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ADVANCED PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

Edited by
RAYMOND E. WHITNEY
Lock Haven State College,
Lock Haven,

PA 17745

Send alt commuyiLccutlonA concerning
ADVANCED PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS to
Raymond E. Whitney, Mathematics Department, Lock Haven State College, Lock
Haven, Pennsylvanis 17745. ThjJ> department eApecioLty welcomes problems believed to be new on, extending old fie&ultA. ?siopo&&i& should submit AolmtLonA
on, other information
that wilt aA&lbt the ecUXor. To facilitate
their
consideration,
solutions
should be submitted on separate Signed sheets within 2
months a^ter publication
o^ the problems.
H-290

Proposed

by Gregory

Wulczyn,

Bucknell

University,

Lewisburg,

PA.

Show that:
(a)

(b)
H-291

Fk* k + 6r +3 ~ ^k+kr + 2 ~ ( " 1 /

FkFLsr
Proposed

~ ?U,r

=

^2r +l^k+8r

(-Dk + 1F2Zr(Fk

by George Berzsenyi,

+ 8p

+h ~ ^k+kr+2'

>

+ 2F k + l f r ) .

Lamar University,

Beaumont,

TX

Prove that there are infinitely many squares which are differences of
consecutive cubes.
H-292

Proposed by F. S. Cater
land, OR.

and J. Daily,

Portland

State

University,

Port-

Find all real numbers v £(0,1) for which there exists a one-to-one function fr mapping (0,1) onto (0,1) such that
(1) fr and f~ are infinitely many times differentiable on (0,1), and
(2) the sequence of functions fr, frofP9
frofrofr,
fv^fv°fv°fv
> •'•••
converges pointwise to v on (0,1).
H-293

Proposed

by Leonard

Carlitz,

Duke University,

It is known that the Hermite polynomials <Hn(x)\
n=0

Durham, NC.
defined by

n

'

satisfy the relation

I>»+ *(*>S = e2XZ-*2Hk(x
n=0

- z) (k = 0, 1, 2, . . . ) .

'

Show that conversely if a set of polynomials \fn(x)\

<x>

Z-4+fc^Jr = E ^ ^ J r 4 ( x - z) (k = 0, 1, 2, . . . ) ,

n =0

where f0(x)

satisfy

n=0

= 1, fx(x) = 2x, then
fn(x)
= Hn(x)
(n = 0, 1, 2, . . . ) .

566

therefore /?? .-*)0)(5)/(")However.^ 7 2 i + P + 1 2 ^ 7 i + 0 P + 2 0 ^ 5 6r + 2 8 ^ 7 2 r + 3 6 ^ 1 Or + 5 ^ 2 Or + 1 5 ^ 5 Or +2 5 ^ 7 Or + 3 6 ^ 5 Or+1+5 SOLUTIONS SYMMETRIC SUM H-272 ( C o r r e c t e d ) Proposed by Leonard Carlitz. p ) . A moment's reflection reveals that it suffices to show that Cm(p. p.k in the last expression yields te last expression yields: m m '.')/(j)- j=0 k=0 7 = 0fe= 0 Replacing k by m .<*•«•'>-E£(.)/(?)-O/rTO-O^'/fT1)Therefore. q.f*)?:w)'(J)(5)/(-r1)- . Duke University.?oc. Replacing j by (1) and applying Vandermonde? s convolution theorem on the term inand q yields: ". Bucknell University.)fc^)«) k=0 j-o m m -J E0t(A)UKi)(. Define a) Clearly.<p-"-')-i. r).^)(5)(j)/(. q. it is easy to verify that (»-. CA. q.)E(. NC.?*)(0(*)/(. Solution C m (p. v) = Cm(q. r) v.(. Durham.Dec.) J = 0fc= j -EU)(. (7. p. Evaluate ^2r+l ^6r+3 -^10r+5 ^lhr+7 ^ I 8r +9 * hr +2 ^ 1 2 r + 6 ^ 2 OP + 1 0 ^ 2 8 r + 1 h^ Z Sv + 1 8 ^6r+3 ^ 3 6 r + 1 5 ^ 4 2 ^ + 2 1^5 4 r + 2 7 ^18r+9 ^ 7 8 r + L f .j in volving p j =0 Cm(p.!.«.-*)(5)(.<*. w • C)E(?)(. PA. by Paul Bruckman. 1978 H-294 ADVANCED PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS Proposed by Gregory Wulczyn. 567 Lewisburg. r) = Cm(q. 777 k *. Concord. Show t h a t EmcAX^rv^A™) is symmetric in p.

indicated below.{In + 3 ) .. = / ^ L2n . 3. . iii. Slippery Rock. the array D.1) j=0 n+1 " / . PA. .L2n-2(.r •.2 (j . 1 4 1 11 4 1 29 11 4 1 76 29 11 4 1 Show that the row sums are L2n + 2 ~ 2.0 L = £J2n+2 " ^ O J a 2n-2(j- 1) s " L 2n-2j) required. Shannon. Morgantown. % = q. J-0 n iii. 2Ls ^2n-kj + i ~ F2n+3 - i.W. In effect we are asked to prove: n i* 2Ll ^2n-2j +1 = ^2n+2 ~ 2. Identities D-u'UK^/cr)/©- fc-0 Letting k = J. (H.rt=E(?)(„^-)L-J-)r'r+j')/(™) 3 = Cm(q..i-l) j=l . proposer.1972)... p ) .. Solution by A.568 ADVANCED PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS Now.) is written in staggered columns: i.S.1) in Combinatorial is as follows: <« [Dec.1 In (4). formula (7. G. sequentially to the right then the row sums are L2n+3 . In which ^2n+i (n = 0. k=0 once again and replacing k by j y i e l d s : m <p.*> = Q|:axA)r i T~ i )/CT 1 ) fr\SLy(P\t \m)ls\k)\m-k)\ = 1 \/q+r-m k + k\ I IT -m + k\ ) /\ k ) . Show that the rising diagonal sums are F2n+3 ~ 1 where L2n+1 is the largest element in the sum. j-o n n (^ Z^L2^-2J + 1 J=0 / n \ = I-** \ j . ii. Gould. 2. W.D. A RAY OF LUCAS H-273 Proposed by W. Brady. n = k. 2. J-0 [n/2] i1. Australia. p. G.{In + 3).. The N. Slippery Rock State College.«. Consider. y = m . we therefore simplify (3) as follows: *. Institute of Technology. 1. ^ (j + l)L2n_2j+1 = L2n + 3 . Show that if the columns are multiplied by 1.E. Also solved by the Q. after Hoggatt and H-257.

T.Ll 2 ) [from (i)] 3 ~ -^2n-2i+l ~ ^j . .1 n = F j-i (iii) £ (J + l)L2n_2j.1 . .1 ) = j=o ! ~ ^i^(25 «) " F. Wulczyn.1o(29 1 if n\m9 0 if n\m.x) < p < y/(z . Prielipp. Howard solved H-268 and M. Canada.Q ' = F2n+3 in which 569 *Yj 2in+i)-n+i . Dinh The'Hung. F. Freitag.2 i + l = Z)(L2n-2i+ 2 i =0j =1 ' *-0 n rc + 1 +3 ~ X .+ 1 .x) + y/(z . n n n [n/2] + l F ^ 2n-kj = 2-j\^2n-2i+ £=0 L 2n-kj+3 n + 1) = F 2 n + 3 . B.• G. Klamkin solved H-270. Guillotte. Late Acknowledgments: H. Show that (A) p < xj(z . Quebec. x. and z. A. y. Let p denote an odd prime and xp + yp = zp for positive integers.2(n + 1) = L2n+3 .(L2n + 2 .y).L 2 n + 2 + 2 .y).2) .2(n + 1) i =Q = L2n+. Bruckman. Also solved by P. R.1978] ADVANCED PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS [«/2] (ii) 2 ^ [n/2] L 2n-Hj [n/2] + 1 = 2-J {F2n-Hj J-o +3 " F 2n .4 j . as required.£ S L 2 n . and the proposer. A CORRECTED OLDIE H-225 Proposed by G.2 . ^.(In + 3 ) . and (B) z/2(z .