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AP Psychology Chapter 8 Notes

General Physical factors:
Hypothalamus: 4 F's (pain, pleasure, fear, rage, hunger, thirst, sex)
Neropeptide Y - released when there is negative energy balance: hunger
Thyroid: controls metabolism
Hypothyroidism: slow metabolism, no energy
Hyperthyroidism: fast metabolism, can't relax
Reticular formation: spread all over the brain, controls activity and arousal.
Pancreas: makes insulin.
Pituitary Gland: Master Gland.
Adrenal gland: secretes adrenaline
Basal metabolic rate - minimum energy use when a person is idle - minimum calori
es needed to function idly
Adipose tissue - body fat, stored calories
*If calorie intake > basal metabolic rate, increase fat
calorie intake < basal metabolic rate, decrease fat
calorie intake = basal metabolic rate, no net fat gained
Leptin - hormone makes you feel full
Ghrelin - hormone that tells you you're hungry
Stoamch goes GHRRR (Ghrelin)
Released from adipose tissue (fat), sends afferent (arriving) signal to brain
Hunger.
May be caused by external factors:
1. Attractiveness (food look good or nah?)
2. Social cues (does the societal situation allow it?)
3. Availability (eat food because its there) *if you don't have food, you can
avoid over-eating!
4. Emotional stress (coping with a breakup?)
5. How one is taught to: eat, shop, cook
6. Gender issues: eating standards (girls shouldn't pig out, guys usually do)
Internal/Biological Factors.
1. Low blood sugar
2. Higher insulin levels - more hunger and more foods eaten
3. Higher ghrelin levels - ghrrrr
4. Tongue - taste receptors
Oral signals: desire to taste and chew stuff, and that thingy that makes t
he 8th donut
less satisfying than the 1st helps to prevent you from eating too much
5. Stomach signals - as stomach streches to fit more food, neurons are relayed
to brain, helps trigger satisfaction feeling
6. Ventromedial hypothalamus: stop eating center - receives chemicals from inte
stines called CCK
Lesioned: overeating
Stimulated: reduced eating
7. Lateral hypothalamus: start eating center - tests shown that damaged rats st
arve because they don't feel hungry
Lesioned: reduced hunger
Stimulated: increased hunger
8. Leptin - hormone that tells you you're full
9. Cholecystokinin: CCK - hunger surpressant
10. Ghrelin - hormone that makes you wanna eat - GHRRRR

can be seen as like an addiction *. c. Dry Tongue b. etc d. hard to diagnose e. such that people think that our bodies are o ur unconsciousness 2. Our body is rarely wrong.depression.wrong animal in wrong zoo? f.we crave fat back then. health. tons of lozenges 3. Set Point Theory . Kids may learn shopping. Settling Point Theory . a. i.Eating Disorders. Size iii. cu lture. purge to deal with guilt of overeating c.weight thermostats are set to maintain body weight with in higher than average range.nature vs.weight/shape will probably resemble that of the parents i. body sends hunger signals but the mind overrides it ii.like many other mental illnesses . but now its ez to get d. lasts long throughout life f. rarely physical. Temperature receptors or tongue: triggers desire for cold drinks in the su mmer and hot ones in the winter d. nuture? *hunger is simply information. culture. fantasies) -nature vs. Sexuality i. fat cells may shrink. yo-yo dieting . often the result of several bad factors . tell-tale signs: sore throat.but its not the sam e for everyone e.fighting your set point e. interest begins in adolescence ii.Binge eating and purging a.weight stays same unless there are other factors.only in the beautiful US of A! b. 1. Anorexia Nervosa a.survival b. . Evolution says: natures way of making people procreate . but will never disappear iv. Bulimia Nervosa . Genetic Factor . Balance of water in body cells Sexual Thirst. easy to hide.type A: control high achieving. its a seconday role c. exclusively mental and symbolic. sometimes we should listen. Cognitive paradigm -imaginitive stimuli (dreams. religion . lack of dopamine in striatum. Receptor in the intestine c. cooking. and exercise from parents? Cultural influence: What is beauty? Who defines beauty? Different cultures? Diff erent times? Thirst. personality facotrs . starts during adolescent time c. Fat cells: send signals to brain . women more than men . interferes with normal pleasure seeking beha vior b. eating. imagination. a. Psychology of Sex i. tense i. Evolution . Glucose is the food of the brain. Eat to distract thoughts b. rigid.homeostasis i Number ii. Intense fear of being too fat . occurs later in life . sometimes we shoul d not. then weight will slowly go up. nurture motivation to sex comes from physiology.20s? d.BMI of >30 (BMI = lbs / in^2) a. follows a pattern . Obesity .

Humanistic Theory . Paraphilia . safety. Sex is powerful drive. so men can disengage emotions from sex generally men want sex more. Experimental based ii.study of sex e.increase desire -Progesterone: lack of desire -Oxytocin .refractory period. THIS IS FALSE. Harry Harlow's Monkey experiment: is love a need? No. Abnormal sex: homosex is not a diagnosable disorder 1974 1. can be administered through na sal spray -Pheromones .how to learn that? iv.ii. Evolutionary: Males want more sex b/c spread seed as much as possible Women want sex less b/c effort to raise kid. involves tons of factors -One's feelings after the first time influences sexual attitudes for LIFE Non survival needs. Sociology of Sex . Physiology of Sex .lots of resistence to his work . Resolution . Cultural: Boys taught to be cultural Girls taught to get along 3. he just proves that we need human contact/cuddling ?.always another layer of WHY i. females feel this more 4. trust. love . be more selecti ve 2. What is the real reason why people do stuff? . love hormone -Present in nursing mothers/couples. but culture views as bad d.fap fap fap . a.is it a need? -No physical harm.period of subjective pleasure/physiological changes 3.subtle unconscious orders that could make a human h0rny -Castration: remove nuts to reduce sex drive -Do people need sex? need to define NEED and define SEX -Masturbation . satisfy unconscious urges? iii. Appetitive . for a paycheck? ii.Alfred Kinsey's surveys i. Orgasm .cuddle.sexual attraction to THINGS Freud: traced sexual deviations in adulthood to childhood.William Masters/Virginia Johnson: i. Excitement . sexual practices . sexology . meet society's standards . Female brains = more interconnected.climax. self-actualization .presence of sexual desire/fantasy 2. period of feeling pleasure/well-bein g iv.hierarchy of bodily needs: physiological. and society says its bad for women to want it Non-physical variables 1. Biological paradigm: sex = chemicals -Androgens: male hormones that increase sexual interest in men/women -sex arousal can be an independent variable as well as dependent of i ncreased hormone levels (either cause or effect) -Testosterone . Masters was medical doctor iii. esteem.male traits -Estrogen .5-5% of people are homosex 4. Stages of Sex: 1. to get better? to improve? THEORIES OF MOTIVATION 1.basically survey/interview based f.

hard af to do g. tragedies lead to political causes . Hard af to define a.self-discipline a.IN THE ZONE 3. learned helplessness e. Cannon-Bard Theory Physical cues AND emotions happen at the SAME TIME fight-or-flight response was coined by Walter CANNON . FACECRIME FIVE THEORIES OF EMOTION: 1. Body: shows the emotions. Components that are agreed upon a.usually good or bad. Cognition is affected by emotion . Achievement Motives: Measured by Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) 6. 7. then emotion d. self-fulfilling prophesies d. little to no voluntary control .starvation? 9/11? holocaust? f.or FREEZE? 3. usually transitory (temporary) . Freud's unconscious motivation: unconscious motivation. Individual achievement: Western idea to be independent. James-Lange Theory Peripheral theory of emotion Emotion follows physical cues. Collectivism: Eastern idea to support the fam 8.belief one can do something i. valence (value) . then thought e. Yerkes-Dodson Theory Emotion affects performance on tasks low emotion .Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi . Thought is an independent variable A. Curiosity Motives: what does this shit do though 9." b. self-handicapping . self-efficacy . Flow . That's it 4.2. subjective experience / cognitive appraisal i.blame some other thing for one's lack of 100% effor t f. Ex. Manipulation Motive: drive for a subject to manipulation objects in the en vironment EMOTION 1. "inferiority complex") 5. No artificial concept b. Is it because we have difficulty detecting change from homeostasis? c. is a "passing" C good or bad? ii. "No one can cry forever. Intrinsic Motivation . True laughter and most crying are not voluntary .rewarded for doing something will cause us t o stop liking that hobby/action b.for the sake of doing something . Thought would then be a dependent variable A.linked to the implicit memory system 3. modesty bias .need homeostasis i.complex tasks . if emotion. You were scared because you had that face on and your heart was beatin g 2. overjustification effect .self-satisfaction . Usually automatic . and not in the middle i. Lack of empiricism 2. Competence Motivation: BUT YOU WANNA BE BAD JUST BEAT IT (able to excercis e control in some situation. Operational definition can't be applied: if/then applies to behavior c. elicits a "drive" to get out of the emotional state .people believe they are above average c."fall in love" or "overcome by grief" i. if thought.so ____ can't think straight! i. Mind: Feels the emotions.clear beginning and end of emotions i.

Manage anger v.small expressions that convey an emotion iv. Read feelings of others iv."eye smile" with muscles around eyes iii.neurons that fire together wire together 2. Two-factor Theory ii. Schachter-Singer Theory i.approach-avoidance conflict or cognitive dissonance EMOTIONS 1. Adrenaline and fear/excitement? Chased by knife guy or roller coaster. The opponent process theory 8 primary emotions groups on positive/negative basis -joy/sadness -anger/fear -trust/distrust -surpise/anticipation i. 5. . Empathy the ability to feel what ithers are feeling Bullies? don't see victims as people. Respond to group 3.Daniel Goleman The ability to understand and control emotional responses does it grow with the brain? Frontal lobe? Toddlers? Teens? 5 things: are they skills or talents? i. emotions/expressions are hardwired into us -newborns are not taught to grimace in pain or smile ii. only a thing -that would lead to cognitive dissonance Is it a skill? -Can it be taught to children? -Can it be practiced? -Neuroplasty .easy tasks inverted U graph 4.thinking about emotion Ex.medium emotion . Cognitive appraisal . basic emotions can be modified to be more complex . Delay gratification -impulse control -controlling one's desire is a symptom of many disorders iii. communicating emotion Paul Eckman i.medium tasks high emotion . just like color vision theory *. Emotional Intelligence . Duchenne smile . soothe onesely ii. Micro-expression . physical response iii.