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Boiler feedwater
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Boiler feedwater is water used to


supply ("feed") a boiler to generate

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steam or hot water. At thermal power
stations the feedwater is usually stored,

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pre-heated and conditioned in a

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feedwater tank and supplied to the boiler

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by a boiler feedwater pump.
Contents [hide]
1 History of Feedwater treatment

Extreme Boiler Scale buildup

2 Conditioning
2.1 Boiler corrosion
2.2 Fouling
2.3 Caustic embrittlement
2.4 Priming and foaming
3 Locomotive boilers
4 See also

Permanent link

5 References

Page information

6 External links

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History of Feedwater treatment


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During the early development of boilers, water treatment was not so much of an

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issue, as temperatures and pressures were so low that high amounts of scale

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and rust would not form to such a high amount, especially if the boiler was


cleaned and/or “blown down”. It was general practice though, to install zinc


plates and/or alkaline chemicals to reduce corrosion within the boiler. Many


tests had been performed to try and determine the cause and possible

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protection from corrosion in boilers using distilled water, various chemicals, and
sacrificial metals.[1] Use of lime for alkalinity control had been mentioned as
early as 1900, and was used by the French and British Navies up until about
1935.[2] In modern boilers though, treatment of boiler feedwater is extremely
critical, as many problems can result from the use of untreated water in extreme
pressure and temperature environments; this includes lower efficiency in terms
of heat transfer, overheating, damage, and high costs of cleaning.



Residual amounts can be removed chemically. tannin. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. unless a purge valve is used to remove dissolved minerals. developed by British Railways and Imperial Chemical Industries [4] . Untreated boiler feed water can cause corrosion and fouling. because they will become concentrated in the liquid phase and require excessive "blow-down" (draining) to prevent the formation of solid precipitates. Additionally. Corrosion in boilers is due to the presence of dissolved oxygen. dissolved carbon dioxide.0 or higher. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. This is usually done by dosing alkaline agents into the feed water. reduce the flow rate and eventually block boiler tubes. especially O2 and CO2 must be removed. Therefore. usually by use of a deaerator.[3] Treatment systems have included: Alfloc. such as sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) or ammonia. sodium bisulfite. Boiler corrosion [edit] Corrosive compounds. Caustic embrittlement [edit] Main article: Caustic embrittlement Priming and foaming [edit] Main article: Priming (steam engine) Locomotive boilers [edit] Steam locomotives usually do not have condensers so the feedwater is not recycled and water consumption is high. protecting the material underneath from further corrosion. Fouling [edit] Deposits reduce the heat transfer in the boiler. phosphate and an anti-foaming agent. Any non-volatile salts and minerals that will remain when the feedwater is evaporated must be removed. by use of oxygen scavengers. the make-up water added to replace any losses of feedwater must be demineralized/deionized water. The use of deionized water would be prohibitively expensive so other types of water treatment are used. to reduce oxidation and to support the formation of a stable layer of magnetite on the water-side surface of the boiler. Even worse are minerals that form scale. (February 2014) The feedwater must be specially treated to avoid problems in the boiler and downstream systems. feed water is typically alkalized to a pH of 9. Chemicals employed typically include sodium carbonate.This section needs additional citations for verification. or dissolved salts.

(11 December 2006). External links [edit] Boiler Feedwater System Configuration Categories: Power station technology Chemical process engineering Boilers Steam locomotive technologies This page was last modified on 6 December 2014. M.Frank. Martyn Bane's steam and travel pages. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Mobile view . Cornell Maritime Press. Modern Marine Engineers Manual. Martyn. Marine And Naval Boilers. Alan. ^ "Porta Treatment: Advanced Internal Boiler Water Treatment" . By using this site.W. at 21:44. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation. Retrieved 31 December 2013. 2. developed by Louis Armand Porta Treatment. ^ Osbourne. Retrieved 31 December 2013. "Developments in Modern Steam Traction for Railways" . Retrieved 31 December 2013. UK. (1965). "Modern Steam Glossary" . you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. (1912). York. ^ Bane.Traitement Integral Armand (TIA). inc. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. |chapter= ignored (help) 4.. A.. a non-profit organization. 18 October 2007. Inc. ^ Lyon. additional terms may apply. 3. ^ Bane. 5. Hinds. The Lord Baltimore Press. developed by Livio Dante Porta See also [5] [edit] Boiler feedwater pump Evaporator References [edit] 1.