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6th History NCERT

Chapter: 1 What, where, How and when
-The places where rice was 1st grown are to the north of the Vindhyas.
-The area to the south along the river Ganga and its tributary son, was known as
-People moved in search of livelihood, some driven by a spirit of adventure, to
escape droughts or floods
-Traders moved to do trade
-Religious teachers moved to offer instruction
=>All this lead to exchange of ideas between people.

Chapter 2: On the trail of earliest People
Reasons why Hunter gatherers moved from place to place:
1).Limited resources at one place
2).Animals moved in search of prey so the hunters had to move along too.
3).Plants and trees have different seasons in which they bear fruit so people
4).People living alongside seasonal rivers would have to move in search of water
during dry seasons.
Tools made of stone; bone and wood provide us info about these people.
Stone tools:
1).Cut meat and bone, scrape bark (from trees) and hides, chop fruits and roots
2).Making spears and arrows for hunting
3).Digging for edible roots
4).Stitching clothes made out of animal skin.
Hunter gatherer sites have been found alongside rivers.
People tried to find places where good quality stones were found for making
stone tools.

eg .Factory sites: places where people made tools. Mortars or pestles used to grind grain and plant produce. Paleo means old. Stuck to handles of bone or wood to make tools such as saws & sickles. East and south India Bones of animals. Rock paintings found on the walls of the caves .Lower 2). burnt grain. This period covers 99% of human history. -Divided into 1). seeds of plants. Habitation cum factory sites: sites where people lived for longer spells. lithic means stone. Traces of huts or houses at some sites: Burzahom in Kashmir(pit houses) Stone tools different from Palaeolithic tools found at some sites. -Began 12000yrs ago Early farmers herders . Palaeolithic period –2million years ago till 12000 yrs ago.Southern UP and MP Ostrich eggs .Patne Maharashtra Hunsgi . .Middle 3).Paleolithihc period .Period about 12000yrs ago when Environmental changes began till 10000yrs ago.Upper Palaeolithic periods Meso(Middle)lithic period . Neolithic Tools: Fine cutting edge. -Microliths: Tiny stone tools.Present day Kashmir.Number of paleolithic sites Chapter: 3 From Gathering to growing food Domestication – A process in which people grow plants and look after animals.

Diff between tribes and societies Tribes are different from many other societies: land. Special features of Harrapan Cities: 1). Built around a courtyard.stone from china -Tools made of fossil wood -pottery Chapter 4: In the earliest cities Harrapan cities developed 400 yrs ago.  -Burial sites found Daojali Hading . -Great bath in Mohenjodaro built in this area West Lower town . forests.Walls of baked brick built around each part. Mehrgarh . Citadel -The Part to the west. .Located in a fertile plain near Bolan Pass. grasslands. Houses . -Drains were covered and drainage of houses connected to the bigger drains. smaller and higher.Divided into 2 or more parts.Larger but lower town Citadel East Lower -Kalibangan & Lothal had fire altars -Mohenjodaro. water are regarded as wealth of entire tribe and everybody shares n uses these together.near Brahmaputra Valley  -Stone tools including mortars and pestles have been found -jadeite . -remains of square and Rectangular houses. Harappa had elaborate store houses 2).1 or 2 storey high.

Oman Tin+Cu = bronze: Afghanistan and Iran Gold . buffalo Caught fish. Cu . carving seals . bangles. prepared seals Objects found in Harrapan cities: -Made of stone. Iran and Afghanistan Farming: Farmers and herders supplied food to cities     Plough was used Stored water was used for irrigation as region gets less rainfall Reared sheep.Rectangular seals made of stone -Pots with black designs Cotton pieces found in Mohenjodaro attached to a silver vase.Karnataka Precious stones . Gold and silver -Cu n Bronze: tools.person trained to do only one kind of work.Gujarat . Bronze.artificially produced Gum used to shape sand or powdered quartz and then object was glazed. weights (made of chert) and blades found . goat. earrings and tiny vessels.Ppl who knew how to write. weapons. for eg : cutting stone. precious stones etc Scribes . ornaments n vessels -Gold n silver: ornaments n vessels -Beads (made of carnelian). Faience .Rulers . hunted wild animals and collected fruits Dholavira in Gujarat (Rann of Kutch)   Divided into 3 parts not 2 Each part surrounded by massive stone walls with entrances through gateways .Harrapans got it from rajasthan.People who planned the construction of special buildings in the city  -sent people to distant lands to get metal. colours were usually blue or sea green  -used to make beads. shell and metal including Cu. Specialists .

children (esp.Drying up of rivers 2). -written down several centuries after it was first composed Prayers in Rigveda for cattle. shell and metal The end: 3900 yrs ago ppl stopped living in many cities . sons) and horses Description of People as per Rigveda: . Soma(plant from which spl drink was prepared) -Most hymns were composed by men.Floods in some areas Chapter: 5 What Books and burials tell us Oldest Veda: Rigveda (3500yrs ago) Rigveda: Contains Suktas or hymns (well . Indra.writings. few by women Rigveda was recited and heard rather than read.Deforestation: Fuel was required for smelting Cu ores and baking bricks 3). Open area for public ceremonies Lothal -Located beside a tributary of Sabarmati close to Gulf of Khambat   Situated near areas where raw materials like semi-precious stones were easily available Imp centre for making objects out of stone. weights. seals no longer used -Raw materials became rare -In Mohenjodaro garbage piled up on the streets -Drainage system broke -Less elaborate houses Reasons suggested: 1).said) -written in Old or Vedic Sanskrit -Agni.Destruction of Green cover due to grazing by large herds of cattle 4).

Period after Rigveda = Later vedic samveda. Kings and an early republic 3000yrs ago some men became rajas by performing very big sacrifices like Ashvamedha or horse sacrifice.Big stones used to mark burial sites -Practice was prevalent throughout in -Deccan -South India -NE -Kashmir Burials in megaliths have some common features:    -Dead buried with distinct pots (black n red ware) -tools n weapons of iron -ornaments of stone and gold Megaliths: -some were buried with more beads.  Brahmins (performed rituals)  Rajas 2 words used to describe people or community as a whole: -jana -vish (vaishya comes from vish) Aryas: who composed hymns dasas or dasyus -their(aryas) opponents -Rigveda composed in NW of the subcontinent Megaliths . yajurveda and atharvaveda are all later vedic texts -Varna system . ornaments etc which show some kind of status difference -one family had same burial site Chapter: 6 Kingdoms.2 groups described in terms of their work.priests .priests divided people into 4 groups -Brahmins .

Magadha:   -Became important Mahajanapada in 200yrs -Ganga n son flowed thru it  tranport  water supply  made land fertile . -Tax on craft persons in form of labour like work for a day -Herders: animals or animal produce -Hunters n Gatherers: forest produce 2 major Changes in Agriculture: 1).farmers. many were fortified. Rajas now began to maintain armies.rulers -vaishyas . some payments were thru punch marked coins -Taxes were imposed now to maintain armies and to raise resources to build forts -Bhaga or a share: tax on crops =1/6th of what was produced.Transplantation of paddy began: Instead of scattering seeds. couldn’t perform rituals -Women and shudras cudnt study vedas -Varna decided by birth Janapadas: The land where jana sets its foot and settled down.had to serve other groups. herders. soldiers paid regular salaries. -rajas of janapadas were given gifts by the jana Some janapadas became more important and were now called as Mahajanapadas -They had a capital city. traders -Shudras . saplings were grown n then planted on fields. It lead to an increased production as many more plants survived -dasas or agricultural labourers (Kammakaras) did this work.Growing use of Iron ploughshares which meant more grain as iron plough could turn the soil over better then wooden ones 2). Rajas who performed these big sacrifices were now known as rajas of janapadas rather than janas(vish).-Kshatriyas.

-Buddha n mahavira belonged to ganas Chapter: 7 New Questions and Ideas Buddha: -Siddhartha aka Gautama founder of Buddhism was born around 2500yrs ago -Belonged to a small Gana: Sakya Gana -was a Kshatriya -left his home in search of true knowledge -attained enlightenment under a peepal tree at Bodh gaya in Bihar. kammakaras cud not participate in such discussions. dasas.-iron ore mines -Bimbisara n Ajatsattu were 2 very powerful rulers of Magadha -used all means to conquer other Janapadas -Mahapadma Nanda: -Extended his control to North West part of subcontinent -Rajgriha(present day rajgir ) was capital of Magadha for many years. . Later it was shifted to pataliputra(patna) Vajji: Capital: Vaishali (Bihar) Government type: Gana or sangha Gana or sangha :    -Not one but many rulers' each one individually called as raja -performed rituals together -met in assemblies to decide what to do n how -women.Life is full of suffering and unhappiness due to cravings n desires. now he was known as Buddha or the Wise One -Went to sarnath near Varanasi nd taught there for the first time -passed away at Kusinara Teachings of Buddha: 1).

It can be removed by following moderation in everything 3). Upanishad: -means approaching and sitting near -Later Vedic text -Contains conversations between teachers n students -ideas presented thru simple dialogues -Upanishadic thinkers were rajas and brahmins mostly -Gargi: famous women thinker and took part in debates held in royal courts -Though poor ppl seldom took part 'Satyakama Jabala' was an exception Panini prepared a grammar for Sanskrit Jainism: TImeline: 2500yrs ago around same time as buddha -Kshatriya prince pf Lichchhavis.Karma ie the result of our actions affects us in this life n the next -He taught in Prakrit 5).Men n women who wish to know the truth must leave their homes 2).Followers of Mahavira known as Jainas(comes from word jina meaning the conqueror) had to lead simplelives.Tanha or thirst -we always want more n are never satisfied. -had to be absolutely honest.Taught in Prakrit 4). never to steal . begging for food.Encouraged people to think for themselves rather than accepting what he tells them. a group that was part of Vajji sangha -At 30 he left his home and after 12yrs he attained enlightenment Teachings of Mahavira: 1).Must follow Ahimsa very strictly 3).taught people to be kind -to respect lives of others incl animals 4).2).

1).vanaprastha. n women who joined sanghas were known as Bhikkhus(prakrit for beggar)n Bhikkhunis. Gujarat. the emperor who gave up war Mauryan Empire - . studied vedas during early years of life 2).Grihastha-marry n live as householders 3).They were known as Viharas -They were made of wood earlier n then later on of wood -Some were in caves in western india Brahmins developed system of ashramas .It was done at the same time when buddhism n jainism were becoming famous.-Observe celibacy -Men had to give up everything including their clothes Jainism was mainly supported by traders as farmers had to kill insects to save their crops -Jainism spread to parts of North in forest and meditate 4). Karnataka The sangha: -Mahavira n Buddha arranged for the ppl who left their homes to stay together in form of an association ie sangha -Vinaya Pitaka: Book containing rules made for Buddhist sangha -all men cud join -women needs permission of husband -debitors of creditors -children of parents . -Varna system was not followed inside sanghas Monastries were built as the need for a permanent shelter was felt by nuns and monks . Kshatriya n Vaishya men lead simple lives .Samnyasa-give up everything and become samnyasins Women had to follow the ashrama chosen by their husbands Chapter: 8 Ashoka.Bramhcharya -Brahmin .

-Important cities    :Pataliputra -Taxila -Ujain Area around Pataliputra was under direct control of the emperor. herders etc -officials punished those who disobeyed ruler's orders -Messengers were used -Spies kept watch on officials -Other areas or provinces were ruled from a provincial capital such as taxila or ujjain. thriving towns Megalithihc burial sites had large collections of iron tools and weapons . rivers and tried to collect resources as tax n tribute Megasthenes was sent to the court of Chandragupta Maurya by Greek Ruler Seleucus Nicator Ashoka:The most famous Mauryan ruler -First ruler who tried to take his message to the people through inscriptions written in Brahmi script n were in Prakrit. -Horrified at the bloodshed in the war for Kalinga(orissa) that he gave up the conquest after winning the war. -Rulers tried to control roads. Syria. -officials appointed to collect taxes from farmers. Greece and Srilanka Chapter: 9 Vital villages. Ashoka's Dhamma:    -didnt involve worship of a god or any sacrifice -Inspired by teachings of Buddha -Appointed officials as Dhamma Mahamatta who went from place to place teaching people about dhamma. -inscribed his message on rocks and pillars -sent messengers to other lands such as Egypt. -He decided to spread his message of Dhamma (Prakrit word for the sanskrit term 'Dharma') .

-Ring wells found in many such cities punch marked coins used during this period Mathura: imp city as it was located at the cross roads of 2 major routes of travel -from NW to east and from North to South -Became a capital for kushanas around 2000yrs ago -Religious centre with monastries. written down n preserved by buddhist monks Sangam Literature: Called sangam bcz was composed n compiled by assemblies of poets held in city of madurai Find out more ? Many cities that developed from about 2500yrs ago were capitals of Mahajanapadas. Northern Black Polished Ware: .Kadaisiyar n adimai Northern region Villages: -Grama Bhojaka-Village headman (hereditary post)     largest landowner often hired slaves to work on his land King used him to collect taxes from village functioned as a judge n policeman sometimes Grihgapatis: other independent famers.Vellalars. smaller landowners Dasas/karmakaras: Men n women who didnt own land and worked in fields to earn a living Jatakas: Stories composed by ordinary people.Villages: -Tamil region: large landowners . Jaina shrines and krishna worship.uzhavar. landless labourers including slaves . Ordinary ploughmen.

Black in color with fine sheen Shrenis: Associations formed by merchants n craft persons Shrenis of craft persons: -provided training. Kings and pilgrims South India: known for pepper n spices -roman coins found in south India -pepper was known as black gold in Rome Muvendar: Mentioned in sangam poems -tamil word meaning used for heads of 3 ruling families i. Arretine ware.e. roman lamps. -Cholas -Cheras -Pandyas -Became powerful in south india around 2300 yrs ago -Each chief had an inland and coastal centre of power -2 important out of 6 were: -Kaveripattinam: port of Cholas -Madurai: Capital of Pandyas -chiefs didnt collect taxes instead demanded regular gifts from ppl .Extremely fine pottery. procured raw material n distributed finished product Shrenis of merchants: -organised trade Shrenis served as banks also Arikamedu: A coastal settlement between 2200 n 1900 yrs ago Pottery. glassware n gems Chapter: 10 Traders. found in Northern part of subcontinent.

an imp Kushana ruler -organised a buddhist council -Ashvaghosha -Poet who composed biography of Buddha i. . Satvahanas: 200 yrs later they became powerful in western india -gautamiputra Shri Satakarni Satavahan rulers werre known as Lords of Dakshinapatha Silk Route: : Techniques of making silk was first invented in China 7000yrs ago :ppl from china went to distant lands on foot. budhhacharita lived in his ocurt. -Ashvaghosha n other poets now began writing in Sanskrit .Mahayana Buddhism developed now :features -Earlier in sculptures buddha was shown thru signs like by peepal tree but now his statues were made in mathura n taxila. -Rulers tried to control the route for tributes n gifts from traders and they protected them instead from robbers -Kushanas controlled silk route ruled over central asia n NW India Peshawar n Mathura their major centres of Power Taxila also came under their kingdom -Kushanas issued gold coins and were amongst the earliest rulers in the subcontinent to do so Spread of Buddhism: Kanishka .-Went on military expeditions n collected tributes n distributed them amongst their followers including their own family members n poet soldiers etc. on camels n horseback and the route they followed came to be known as Silk Route -Chinese rulers sent gifts of silk to Iran n West Asia and from there the knowledge of silk spread further west.e.

Fa-Xian 1600 yrs ago Xuan Zang 1400yrs ago I-Qing .Buddhism also spread to western n southern India Buddhism also spread SE to Srilanka.50yrs after Xuan – Zang -Spent time at Nalanda studying Buddhism Beginning of Bhakti: -Worship of certain deities gained in importance -Deities worshipped thru bhakti -Anyone rich or poor cud follow path of Bhakti -Idea of bhakti is presetn in Bhagwad geeta -Bhakti followers emphasised devotion n individual worship of a god or goddess rather then performance of rituals -devotee who worships with a pure heart.china n later to korea n japan .those who attained enlightenment cud live in complete isolation but now they lived in the wrld teaching other ppl . Caves were hollowed in the hills for the monks to live in. lion or human figure etc -image worship Chapter: 11 New Empires & Kingdoms Samudragupta: Gupta dynasty .so deity cud be thought of anything like tree. Caves were located near passes thru Western Ghats where traders coming from the ports n going to the cities of the Deccan halted Pilgrims: Chinese buddhist pilgrim . Myanmar. Theravada Buddhism was more popular here.-Bodhisattvas . Thailand n Indonesia.worship of boddhisattvas spread to central asia . deity will appear in the form in which he or she desires .

-We know about him from a long poem in sanskrit by court poet Harishena 170 yrs ago -The above inscription is of spl kind known as Prashasti (meaning in praise) -Prashastis became imp during guptas rule Harishena describes 4 kinds of rulers and tell us about Samudragupta’s policy towards them 1). magadha but was stopped in his march towards Deccan by pulakeshin II a ruler of chalukya dynasty Pallavas n chalukyas ruled during this period in South India Pallavas: -Kingdom was spread from capital city of Kanchipuram till kaveri delta Chalukyas: -Aihole. Nepal n number of gana sanghas in NW brought tributes to his court . -Both dynasties fought with each other n raided capital cities as they were prosperous . surrendered to him after being defeated n samudra allowed him to rule again 3). including Assam. the capital of chalukyas. followed his orders n attended his court 4).Rulers of outlying areas: Descendents of kushanas and shakas .Rulers of Dakshinapatha: 12 rulers were here. known by prashasti by court poet Ravikirti His Kingdom centered around Raichur Doab between Krishna n tungbhadra. Coastal Bengal.Rulers of Aryavarta: 9 rulers here were uprooted n their kingdoms were made a part of Samudras empire 2).Inner circle of neighbouring states. ruler of srilanka submitted to him n offered their daughters for marriage. imp trading centre -Pulakeshin -II . Samudras mother belonged to Lichchhavi gana n his father chandragupta was first ruler of gupta dynasty to adopt the title of Maharaj-adhiraja Harshavardhana: ruled 1400yrs ago Banabhatta his court poet wrote Harshacharita his biography in sanskrit -Xuan Zang spent time in his court Harsha took over kanauj n then bengal.

   -Imp admin posts were made hereditary like harishena was a mahadanda-nayaka or chief judicial officer like his father -1 person held many posts -Imp men had a say in Local administration which include nagarashreshti or chief banker or merchant of the city. foot soldiers -Military leaders or samantas who provided troops to the king when he needed them -They were paid grants of land n not regular salaries -they collected revenue from the land and used them to maintain soldiers & horses & for providing equipment for warfare Assemblies in South Kingdoms: Inscriptions of Pallavas mention local assembliles namely. sabha -assembly of brahmin land owners. looked after irrigation. sathavaha or leader of merchant of merchants Untouchability prevalent: The untouchables were expected to live outskirts of the city . prathama-kulika or chief craftsman and the head of kayasthas or scribes New kind of army: -Well maintained armies like earlier rulers with chariots. roads .Eventually they gave way to Rashtrakutas & cholas Administration: Chalukyas & Pallavas -Land revenue remained important -Village remained the basic unit of administration New developments: Measures taken by kings to win support of powerful men.local temples etc ur -an assembly of land owners who were not brahmins nagaram. elephants cavalry.

eg of monolithic temple Epics: Grand long compositions about heroic men and women & include stories about gods Silappadikaram: Tamil epic composed by Ilango around 1800yr ago Manimekalai: Tamil epic -by sattanar aroound 1400yrs ago Kalidasa wrote in sanskrit Puranas were written during this period only -Puranas were written in simple Sanskrit -were meant to be heard by everyone including women & shudras Mahabharata: known previously but written about 1500yrs ago Both Mahabharata and puranas are by Vyasa Sanskrit ramayana –valmiki Books on science: .Chapter: 12 Buildings.a hall where ppl cud assemble -Mahabalipuram . may contain bodily remains of buddha or his followers or things they used as well as precious stones n coins -Pradakshina patha was laid around the stupa Devotees walked around stupa in clockwise direction Earliest Hindu temples also built during this time -Most imp part of the temple was garbhagriha -where image of chief deity was placed shikhara -a tower was built on the top of garbhagriha to mark it as a sacred place mandapa . Paintings & Books Stupas: A Small box (Relic casket) placed at the heart of stupa.

-From Baghdad where it was known about 1800yrs ago it spread to Europe. Africa and other part s of Asian subcontinent .Aryabhata: wrote Aryabhatiyamm in Sanskrit -Stated that day and night were caused by the rotation of earth on its axis He developed a scientific explanation for eclipses as well -also found out the way for calculating the circumference of a circle Paper: -Paper invented in china by Cai Lun about 1900yrs ago -the secret reached Korea about 1400yrs ago and then to Japan.