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A group of finite tasks to be performed and
duties to be fulfilled in order to achieve an
end result.

is a conscious effort to organise tasks,
duties and responsibilities into a unit
of work to achieve a certain objective.

JOB REDESIGN is a conscious effort to re-organise tasks. . duties and responsibilities into a unit of work to satisfy both technological and human considerations simultaneously.

APPROACHES TO JOB REDESIGN  Job-based approaches  Person-based approaches  Team-based approaches .

scheduling. etc) .Job-Based Approaches Techniques  Specialisation  Job elements  Standardisation  Time and motion studies  Operations and production  Flow charts and Process management (process charts identification.

Person-Based Approaches Job enlargement  Job enrichment  Job rotation  Techniques  Job Characteristics Model .

growth and recognition  Job Rotation = moving from one job to another . achievement.Specialized to Enlarged Jobs  Job Enlargement = same-level activities  Job Enrichment = redesigning to experience more responsibility.

JOB REDESIGN Add new tasks Rearrange existing tasks in the job Include work done before the job THE JOB AND ITS TASKS Increase feedback on performance Add new responsibility Include work done after the job Increase closure of tasks Eliminate dissatisfying tasks from job .

Job Characteristics Model Core Job Characteristics Skill Variety Task Identity Task Significance Critical Psych States Personal & Work Outcomes Experienced meaningfulness of the work High internal work motivation Autonomy Experienced responsibility for work outcomes Job Feedback Knowledge of work results Individual Differences High quality work performance High satisfaction with work Low absenteeism & turnover .

Feedback The amount of information received about how well or how poorly one has performed. Autonomy The extent of individual freedom and discretion in the work and its scheduling.Job Characteristics Skill Variety The extent to which the work requires several different activities for successful completion. Task Significance The impact the job has on other people. Task Identity The extent to which the job includes a “whole” identifiable unit of work that is carried out from start to finish and that results in a visible outcome. .

Job Analysis – What is it and how is it used? The procedure for determining the duties and skill requirements of a job and the kind of person who should be hired for it. .

tools. and work aids . equipment.Types of Information Collected Work activities Human requirements Human behaviors Information Collected Via Job Analysis Job context Performance standards Machines.

responsibilities. reporting relationships. personality. and supervisory responsibilities  Job specifications  A list of a job’s “human requirements. working conditions.The Output of Job Analysis Job description  A list of a job’s duties.  . and so on. skills. the requisite education.” that is.

Uses of Job Analysis Information Recruitment and selection Compensation Information Collected via Job Analysis Training Performance appraisal .

5 Verify the job analysis information. 6 Develop a job description and job specification. 3 Select representative positions. 4 Actually analyze the job. . 2 Review relevant background information.Steps in Job Analysis Steps in doing a job analysis: 1 Decide how you’ll use the information.

Collecting Job Analysis Information Methods for Collecting Job Analysis Information Interviews Questionnaires Observations Diaries/Logs .

Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information: The Interview  Information sources     Advantages   Individual employees Groups of employees Supervisors with knowledge of the job Quick. Disadvantages  Distorted information  Interview formats  Structured (Checklist)  Unstructured . direct way to find overlooked information.

Questionnaire formats   Structured checklists Opened-ended questions  Advantages   Quick and efficient way to gather information from large numbers of employees Disadvantages  Expense and time consumed in preparing and testing the questionnaire .Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information: Questionnaires  Information source   Have employees fill out questionnaires to describe their jobrelated duties and responsibilities.

.Job Analysis Questionnaire for Developing Job Descriptions Note: Use a questionnaire like this to interview job incumbents. or have them fill it out.

Job Analysis Questionnaire for Developing Job Descriptions (cont’d) .

Example of Position/Job Description Intended for Use Online .

  Provides first-hand information Reduces distortion of information Disadvantages    Time consuming Difficulty in capturing entire job cycle Of little use if job involves a high level of mental activity. .Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information: Observation  Information source   Advantages  Observing and noting the physical activities of employees as they go about their jobs.

 Disadvantages  Distortion of information  Depends upon employees to accurately recall their activities . Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information: Participant Diary/Logs Information source   Advantages Workers keep a  Produces a more complete chronological diary/ picture of the job log of what they do and  Employee participation the time spent in each activity.

Writing Job Descriptions  A job description   A written statement of what the worker actually does. Sections of a typical job description       Job identification Job summary Responsibilities and duties Authority of incumbent Standards of performance Working conditions . and what the job’s working conditions are. how he or she does it.

The Job Description  Job identification      Job title: name of job Grade: where it fits in the hierarchy Preparation date: when the description was written Prepared by: who wrote the description Job summary   Describes the general nature of the job Lists the major functions or activities .

Outside the company: others with whom the job holder is expected to work and come into contact with externally.The Job Description (cont’d)  Relationships     (chain of command) Reports to: employee’s immediate supervisor Supervises: employees that the job incumbent directly supervises Works with: others with whom the job holder will be expected to work and come into contact with internally. .

g. agencies. recruiters. vendors . govt.E. of Relationships Statement for Human Resource Director Vice President Employee Relations Works with all department managers and top management Human Resource Director Department Secretary Human Resource Clerk Test Administrator Labor Relations Manager Works with employment agencies. union reps.

and budgetary limitations.The Job Description (cont’d)  Responsibilities and duties   A listing of the job’s major responsibilities and duties (essential functions) Defines limits of jobholder’s decision-making authority. direct supervision. .

.The Job Description (cont’d)  Standards of performance and working conditions  Lists the standards the employee is expected to achieve under each of the job description’s main duties and responsibilities.

Job Specifications  What human traits and experience are required to do the job well?       Qualifications Prior experience Special training Personality factors Physical characteristics Other attributes/qualities .

Develop a job description and job specification .Steps in Job Analysis       Clarify why you are collecting the information Review relevant background information Select representative positions Conduct the analysis Verify with the worker / supervisor / mgmt.


Considerations Employees have about being involved in Job Analysis – Lack of trust of consequences  Possible changes to job duties  Changes to pay  The same job title may have different responsibilities and pay rates in different departments  .

Job Analysis in a “Jobless” World From specialized to enlarged jobs  Managers are “dejobbing” their companies  .

and encouraging employees not to limit themselves to what’s on their job descriptions  is a result of the changes taking place in business today. html  .  http://www.De-Jobbing De-jobbing is broadening the responsibilities of the company’s

Trends leading to De-Jobbing Rapid product and technological changes Competition Global Changes Demographics .

and/or behaviors) an employee must exhibit to do a job well.  Competency-based job analysis  Describing a job in terms of the measurable. skills. behavioral competencies (knowledge.Competency-Based Job Analysis  Competencies  Demonstrable characteristics of a person that enable performance of a job. observable. .