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Maintenance and Troubleshooting
IEE regulations
Central Unit
Unitary Systems
Remote Split

Installatio Operation
n& Maintenance &
Wiring Troubleshooting
Definition : simultaneous mechanical control of
temperature, humidity, air purity & air motion. It
include the process of extracting the warm &
dirty atmosphere from enclosed area that
combine the use of air filter & refrigeration plant.

Why do we need Air Cond?

- To improve the control of industrial process.
- To maintain human comfort
- Hospital operating Suites - reduce
infection risk and humidity controll.
Types of domestic air conditioning
1. Central Unit Systems
- Compressor, condenser,
evaporators and expansion valve is
placed in one close location & the
cooling tower is located outside of it .
- Cool air is piped out from
evaporators in air monitoring room to
the space to be air conditioned. This
system is used at hotels, shopping
complex and big building
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● Fifth level

Central Unit Systems

2. Unitary Systems
- In this system, factory assembled air
conditioners are installed in or
adjacent to the space to be
conditioned. The unitary air
conditioning systems are either self-
contained system such as window
units and packed units, or remote
split systems.
3. Remote Split System
These systems are in more common use in the
residential and small commercial installations.
They have the evaporator, blower and furnace
located in a closet in an equipment room with
condensing unit.
The refrigerant is piped from the condensing unit
to the indoor coil through copper tubing. The air
is ducted from the air conditioning equipment
to the space to be conditioned.
Most residential units have the indoor section
centrally located within the space, which
eliminates the need for a return air duct
Remote Split System Unitary Systems


Window Units Self

System Water

Water- Air- Cooled
cooled cooled
systems systems
Window unit Advantages
1. Separate temperature control for

each unit in an enclosed area.

2. No need of Air tubing. Reduce cost. Click to edit Master text styles
3. Piping work is no need.
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● Third level
4. Easy installation but unremovable.
● Fourth level
● Fifth level
Window unit Disadvantages
1. Need special area at the window.

2. Air quantity decide by the factory.

3. Unit installed at the wall. So need

to break the wall structure.

4. If failure occur, it is not easy to

bring the unit down individually.

Window unit Advantages
1. Sebuah bilik menggunakan sebuah
unit penyamanan udara yang
mengawal suhu secara berasingan.
2. Salur udara tidak diperlukan.
Menjimatkan kos.
3. Kerja pempaipan tidak perlu.
4. Pemasangan adalah mudah tetapi
pemasangan kekal (tidak boleh ubah)
Window unit Disadvantages
1. Memerlukan ruang tertentu pada
sesebuah tingkap.
2. Kuantiti udara biasanya ditentukan
oleh pengeluar.
3. Unit dipasang didinding, jadi dinding
terpaksa dipecahkan.
4. Sekiranya berlaku kerosakan, sukar
menurunkan unit secara
Remote Split System Advantages
1. No need of air feeder.
No need of water piping work.
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3. Easy installation. Second level

4. Suitable for user that desire to ● Third level
install heater & conditioner at ● Fourth level

home. ● Fifth level

Remote Split System

1. Difficult to do maintenance if
failure occurred.
2. Have indoor and outdoor unit.
3. Need speacial space.
4. Installation cost is expensive.
• Split unit air conditioner system that separate the
evaporator and condensor unit.

• This unit divided to TWO are :-

Indoor and Outdoor unit.

• Indoor unit installed in the room while the outdoor

unit installed

• There are 3 types of Split Unit air conditioner :-

• Wall type (Lekapan dinding)

• Cassette type (Lekapan lantai)

• Ceiling type (Gantungan siling)

Air Conditioning System Basics and
Most central air conditioning units
operate by means of a split system.
1. Hot side consist of condensing coil,
compressor & fan located o/side
2. Cold side consist of expansion
valve & cold air (part of furnace/ air
handler) located inside the room.
Furnace blow air through evaporator
coil which cooled the air.
The refrigeration cycle:
1) condensing coil,
2) expansion valve,
3) evaporator coil,
4) compressor
Air cond have 5 mechanical components :
i. Compressor
ii. Expansion valve / metering device
iii. Evaporator coil / Condensor
iv. Blower
v. Refrigerant

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Second level
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Compressor (heart)
Refrigeration cycle uses an electric motor
to drive a compressor.
Act as a pump causing the refrigerant to flow
through the system.
Contain 2 type of feeder : 1. Suction line
2. Discharge line
It’s job is to draw in a low pressure, low temp
refrigerant in a gaseous state & by compressing
this gas, raise the pressure & temp of the
The high pressure, high temp gas then flows to
the condensor coil.
The condensor coil is a series of piping with a
fan that draws o/side air across the coil.
As the refrigerant passes through the
condensor coil & the cooler o/side air passes
across the coil, the air absorbs heat from the
refrigerant which causes the refrigerant to
condense from a gas to a liquid state.
The high pressure, high temp liquid then
reaches the expansion valve.
Expansion valve (brain) –
 By sensing the temp of the evaporator/
cooling coil,
it allows liquid to pass through a very
small orifice which causes the refrigerant
to expand to a low pressure & low temp
 This cold refrigerant flows to the

Evaporator Coil
 A series of piping connected to a furnace
@ air handler that blows indoor air across
it causing the coil to absorb heat from the
 Absorb heat & change refrigerant in liquid
state (low temp/ pressure) to a gas (low
temp/ pressure).
A compressor is a pump that compress
refrigerant vapor & pumps the refrigerant
through the refrigeration system.
The compressed refrigerant moves to the
condensor through the discharge line
where heat is rejected & the vapor is
condensed into a liquid.
From the condenser the refrigerant is
pumped to the metering device where the
amount of the refrigerant moving into the
evaporator is controlled.
The metering device causes part of the
refrigerant to vaporize as it moves into the
evaporator & the pressure & temperature
are greatly reduced.
This reduction in pressure causes a severe
lowering in temp. inside the evaporator.
The evaporator absorbs heat from the
surrounding air which cools the air.
The vapor proceeds through the suction line
to the compressor where it is compressed &
the cycle starts over.
Places Drugstore Beauty Saloon Doctor’s office
Voltage 208V, 3 Ø, 3 wire, 208V, 3 Ø, 3 wire, 208V, 3 Ø, 2 wire,
60Hz 60Hz 60Hz

Refrigerant Rated load current Rated load Rated load

compressor- 20.2A, 208V 3 Ø current 14.1A, current 16.8A,
motor 208V 208V
3Ø 3Ø
Evaporator motor Full load current Full load current Full load current
3.2A, 208V 1 Ø 3.3A, 208V 3.7A, 208V
1Ø 1Ø
Condenser Full load current Full load current Full load current
motor 3.2A, 208V 1 Ø 3.3A, 208V 3.7A, 208V
1Ø 1Ø
Minimum cct 31.65A 20.92A 24.7A
Over protection 50A, time delay 35A, time delay 40A, time delay
current fuse fuse fuse
Installation & Wiring

3-Selit hos akhir untuk

penyambung (tertutup) Paip
Paip Bahan
1- Buka penutup yang melindungi
sambungan oksigen
2-Selit hos akhir untuk penyambung (luar)
Air Conditioning System Basics and Theories

The refrigeration cycle:

1) condensing coil,
2) expansion valve,
3) evaporator coil,
4) compressor

Heat pump transfers heat from a lower temperature heat
source into a higher temperature heat sink. Heat would
naturally flow in the opposite direction.
• A refrigerator pumps the heat out of the interior into the

room in which it stands.

Refrigeration cycle uses an electric motor to drive a
Since evaporation occurs when heat is absorbed, and
condensation occurs when heat is released, air
conditioners are designed to use a compressor to
cause pressure changes between two compartments,
and actively pump a refrigerant around.
A refrigerant is pumped into the cooled compartment
(the evaporator coil), where the low pressure and load
temperature cause the refrigerant to evaporate into a
vapor, taking heat with it.
In the other compartment (the condenser), the
refrigerant vapour is compressed and forced through
another heat exchange coil, condensing into a liquid,
rejecting the heat previously absorbed from the cooled
Refrigerant cycle 1
Pemampat akan memampatkan wap bahan dingin yg
bertekanan/ suhu rendah menjadi wap bahan dingin yg
bertekanan/ suhu tinggi & dialirkan ke pemeluwapan melalui
discharge line.
Pemeluwap – haba yg disingkirkan lalu wap bahan dingin yg
bertekanan/ bersuhu tinggi menjadi cecair bahan dingin yg
bertekanan/ bersuhu tinggi & dialirkan ke peranti pemeteran
melalui liquid line.
Peranti pemeteran – Cecair bahan pendingin yg bertekanan/
bersuhu tinggi akan dikawal pengalirannya lalu menjadi cecair
bahan dingin yg bertekanan/ bersuhu rendah & dialirkan ke
penyejat melalui ‘evaporator line’.
Penyejat – Haba diserap lalu cecair bahan dingin yg
bertekanan bersuhu rendah menjadi wap bahan dingin yg
bertekanan/ suhu rendah & masuk ke pemampat melalui
‘suction line’.
Seterusnya proses ini berulang semula.
Refrigerant cycle 2
Satu proses mengalihkan haba dari satu
tempat ke tempat yg lain.
Haba dialih melalui unit penyejat dan
disingkirkan ke udara luar pd unit
pemeluwap bg setiap jenis alat pendingin
Dlm proses pemindahan haba, 4 pekara ini
diperlukan dlm kitaran tsbt iaitu
pemeluwap, pemampat, pemejalwapan
dan injap pengembagan dan menjadi
bahan pendingin.
Txv ( meter equipment)

Evaporation Condensation
(penyejat) (pemeluwap)


Low pressure / High pressure /

Low Side High Side
Refrigerant (Freon-11, Freon-12, Freon-22)
Refrigerant are designated with an “R” & a number.
The refrigerant must be safe, detectable, have low boiling
point & have good pumping characteristics.
Freon - These refrigerants used due to the superior
stability and safety properties. Unfortunately, evidence
has accumulated that these chlorine bearing refrigerants
reach the upper atmosphere when they escape.
CFC refrigerants in common but receeding usage include
R-11 and R-12.
Environmentally-safe refrigerants include HCFCs (R-22,
used in homes) & HFCs (R-134a, used in cars) have
replaced CFC use.
HCFCs in turn are being phased out under the Montreal
Protocol and replaced by hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs),
such as R-410A, which lack chlorine.






Indoor Unit
Power Supply - Convert AC -> DC
- Step down voltage
- Distribute voltage
Receiver Cct - Receive instruction from user via remote control
Timer - Every line must pass through the timer.
- Timer is for delay
- Setting time for ON/OFF
Speed Control - Instruction in voltage signal
Relay - Voltage from speed control send to the relay
- Relay ‘On’, voltage supply enter & start the
Negative Thermistor (NTC)
– positioned at the evaporator inlet side.
- NTC – Temp. low , resistance increase (cold)
- PTC – Temp. high, resistance increase (hot)
- suitable temp. in Malaysia – 21°C humidity 55%
Outdoor Unit
Overload Relay - When overload occurred, relay will open.
Direct On Line (D.O.L.)

Function – For overload protection.
•Load below 7.46W / 1Hp no need to use DOL

•Fuse – to open when O/L occur

•Thermal O/L Relay (TOR) – Trip when thermal not

normal condition
•PB start – To start the cct.

•PB Stop – To stop the cct.

•When push PB start button, Motor Contactor (MC) will be

Normally Close, motor coil will get the power supply and
the Motor will operate.
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● Fourth level

● Fifth level

Direct On Line (D.O.L.)

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Second level
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● Fifth level

Control circuit for Star - Delta

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Second level
● Third level

● Fourth level

● Fifth level

Star - Delta Power Circuit

Star - Delta Connection
Star Delta Cct operation

Power cct for motor operation need Star - Delta cct

to get a smooth start.
To start the motor, the torque power need to be high.
So, for starting time, it’s use Star cct because when
the magnet flux is high, the power torque high.
The connection to Star cct is in 3 ~ 5 sec.
Then after 5 sec @ the motor operate, the Delta cct
will operate for motor running time.
This type of connection is used to operates load
below 5 Hp ~ 20 Hp.
Notes : Operate load between 20 Hp ~ 100 Hp
Maintenance & Troubleshooting

The system has an effect on the amount of energy

that is used & the amount of money that is spent each
Air cond also have influence to an individual through
the air quality.
Nowadays, split unit system is the most popular type that are
choose by the customer.
Besaide it is operating quietly, it is also built in with an optional
function like the ironnizer. There is 4 maintenance task that need
to be implement to makesure the airconditioner operates follow
the specification.
1. Filter cleaning – Filter is take out from the cover and clean by
using water. Dry the filter before assemble it again.
2. Evaporater cleaning – Clean the evaporator (cooling coil)
from dust by using vacuum.
3. Water duct cleaning – Clean the water duct that feed water
out from evaporator to avoid water jelly by using air blower.
4. Condensor checking – Makesure the aluminium fin is not
block with the area that is near to each other.
An air conditioning system should be checked twice
each year by a qualified person. An inspection typically
includes :
1. Checking system functions & safety controls &
adjusting the operating sequence where appropriate.
2. Make an inspection to an electrical components &
connections & repairing/ replacing @ tightening as
required. i.e checking the contactor, check capacitor.
3. Ensuring proper airflow & changing dirty air filters.
4. Inspecting pumps & checking flow rates where
5. Cleaning & lubricating motors are required.
6. Examining belts, and adjusting & aligning as
7. Inspecting, cleaning & balancing blowers as
Langkah Senggaraan Air Cond
2KK / 240V
Switch ‘OFF’ the power supply
Check the contactor of the
Clean the filter from dust.
Check talian terus / unit kawalan
Check the cold level.
Add refrigerant.
Maintenance Recor d (Maintenance schedule for 25 to 50
hour s or months)

This schedule consist of checking method that need to

be done in every 25 to 50 hours or per month to any air
conditioner. The process that will be implement and
record in the monthly schedule is :-
Refill the gaseous and check the gas pressure.
Check the blower ( Fan )
Check the cool water and makesure it is a pure water
Below schedule show the example of maintenance schedule for 25
to 50 hours or permonth.
Subject Date Type of failure Action taken
1 Gas/ 30.1.2007 Air not cool Check refrigerant pressure
Refrigerant Add refrigerant gas if it’s
below requirement level
2 Cooling tower 30.1.2007 Water coolen less Check water coolant
Tower dirty ( added when lesser water
coolant). Clean reservoir
3m/6m. Replace with water
mixed with chlorine.

3 Blower (Fan) 30.1.2007 Fan dirty Clean the fan from dust. Gris
Rotation of the fan is should be done.
too rigorous Clean filter.
The filter is dirty

4 Cooled Water 30.1.2007 Water mixed a lot Need the water pure.
with impurety
Institute of Electrical Engineering (IEE)
 Always wear googles when working with refrigerant in these

 Always wear googles around ductwork to prevent cutting the

hands and fingers.

 Provide protective shields around operating motor & fans.

 Be sure that the electric power is off before servicing

electrical components.
 Keep hand, feet & clothing clears of belts, fans & ratating

 Use only safe ladders when working on the roofs of building.

 Never carry equipment , tools @ supplies up @ down a

ladder. Transport these items with a rope of buildings.

 Avoid contact with electric circuits when the area around the

equipment is wet.
 Unit should firmly fixed at a place that have a set that

endurable to carry heavy thing.

3-Selit hos akhir untuk
(tertutup) Paip
Paip Bahan
1- Buka penutup yang
melindungi sambungan
oksigenhos akhir
untuk penyambung
Assignment 2
1. Explain the method of operation for each type of
below unitary system & give 3 advantages and
disadvantages for each unit type :
a. Window unit
b. Remote Split System – Lekapan dinding
c. Remote Split System – Lekapan lantai
d. Remote Split System – Lekapan ceiling
e. Self Contained System - Water-cooled systems
f. Self Contained System - Air-cooled systems
g. Packed Units - Water Cooled
h. Packed Units - Air Cooled
2. Give 3 IEE Regulation that relates to air cond system.