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Peter Richman
KeyTek Instrument Corp.
260 Fordham Road
Wilmington, MA 01887

Surge couplers and back-filters are necessary
for performing surge tests on electronic
equipment, in order to simulate the effects
of lightning and switching transients on both
power and data lines. Such couplers and
filters are poorly understood and inadequately standardized, yet their performance can
significantly affect the results of surge
tests on both components and equipment.
Nomenclature, design and performance of
optimum configurations are included,
following a recitation of common existing
pitfalls and misconceptions.
ffenerators of short-duration pulses, termed
surges, have long been used to test the
capability of power transmission and
distribution equipment to withstand
high-voltage peaks. Such transients occur
due both to lightning events and to various
normal power system operations, including
switching and fault-clearing. The durations
of such transients are typically measured in
tens of microseconds, hence they are often
transformed, with only minor alterations,
down to the lower voltage levels used to
supply power within industrial and
residential locations. In addition,
transients due both to lightning and to
switching can be introduced directly into low
voltage circuits. Thus, virtually all
electrical and electronic equipment used on
conventional indoor power lines is subjected
to what can be surprisingly high, short-term
surge voltages and currents. Amplitudes of
such surges can reach levels of kilovolts and
kiloamperes at some locations.Cl1
In order to insure compatibility of
electronic equipment with this surge
environment, such equipment is subjected to
test surges, both on power and signal
input/output lines, during both design and
manufacture. The object of such testing is
to verify that equipment design for surge
immunity is successful, and that it i s
correctly implemented on a continuing basis
as products are shipped. All of this
activity results from a basic motivation to
ship computers, telecommunications equipment,
consumer electronics, industrial control
equipment and so on, that will be robust in
the face of such surges, so that these
products will be perceived as reliable in an
increasingly competitive marketplace.

of adequate agreement and standardization on
the means for coupling test surges to the EUT
(Equipment Under Test).
associated with such coupling is simultaneous
back-filtering on the lines being surged.
Such back filtering has two purposes. The
first is to prevent test surges from reaching
other equipment that is not being tested, but
which is nonetheless being operated on the
same lines. The second is to provide an
impedance for the surge generator to drive,
that is both significantly higher than that
of the unfiltered line, and yet sufficiently
low to allow normal line current to flow,
without undue voltage drop, to the EUT.
Many surge coupling configurations are
independent of the back-filters with which
they are necessarily associated. However,
some back-filters can influence and even
dominate the effective surge coupling mode.
For this reason, surge couplers and backfilters are considered together, as surge
coupler/filters (or coupler/decouplers), so
that such issues are included in the study.
What follows covers the principal areas in
which surge coupling and filtering problems
exist. Rules are developed for specifying
and designing surge coupling configurations,
so that different surge test equipments can
yield the same test results on a given EUT.
Surge Coupling Modes
The most controversial terms in surge testing
are those describing coupling modes, which
define the lines between or among which
surges are applied. Many such terms have
never been precisely defined for use in surge
testing, as they have been borrowed from
other disciplines, typically from telecommunications or measurement instrumentation
practice. In addition, some of these
meanings have changed over time, as electrical and electronic technologies have evolved.
Just beneath this issue of nomenclature lies
the ever-present need to select surge test
coupling modes which will best simulate the
surge environment in the equipment's
intended application. Ordinarily, all are
required for single-phase applications, while
a few of the many possibilities must be
selected in three-phase applications.[2]
any case, lack of precise nomenclature only
makes the selection task more difficult.

A recent standard, ANSI/IEEE C62.45-1987,
recognizes these difficulties by purposely

Surge testing is hampered, however, by lack
CH2736-718910000-0202$1 .OO U989 IEEE


o r one line plus neutral being surged versus ground also in three phase.a not-illogical name in single-phase applications. Fig. is surged wlth respect to ground!) In different fields. it will be recommended that they be abandoned in surge test applications. Solutions include use of an isolation transformer with ground reestablished on its secondary. In telecommunications the comparable term Is "metallicl~. one non-grounded line appears to be symmetrically surged with respect to the other. As with normal mode. Fig. in which the high line. since ground was originally called ftcommon11. the entire surge appears on just one of the lines.. Note that a ground fault interrupter (GFCI) will not solve the problem. thus it Is taken to be "floating" with respect to ground.S. filter capacitors are shown connected between an active power line and ground. i. however. residential power conf'iguration. Broadening the name llunsymmetrictf to include them all would render it. however. Coupling Circuits Safety In some circuits that follow. it might represent surging the high one versus the low one and ground. and such terms have been shown to be more confusing than useful. the inadequate yet commonly-used terms wIll continue to be used in what follows. is the surge in fact coupled in normal mode? Is it normal mode when two phases are surged with respect to a third in a three-phase system? Whether o r not it is. normal mode is referred to as ltsymmetric". (But this latter case would really appear to be more like a common mode coupling. with respect to ground. in opposite directions. then. what should be the ratio of the surge voltage applied to the single line. When a circuit under discussion uses a grounded surge generator. A signal on just one line versus ground is called unsymmetric. 1 would seem to be satisfactory f o r a normal-mode coupling. without the EUT the two lines move equally. "normal modeTris an example. or a groundsense circuit within the coupler/filter. If all of these examples are called normal mode. a variety of names may be used f o r what is generally thought of as normal mode. o r three lines versus neutral in three phase? Are these all normal mode? There are many such issues. Once the matter has been fully explored. if either. In a three-phase system. Normal Mode Many familiar terms were simply not defined with surge testing in mind.[2] It will be shown that this is necessary but not sufricient f o r describing realistic coupling configurations f o r surge testing. like the term "normal model1. a signal applied to o r existing on both lines with respect to ground in a single-phase system is called asymmetric. One meaning connotes any signal with respect to SESSION 4C ground. These may supply too a high level o f leakage current should the ground connection become open.[3] The other meaning is the more presently-accepted one: a signal on two o r more lines. simultaneously. except for stray capacitances to ground in the range of hundreds o r . should be the name for the mode in which only one line is surged with respect to ground? Common mode is termed "longitudinal model1 in telecommunications. f o r series coupling.e. the connotation becomes s o broad that the name loses all utility in surge applications. it is unlikely that this name could be conveniently broadened to be used in connection with multi-phase power lines. Internationally. Should two non-grounded lines being surged in so-called normal mode move equally in opposite directions? If. the ground is added external to the generator. What. can a surge applied to two lines versus a third really be considered symmetric? Common Mode Common mode is a term with different historical meanings. no doubt. to facilitate presentation. for the reasons already discussed. Coupling Circuits for Normal Mode Figs. so that a signal between two non-grounded lines involved only metal conductors. The test surge generator itself is assumed to be ungrounded. insufficiently specific to be useful in surge work. Thus the open-circuit output surge will be balanced. For instrumentation applicat€ons it is often called "differential modeT1. o r with generalized. In the course of demonstrating this. applies f o r two lines being surged versus ground in a three phase system.describing surge test modes without reference to terms like normal and common mode. instead. 1. to the time when ground may in fact have been the earth. shunt and series surge injection give rise to different interpretations of normal mode. Internationally. 2 also connects the surge generator output from line to line. it is unclear which name. F o r example. at most. Putting aside the ongoing confusion involved in using such similar terms (there is often difficulty in remembering which is which). a reference. alone. it might represent surging the high line versus the low one.o r sometimes llline-to-linell. All three include back-filters. in common.[2] For shunt coupling. Another consideration is that different hardware implementations have generated constituencies partial to one o r another interpretation. multi-line data cables. but since it mistakenly tries to use a grounded rather 203 . to that applied to the other two? Is it always normal mode independent of that ratio? What of two lines surged with respect to neutral in a U. and so on. 2 and 3 show three schematic representations selected from those that have at one time o r another been presented in publications o r by manufacturers as normal mode couplings.Neither name would be readily extendable to multi-line systems. each was defined for use in a discipline remote from surge testing. However. a few thousand pF.

would seem to imply something of this sort. as it will for the circuit of Fig. Coupling Circuits f o r Common Mode There are various configurations that are termed. line 2. Fig. Fig. using transformer T1 to couple the surge to the high line. i. equally and in opposite directions.. Thus series coupling results in an unsymrnetric surge. i. 2. . and line 1 Fig. After considering these three different attempts at implementing normal mode surge coupling. The international designation. and furthermore capacitor CCi restricts line 1's ability to move freely should there be a surge coupled to it via a protector o r flashover within the EUT. SURGE Surge Generator Improperly Coupled to EUT in "Normal Mode". Thus. however. both lines move. o r ground. For these reasons. SURGE GENERATOR INPUT LINE 1 GROUND I LINE 2 I SURGE BACK-FILTER ' 1 T I I I I I ==c3 I Only one line is surged. symmetric. in equal amounts in opposite directions. a single-line surge versus common.than an ungrounded surge generator (designated in the figure by the ground symboi on one surge generator output). in a balanced way. with BOTH lines surged o r moving during the surge.Just as with Fig. line i therefore isn't surged at all. 3 shows a series surge injection technique. EUT I I cc2 == to surge active lines should be ungrounded. it also connects line i to ground through what is presumably a large-value surge coupling capacitor. only line 2 is surged. the surge is applied to line 2 with respect to line 1 AND ground. since only line 2 is surged. 2 Surge Generator Improperly Coupled to ElJT in tlNormalMode". since line 1 is effectively grounded via coupling capacitor Cci. with respect to ground. rather than between line 2 and line i. 1. INPUT LINE 2 ' I I I I INPUT LINE 1 = - T1 I ==c3 I ' I I c2-• I == I I 1 I I cl I I ~ EUT . 2 thus can't possibly be considered to be a reasonable implementation o f normal mode.e. i SESSION 4C is not. CC1. Surge generators being used 1 I l l . 1. by one o r another publication o r manufacturer. In this conliguration.e. Actual coupling I s from line 2 to both line i and ground simultaneously. to be applying the test surge in common mode. it appears that normal mode should perhaps be defined as a coupling configuration that applies a surge from one line with respect to the other. Expanding this definition to multi-line situations such as three-phase power lines. 3 doesn't seem to meet a reasonable definition of normal mode. 'L_ _ _ _ _ _ _ -1 I r------- Fig. as in Fig. it is doubtful that measured EUT surge immunity will always be the same using the coupling method of Fig. before the EUT is connected. The surge is applied from line 2 to line 1.e. Pig. i. Three typical common-mode INPUT LINE 2 Surge Generator Satisfactorily Coupled to EUT in Normal Mode. only leads to new ambiguities. 2. 2. It is therefore unlikely that test results will consistently be the same with this coupling method as for that of Fig.

in order accurately to represent the electrical environment in which the EUT will eventually be installed at the user's slte. These include proximity o f the building to a power sub-station. Interestingly. only one line versus ground. 7. simultaneously to lines i and 2 respectively. they are clearly different from the circuit of Fig. The circuit of Fig. with a i kilohm o r other relatively high-value resistor connected from one side o f the isolation transformer secondary to ground. respectively. and in all of them the surge/generator is taken to be ungrounded. but it constitutes a high Impedance f o r surges applied to both lines in common with respect to ground.2 x 5 0 us power-line test surge with fidelity is simply unfeasible. to avoid impose excessive load on a high-impedance surge generator. 1. SG2 surges both lines with respect to ground. Any such situation will make for a worst-case scenario similar to the conventional one in the U. with respect to ground. Typically. Attempts to improve this situation by adding filter capacitances to ground from Both coupling circuits obtained by omitting one of the capacitors in Fig. a surge coupling method that disconnects line i ohmically from ground and leaves it floating. with the circuit of Fig. o r common (the old definition). are the coupling modes that are internationally termed unsymmetric. and therefore It facilitates surging with high surge generator source impedances in two-lines-to-ground coupling modes. when only line 2 is surged via CC2. The circuit of Fig. and far from. it effectively subverts the attempt to surge one line to ground. the resulting configuration will be like the circuit of Fig. However power follow. without upset o r damage. T1 presents SG3 and SG4 with a high impedance as well. to facilitate coupling the surge generator output to both EUT input lines at the same time. There are two other. 4. and SG4 surges line i with respect to ground. The circuit of Fig. it does appear to be what we expect to find f o r a "common mode" coupling. The resulting circuits surge either line 2 o r line i versus ground. o r ac line current flow through the flashover path. and local flashover during a surge. can hardly be said to be available if power line current following flashover to ground is limited to 0. s o that in line-to-line surging it has no influence. 4 and surging 205 . with one winding in series with each of the two ac input lines as shown. SGi surges line 2 versus line 1.. the correct term. the point at which power enters a building. is clearly not a sufficiently realistic test mode. Ti is a i:i transformer with equal primary and secondary inductances. Power follow capability is needed in surge testing. These are perfectly legitimate test modes. and are in fact favored by many as both quite realistic. in fact theoretically zero impedance. 5 and 6. unplanned local short circuits between neutral and ground. 5. Ti presents SGi with a low.SESSION 4C configurations are shown in Figs. 4. CCi o r CC2. has been described in some draft specifications as providing "power follow-thru" (sic). to both input lines of the EUT.[2] Thus Fig. in addition to the filter inductors Li and L2 familiar from previous figures. To do this. bonding may occur near o r even at the building in some cases. since it couples the surge to the other line at the same time. 4 applies the surge generator output. a practical 1:l:i transformer required to couple a typical. each on the order of tens o f mH. either can be obtained by disconnecting one o f the two coupling capacitors. It seems to meet reasonable requirements f o r common mode surging. 4. up to perhaps 5 0 ohms. between neutral and ground. It offers minimal impedance to the flow o f ac current since its two windings are in opposition. 7 also uses a transformer. related coupling configurations of great practical interest. Thus with the back-filter o f Fig.S. it has practical limitations: specifically. results of tests using either o f these two circuits will clearly be different from those of Fig. This fact does not prevent the circuit from finding its way into some test standards. T1.previously discussed as having the property of surging only line 2 and not involving line i.2 A via the 1K resistor. Pour surge generators and associated couplings to this filter are shown in Fig. The circuit o f Fig. Fig. 6 uses transformer coupling to apply the surge via three-winding transformer T1. via surge coupling capacitors CCi and CC2. 5 a flashover between either line and ground within the EUT won't allow what is called power follow. although both apply test surges with respect to ground. All include surge/back-filters. Unfortunately. 4.e. i. and often difficult f o r EUTs to pass. SG3 surges line 2 with respect to ground. however. each with dotted connections to the circuit to indicate that only one is connected at a time. Thus. It is not clear that such remote ground bonding is always the situation. nominally "normal modeTv. 7. 7 is sometimes used to provide a high back-filter impedance. it applies the same test surge to all ungrounded lines. 5 uses an Isolation transformer. f o r various reasons. It would therefore appear just as satisfactory f o r common-mode coupling as the circuit of Fig. It is also unlikely to give EUT surge immunity test results always consistent with those obtained using the circuit o f Fig. in the circuit of Fig. Unfortunately. Coupling Circuits for HighImpedance Surge Generators Relatively high line impedances are thought to represent the situation in some European installations when ground and neutral are bonded outside. in which common mode and normal mode surge source impedances are essentially the same. 3 .1-0. while at the same time allowing essentially normal flow o f ac power line current to the EUT. A variant of the circuit of Fig. Ti does however present SG2 with a high impedance. However. 5. T1. It provides a high mutual inductance between windings. 4. 4. In the general case. as it does to the flow o f ac power current. it is impossible to surge one line at a time with respect to ground.

no small advantage nonetheless. but in which another occurs. to ground. 5 Surge Generator Improperly Coupled to GUT in Common Mode. I Fig. Viable alternatives to Fig. 7 . No power follow is available fol- lowing flashover to ground in the EUT. L. T1. as a result of the design of the back-filter. Fig. and the configuration remains useful only for surging both lines simultaneously to ground from a high impedance surge. Ti's transformer action provides the same surge to the "unsurgedllline. However.SESSION 4C the junction of Ti and L1. From this standpoint it almost amounts to an unpowered surge test. and freedom from the unwanted coupling o f the surge from one line to the other. -I I--------- INPUT LINE 2 I INPUT LINE 1 The surge is applied from both lines. I I I 1 1-' I Fig. o r compromising on a voltage wave duration that is much shorter than 50 us. 4 Surge Generator Satisfactorily Coupled to EUT in Common Mode. has become part of the coupler. it should be at least as important to surge a single line versus ground if the high impedance assumption is valid. It Is Ineffectively Coupled in Line 2-to-Ground and Line i-to-Ground Modes. In line 2-to-ground o r line i-toground.2/50 voltage surge to 4-6 kV. Thus a surge to one line automatically becomes a surge to both. I . EUT I I I c2 II C . 7 Surge Generator Satisfactorily Coupled to ETJT in Normal Mode and Common Mode. can be designed for a i. Thus this test is unrealistic. no practical i:i:l transformer.. are sometimes made in order to try simultaneously to achieve a high filter impedance to the surge. in this situation. since it fails to replicate the situation in which the EUT will eventually be used. 6 Surge Generator Satisfactorily Coupled to EUT in Common Mode. II GROUND I I : L_ z SURGE BACK-FILTER l II @ I 1 I _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _J 206 eI 1 . A fully successful compromise has eluded such attempts. when applied to the problem of surging one line at a time versus ground. LINE 2 . is thus perhaps the best example of a circuit in which one surge mode is intended. and from the junction of Ti and L2.-- I I I ==c3 - 1 I I rym I I INPUT LINE 1 l l SURGE GENERATOR i-I I I ' EUT I cz-•== cl II I I I I However. The circuit of Fig. I GROUND U Fig. 7 include eliminating T1 and either using a 10-12 ohm generator. The back-filter. as it is to surge both of them simultaneously. The circuit nevertheless finds its way into standards and specifications. equally.

with equal and o p p o s i t e p o l a r i t y s u r g e s a p p l i e d t o t h e two l i n e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o g r o u n d ) . t o ground. [2] ANSI/IEEE 052. and s o on. I n a d d i t i o n . again reducing test realism. I E E E Guide on S u r g e T e s t i n g f o r Equipment Connected t o Low-Voltage AC Power C i r c u i t s . Regarding design. some of t h e methods c o r r e c t l y a l l o w a t l e a s t some r e a s o n a b l e l e v e l o f power f o l l o w t o o c c u r when f l a s h o v e r t o g r o u n d t a k e s p l a c e w i t h i n t h e GUT. o n l y a few s u c h c o u p l i n g c i r c u i t s a p p l y s i g n a l s t o a l l of t h e l i n e s t h e y s h o u l d . while l e a v i n g un-surged t h e l i n e s t h a t are not intended t o be surged. s y m m e t r i c . ~d e s c r i p t i o n of surge coupling requires' d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e d i s p l a c e m e n t of e v e r y l i n e i n t h e system w i t h r e s p e c t t o ground. R e g a r d i n g c o u p l i n g mode n o m e n c l a t u r e . R u l e 3: A l l o w a t l e a s t some power f o l l o w . The r e v i s e d n o m e n c l a t u r e a n d t h e t h r e e suggested coupling r u l e s provide t o o l s f o r design and a n a l y s i s o f s u r g e coupling methods. as t h e b a s i s f o r i m proved and b e t t e r . C31 ANSI/IEEE S t d . Low ( o r l i n e i) t o g r o u n d . High ( o r l i n e 2 ) t o g r o u n d . t o ground. A comDlete . t o g r o u n d . Two o f t h e t h r e e p h a s e l i n e s a t a time. w i t h e q u a l and o p p o s i t e s u r g e s a p p l i e d t o t h e two l i n e s i n t h e s u r g e d p a i r . with respect t o ground).ine t o g r o u n d w i t h i n t h e EUT. . I E E E S t a n d a r d D i c t i o n a r y o f E l e c t r i c a l and E l e c t r o n i c s Terms.i 9 8 4 . References [l] ANSI/IEEE C62. simultaneously. Some o f t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s t h a t do apply s i g n a l s t o a l l of t h e r i g h t l i n e s . Both l i n e s t o ground. An a l t e r n a t e formulation of t h i s r u l e is: don't m a t e r l a l l y a l t e r t h e ohmic or c a p a c i t i v e impedance t o g r o u n d o f ETJT i n p u t o r o u t p u t . simultaneously. it i s proposed t h a t e a c h c o u p l i n g mode b e d e s c r i b e d i n terms of t h e d i s p l a c e m e n t OP e v e r y l i n e i n t h e system with r e s p e c t t o ground. U s i n g them p e r m i t s a d v a n c i n g t o t h r e e d e s i g n Their purpose i s r u l e s f o r surge coupling. Senko f i r s t r e c o g n i z e d t h a t power f o l l o w l i m i t a t i o n s c a n r e s u l t from i m p r o p e r use of l i n e i s o l a t i o n transformers. with respect t o ground). o t h e r s a g a i n l i m i t t e s t r e a l i s m by n o t d o i n g s o . b a l a n c e d ( i . e . I n regard t o nomenclature. o n e a t a time. 5 8 7 ) . l i n e s . and d o n ' t p r o v i d e freedom f o r l i n e s t h a t d o n ' t o r d i n a r i l y h a v e i t . three-phase systems: Xach o f t h e t h r e e p h a s e l i n e s . w i t h t h e o v e r a l l purpose of a c h i e v i n g b e t t e r . The a b o v e e x e m p l a r y c o u p l i n g mode d e s c r i p t i o n s a r e c l e a r . a s y m m e t r i c .s t a n d a r d i z e d s u r g e c o u p l e r / filters: ( i ) s u r g e t h e i n t e n d e d l i n e s and no o t h e r s .45-1987. Anything s h o r t o f t h i s l e v e l o f r i n o r c a n lead to-the p o s s i b i l i t y of different test r e s u l t s w i t h d i f f e r e n t s u r g e test equipment. . Rule i : Surge t h e intended l i n e s . t o n e u t r a l . b u t o n l y by c h a n g i n g t h e normal i n p u t grounding s i t u a t i o n . Each of t h e t h r e e p h a s e l i n e s . . w i t h e q u a l a n d o p p o s i t e s u r g e s on l i n e a n d n e u t r a l . t o e v e r y o t h e r p h a s e l i n e . t o provide reasonable c r i t e r i a f o r designing and e v a l u a t i n g c o u p l i n g m e t h o d s f o r s u r g e testing. e . if t h e r e i s f l a s h o v e r from any l. Rule 2: Don't r e s t r i c t t h e freedom of l i n e s t h a t a r e n ' t b e i n g s u r g e d . t o n e u t r a l . Conclusions S u r g e c o u p l i n g c o n f i g u r a t i o n s h a v e become more i m p o r t a n t i n q u a l i f y i n g modern e l e c t r o n i c e q u i p m e n t f o r s u r g e immunity.s u r g e d l i n e s t o move. l e a d i n g t o t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f R u l e 3. e . o n e a t a time. (Note: equal f i l t e r i n d u c t a n c e s i n e a c h l i n e and n e u t r a l imply t h i s v o l t a g e a p p o r t i o n m e n t . d o n ' t surge t h e others. n e v e r t h e l e s s r e d u c e t e s t realism by r e s t r i c t i n g t h e f r e e d o m o f u n . w i t h t h r e e times t h e s u r g e v o l t a g e on n e u t r a l as on e a c h o f t h e t h r e e phase l i n e s . i f c i r c u i t s o r f l a s h o v e r w i t h i n t h e EUT c o n n e c t un-surged l i n e s t o p o i n t s t h a t a r e surged. Five-wire. Acknowledgments G r e g o r y G . A l l t h r e e phase l i n e s . o n e a t a time. However. I E E E Guide f o r S u r g e V o l t a g e s i n Low-Voltage A C Power C i r c u i t s . ( 2 ) d o n ' t m a t e r i a l l y change t h e impedances d r i v i n g EUT i n p u t l i n e s . Here a r e some e x a m p l e s : S i n g l e phase.SESSION 46 Rules f o r Surge Coupling A l l t h r e e p h a s e s and n e u t r a l . F i n a l l y . common mode. Most s u r g e c o u p l i n g c i r c u i t s i n c u r r e n t u s e d o i n f a c t a p p l y t e s t s u r g e s t o a t l e a s t some of t h e l i n e s t h e y a r e s u p p o s e d t o . and ( 3 ) a l l o w a t l e a s t some power f o l l o w .4i-1980 ( f o r m e r l y IEEE S t d . 207 . b a l a n c e d ( i . three-wire systems: Line t o l i n e . 1 0 0 . t h e e x i s t i n g s t a t e o f n o m e n c l a t u r e and c i r c u i t d e s i g n s f o r s u c h c o u p l i n g s and t h e f i l t e r s they drive is q u i t e u n s at i s f a c t o r y . However. t h e o n l y r e a s o n a b l e c o u r s e seems c l e a r : a v o i d t e r m s l i k e n o r m a l mode.s p e c i f i e d a n d t h e r e f o r e more reproducible surge testing. it is not s u f f i c i e n t t o define t h e surge coupling configuration i n terms o f t h e l i n e s b e i n g s u r g e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o o n e o r more r e f e r e n c e l i n e s . p r e c i s e a n d unambiguous. ) Each of t h e t h r e e p h a s e l i n e s a n d n e u t r a l . t h r e e c r i t e r i a are proposed i n t h e f o r m of r u l e s . Other conf'igurations a p p l y s u r g e s t o t h e c o r r e c t l i n e s . balanced ( i . u n s y m m e t r i c .