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Embedded Systems


Embedded System
• Little change
– in actual steps in System Design

• Significant Change
– In Emphasis of Design Steps
FOCUS is on:
1. Design of Complete system in very short Time
2. Minimize the silicon area
3. Minimize the power dissipation

Design Representation • Starts with –Conceptualizing the product function • Ends with –Blue print of Product .

component and suppliers • CAD group – Develop tool to suppert design product .Example: DESIGN PROCESS • Market Dept – Study market needs – Determine requirement of new product • Chief Architect: – Convert requirement into architecture of product • Technologist – Select technology.

DESIGN PROCESS • Design Team – Develop blue print • Software Engg – Writes Code • Test Team – Test stretegy and test vectors for reliability of product • Manufacturing Engg – Manufacture the product .

• Each product have several different representations/ views.Design Process • Each group looks product in its own point of view and require specific information to support its work. which differs in the type of information they emphasize .

Design Representations • Behavioral • Structural • Physical .

Design Representations • Behavioral Representation – Black Box – Behavior as a function of its input and expression – Describes the functionality of system – Do not tell about its implementation – Defines How black box respond on the Input • But – Omit how black box defined / designed .

Design Representations • Structural Representation • Define black Box • In terms of – Set of components and their connections – Do not represent functionality of black box • But – Specify products implementation – Design connectivity .

Design Representations • Physical Representation • Specify the physical characteristics of Components described in structural representations • This includes – Dimention. position of Input ourput pins. . size. heat. – Relationship of interconnected components. phycical char. of connections between them. location of each component. weight. power comsumption.

Design Representations • Designer is more successful to create better product when working with behavioral representation .

Counter. Instruction set Adder. MCMs . Register Microchip. capacitor . register Analog.Level of Abstractions Level Behavoural *form Structural * Component Physical *objects Transistors Differential equations. Flow chart. Comparator. CV characteristics Xer. ASIC Processor Executable Spec Programs Processor. Controller PCB. Flip Flops Module units Register Algorithm. Digital Gate Boolen Equations FSM Chart Gate.

Design Methodology CAPTURE AND SIMULATE Used in the Past ( 25 years back) • Starts with specific set of representation of product • Small team of chief architect produce regular block diagrams • Logic designer convert each block function into equivalent circuit schematic .

Design Methodology • DESCRIBE and SYNTHESIS • New way • Allow us to describe the design in purely behavioral form • Design structure are automatically generated by CAD tools • DESCRIBE and SYNTHESIS can be applied at the several level of abstractions .

Describe and Synthesis: Gate Level Using Logic Synthesis .

flowcharts. instruction sets • Describe and Synthesis: Gate Level . data flow diagrams. FSM charts.Describe and Synthesis: Register Level Using Behavoural synthesis technique • Described by programming algorithms.

Q&A • Why Logic and Synthesis ? • Why it took long time to accept behavioral synthesis than logic synthesis ? .

Next Class Major Synthesis tasks .

Binding .Behavior to Structural • Three major synthesis tasks 1. Allocation 2. Scheduling 3.

delay of each BUS in the system .Allocation • Determine the number of register level components • Number of Functional units • Number of pipeline stages • Determine No. protocol. Size.

Scheduling • Determine the number of Control Steps • Each control step data transfer from one register to another • All register transfer in each control steps are to be executed concurrently .

Binding • Assign the operation to particular register level component • Assign variable to storage unit and operation to functional unit .