You are on page 1of 31

United States Patent [19

]
Bull et al.
[54] APPARATUS FOR NON-INVASIVE

Jun. 15, 1982

Waveforms and Nasalization, Stevens et al, Journal of

MEASUREMENT AND DISPLAY
NASALIZATION IN HUMAN SPEECH

Speech and Hearing Disorder, vol. XXXVII, 3.

both of Charlottesville; Milton T.

Contingencies for Bioelectronic Modi?cation of Nasal
ity, Fletcher, Quan-Tech, Reprint from Journal of
Speech and Hearing Disorder, Aug. 1972, vol. 37, No.

Edgerton, Timbercreek, all of Va.

3.

The University of Virginia,

Chu, et al, “An Electro-Acoustical Technique etc.”,
Medical Research Eng, vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 18-20.

[75] Inventors: Glen L. Bull; Wesley E. McDonald,

[73] Assignee:

4,335,276

[11]
145]

Charlottesville, Va.

[21] Appl. No.: 140,951

Primary Examiner—Mark E. Nushaum
Assistant Examiner——E. S. Kemeny

[22] Filed:

Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Oblon, Fisher, Spivak,

Apr. 16, 1980

[51]
[52]

Int. Cl.3 .............................................. .. G10L U110
.... .. 179/1 SP; 179/1 SC

[58]

Field of Search .............. .. 179/1 SC, 1 SP, 1 SE;

[56]

128/10, 731, 732, 635, 773; 434/319, 321
References Cited

McClelland & Maier

[57]

An apparatus for the acquisiton of a raw speech signal
and the essentially simultaneous acquisition of a trans
form of the speech signal, wherein said transform co

U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS
2,416,353

2/1947

3,281,534

10/1966

3,383,466

varies as a function of changes in one or more parame

179/] SC

ters in the speech signal and is indicative of a predeter
mined selected speech characteristic, such as nasaliza
tion, pitch or intensity, The apparatus includes a micro

Shipman et a1. ............ .. 179/1 SP X
Dersch

. . .. . . . .. . ..

ABSTRACT

. . . . . . . ..

5/1968 Hillix et a1. .

128/630

Brady ....... ..

179/1 SC

phone for producing ?rst signals representative of raw

3,646,576 2/1972 Griggs et al.

179/1 SC

3,752,929

179/1 SC

speech, and a second transducer, such as, for example,
an accelerometer for generating second signals essen

3,483,941 12/1969
8/1973

Fletcher .... ..

3,846,586 11/1974 Griggs

179/1 SC

3,855,416 12/1974

179/1 SP

Fuller .... ..

3,881,059

4/1975

Stewart

3,906,936

9/1975

Habal

4,015,088

3/1977 Dubnowski et a1.

4,061,041 12/1977

tially simultaneous to the production of the ?rst signals,
with the second signals being indicative of a selected

.. 179/1 SP

. . . . . . .. ..... . .. .

. . . ..

179/1 SC

Fletcher et a1.

4,074,069

2/1978 Tokura et al. ..

4,187,396

2/1980

parameteric characteristic of the human speech, such as,
for example, nasalization. The ?rst and second signals
are applied to data processing circuits which analyzes

128/ 724

..... .. 73/646

179/1 SC

the ?rst and second signals to produce transform signals

Luhowy ......................... .. 179/1 SC

based on arithmetic combinations thereof. The appara

OTHER PUBLICATIONS

tus further includes display means for providing video

The Effects Of Feedback Filtering On Nasalization,
Sharon R. Garber, Ph.D., Presented at Convention of
the American Speech and Hearing Association, Hous
ton, Texas, Nov. 21, 1976.
A Miniature Accelerometer For Detecting Glottal

graphic and alphanumeric display of the transform sig
nals accompanied by synchronous audio display of the
raw speech.

20 Claims, 20 Drawing Figures

F ______ _ZNZIIIEPEE~PROCES___S_IE___—__II
Am 1 HP

,4

EMS is

Q

ms

@_l_FILTER ATEIJCONV _ ?i
MIC

'
'

HP

® I‘ FILYER

5

u/v

22 001w

'

01v

as
_

L

L06

l

[- ___1H4;OE'?05£I15L——1|
r

40
T

i

4
‘a

|
1

MU)‘ _’ 3/” _’ ‘V9

1

52

1
I

LP 2
28 FILTER

AUX 1

~05

(34) :

%

i

AM 56

l_

l

‘A66 A10
i

F

___

l
{

_

I

l

-

L- ----------- ___-J

I

PS

I

l

,56

DISPLAY

II,

gisliqic i2
cavmaLER
1

I

Y

D/A

E

______________ __

{_
l
e

1

i

5
'

1/0

44
CPU _

7
m i
Emmi’ :

I

58
CONTROL

_

I
|
L

INTERHUPT
TIMERS
\48
MICROCOMPUTER

i
|
_J'

4 US. Patent ‘ Jun. 15, 1982

Sheet 1 of 17

NORMAL

4,335,276

H YPEWASAL

QENASAL

OFNIREASODNEXLC

SUBJECTS

H611

I

I

1

$5

$6

$7

1982 Sheet 3 of 17 4. Pateznt Jun.335. 3 j . +1234 \ > TAKEDATA A: _ 234 ‘Trim FIG. 15.S.U.276 ‘Eyé ? _ 0 E Q E_ __ ‘ 1324 I 2634 MS 1.

335. 1982 Sheet 4 of 17 4.276 ( WM m?lI 'lllllllllllkvmh FIG. 4 . 15. Patent Jun.US.

15.276 COLLATERAL PROCESSOR 1 MAIN DISPLAY DATA A‘ U co ISITION ‘ y & SPEECH PLAYBACK GET KEYBOARD comma FI6. 58 VALID COMgfAND PRINT ERROR MESSAGE TRANSFORM TAKER LOOK UP COMMAND IN JUMP TABLE 8 GO THERE SPEECH TAKER .US. 1982 Sheet 5 of 17 COMMAND paocessoa ' FIG. Patent Jun.335. 5A "'“'-" 4.

15.U.276 Sheet 6 of 17 TRANSFORM CURSOR ROUTINE _§QL£_.5’ LOOPS ‘5’ 5 MOVEMENT FIG . SET INTERRUPT VECTORS WAIT FOR INTERRUPT TRANsFORN REAOY FLAG sPEEcR STORAGE RECORD FULL? REAL-TIME D'SPLAY PLOT TRANSFORM POINT ON SCREEN YES TuRN OFF TIMERS a DISABLE INTERRUPTS EXIT TO MAIN DISPLAY a $P5§§gU§§?gBACK . 5D I I SYNCHRONOUS SPEECH PLAYBACK LOOP INTERRUPTS (~ MAIN LOOP ) FIG. Patent Jun.S. ggaggéggq 4I I I 1 CURSOR . 6A CLEAR SPEECH \ TURN ON TIMERS a ENABLE lNTERRUPTS RECORD FULL FLAG .335. 1982 NA/N LOOP 4..

US.6B 'NTERRUPTS wHERE INTERRuPTEO BY SPEECH TAKER . Patent Jun. 1982 Sheet 7 of 17 4.335.276 INTERRIIPT FROM SPEECH ‘k TINIR SET UP MULW PLEXER 8 ACOUIRE A RAW SPEECH vALuE FROM AN) YES S'LENT SILENT M55??? FLAG INTERVAL ~’ \ C AR SILENT INLTEERVAL FLAG ! SET SILENT INTERvAL FLAG INCRENENT SPEECH STOR ACE POINTER 1 I INCRENENT SPEECH STORACE POINTER a STORE RAw SPEECH - SET MEMORY VALVE LOCATION = PF 7 INCRENENT SPEECH STORACE POINTER ENABLE MEMORY LOCATION V cé'?i?smoi SPEECH STORAGE LOCATION ' RETURN V FIG. 15.

15.S. 6C (IF ANY) INCREMENT TRANSFORM STORAGE POINTER STORE TRANSFORM VALUE SET * TRANSFORM-READY FLAG ‘ > RETURN ’ } Mm“! . TRANSFORM CALCULATIONS. Patent Jun.‘ SYSTEM TIMING IS CRITICAL ENABLE INTERRUPTS I. 1982 Sheet 8 of 17 4. TRANSFORM ACQUISITION OCCURS BETWEEN SPEECH INTERRUPTS 2.276 TRANSFORM INTERRUPT V NOTE.335.U. STORAGE 8 DISPLAY MUST OCCUR BEFORE NEXT TRANSFORM INTERRUPT I WAIT FOR SPEECH INTERRUPT TO MAINTAIN SYN CHRONY WITH SPEECH INCREMENT TRANSFORM k STORE TRANSFORM STORAGE POINTER VALUE 0F F SET UP MULTIPLEXER 8 ACOUIRE TRANSFORM VALUE(S) I PERFORM TRANSFORM CALCULATIONS FIG.

Patent Jun.3352? INTERRUPT FROM RANSFORM TIMER ' 7 WAIT FOR SPEECH INTERRUPT TO MAIN TAIN SYNCHRONY WITH SPEECH 7 SET UP MULTIPLEXER 8 ACOUIRE MIC LOGARITHMIC RMS VALUE FIG. 60 7 SET UP MULTIPLEXER a ACOUIRE ACCL LOGARITHMIC RMS VALUE MIC RMS VALUE RMS VALUE < THREIPSHOLD < THREJSHOL ‘ CCL f A AT I LgITFFELRLENOE 5ET TRANSFORM OF MIC HACCL VALUE = FF FF LOGARITHMS 7 SET TRANSFORM READY FLAG IN MAIN LOOP INCREMENT TRANSFORM STORAGE POINTER STORE TRANSFORM ‘ RETURN VALUE . 1982 Sheet 9 of 17 4. 15.

1982 Sheet 10 of 17 4.S.335. Patent Jun.276 REAL-TIME DISPLAY V GET TRANSFORM POINTER GET TRANSFORM VALUE MORE POINTS ON SCREEN CLEAR SCREEN ? T MAP TRANSFORM VALUE INTO Y-AXIS ‘ THROUGH LOOKUP TABLE INITIAL/2E X -AXIS COUNTER I INCREMENT X-AXIS COUNTER a LOOK UP COORDINATE F I 6. 15. 6 E V PLOT TRANSFORM POINT ON SCREEN a f CLEAR TRANSFORM-READY FLAG > I .U.

S.27 OUTPUT AVERAGE OF ( MAIN' Loop ) W VALUES ALL TRANSFORM r0 SCREEN ' ‘ V -' SET ' I SET cunson INVTEEQZLQT HALF FLAG 7 1! CALL TRANSFORM CURSOR LOOP CLEAR SCREEN V SET UP POINTERS.1982 Sheet 11 of 17 4. f ffjfegs “ppm” _ FORMATS FULL OF TRANS - DRAW PAGE FORM POINTS 0N SCREEN 1! AVERAGE ALL VA LUES IN TRANSFORM STORAGE RECORD PLOT NEW SCREEN FULL OF TRANS FORM POINTS V F 60 TO A GO TO A .‘ TRANSFORM STORAGE.U. " FORMATa DRAW PAGE 0~ SCREEN ! PLOTSCREEN- CL EAR SCREEN NOTE. Patent Jun_§‘:1‘5'. E TC.335.‘ 7711's esfab? MANIPU’LM _ Iishes the pain! in transform storage CUgglN TERS RE of which new plot gfRL‘gTVgfvE/VT of transform values begins and adjusts the other .

7B N0 .276 TRANSFORM CURSOR LOOP A PLOT CURSOR AT CURRENT POSITION CURSOR CURSOR TOGGLI. HALT roam.US. 15. LEFT A 1' ENTRY POINT TO TRANSFORM CURSOR‘ LOOP B = CURSOR HALT ROUTINE C: u O 1' n RIGHT " FIG. Patent Jun. 1982 Sheet 12 of 17 4.335.

SET CUR SOR. 15. 7C I UPDATE CURSOR POSITION DISPLAY I IN msec) I UPDATE CURRENT TRANSFORM VALUE DISPLAY EXIT TO COMMAND PROCESSOR A = ENTRY POINT TO TRANSFORM .276 Sheet 13 of 17 TURN OFF TII‘IIERS S: DISABLE INTERRUPTS CURSOR LEFT FLAG s51‘ ? t V RES YNCH SPEECH 8 TRANSFORM POINTERS AFTER LEI-T MOVEMENT y CLEAR CURSOR - LEFT FLAG RESYNCH SPEECH 8 TRANSFORM POINT ERS AFTER RIGHT/NO MOVEMENT ' 7 CLEAR CURSOR RIGHT FLAG 1 INITIALIZE SPEECH-SYNCH COUNTER.U050 Patent Sun. 1982 4.HALT FLAG FIG.CURSOR LOOP .335.

7D INTERRUPTS TRANSFORM - CURSOR LOOP .S .276 Sheet 14 of 17 WAIT FOR TRANSFORM INTERRUPT ENABLE INTERRIIPTG GLEAR CURSOR-HALT FLAG TURN OFF TIMERS a DISABLE INTERRuPTs WAIT FOR SPEECH 1N TERRUPT RESYNCH SPEECH 8 TRANSFORM POINTERS AFTER RIGHT MOVEMENT INITIAL/Z5 SPEECH-SYNCH COUNTER GLEAR CURSOR- DECREMENT TRANSFORM RIGHT FLAG sToRAGE POINTER T Y INITIAL/2E SET CURS0R_ COUNTER TURN ON TIMERS a ENABLE INTERRuPTs D I 60 TO A = ENTRY POINT T0 TURN OFF TINERG a MA BLE FI 6 .U. Patent Jun. 15.335. 1982 4.

1982 4. 15.276 Sheet 15 of 17 WA IT FOR TRANSFORM IN TERRUPT v ENABLE INTERRUPTS CLEAR TURN OFF TIMERS CURSOR-HALT & DISABLE FLAG WAIT FOR . 5P§éC. Patent Jun. 7E TURN OF TIMERS 8 DISABLE IN TERRUP TS TRA NSFORiL/I — > CURSOR LOOP ..S. SPEECH [NTERRUPTS INTERRUPT RESYNCH SPEECH I a TRANSFORM POINT- .CURS0R_ LEFT FLAG COUNTER I TURN ON TIMERS 8 ENABLE _ INTERRUPTS ‘ E A A = ENTRY POINT TO FIG.U.335 ._$mcH ERS AFTER LEFT MOVEMENT COUNTER I T AL/ZE ‘I INCREMENT CLEAR CURSOR — TRANSFORM LEFT FLAG STORAGE POINTER I I INITIALIZE SPEECH-SYNCH SE7.

335. 7F(iI TOFIG. TFIII) NEW SILENT INTERVAL . 15.US.9 YES COPY VALUE INTO SILENT INTERVAL PLA YBACK COUNTER DECREMENT SILENT INTERVAL PLAYBACK COUNTER OUTPUT RAW SPEECH VALUE TO DA C I INCREMENT SPEECH STORAGE POINTER ENABLE INTERRUPTS 4.276 . 1982 Sheet 16 of 17 SPEECH IN TERRUPT INCREMENT SPEECH -SYNCH COUNTER FIG. Patent Jun.

S. 1982 Sheet 17 of 17 4.276 FROM COPY VALUE INTO SILENT INTERVAL PLAYBACK COUNTER T DECREMENT SILENT INTERVAL PLAYBACK COUNTER DECREMEN T SPEECH STORAGE POINTER V ENABLE INTERRUPTF Y ( RETURN ’ FIG. Patent Jun.U. 115.335. 7F ( i 1 . 7F (ii) F16.

The recorded signal was later transferred judgment is an assessment of the overall quality of the to a graphic level recorder and analyzed through mea patient’s speech. can provide feedback facilitating second language An alternate approach devised by Stephens et al. Unfortunately. of judgments among clinicians. A correction process and apparatus in which electrical signals repre factor was then introduced to compensate for intensity sentative of the sounds. This an accelerometer of the type employed by Stephens et approach has suffered for several reasons. Speech Hearing Res. the main study described in the preceding paragraph by requesting subjects to speak at a constant vocal effort. ‘ 15 gated whether production of nasal quality would 2.emitted from the nose and differences between the various conditions by subtract mouth are utilized to determine the degree of nasalance ing each subject’s vocal level from an arbitrary refer of speech.4. the technique also requires that subjects nevertheless requires that the patient place his face in maintain constant vocal effort to maximize accuracy of the mask which provides acoustic isolation between the the measure. In this apparatus. evaluate and modify his speech for nasaliza in the clinic for defective velopharynseal valving. 321—333. recent efforts have focused on development of methods which provide consistent. In im of nasal resonance have been based on perceptual as plementing their study. Garber et al. a preliminary study was conducted in which subjects were requested to speak at various intensity levels. and greater speci?city with To validate the measurement. The Pearson product momentcorrelation between accelerometer output and perceptual judgments of nasality was 0. Feed recorded calibration tone. Pat. with the aid of a computer. Thus. nasal and oral cavities. the correlation reported between to respectively measure sounds emanating from the accelerometer output and perceived nasality was 0. “The Effects of Feedback Filtering on Nasalization in Normal and invasive detection and treatment of speech disorders. In US. This may present severe ment and display of nasalization in human speech which difficulties with young children or paralyzed patients provides immediate feedback by which a patient can who comprise a large percentage of the population seen 60 monitor. Therefore. The subjective tape recorder. a pair of sound-isolated microphones are carried in the housing adapted to be 35 ence level. and (1979). Field of the Invention This invention relates to an apparatus for the non 2 ing nasal vibration during speech to obtain a quantita tive measure related to nasality. A a visual display such as a lamp by which the patient can 45 visual display of vocal intensity was provided to facili tate maintenance of constant vocal effort. “A learning in instances in which the set of nasal phonemes Miniature Accelerometer for Detecting Glottal Wave in the second language differs from those of the speak forms and Nasalizationf’J. it is an object of the present invention stable position. In a related development. Another object is to provide a novel apparatus of the type noted above capable of deriving a measure which . An ?ltered microphone outputs computed to obtain a quo attempt was made to hold the intensity level constant in tient signal which is then threshold detected against a respect to de?nition of the problem. and a ratio of the 40 score accounted for 67% of the variance in nasality. the degree of separation and acoustic isola Another object is to provide a novel apparatus which tion between the microphones has been questioned. Garber et al used the output of sessments of the patient’s speech by the clinician. thermore.77. 25 measured peaks constituted the nasalization score. in order to investigate the effect of auditory feedback on vocal production and nasalization in particular.752. provided that intensity level was held constant. recti?es. and time averages the output of the accelerom eter. Stephens et al ?lters.276 1 APPARATUS FOR NON-INVASIVE MEASUREMENT AND DESPLAY NASALIZATION IN HUMAN SPEECH BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION l. The arithmetic average of back to the patient is delayed rather than immediate. dividing this value by two. In the form im quantitative measure of disorders of nasal resonance.335. No. the use of the 55 facial mask requires that the patient place his head in a Accordingly. and further limits interaction between to provide a novel apparatus for non-invasive measure the patient and the clinician. Consistency al placed on the nose to obtain a measure of nasalization. plemented. repeatable results with greater immediacy. 3. the smooth signal is'sampled. determine whether or not a given sentence contains Then the output of the threshold detector is applied to The measurement technique developed by Garber et more or less nasalance relative to the reference estab a1 lacks instantaneous quanti?cation and therefore lacks lished by the threshold detector. After adjustment of brought into place about the face of the patient in order scores in this manner. Hypernasal Speakers.” J. 594-599. log converted and displayed on an oscilloscope to provide a visual display of nasalization. 18 (1975). is often lacking. The outputs of the microphones In this manner it was determined that the nasalization are ?ltered for respective frequency bands thought to have high nasal and oral content. which represented a major advance in providing a practical 50 ate modi?cation of speech production.929 to Fletcher is described a reference representing a known degree of nasality. 22 especially disorders effecting speech nasalization. and therefore de?nition of speci?c surement of peaks in the signal with respect to a pre attributes which give rise to the problem is poor. Garber et al have investi more particularly to such an apparatus for generation of quantitative predictive information related to underly ing physiological and perceptual correlates of nasal resonance. Speech Hearing Res. Then. Fur tion. the immediate feedback necessary for efficient immedi The approach outlined in the Fletcher patent. Description of the Prior Art Early efforts at diagnosis and treatment'of disorders change when subjects hear their voices ?ltered. tested the effects on the nasalization of various subjects who listened to their speech filtered at various frequencies.82. utilized a light-weight accelerometer attached to the external surface of the nose for measur er’s native language. and adding it to the subject’s nasalization score. dependent upon exten The output of the accelerometer was first routed to a sive clinical training. microphones and thereby permits separation of the oral SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION and nasal acoustic signals.

The arith metic average of all ratios formed for the utterance recorded is displayed in the lower right-hand corner of basis for recording progress within a given patient with the screen. Yet another object of this invention is to provide a portable. The microphone is mounted on a headset to maintain a utterance can be determined. These and other objects are achieved according to 30 with the replayed audio signal. This is accomplished by means of a tus for non-invasive measurement and display of nasal toggle with three positions: cursor right. analog-to-digital converter. which directs the movement of the cursor accordingly. . A 30 Hz highpass ?lter with a 12 dB per octave slope on the output of the accelerometer can be enabled to compensate for artifacts associated with turning and other movements of the head which would otherwise be recorded by the accelerometer. A binary code corresponding to each position of tions: two transducers (an accelerometer and a direc tional microphone). The Hz ?lter on the output of the accelerometer. permit ting a maximum of 64 kilobytes of memory to be ad dressed. Selection of a Yet another object of this invention is to provide a 15 linear or logarithmic ratio is controlled through com nasalization over time. The measure ac provides predictive information with respect to related physiological events and perceptual correlates of nasal quired. placing the upper limit on the duration of the speech signal which can be stored. a digital data processor. an 35 the toggle is sent to the digital controller. novel apparatus which permits identi?cation of the rate mands input through the command keyboard on the and slope of the transition from a nasal to a non-nasal control panel. The digital pro phonemic content of speech associated with speci?c cessor then acquires the signal formed by the output of sections of a static graphic display of the measure of the divider circuit at a 500 Hz rate as the raw speech signal is sampled at an eight KHZ rate.3 4. the duration of silent intervals the two RMS signals. eight-bit microcomputer of the 8080/8085/280 family consonants such as /P/ creates a slight but rapid move Contraction of the musculature associated with lip movement which accompanies production of labial of microprocessors. which utilizes an required for storage of the digitized speech signal. Thus the abso airborne sound consisting of combined nasal and oral lute value of a ratio formed at a speci?c vtime in the output is transduced by the directional microphone. This results in an appreciable savings in memory nals are sampled at a 500 Hz rate by vthe analog-to-digi tal converter as the raw speech signal is sampled at an either kHz rate. The ratios over time are plotted as a line on a display. an artifact digital processor forms a ratio of accelerometer output consisting of a sharp spurious peak in the graphic dis over microphone output for each successive pair of . repeatable measures which provide a mean a disorder of nasal resonance. The eight bit microprocessor utilizes a 16-bit address bus. permitting identi?cation of the phonemic content associated with a given seg the invention by providing a new and improved appara ment of the plot. the instantaneous value of display section. a ?delity of transient consonants such as voiceless /th/ series of zeros is then sent to the digital-to-analog con which have an inherently low relative intensity level. In this mode of operation. An AGC circuit on the output of 55 in perceptually continuous speech is coded. an analog proprocessing section. controls the multiplexing and ana 65 ment of the nasal wall in some individuals. Thus direct stor age of a signal sampled at an eight kHz rate for one second would require 8000 bytes of memory. the loga on the range of the measures obtained for productions ognition of patterns present in a graphic display ‘of the of nasal and non-nasal phonemes. A ratio of the two linear RMS signals is formed by means of a divider circuit in hardware. . transferred to a multiplexer in the analog-to-digital con version section. The am pli?ed output of the raw speech signal is also trans ferred to the multiplexer to provide a record of the speech associated with time-varying ratios formed from Digitization of the audio signal from the raw speech 45 channel at an eight KHz rate requires one byte of mem ory for each digitized sampled stored. phoneme. The two logarithmic RMS sig signal. In the analog preprocessing section the accelerometer and microphone outputs are ampli?ed. When the speed of this movement exceeds the frequency of the 30 log-to-digital conversion of the respective signals. The digital processor. consists of a ratio of vibration at the resonance. ingful basis for comparisons among patients as well as a An upward or downward shift represents a proportion ately greater or lesser degree of nasalization.335. Thus a new ratio is formed every two milliseconds. a When the cursor is halted. rather than storing each sample with a value of zero as a separate the raw speech channel can be enabled to improve the byte. while hand corners of the screen respectively. novel apparatus which provides diagnostic information nasal wall transduced by an accelerometer over the combined oral and nasal acoustic outputs transduced by about the relative severity of disorders of nasal reso nance and sorts patients into diagnostic categories based rithm of each ratio acquired is formed to facilitate rec Yet another object of this invention is to provide a the microphone. 20 The digitized signal from the raw speech channel is Another object of this invention is to provide a novel 25 stored concurrently with the ratios formed from the sampled RMS channels in such a manner that the rela apparatus which permits identi?cation of the phonemic tive relationship in time between the ratios and the content of speech associated with speci?c sections of digitized audio signal is preserved. the ratio and the time in milliseconds at that point in the The accelerometer is mounted on the external nasal utterance are displayed in the lower and upper right wall for measurement of nasal wall vibration. RMS averaged and average of all ratios formed for the entire utterance. therefore.276 4 samples from the two RMS channels. and a control panel. and ization in human speech including the following sec halt. as well as the arithmetic constant position with respect to the subject’s lips. A moving cursor can static graphic displays of measures of other transforms be advanced across the graphic plot synchronously of speech such as intensity and pitch over time. cursor left. Yet another object of this invention isto provide a novel apparatus which permits identi?cation of the ratios. easily implemented apparatus which provides consistent. verter for the duration coded at that point in the stored The two RMS signals are provided in two forms: linear and logarithmic. During playback of the digitized speech signal. To conserve mem ory and extend the maximum length of utterances which can be recorded.