump.  The high speed of rotation of the impeller imparts high kinetic energy to the fluid. the fluid is fed to the centre of a rotating impeller and is thrown outward by centrifugal action. .ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN AGRICULTURAL PUMPING SYSTEM  In centrifugal pumps.

in RPM  Diameter. ft or m  Power. P : expressed in units of energy. in mm . Q: expressed in units of volume per unit of time. D: expressed as diameter of impeller or wheel. H : expressed in units of height of liquid column. m3/s or lps  Head.GENERAL PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS  The hydraulic performance of a centrifugal pump is based on operating characteristics like:  Capacity. N : expressed speed at which pump runs. η: expressed in %  The variables influencing the performance of pump are:  Speed. to which the liquid is pumped. kW or HP  Efficiency. generally. such as. such as.

Pout = Pump power output (fluid power).  The power output of a pump is less than the power input. This is because of internal losses resulting from friction.PUMP POWER OUTPUT  The power output of a pump is the product of the total dynamic head and the mass of liquid pumped in a given time. in m of liquid column (LC) ρ = Density of liquid. . in kW Q = Capacity. leakage etc. in m3/s H = Total dynamic head. in kg/m3  The power required for driving the pump is the fluid power (output) divided by the pump efficiency. The power output is given by: Pout = (Q x H x ρ) / 102 Where.

in m of LC ρ = Density of liquid. in m3/s H = Dynamic head.PUMP EFFICIENCY  The pump efficiency is expressed as: ηpump = (Q x H x ρ) / (102 x kW x ηmotor) Where Q = Capacity. in kg/m3 kW = Motor input power ηmotor = Efficiency of motor  The pump efficiency (ηpump) is the product of three efficiencies: ηpump = ηm ηv ηh Where ηm = Mechanical efficiency ηv = Volumetric efficiency ηh = Hydraulic efficiency .

which is affected by three aspects of hydrogeology.ENERGY CONSUMPTION  The energy consumption is a factor.  The energy consumption in the agricultural sector is influenced by the cropping pattern also. will consume more energy. the geology of the area. depth of ground water and the current level of ground water extraction. namely. .  For example. the pumps operating in alluvial areas with low pump density will consume less energy. while the pumps operating in hard rock areas with high pump density.

ENERGY INDEX Energy index is the ratio of energy consumed by the pumping system per unit of work done. in lps H = Static head. This index is the inverse of the pumping system efficiency and is given by: (i) ELECTRIC PUMP SET Energy index = (√3 VI cos ϕ x 102) / (Q x H) where V = Supply voltage. in V I = Current measured. in A cos ϕ = Power factor (0. in m .80) Q = Discharge rate.78 x D) / (Q x H) where D = Diesel consumed. in lps H = Static head. in m (ii) DIESEL PUMP SET Energy index = (27.70 or 0. in lph Q = Discharge rate.

REDUCING FRICTION ACROSS SUCTION PIPING. in m v = velocity of flow. f = coefficient of friction of pipe L = equivalent length of pipe. in m/s D = diameter of pipe. in m/s2 . in m g = acceleration due to gravity. Hfs  The reduction of Hfs can result in the following benefits:  Reduction of total system head (H)  Cavitations-free operation  Energy efficient performance  The friction loss across pipes is given by: Hfs = (4 x f x L x v2) / (2 x g x D) Where.