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1. How did the Christian kingdoms begin?

A. Christian resistance.
The Muslim conquered almost the whole Iberian Peninsula except for Cantabria and
the Pyrennes. Some Visigoths took refute there. This is the origin of Christian kingdoms
(between 8 th. and 9th. century)
- Asturias and León , originated in Cantabria
- Navarre and Aragonese and Catalan counties, originated in Pyrenees.
Christians advanced from these kingdoms for the Reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula.
Christian kingdoms and Al-Andalus coexisted in Iberian Peninsula for 800 years.

B. Asturias and León.
- In 718, the Visigoths chose Pelayo as their king. He defeated the Muslims at the
Battle of Covadonga (722)
- The capital was Oviedo and in 800, the territory was expanded from Galicia to Alava.
- The greatest expansion coincided with the reign of Alfonso III in the 9 th century with
the cities such Burgos, Zamora and Coimbra.
- In the 10th century the capital was moved to León and the region became the kingdom
of Leon.

2. How did Castile evolve?

A. Castile.
Muslim attacked Leon and Castile provided defense against Muslims attacks form the
valley of the River Ebro. It was divided into counties under Count Fernan Gonzalez
(10th century).
At the end of 10th century León decline and it increased the power of the counts of
Castile and the kingdom of Navarre. Castile became an independent kingdom.
B. The Pyrenean region.
It belonged to the Carolingian Empire. When the Carolingian Empire is dissolved, three
regions appear: Navarre, Aragón and the Catalan Counties.

The Catalan Counties. Wilfred the Hairy united the Catalan Counties in the 9th century. . such as the Cross of the Angels. Sancho III the Great (11th century) became the most powerful Christian king and his kingdom included Aragon. Asturian art.Aragón.Buildings were characterized by the use of bricks and ceramics tiles. the Jimena dynasty rule in Navarre. (8th – 9th centuries) .Asturian Art also included some fine gold and silverwork. Mozarabic art. San Julian de los Prados and the best known: Santa María del Naranco. 3. The famous example: The Beatus of Liébana. It achieved independence with the family of Aznar Galindo after the death of Sancho III. .Navarre. Toledo and Teruel. Mudejar art.The Beatus: a religious manuscript with beautiful illustrations. . . They have good relations with the caliphs of Córdoba. The best example: San Miguel de la Escalada.Mudejar: Muslims who remained in the Christian kingdoms after the Reconquest. (12th century) . . Best examples in León.The interiors of the churches are similar to Muslim art: use of horseshoe arches and capitals.Small stone churches in or near Oviedo such as San Miguel de Lillo.Mudejar and Mozarabic art is only found in Spain. A. . Catalonia consolidated its independence in the 10th century. From the 10th century. (10th century) . . Art of the Christian kingdoms. B. C.. . Castile and part of León.It was done by Mozarabs out of the Al-Andalus.

B. During the 9th century and 10th century the Christian kingdoms advanced to the River Duero Valley. . The reconquest involved the occupation of territory from one river to another. and they had their own costumes. . . They usually lived separately. they didn`t intermarry. Levante and the Balearic Islands. Part of the land was underpopulated and it was given to military orders.Castile took over Andalusia and Murcia. .Portugal conquered the Algarve. . . The kings gave them privileges called “fueros” to encourage emigration. How did the Christian kingdoms advance? A.11th – 12th centuries: Portugal and Castile extended beyond the River Tajo.Conquered territory was divided into areas dominated by a city or town. Aragon conquered Zaragoza y Teruel . . The Tajo and Ebro Valley. Taifas were weak and Christian kingdoms expanded towards the south. Christian kingdoms expanded and almost finished with the Muslims territories. Islamic and Jewish. Three cultures: Christians.1031. Guadalquivir Valley.Crown of Aragon expanded into Valencia and the Balearic Islands D.Christians: They were the dominant group. The Duero Valley. . C. Catalonia extended as far as Tortosa .After the conquest there were three cultures.4. Groups of peasants colonized the land and formed small villages: process of repopulation. The defeated of the almohads in the battle of Navas de Tolosa (1212) opened up AlAndalus to the Christian armies. Taifas paid parias or amount of gold to the Christian kingdoms to avoid attacks.

they conquered almost all of Andalusia . B. D. After that. founding the Crown of Castile.Castile was a unified state: the same institutions and the same laws for the whole community.The Castilian Cortes could not legislate.In 1085 Alfonso VI conquered Toledo and the Tajo Valley . Government. Many of them moved to Granada . They created the Honorable Council of the Mesta: very powerful association with privileges such as the right for sheep and cattle to graze on peasants land. The crown of Castile..Mudejars: They were Muslims in Christian territory. . Examples such as the churches of San Martin de Fromista and part of the cathedral in Santiago de Compostela . Architecture Romanesque style.Mestas. He made laws.Jews: They had tense relations with the others groups from the 14 th century.The king had great power.In the 12th century (1139) Portugal became an independent kingdom . .Merino sheep: high quality wool was exported or used in the textile industry . Sometimes they were persecuted. C. . declare war and pass judgement. They approved or rejected new taxes. 5.In 1230 Fernando III united León and Castile. Assemblies of sheep breeders. . Economy and society. How did the crown of Castile evolve? A. . It became the most powerful kingdom.Christian kingdoms won the battle of Las Navas de Tolosa (1212). . Their situation started to deteriorate in the 13th century.Economic activities were agriculture and stockbreeding.

Burgos and Toledo (13 th . century) Examples such as the cathedrals of León.Gothic style.

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and Castile counties increased their power.In the 10th century the court was moved to the city of León.The capital was moved due toits expansion towards RiverDuero. 1. Kingdom of AsturiasThe court (or capital) was established in Oviedo. ActivitiesHomework: Exercise 1 on page 57.The kingdom of Navarre and the Aragonese and Catalan counties. so they had a lot of castles to defend the Christian territory from attacks.During the 9th century Asturian kings expanded their territory.  12. Asturias and LeónKINGDOM OF ASTURIASPelayo was chosen as the king of Asturias in 718.  6. 2. Kingdom of CastileIn 1035 Castile became an independent Kingdom. originated in the Pyrenees. .2º ESO  2. that means the fights to recover territories under muslim rule.  10. stopping its expansion. During eight centuries christians and muslims coexisted in the Iberian Peninsula (from 711 to 1492).Castile territory was in frontier with the muslims.From 951 he governed Castile independently from León. originated in the Cantabrian mountains.  8. The remaining visigoths in the northern area founded the Christian kingdoms between the 8th and 9th centuries. becauseof the change of its capital.These kingdoms would lead the Reconquest. The Christian Kingdoms Unit 6 . .How did the Christian kingdomsbegin?Christian resistanceThe muslims conquered almost the entire Iberian Peninsula.Transcript  1. CASTILE COUNTIES The Kingdom of León declined after the 10th century.It will last until 1230.  4. and the kingdom changed its name to Kingdom of León.  3.  5. Kingdom of LéonFrom 910 the Kingdom ofAsturias became known asthe Kingdom of León. in the hands of King Fernando I.He won the Battle of Covadonga (722) to the muslims.The kingdom of Asturias and León. The first kingdoms formed were: .  9.How did Castile evolve?  11.Castile counties became united under the count Fernán González (930-970).Their greatest expansion coincided with the reign of Alfonso III (866-910).  7.

Asturian Art .What was the art of the Christiankingdoms like?-During the Reconquest period.The count Aznar Galindo achieved independence for Aragón. From the 10th century.  16.  18. the kingdom was divided between his sons: . He ruled them independently fromthe Carolingian Empire.In the 9th century the Carolingian Empire finished. Mozarabic ArtSan Miguel de Escalada (León)  26. San Julián delos Prados  23. . Sancho IIIs legacyAfter his death.-We can distinguish different art styles in the different regions. The Catalan countiesOrigin -> in the Carolingian Empire the Catalonian territory was divided into different counties. San Miguel de Lillo  22.922 Aragón came under the rule of the Kingdom of Navarre.His first-born son García Sánchez III inherited Navarre.Mozarabic Art . Sancho III the Great (1000-1035) became a powerful king in the peninsula.It had stability due to good relationswith the Caliphate. Kingdom of Navarre The count Íñigo Arista formed the Kingdom of Pamplona. Art developed in the Christian kingdoms.Aragón .  19. as it did in Al-Andalus. Castile and part of León.Wilfred the Hairy united the Catalan counties in 874. The Aragonese countiesOrigin .Mudejar Art-Afterwards Romanesque and Gothic Art began.Ramiro I got Aragón. Aragón achieved its independence again.  21. .Fernando I received Castile county.Catalan counties  14.They were part of the Carolingian Empire until:820 .-The most important styles were: .After the death of Sancho III. Cross of the Angels  24. San Miguel de Escalada . his  15.Gonzalo received thecounties of Sobrarbe andRibagorza. The Pyrenean regionOrigin -> It was the Spanish March in the Carolingian Empire. the Jimena dynasty ruled in Navarre and extended their influence. and three different regions emerged: . 3.1035 . Asturian Art-Main examples near Oviedo. Victory Cross  25. . He added to his kingdom the Aragonese counties.  17.Navarre .-Santa María del Naranco. ActivitiesExercise 1 on page 58.From the 10th century it obtained itsindependence. after renamed Kingdom of Navarre with its expansion towards the south. But after his death.  20. 13.

Santa María Church. and the Almohads almost disappeared.The Jews.  40.  39.  37.How did the Crown of Castile evolve?THE CROWN OF CASTILECastile became the most powerful christian kingdom. ActivitiesExercise 1 on page 59  34. who were muslims in christian territory.-In 1230 Fernando III united León andCastile founding the Crown of Castile. Levante and the Balearicislands . Beatus ofLiébana  29. with tense relations in this period.The Duero Valley . This was a period of big expansion.during the 9 and 10th centuries the Reconquest arrived to the River Duero.How did the Christian kingdoms advance?  35. 27.during the 11-12th centuries the Reconquest continued in an easier way because the Taifas (1031) were weaker than the Christian kingdoms. Colonizations of the land was the system of Repopulation. After the 11th century much of the land was underpopulated so kings gave big feudal estates to nobles. Illescas (Toledo)  33. .The Tajo and Ebro valleys . San Lorenzo (Sahagún)  32. .  38. Christian kingdoms expanded and almost finishedwith the muslims territories. . the Church or military orders. MudejarArtTeruel Cathedral  30. 4 .  36. who were the more numerous. The Crown of CastileGOVERNMENTThe Crown of Castile was a state in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the definitive union of the crowns of the kingdoms of Castile and León upon the accession of the then .The Guadalquivir Valley. The Repopulation was made creating cities or towns (capital) and small villages depending on them.-Alfonso VI conquered Toledo in 1085. . Three cultures Three main cultures (and religions) coexisted in the Christian kingdoms after the Reconquest: . -The expansion of the Christian Kingdoms .The Christians.-In 1212 the Christian kingdoms won the battle of Las Navas de Tolosa. ActivitiesExercises 1 and 2 on page 61. Kings give fueros to towns. 5 .The Mudejars. San Cebrián de Mazote (Valladolid)  28.-In 1139 (12th century) Portugal became an independent kingdom.the defeat of the almohads in Las Navas deTolosa battle in 1212 was the beginning of the end formuslims. San Tirso (Sahagún)  31.

when theKingdom of Aragón and theCounty of Barcelona merged bydynastic union by the marriageof Ramón Berenguer IV ofBarcelona and Petronilla ofAragón. at the beginning of the 14th century. arriving to Sicily. Alfonso II of Aragón. In the 13th century.  41. James I the Conquerorexpanded their territories to the mediterranean coastand the Balearic Islands.  44. In economy the main activities were agriculture and trade (Mediterranean trade.Wool of high quality was exported.  45.The Kingdom of León and the Kingdom of Castile kept different Parliaments.King Ferdinand III of Castile to the vacant Leonese throne. The king of Aragón had to agree with the Cortes of each kingdom to introduce any change.Craftsmanship and trade developedas well thanks to the importance of themerino wool. consulates) . whoascended to the throne in 1162. recognized through the creation of the Honourable Council of the Mesta in 1273.How did the Crown of Aragón evolve? The Crown of Aragónoriginated in 1137. In stockbreeding merino sheep stood out. different coin and different laws until the Modern Era. After him. 6 .Peter IV the Ceremonious and his successorscontinued the expansion towards the Mediterraneanarea. their titles werecombined in the person of theirson.  42.  43. their function was to regulate new taxes.Sheep breeders were important and had privileges. and Castilian Cortes could not legislate. HomeworkActivity 1 on page 62. The Crown of AragónGOVERNMENT AND ECONOMY The Crown of Aragón kept the institutions and individual customs of every kingdom forming part of the Crown. The Crown of CastileECONOMYThe economy was based on agriculture and stockbreeding. different flags.The Castilian king had great power. and it was used to textile industry as well. Sardinia and Naples. The Crown of Aragón Alfonso II conquered the region of the Ebro valley. This union respected theexisting institutions andparliaments of both territories.

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