Reinforcement for
Concrete Structures
VOLUME
1
This page intentionally left blank
Edited by
Kimg Hwee TAN
National University of Singapore, Singapore
Singapore
81 0 July, 2003
Reinfo rc e me nt for
Concrete Structures
Proceedings of the
VOLUME
Sixth International
Symposium on FRP
Reinforcement for
Concrete Structures
1
(FRPRCS6)
r heWorld Scientific
NewJersey London Singapore Hong Kong
Preface
Research on the application of fibrereinforced polymer (FRP) as
reinforcement for concrete structures appeared in as early as the 1960s.
However, it was not until the late 1980s that such research has escalated,
leading to field applications. The interest in nonmetallic reinforcement
was fuelled by the corrosion problem associated with steel reinforcement
that surfaced around the world at that time, and the downturn of the
aerospace industry, where fibrereinforced polymers have been widely
used due to its high specific strength and modulus, and other superior
characteristics.
I was fortunate to spend my sabbatical with Professor Naaman at the
University of Michigan, USA, during the Fall and Winter of 1991 and
with Professor Okamura at the University of Tokyo, Japan, during Spring
and Summer of 1992. The former introduced to me this new material that
has since fascinated many in the research community and construction
industry. In Tokyo, in particular, I was overwhelmed by the mountains of
research that were embarked by universities, public institutions and
private companies on the development and application of FRP rods as
reinforcement for concrete structures. There were round bars, flat bars,
square bars, braided bars, sanded bars, strands, grids and links, and even
threedimensional reinforcement. Several applications in footbridges,
foundation beams, tunnel linings, and floating structures suddenly
mushroomed all over Japan and the rest of the world. That probably
constituted the first era in the application of FRP reinforcement in
concrete structures.
The FRPRCS Symposia Series was initiated in 1993, and subsequently
held every two years in the continents of America, Europe and Asia, on a
rotational basis. The previous symposia were held in Vancouver, Canada
(1993), Ghent, Belgium (1995), Sapporo, Japan (1997), Baltimore, USA
(1999), and Cambridge, UK (2001). This year marks the 10th anniversary
of the FRPRCS Symposia Series, and the Department of Civil Engineering
at the National University of Singapore is honored to host the 6th
International Symposium on FRP Reinforcement for Concrete Structures
(FRPRCS6) in Singapore.
V
VI
The planning and preparation works for FRPRCS6 in effect began
almost six years ago in 1997 when I was asked in Sapporo, to be the
second Asian host for the FRPRCS International Symposium. At that
time, there was still little awareness of the material known as FRP
reinforcement in Asia outside Japan, and if any, the interests were
centered mainly on externally bonded FRP systems rather than FRP
reinforcing rods. The Kobe earthquake in 1995 has brought about
rapidly increasing interests in the use of FRP systems in structural
rehabilitation, and that marked the beginning of the second era in FRP
applications in concrete structures.
To promote awareness and interests in the development and
application of FRP reinforcement in Singapore and the region, the FibreReinforced Society (Singapore) was formed in September 2002 and has
since been a coorganizer of this Symposium
The FRPRCS6 International Symposium will signify the beginning
of the third era, in which one could witness global interests in FRP
reinforcement, as well as the use of FRP reinforcements as structural
shapes, and in masonry and steel structures. This set of proceedings
contains a total of 140 papers from 26 countries, in two volumes. Each
technical paper had been reviewed and selected for presentation by at
least two members of the International Scientific Committee, to whom I
would like to express my gratitude.
Volume 1 of the proceedings contains four invited keynote papers
and 63 technical papers dealing with: (i) FRP Materials and Properties;
(ii) Bond Behaviour; (iii) Externally Bonded Reinforcement (EBR) for
Flexure, Shear and Confinement; and (iv) FRP Structural Shapes. The
topics covered in Volume 2 are: (v) Durability and Maintenance; (vi)
Sustained and Fatigue Loads; (vii) Prestressed FRP Reinforcement and
Tendons; (viii) Structural Strengthening; (ix) Applications in Masonry
and Steel Structures; (x) Field Applications and Case Studies; and (xi)
Codes and Standards. Seventythree papers are included in Volume 2.
The FRPRCS6 International Symposium also witnessed the
formation of the International Steering Committee, which comprises the
chairmen of the current and previous FRPRCS Symposia. The main
purpose of this Committee is to chart the future directions for the
Symposia Series. It has appointed a threeman taskforce to determine the
Best Paper (Research), Best Paper (Application) and Honorable Mention
Awards, which were first introduced at FRPRCS6. The three gentlemen
in the taskforce were Professor C.W. Dolan from USA, Professor F.S.
vii
Rostdsy from Germany, and Professor H. Okamura from Japan. All of
them are well known in the areas of FRP reinforcement and structural
concrete.
The organization of the Symposium would not have been possible
without the generous contributions from the sponsors, who are degussaMBT (S) Pte Ltd, Fyfe Asia Pte Ltd, Mapei Far East R e Ltd, Sika (S) Pte
Ltd, Lee Foundation (Singapore) and Defence Science & Technology
Agency. I would also like to express my sincere thanks to the American
Concrete Institute, USA, Institution of Engineers, Singapore, Japan
Concrete Institute, Japan, and The Concrete Society, UK, for supporting
the event.
Last, but not least, I would like to acknowledge the help of my
colleagues, in particular, Balendra, Mansur and Maalej, and the
Secretariat, comprising Christine, Siti and Sarimah, who have devoted
many hours in getting the Symposium organized.
Kiang Hwee Tan
Singapore
July 2003
FRPRCS6 Organizing Committees
National University of Singapore Organizing Committee
Chairman : K.H. Tan
Members : T. Balendra, M.A. Mansur, M. Maalej
Secretariat : C.S. Tan, Siti Rohani, Sarimah
International Steering Committee
S.H. Rizkalla, USA
L. Taerwe, Belgium
K.H. Tan, Singapore
T. Uomoto, Japan
C.J. Burgoyne, UK
C.W. Dolan, USA
A. Nanni, USA
H. Okamura, Japan
International Scientific Committee
K.H. Tan, Singapore (Chairman)
K.W. Neale, Canada
L.C. Bank, USA
K. Pilakoutas, UK
B. Benmokrane, Canada
S.H. Rizkalla, USA
C.J. Burgoyne, UK
J. Sim, Korea
E. Cosenza, Italy
R.N. Swamy, UK
C.W. Dolan, USA
L. Taerwe, Belgium
G.B. Guimaraes, Brazil
J.G. Teng, China
M. Harajli, Lebanon
R. Tepfers, Sweden
P. Hamelin, France
T. Ueda, Japan
L. Hollaway, UK
T. Uornoto, Japan
G. Manfredi, Italy
P. Waldron, UK
K. Maruyama, Japan
Z. Wu, Japan
U. Meier, Switzerland
Q.R. Yue, China
A.E. Naaman, USA
A. Nanni, USA
viii
Contents
I
I
VOLUME 1
KEYNOTE PAPERS
FRP Reinforcements in Structural Concrete: Assessment,
Progress, and Prospects
A.E. Naaman
3
Progress and Prospects of FRP Reinforcements: Survey of
Expert Opinions
A.E. Naaman
25
Durability Design of GFRP Rods for Concrete Reinforcement
T. Uomoto
37
New Types of Continuous Fiber Reinforcements for Concrete
Members
T. Ueda
51
FRPMATERIALS AND PROPERTIES
~~
Performance of ThermoplasticFiber Reinforced Polymer Rebars
A.B. Mehrabi, C.A. Ligozio, A.F. Elremaily and D.R.
Vanderpool
79
Experimental Study on Poisson’s Ratio for FRP Tendons
M. Tanaka, M. Khin, T. Harada and K. Venkataramana
89
StressStrain Model for FRPConfined Concrete for Design
Applications
L. Lam and J.G. Teng
99
ix
X
Accelerated Techniques to Predict the StressRupture
Behaviour of Aramid Fibres (Best Paper  Research)
K.G.N.C. Alwis and C.J. Burgoyne
111
BOND BEHAVIOUR
Bond Characteristics of Various FRP Strengthening Techniques
S.H. Rizkalla and T. Hassan
123
Bond Strength between FiberReinforced Polymer Laminates
and Concrete
T. Kanakubo, T. Furuta and H. Fukuyama
133
Local Bond StressSlip Relations for FRP SheetsConcrete
Interfaces (Best Paper  Research)
J.G. Dai and T. Ueda
143

Bilinear Stress Slip Bond Model: Theoretical Background and
Significance
T. Ulaga, T. Vogel and U. Meier
153
Non Linear BondSlip Law for FRPConcrete Interface
M. Savoia, B. Ferracuti and C. Mazzoti
163
Experimental Analysis of Interface between CFRP
and Concrete using Cylindrical Specimens
A.C. Dos Santos, T.N. Bittencourt and R. Gettu
173
FRP Adhesion in Uncracked and Cracked Concrete Zones
G. Monti, M. Renzelli and P. Luciani
183
Neural Network Prediction of Plate End Debonding in FRPPlated RC Beams
S.T. Smith, J.G. Teng and M. Lu
193
Bond Behaviour of CFRP Strips Glued into Slits
M. Blaschko
205
XI
EXTERNALLY
BONDED REINFORCEMENT FOR FLEXURE
Load Capacity of Concrete Beams Strengthened with External
FRP Sheets
Z.J. Wu and J.M. Davies
217
Reinforcing Effects of CFRP and AFRP Sheets with Respect to
Flexural Behaviour of RC Beams
0. Joh, Z. Wang and H. Ibe
227
Flexural Behaviour of RC Beams Externally Reinforced with
Carbon Fiber Sheets
Y. Takahashi and Y. Sat0
237
Strength and Failure Mechanism of RC TBeams Strengthened
with CFRP Plates
K. Lee and R. AlMahaidi
247
Effect of Beam Size on Interfacial Shear Stresses and Failure
Mode of FRPBonded Beams
K.S. Leong and M. Maalej
257
Debonding Failure of RC Structural Members Strengthened
with FRP Laminates
G. Camata, E. Spacone and V. Saouma
267
Effect of End Wrapping on Peeling Behaviour of
FRPStrengthened Beams
P. Pornpongsaroj and A. Pimanmas
277
An Experimental Study on DebondControl of AFRP for
Flexurally Strengthened RC Beams
S. Sawada, N. Kishi, H. Mikami and Y. Kurihashi
287
Tests on RC TBeams Strengthened in Flexure with a Glued and
Bolted CFRP Laminate
A. Nurchi, S. Matthys, L. Taerwe, M. Scarpa and
J. Janssens
297
xii
Parametric Studies of RC Beams Strengthened in Flexure with
Externally Bonded FRP
S . Limkatanyu, H. Thomsen, E. Spacone and G. Camata
307
Concrete Cover Failure or Tooth Type Failure in RC Beams
Strengthened with FRP Laminates
M.M. Lopez and A.E. Naaman
3 17
Influence of Material Properties of FRPs on Strength of
Flexural Strengthened RC Beams
G.F. Zhang, N. Kishi and H. Mikami
327
Ductility of Reinforced Concrete Beams Strengthened with
CFRP Strips and Fabric
M. Valcuende, J. Benlloch and C.J. Parra
337
A Review of Ductility Determination of FRP Strengthened
Flexural RC Elements
D.B. Tann, P. Davies and R. Delpak
347
A SemiEmpiricalApproach for the Prediction of Deflections of
FRP Strengthened RC Slabs
D.B. Tann
357
Crack Widths in RC Beams Externally Bonded with CFRP
Sheets
Y. Zhang, H. Toutanji and P. Balaguru
367
Numerical Simulations for Strengthened Structures with
Hybrid Fiber Sheets
H. Niu and Z. Wu
377
FibreSection FE of FRPStrengthened RC Beam in Flexure,
Shear and Confinement
G. Monti and M. Barbato
387
Interaction between Internal Bars and External FRP
Reinforcement in RC Members
G. Zehetmaier and K. Zilch
397
xiii
Strengthening of RC Twoway Slabs with Composite Materials
0. Limam, G. Foret and A. Ehrlacher
407
Evaluation of Externally Bonded CFRP Systems for the
Strengthening of RC Slabs
K.Y. Tan, J.G. Tumialan and A. Nanni
417
Flexural Strengthening of Twoway Slabs Using FRPs
H. Marzouk, U.A. Ebead and K.W. Neale
427
Tensile Properties of Concrete in FRP Strengthened
Twoway Slabs
H. Marzouk, U.A. Ebead and K.W. Neale
437
EXTERNALLY
BONDED REINFORCEMENT FOR SHEAR
Shear Critical RC Beams Strengthened with CFRP Straps
G. Kesse and J. M. Lees
447
Effective Shear Strengthening of Concrete Beams using FRP
Sheets with Bonded Anchorage
B.B. Adhikary, H. Mutsuyoshi and M. Ashraf
457
Behaviour of Concrete Structures Strengthened in Shear with
CFRP
A. Carolin and B. Taljsten
467
Strengthening of RC T Beams in Shear with Carbon Sheet
Laminates (CFRP)
G.S. Melo, A.S. Aratijo and Y. Nagato
477
Strength Analysis of Sheared Beams Retrofitted with
Strengthening Materials
2.H. Xiong and M.N.S. Hadi
487
Shear Performance with Externally Bonded Carbon Fibre
Fabrics
A. Li, C. Diagana, Y. Delmas and B. Gedalia
497
XIV
Evaluation of Shear Capacity of RC Columns Strengthened by
Continuous Fiber
T. Furuta, T. Kanakubo and H. Fukuyama
507
Shear Design Equations for FRP RC Beams
M. Guadagnini, K. Pilakoutas and P. Waldron
517
Strengtheningof CorrosionDamagedRC Columns with FRP
S.N. Bousias, T.C. Triantafillou, M.N. Fardis,
L.A. Spathis and B. O’Regan
527
Shear Strengthening of Concrete Bridge Decks using
FRP Bar
P. Valerio and T.J. Ibell
539
EXTERNALLY
BONDED REINFORCEMENTFOR CONFINEMENT
StressStrain Relationship for FRPConfined Concrete
Cylinders
G. Wu, Z. Lu and Z. Wu
55 1
StressStrain Relationship for FRPConfined Concrete Prisms
G . Wu, 2. Wu and Z. Lu
561
Concrete Cylinders Confined by CFRP Sheets Subjected to
Cyclic Axial Compressive Load
T. Rousakis, C.S. You, L. De Lorenzis, V. Tamuis and
R. Tepfers
57 1
Concrete Cylinders Confined by Prestressed CFRP Filament
Winding under Axial Compressive Load
T. Rousakis, C.S. You, L. De Lorenzis, V. Tamuis and
R. Tepfers
581
Concrete Confined with Fiber Reinforced Cement Based Thin
Sheet Composites
H.C. Wu and J. Teng
59 1
xv
Hoop Rupture Strains of FRP Jackets in FRPConfined Concrete
L. Lam and J.G. Teng
60 1
Externally Confined High Strength Concrete Columns under
Eccentric Loading
J. Li, M. Moulsdale and M.S.N. Hadi
613
Creep Performance of CFRP Confined Concrete Cylinders
M. Thkriault, M.A. Pelletier, K. Khayat and G. Al Chami
623
Development/Splice Strength of Steel Bars in Concrete Confined
with CFRP Sheets
M.H. Harajli and B.S. Hamad
633
Lateral Prestressing of RC Columns with FRP Jackets
A.A. Mortazavi, K. Pilakoutas and M.A. Ciupala
643
Confinement of RC Rectangular Columns Using GFRP
A. Prota. G. Manfredi and E. Cosenza
653
Behaviour of RC Columns Retrofitted by Fibre Reinforced
Polymers under Cyclic Loads
H. Shaheen, T. Rakib, Y. Hashem, I. Shaaban and
A. Abdelrahman
663
Photogrammetrically Measured Deformations of FRP Wrapped
Low Strength Concrete
A. Ilki, V. Koc, B. Ergun, M.O. Altan and N. Kumbasar
673
FRPSTRUCTURAL SHAPES
Rectangular FRP Tubes Filled with Concrete for Beam and
Column Applications
A.Z. Fam. D.A. Schnerch and S.H. Rizkalla
685
Flexural Behaviour of GFRPPolymer Concrete Hybrid
Structural Systems
M.C.S. Ribeiro, A.J.M. Ferreira and A.T. Marques
695
xvi
1
A New Concept for an FRP Panelized Rapid Deployment
Shelter
N.M. Bradford and R. Sen
705
Experimental Investigation of Pultruded FRP Section
Combined with Concrete Slab
A. Biddah
7 15
~
VOLUME TWO
DURABILITY
AND MAINTENANCE
~~~
~~
~
Research on Strength and Durability of GFRP Rods for
Prestressed Concrete Tendons
M. Sugiyama and T. Uomoto
727
Durability of Concrete Beams Reinforced with GFRP Bars
under Different Environmental and Loading Conditions
K. Laoubi, E.F. ElSalakawy, B. Benmokrane and
M. Pigeon
737
Environmental Effects on RC Beams Strengthened with Near
Surface Mounted FRP Rods
F. Micelli, A. La Tegola and J.J. Myers
749
Synergistic Hydrothermal Effects on Durability of
EGlass Vinylester Composites
W. Chu and V.M. Karbhari
759
Durability of GFRP Composites under Tropical Climate
Y.S. Liew and K.H. Tan
769
Effects of Different LongTerm Climatic Conditions on
FRP Durability
P. Labossihre, K.W. Neale and I. Nishizaki
779
xvii
Durability of Aramid and Carbon FRP PC Beams under
Natural and Accelerated Exposure
H. Nakai, H. Sakai, T. Nishimura and T. Uomoto
785
Effects of Wet Environment on CFRPConfined Concrete
Cylinders
F. Micelli, L. De Lorenzis, and A. La Tegola
795
Alkali Aggregate Reactive Mortar Cylinders Partly Restrained
by External CFRP Fabric
B.J. Wigum
805
ASR Expansion Reduction and Ductility Improvement by
CFRP Sheet Wrapping
A. Hattori, S. Yamamoto, T. Miyagawa and Y. Kubo
815
Durability of GFRP Rebars in Concrete Beams under Sustained
Loads at Severe Environments
T.H. Almusallam, Y.A. AlSalloum, S.H. Alsayed and A.M.
Alhozaimy
823
Influence of Sustained Stress on the Durability of GFRP Bars
Embedded in Concrete
V. Dejke, 0. Poupard, L.O. Nilsson, R. Tepfers and
A. AirMokhrar
833
A Maintenance Strategy for FRP Strengthening Systems
P. Desiderio
843
SUSTAINED AND FATIGUE LOADS
Viability of using CFRP Laminates to Repair RC Beams
Corroded under Sustained Loads
T. El Maaddawy and K. Soudki
855
Fatigue Bond of Carbon Fiber Sheets and Concrete in RC Slabs
Strengthened by CFRP
A. Kobayashi, S. Matsui and M. Kishimoto
865
xviii
Fatigue Performance of RC Beams Strengthened with CF
Sheets Bonded by Inorganic Matrix
H. Toutanji, Y. Deng and M. Jia
875
Fatigue Performance of RC Beams Strengthened with
Externally Prestressed PBO Fiber Sheets
Z . Wu, K. Iwashita, T. Ishikawa, K. Hayashi,
N. Hanamori, T. Higuchi, A. Ikeda, T. Takeda,
S . Murakami and T. Ichiryu
885
Prestressed CFRP Sheets for Strengthening Reinforced
Concrete Structures in Fatigue
R. ElHacha, R.G. Wight, P.J. Heffernan and M.A. E r h
895
Fatigue Behaviour of Bridge Deck Specimen Strengthened with
Carbon Fiber Polymer Composites
J. Sim and H.S. Oh
905
Static and Fatigue Tests on Precracked RC Beams
Strengthened with CFRP Sheets
Z.Y. Wu, J.L. Clement, J.L. Tailhan, C. Boulay and
P. Fakhri
913
Fatigue Investigation of Concrete Bridge Deck Slab Reinforced
with GFRP and Steel Strap
A.H. Memon, A.A. Mufti and B. Bakht
923
PRESTRESSED FRP REINFORCEMENT AND TENDONS
Fatigue of High Strength Concrete Beams Pretensioned with
CFRP Tendons
B.B. Agyei, J.M. Lees and G.P. Terrasi
935
Transverse Confinement of Deck Slabs by Concrete Straps
V. Banthia, A.A. Mufti, D. Svecova and B. Bakht
945
Design of Anchorage Zones for FRPPrestressed Concrete
T.J. Ibell, L. Gale and M.C. Choi
955
xix
A Simple Continuous System of Shear Reinforcement with
Polyacetal Fiber
R. Tuladhar, Y. Utsunomiya, Y. Sat0 and T.Ueda
965
Analytical Modeling of Splitting Bond Failure for NSM FRP
Reinforcement in Concrete
L. De Lorenzis and A. La Tegola
975
Strengthening of RC Beams with External FRP Tendons:
Tendon Stress at Ultimate
R.A. Tjandra and K.H. Tan
985
Comparative Analysis on Stress Calculation Methods for
External FRP Cables
L. An, T. Yamamoto, A. Hattori and T. Migayama
995
Moment Redistribution in Continuous Monolithic and
Segmental Concrete Beams Prestressed with External Aramid
Tendons
A.F. Araujo and G.B. Guimarles
1003
Experimental Investigation on the Ductility of Beams
Prestressed with FRP
M.M. Morais and C.J. Burgoyne
1013
TimeDependent Flexural Crack Width Prediction of Concrete
Beams Prestressed with CFRP tendons
P.X.W. Zou and S.T. Smith
1023
STRUCTURAL STRENGTHENING
Multiscale Reinforcement Concept for Employment of Carbon
Fiber Woven Mesh
K. Yamada, S. Ishiyama, H. Mihashi and K. Kirikoshi
1037
Woven Composite Fabric to Strengthen Structurally Deficient
RC Beams
H.Y. Leung, R.V. Balendran and T. Maqsood
1047
xx
Calibration of Partial Safety Coefficients for FRP Strengthening
G. Monti and S. Santini
1057
Comparison between FRP Rebar, FRP Grid and Steel Rebar
Reinforced Concrete Beams
M. Ozel, L.C. Bank, D. Arora, 0. Gonenc, D. Gremel,
B. Nelson and D. McMonigal
1067
Concrete Beams Strengthened with PreStressed Near Surface
Mounted Reinforcement
H. Nordin and B. Taljsten
1077
Strengthening of Oneway RC Slabs with Openings using
CFRP Systems
H.D. Zhao and K.H. Tan
1087
Experimental Results of Oneway RC Slabs with Openings
Strengthened with CFRP Composites
P. Casadei. T.J. Ibell and A. Nanni
1097
Seismic Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete BeamColumn Joint
Strengthened with GFRP
Y. Ouyang, X.L. Gu, Y.H. Huang and Z.Z. Qian
1107
FRP Seismic Strengthening of Columns in Frames
M.A. Ciupala, K. Pilakoutas and N. Taranu
1117
Retrofitting of Shear Walls Designed to BS8110 for Seismic
Loads using FRP
K.H. Kong, K.H. Tan and T. Balendra
1127
Strengthening of Interior SlabColumn Connections with CFRP
Strips
K. Soudki, T. Van Zwol and R. Sherping
1137
Effectivenessof FRP Plate Strengtheningon Curved Soffits
A.D. Porter, S.R. Denton, A. Nanni and T.J. Ibell
1147
xxi
Strengthening Performance of FRP Sheets Bonded to Concrete
Tunnel Linings
Z. Wu, W. He, J. Yin, Y. Kojima and T. Asakura
1157
Strengthening of Concrete Structures in Torsion
with FRP
B. Taljsten
1167
FE Modelling of FRPRepaired RC Plane Stress Elements
N. Khomwan and S.J. Foster
1177
APPLICATIONSIN MASONRY AND STEEL STRUCTURES
Blast Resistance of Prototype InBuilt Masonry Walls
Strengthened with FRP Systems (Honourable Mention)
M.K.H. Patoary and K.H. Tan
1189
Retrofit Techniques using Polymers and FRPs for Preventing
Injurious Wall Debris
J.E. Crawford and K.B. Morrill
1199
Experimental Behaviour of Masonry Panels Strengthened with
FRP Sheets
G. Marcari, G. Manfredi and M. Pecce
1209
Flexural Strengthening of URM Walls with FRP Systems
V. Turco, N. Galati, J.G. Tumialan and A. Nanni
1219
Shear Strengthening of URM Clay Walls with FRP Systems
S. Grando, M.R. Valluzzi, J. G. Tumialan and A. Nanni
1229
Effect of FRP Mesh Reinforcement on Shear Capacity and
Deformability of Masonry Walls
S . Russo, R. Gottardo and D. Codato
1239
Strengthening of Masonry Structures under Compressive Loads
by using FRP Strips
M.R. Valluzzi, D. Tinazzi and C. Modena
1249
xxii
Seismic Behaviour of Masonry Structural Walls Strengthened
with CFRP Plates
X.L. Gu, Y. Ouyang, W.P. Zhang and F.F. Ye
1259
Advanced Composite Materials for the Repair of Steel
Structures
A.H. AlSaidy, T.J. Wipf and F.W. Klaiber
1269
FIELD APPLICATIONS AND CASE STUDIES
Construction and Evaluation of FullScale CFRP Prestressed
Concrete DTGirder
N.F. Grace and G.A. Sayed
1281
Flexural Behaviour of Bridge Deck Slabs Reinforced with FRP
Composite Bars
E.F. ElSalakawy, C. Kassem and B. Benmokrane
129I
Details and Specifications for a Bridge Deck with FRP
Framework, Grid and Rebar
L.C Bank, M.G. Oliva, J.S. Russell, D.A. Dieter,
J.S. Dietsche, R.A. Hill, B. Gallagher, J.W. Carter,
S. Woods and A.H. Anderson
1301
Construction, Testing and Monitoring of FRP RC Bridges in
North America
B. Benmokrane, E.F. ElSalakawy, G. DesgagnC and
T. Lackey
1311
Strengthening of Concrete Structures with Prestressed and
Gradually Anchored CFRP Strips (Best Paper  Application)
I. Stoecklin and U. Meier
1321
Strengthening of Concrete Bridges with Carbon Cables and
Strips
T. Keller
1331
New CorrosionFree Concrete Bridge Barriers Reinforced with
GFRP Composite Bars
E.F. ElSalakawy, R. Masmoudi, B. Benmokrane,
F. Brikre and G. DesgagnC
1341
xxiii
Strengthening of Steel Silos with PostTensioned CFRP
Laminates
L. De Lorenzis, F. Micelli and A. La Tegola
1351
Seismic Performance Improvement of the Bell Tower in Serra
S. Quirico by Composites
E. Cosenza, I. Iervolino and E. Guglielmo
1361
Strengthening with CFRP under Simulated Live Loads
A. Hejll, A. Carolin and B. Taljsten
1371
Composite Structural Systems  From Characterization to Field
Implementation
V.M. Karbhari, H. Guan and L. Zhao
1381
Optimal Cost Design for Beams Prestressed with FRP Tendons
I. Balafas and C.J. Burgoyne
1391
FRP in Civil Engineering in China: Research and Applications
L.P. Ye, P. Feng, K. Zhang, L. Lin, W.H. Hong, Q.R. Yue,
N. Zhang and T. Yang
1401
CODES AND STANDARDS
Design Concepts of the New Swiss Code on Externally Bonded
Reinforcement
T. Vogel and T. Ulaga
1415
Design Guideline for CFRP Strengthening of Concrete
Structures
B. Taljsten
1425
Design Practice of Framed Building Structure Based on AIJ
Design Guideline 2002
K. Kobayashi, H. Fukuyama, T. Fujisaki, S. Fukai and
T. Kanakubo
1435
XXlV
Evaluations of Continuous Fiber Reinforced RC Members
based on AIJ Design Guildeline 2002
K. Nakano. Y. Matsuzaki., T. Kaku and K. Masuo
1445
Design Procedure of NSM FRP Reinforcement for
Strengthening of RC Beams
L. De Lorenzis and A. Nanni
1455
~~
Keynote Papers
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FRPRCS6, Singapore, 810 July 2003
Edited by Gang Hwee Tan
QWorld Scientific Publishing Company
FRP REINFORCEMENTS IN STRUCTURAL CONCRETE:
ASSESSMENT, PROGRESS AND PROSPECTS
A.E. NAAMAN
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 481092125, USA
Key technical issues regarding the use of FRP reinforcements are
reviewed, and assessment of the state of progress made. They include
ductility in bending, shear resistance, dowel resistance, and a brief
discussion related to fire, heat and durability. It is observed that technical
problems can all be resolved, but each at a significant increase in cost.
This adds to the already high cost of FRP reinforcements in comparison to
steel, discouraging their use except for very special applications. However,
in thin concrete products and laminated cementitious composites, FRP
reinforcements in the form of meshes, textiles or fabrics are not only
competitive on a technical basis but also on a cost basis.
Recommendations for use of FRP reinforcements in costeffective
applications are made.
INTRODUCTION
The applicability of Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) reinforcements to
concrete structures as a substitute for steel bars or prestressing tendons has
been actively studied in numerous research laboratories and professional
organizations around the world
33. FRP reinforcements offer a number of
advantages such as corrosion resistance, nonmagnetic properties, high
tensile strength, lightweight and ease of handling. However, they generally
have a linear elastic response in tension up to failure (described as a brittle
failure) and a relatively poor transverse or shear resistance. They also have
poor resistance to fire and when exposed to high temperatures. They loose
significant strength upon bending, and they are sensitive to stressrupture
effects. Moreover, their cost, whether considered per unit weight or on the
basis of force carrying capacity, is high in comparison to conventional steel
reinforcing bars or prestressing tendons.
From a structural engineering viewpoint, the most serious problems with
FRP reinforcements are the lack of plastic behavior and the very low shear
strength in the transverse direction. Such characteristics may lead to
premature tendon rupture, particularly when combined effects are present,
'*,
4 FRPRCS6: Keynote Paper
such as at shearcracking planes in reinforced concrete beams where dowel
action exists. The dowel action reduces residual tensile and shear resistance
in the tendon. Solutions and limitations of use have been offered and
continuous improvements are expected in the future.
The unit cost of FRP reinforcements is expected to decrease
significantly with increased market share and demand. However, even
today, there are applications where FRP reinforcements are cost effective
and justifiable. Such cases include the use of bonded FRP sheets or plates in
repair and strengthening of concrete structures, and the use of FRP meshes
or textiles or fabrics in thin cement products.
The cost of repair and rehabilitation of a structure is always, in relative
terms, substantially higher than the cost of the initial structure. Repair
generally requires a relatively small volume of repair materials but a
relatively high commitment in labor. Moreover the cost of labor in
developed countries is so high that the cost of material becomes secondary.
Thus the highest the performance and durability of the repair material is, the
more costeffective is the repair. This implies that material cost is not really
an issue in repair and that the fact that FRP repair materials are costly is not
a constraining drawback.
This paper provides a summary of key results and assessment of several
research studies carried out by the author and his students at the University
of Michigan on the use of FRP reinforcements in reinforced, prestressed and
partially prestressed concrete members, and in laminated cementitious
composites’228. It also provides some information on what the author
believes are the most interesting and costeffective applications of FRP
reinforcements for today’s market conditions. Results of an opinion survey
of a number of experts on “assessment of progress and prospects of FRP
reinforcements,” are reported in a parallel paper and should be used to
complement the information described here.
STRUCTURAL DUCTILITY
Structural ductility is of main concern in concrete beams reinforced or
prestressed with FRP reinforcements due to FRP materials’ linear elastic
behavior up to rupture without yielding. Unless ductility requirements are
satisfied, FRP materials cannot be used reliably in structural engineering
applications.
Extensive experimental and analytical studies were carried out on
structural ductility of concrete beams prestressed or partially prestressed
with FRP tendons. Their main objective was to evaluate the ductility of
FRP Reinforcements in Structural Concrete 5
these beams by various measures, and suggest ways to improve such
ductility for structural applications.
Details are given in Refs.
[9,12,13,14,16].
TC9
TC6a
TC6
TCO
ROC
RFC
WCa 1
RFCa2
TS12
TS9
TS6
0.0
1.0
2.0
Ductility Index
3.0
4.0
5.0
’
p
Figure 1 Comparison of ductility index for beams with FRP and steel tendons
l6
Conventional definitions of the ductility index which are based on
yielding of the reinforcement, are inappropriate for the evaluation of
structural ductility in concrete beams reinforced or prestressed with FRP
tendons. A new definition of ductility index was proposed. The new
definition is expressed in terms of the ratio of the total energy to the elastic
energy at the failurestate of a beam. It is applicable to beams with steel as
well as brittle FRP reinforcements, thus providing a common basis for
comparison. Results confirmed without the shadow of a doubt, that,
everything else being equal, beams with FRP tendons tend to have lower
ductility indices than beams with steel strands. This is illustrated in Fig. 1
where the ductility index is calculated on the basis of energy consideration
from the following equation:
where Elotalis the total energy consumed to failure and Eelaslrris the elastic
energy recovered at failure. For an elastic perfectly plastic material, Eq. (1)
leads to a ductility index equal to the ratio of ultimate deflection to the
45 and energy ratios from 3. First. and holding the concrete cover against spalling. should have similar effect as lateral confinement. Increasing the strain capacity of the concrete at failure by providing lateral confinement through spirals or stirrups made from steel or FRP reinforcements would increase the spread of plasticity in the compression zone of the concrete and lead to improved ductility. Here it is suggested to place the prestressing reinforcement in layers and design the effective prestress in . that is. higher ductility can be achieved by using proper design parameters or by considering several improvement methods such as fiber reinforcement or confinement.14916221. The approaches considered include the ideas described next 9. Using spirals with FRP is far more effective than bending them sharply into rectangular or square stirrups. such as in the compressive zone only. Their addition to concrete has a number of other benefits such as improving the shear capacity of the concrete matrix. improving the inelastic bond between the reinforcement and concrete.2 (the control beam had values of 1). Note also that fibers can be used selectively in the structure. However. Approaches to Improve Structural Ductility Structural ductility can be improved in several ways the most obvious being by the use of ductile materials. would balance the effects of elastic energy released by the FRP tendons should their failure occur. Generally. the use of fibers in appropriate amounts would easily increase the fracture energy of concrete by one to two orders of magnitude and. Confinement b y fiber reinforcement. Layered tendon and effective prestress design. this can be used to increase the nonrecoverable part of the deflection at ultimate.7 to 9. same as the conventional ductility index. therefore. Increasing the compression strain capacity of the concrete by adding discontinuous fibers to the concrete. or where a failure mechanism (producing hinges) is designed to occur. decreasing crack widths.6 FRPRCS6: Keynote Paper deflection at yield. polymeric fibers can be used. both FRP tendons and concrete are rather brittle and structural ductility must be achieved by other means. Second. fibers substantially influence the stress strain curve of concrete in compression. Jeong and Naaman 9 ~ 1 2 3 1have 6 shown that the use of fibers in otherwise overreinforced (brittle) concrete beams led to ductility indices ranging from 2. Confinement b y spirals and/or stirrups. For applications requiring nonmagnetic properties. the fibers being steel or polymeric. leading to a much more ductile behavior. leading to a substantial improvement in ductility index. These methods are described next.9 to 5.
This somehow imply a section that is close to being overreinforced. is an essential design objective. Designing the section and proportioning the reinforcement in order to take advantage of the full strain capacity of concrete simultaneously with that of the reinforcement. Controlled bond failure. The transition failure from bonded to unbonded may provide an attractive solution as described next. Assessment Summary on Ductility Concrete structures using FRP reinforcements can be made sufficiently ductile to meet most design requirements. Using partially prestressed concrete where prestressed FRP tendons are combined with conventional steel reinforcing bars or specially designed low strengthhigh ductility FRP bars allows sufficient flexibility to achieve increased ductility. Unbonded tendons. it seems appropriate to design the section so as to achieve a neutral axis at ultimate as low as possible within the section. they release an enormous amount of elastic energy that can be devastating. Technologically. thus moving from a bonded tendon configuration to an unbonded tendon configuration.FRP Reinforcements in Structural Concrete 7 each layer so as to provide a step like progressive failure with increasing deflections. Everything else being equal. Partial PrestressinR or hybrid combination o f reinforcements. Design the interface between the FRP reinforcement and the concrete matrix so as to trigger a bond failure when the stress in the tendons reaches a threshold level. and by selecting the effective prestress in the tendons. internal or external. the use of unbonded tendons. ODtimizina sectional ductility throunh ProQer reinforcement. this approach should not provide any difficulty. and should they fail. However. is very attractive since the stress in the tendons does not reach ultimate prior to the failure of the concrete. in order to better utilize the low strain capacity of the FRP reinforcement. the use of unbonded FRP tendons implies the use of perfect anchorages that can sustain fatigue loading. From an analytical viewpoint. moreover. This allows maximum ductility use from the concrete side while the risk of failure of the reinforcement is minimal. However. . this will only come at a significant increase in cost. external tendons can be very vulnerable to vandalism. sectional ductility can be improved by properly proportioning and placing the reinforcement in the section. In particular.
dowel action leads to a dowel bending moment and a shear force in the tendon itself. Furthermore. P Dowel shear Shear displacement Figure 2 Dowel action at shear cracks in a concrete beam In a diagonally cracked prestressed concrete beam. 2). Dowel Action The longitudinal reinforcement. To resist differential shear displacement between the crack faces. low shear or transverse strength. This counteraction of the bars or tendons to displacement is called "dowel action" (Fig. and low elastic modulus. Unlike flexural behavior. This is because the mechanical characteristics of FRP reinforcement.8 FRPRCS6: Keynote Paper BEHAVIOR IN SHEAR The majority of research on coricrete structures using FRP reinforcements has been on members that are not shear critical. the experimentally derived prediction equations for the shear capacity of prestressed concrete members using steel tendons has not yet been proven applicable when FRP tendons are used. If the crack opens (rotates) slightly. which is designed primarily to resist flexural tension. the bars or tendons develop dowel shear forces. in addition to the tensile force due to the effective prestressing force and the applied load. are significantly different from those of steel tendons. shear resisting behavior is quite complex by itself even in ordinary reinforced or prestressed concrete members. As the bending moment and the shear force due to dowel action increase . is often required to carry a shear force by dowel action across a diagonal tension crack. such as no yielding behavior. a shear displacement will result from the rotation of a beam about the crack tip and the shear slip due to the shear force along the crack face.
that is before reaching its unidirectional tensile strength. Typical failure of a beam prestressed with FRP tendons that failed by shear tendon rupture is shown in Fig. They observed a mode of failure. (b) sheartensionfailure. This mode of failure is unique to FRP tendons and was not previously observed when steel tendons are used.25926327328carried out an experimental investigation of the shear behavior of concrete beams prestressed with CFRP tendons. Thus. Generally the available tensile strength of FRP reinforcements decreases as their shear stress increases. 4. because of the steel’s high transverse resistance and yielding characteristics. (c) shearcompression failure.FRP Reinforcements in Structural Concrete 9 with loading. Park and Naaman 18. Under these combined tensile and shear stresses. not encountered with steel reinforcements. bending and shear stresses initiate simultaneously in the FRP tendon and become larger. Shear tendon rupture failure may result in a serious reduction in load carrying capacity and ductility. I . the tendon may fail prematurely. It is attributed to the brittle behavior and low transverse resistance of FRP tendons. 3). dowel action reduces the allowable tensile stress in the tendon beyond that already caused by the effective prestressing force and applied load. Horizontal cracking and spalling of concrete cover (4 (b) (4 (4 Figure 3 Typical failure modes observed in shear test of beams with steel or FRP tendons: (a) sheartendonrupture failure. (d) flexuraltensionfailure . described as shear tendon rupture failure which is due to tendon rupture by dowel shear at the shearcracking plane (Fig.
STR: Sheartendon rupture ST: Sheartension failure CS: Compressionstrut failure . f4. . C8 (CS) np7 50 (STR) :.2. .10 FRPRCS6: Keynote Paper Figure 4 Typical shear tendon rupture failure and crack pattern of beams prestressed with CFRP tendons 70 [. ‘. . The prestressing index varied from 0.42&.6.6 0 0. The effective prestress was about 0.Y. ‘.4 Deflection (in) 0. . All other beams are prestressed with carbon FRP tendons. .2 0.7 Figure 5 Observed loaddeflection curves for short beams that failed primarily in shear. .5 0.3 0. p. 60 . Deflection (mm) .1 0. .23 for beam C9 to 032 for beam C5. except for beam C6 with&. . . fO. = 0 (from Park and Naaman) . Beam S5 is prestressed with steel tendons. 150 30 5B bl bl 100 20 50 10 0 0 0. Beam CS3 had no stirrups. . . :. 300 250 S5(ST) C7(STR) (ST) /A10 200 za 40 . . . 1.
and yielding in shear is the prevailing mode of failure under transverse loading. DOWEL BEHAVIOR OF TENSIONED FRP TENDONS Background and Significance It is generally agreed that the resistance in shear of steel bars or prestressing tendons is not less that 40% of their tensile yield resistance. An experimental and analytical investigation of dowel action was carried out to study the dowel behavior of CFRP tendons subjected to combined tensile and shear forces (Fig. even when the effective prestress ratio was low (about 40%) and the required amount of steel stirrups were provided according to the ACI code. Thus. The sheartendon rupture failure occurred at the flexuralshearcracking plane in beams with FRP tendons.25.27].FRP Reinforcements in Structural Concrete 11 Conclusions from Study of Shear Following are some N~~~~~ 18. Adding steel fibers is a possible way to improve the shear resistance of concrete beams prestressed with FRP tendons by avoiding or delaying sheartendon rupture failure. Such a failure will result in lesser beam shear resistance and lesser ductility (Fig. because they yield under load. Their failure due to transverse shear by dowel effect along cracked planes may lead to premature failure of structural members. It is due to tendon rupture by dowel shear at the shearcracking plane.28.27. This premature failure is attributed to the poor resistance of FRP tendons in the transverse direction and their brittle behavior. . This is not the case for FRP tendons which do not undergo yielding. The ultimate shear displacement and crack width of prestressed beams which failed by sheartendon rupture were respectively about one third and one half those of similar beams with steel tendons. 6). Such behavior must be understood and accounted for in design. conclusions drawn from the studies by Park and The sheartendon rupture failure is a unique mode of failure characteristic of concrete beams prestressed with FRP tendons. dowel resistance at shear cracks is generally assumed non critical when steel bars or tendons are used. [26.26. Key results are summarized next. Moreover their observed shear resistance seem to be test dependent. Details are given in Refs. 5).
12 FRPRCS6: Keynote Paper 1 F C C Section AA +Tj) Section BB Section CC Note:( ) in mm Figure 6 Typical cross section and loading arrangement of dowel test specimen [from Park and Naaman 26] .
a 20 5 0 4 k! 42 2 ! ii . . adding stirrups or adding fibers to the concrete.15 0. Theoretically. I . I I . k! 42 . 7). I I . . Everything else being same. I 0.3 Figure 7 Shear force versus displacement curves of dowel tests with steel and FRP tendons Main Conclusions from Dowel Action Tests The ultimate dowel shear resistance of FRP tendons was 2 to 2.1 0.05 I . The ultimate dowel shear force of FRP tendons subjected to tensile and shear forces decreased elliptically as the tensile force increased. 2 $ 1 I I 0 0.10 Steel Tendon Reinforcing Bar I 0 0 I 0. this failure behavior satisfies the maximum work theory. Dowel specimens with nonprestressed FRP tendons showed some ductility under increasing load due to crushing and cracking of the concrete surrounding the tendons. The ultimate dowel shear displacement of the FRP tendons subjected to tensile and shear forces decreased linearly with the increase of the tension ratio..CFRP Tendon $ 2 . I . commonly referred to as the TsaiHill criterion.FRP Reinforcements in Structural Concrete 13 Displacement (mm) 2 0 8 6 4 C " " " " ' " " " " ' 1 1 30 6 h v) .25 . Roughly the transverse shear resistance of FRP tendons varied from about 7% to 20% of their tensile strength (in comparison to 40% for steel).2 Displacement (in) I 0..._. . I I . which is best described by an interaction curve..5 times smaller than that of steel tendons and their shear displacement at ultimate was about six times smaller (Fig. or using higher strength concrete lead to an increase in ._ .
However their ultimate shear force was only about 57% of that of specimens with vertical shear planes. without the shadow of a doubt. For practical purposes. 5 ) The dowel response of specimens with shear planes inclined at 45O was more ductile than that with vertical shear planes. Although FRP reinforcements are not corrosion sensitive like steel. Assessment Summary on Shear Concrete structures using FRP reinforcements can be designed for shear.29330v31. There is also legitimate concern about the integrity of a structure following a fire. However for temperatures in the range of 60°C to 90°C deterioration due to creep may be significant depending on the type of resin matrix 35. Developing FRP reinforcements with improved heat resistance and stability for various environmental conditions will invariably lead to an increase in material cost. As with the case of ductility. or behavior after fire exposure. A great deal of research is needed in applications where fire is an important design criterion. from a structural design viewpoint. HEAT AND FIRE RESISTANCE Few studies were devoted to evaluating the heat resistance. a safety factor higher that with steel reinforcement may be needed.14 FRPRCS6: Keynote Paper ultimate dowel resistance and a decrease in the corresponding shear displacement at failure. It is fair to say that the concrete here protects the FRP reinforcement. that FRP reinforcements are indeed durable in the long term under the same environmental conditions for which steel reinforcements are exposed. Clearly. . of concrete structures with FRP reinforcements 11. There is evidence that if the temperature is kept 20°C to 30°C below the glass transition temperature of the resin. and that the resin of the FRP reinforcement is the weakest link under high temperature exposure or fire. and the potential release of toxic fumes during a fire. the reinforcement remains fully effective 35. they do have other durability problems when subjected to various environmental conditions 32. this means a temperature below about 40°C. this will undoubtedly increase the cost. due to crushing and cracking of the concrete surrounding the tendons. unbonded external tendons which are subjected neither to shear nor to dowel effects would be best.34. Information is still very much needed in this area in order to provide assurance to the user. behavior under fire.
grids). etc.. Thin reinforced concrete products such as cement sheets. and they offer better corrosion resistance than ordinary steel reinforcements in thin products where the concrete cover to the reinforcement is small. mesh opening. The smaller the diameter is.) at little extra cost. or discontinuous fibers is two to ten times more expensive.5%). This is because ductility in laminated composites is guaranteed by the arrangement of the reinforcement system. This is because. cost comparison based on equal performance may favor FRP meshes. unlike steel wire meshes. and since the composite properties are based on volume fraction of mesh reinforcement. moreover the steel reinforcement in these products which consists of welded wire fabric. the reinforcement content in thin cement products such as ferrocement is high in comparison to conventional reinforced concrete. also in thin sheets. glass fiber reinforced cement cladding and the like. they can be tailored to exact requirements (i. Moreover they can be delivered in virtually any length. The cost of the mesh is based on unit weight while the mesh mechanical efficiency is based on volume fraction in the composite. generally utilize a high percentage of reinforcement (2% to 8% by volume) in comparison with conventional reinforced concrete (less than 2. as the cost of steel meshes is up to six times that of reinforcing bars. fabrics. steel wire mesh. expanded metal mesh. fiber denier or diameter. than conventional steel reinforcing bars. However. on a unit weight basis. may offer enormous advantages in spite of their initial high cost. vertical shear is not critical but interlaminar shear could be.FRP Reinforcements in Structural Concrete 15 DO COST COMPETITIVE APPLICATIONS EXIST AT THIS TIME? The technical drawbacks of FRP reinforcements (brittleness and low shear resistance) can be technically accommodated in a concrete structure but each at a significant increase in cost. the higher the cost. seem to be less critical for applications in thin concrete products and thin laminated cementitious composites such as ferrocement 24. Fabricating a smaller diameter steel wire from a steel rod drives the cost of steel meshes very high. ferrocement elements. they are lightweight and they can be easily shaped to requirements. and because meshes do no fail abruptly but rather through some progressive fracturing of their different wires or fibers15217322.e. Advanced fiber reinforced polymeric (FRP) meshes (textiles. Also. these drawbacks which are quite critical for conventional concrete structures. ferrocement (and generally thin concrete and laminated cementitious products) are ideally suited as an immediate market application for fiber reinforced polymeric (FRP) . Since the unit weight of steel ranges from 5 to 8 times that of FRP materials.
fabrics) increasingly cost competitive. the composite is called a laminated cementitious composites. PVA (polyvinylalcohol). Moreover. Figure 8 Typical bending response of hybrid composite plate with PVA meshes and PVA fibers . textile.17. Carbon. and advanced reinforcing configurations such as 3D meshes and mats become available. especially when lifecycle cost analysis is considered.24].2 0. A number of studies on the properties of such composites can be found in Refs.6 0.19.16 FRPRCS6: Keynote Paper reinforcements. [ 15.20. 2 I 15 2000 u) m 10 iil 5 0 0. and polypropylene. The fibers are generally premixed with the mortar matrix. The FRP meshes used for demonstration in these studies included Kevlar (aramid fibers).8 1 0 Midspan Deflection. in._ 0 5 10 15 20 25 5000 u) R 6 u) 2 zrn S 5 30 4000 25 3000 20 S m” 0 ‘F.22. it is likely that future developments and applications will make FRP meshes (grids.4 0. or fabrics) are used in thin cement products. Spectra (highly oriented polyethylene fibers). Typical Results mm . The term “hybrid composite” implies a combination of continuous meshes such as carbon or steel. with discontinuous fibers such as PVA or steel. FRP REINFORCEMENTS IN LAMINATED CEMENTITIOUS COMPOSITES AND HYBRID COMPOSITES When FRP meshes (or textiles.
) mm 0 3 X 7500 Y 5 I  10 .8 Deflection (in.4 0.2 0 0.f 1500 zm Y 0 . d = 0. u w Lu 0 0 0.F = 4500 30 0 e m =3 % v  3000 20 1500 10 w Y C 2 . d = 0. .) Figure 9 Typical stress deflection curves of LCC plates: a) reinforced with two layers of FRP mesh (no fibers). I . and b) same with 1% PVA fibers by volume .10 c 0 I 3 3 0. .. . 15 20 .15% .3000 V V 20 w Y c w Kevlar Mesh Vr = 1. .F 4500 z 30 0 f 5 F z ' 0 m 3.f 3 u w o 0 0 0.FRP Reinforcements in Structural Concrete I7 5 0 10 mm 15 20 25 7500 50 e L f 6000 m n e No Fibers Y cc 40 5 . I I 30 25 .8 1 1.6 1 0. HYBRID COMPOSITE v1 VI PVAl: L ii 6 mm. .2 mm 6000 50  40 .4 0.2 0.014 mm PVA2: L = 132 mm.2 Deflection (in.6 0. .
the equivalent elastic flexural stress 2 for a rectangular plate ( oe = M I bh ). Figure 9 compares the stressdeflection response in bending of composite plates containing only two layers of either carbon. Figure 8 shows a typical response of hybrid laminated cementitious composite plates reinforced with 2 layers of PVA meshes and PVA fibers. it also illustrates in this case the additive contribution of the fibers and the mesh. it led to significant improvement in bending strength (more than 50%). exhibit excellent strength and ductility properties. 9b where the bending response of similar specimens. Good multiple cracking developed with Kevlar and Spectra meshes. and toughness (measured as the area under the loaddeflection curve). Fibers also led to increased cracking strength. assuming uncracked section. 9a should be compared with Fig. Instead of plotting load versus deflection curves. whether discontinuous fibers were added or not to the mix. However. or Kevlar or Spectra mesh. Spectra. finer crack widths and smaller crack spacing. Spectra and Kevlar type meshes led to similar results. Conclusions from Sudy of Laminated Cementitious Composites 1. Laminated cementitious composites using high performance FRP reinforcements (Kevlar. 8 and 9 were 1 2 . The equivalent elastic flexural stress accommodates automatically different geometric properties and test conditions. All specimens described 0 ( 0 . now containing in addition 1% fibers by volume. and carbon). A modulus of rupture close to 27 MPa was obtained with only 1. is shown. More than sufficient ductility was also achieved. It can be observed that the addition of fibers is beneficial in many ways. Since the two layers of each mesh correspond to different volume fractions of reinforcement. Fiber reinforced plastic meshes do enhance the multiple cracking process in laminated cementitious composites to the same extent known in ferrocement reinforced with steel meshes. 7 ~ 7 5 ~ 3 0mm bending under third point loading with a span of 225 mm (9 in). in the form of meshes. 8 and 9. providing a good basis for comparison.I8 FRPRCS6: Keynote Paper Typical results of laminated cementitious composites (LCC or ferrocement) bending tests using FRP meshes are shown in Figs. The addition of 1% by volume of discontinuous PVA fibers increased the modulus of rupture to about 39 MPa. some scaling should be used in comparing the effects of different mesh materials. textiles or fabrics. Fig. was plotted versus the deflection. 2. . 5 ~ 3 ~ 1in). 2 they were tested in in Figs. deflection at maximum load.15% total volume fraction of Kevlar mesh.
on the average. 5 . and while they could be argued. The addition of discontinuous fibers to the matrix led to increases in postcracking strength of up to 50% and changed the failure mode from delamination to vertical shear. The use of FRP reinforcements in such applications should be pursued aggressively and is the best way to establish a credible record for the future. it seems that the most effective way to use them. failure was by interlaminar shear delamination. They are ideally suited for applications in thin concrete products. Assessment Summary on Applications in Thin Concrete Products Thin cement based products using FRP reinforcements (meshes. while contributing their share of resistance. Laminated cement based composites such as described above promise to become viable competitors to any existing fiber reinforced cement based thin sheet products as well as ferrocement products. to an increase in first cracking strength from about 5. is under the following conditions: . they seem to be safe at time of this writing. toughness and ductility.FRP Reinforcements in Structural Concrete 19 3. fabrics) are not only competitive performancewise. Their efficiency in terms of modulus of rupture and ductility is unmatched at this time by any other cement composite including conventional RC and PC. The addition of 1% PVA fibers by volume to specimens reinforced FRP meshes. led. Given the poor ductility and shear resistance of FRP reinforcements. The use of hybrid composites defined as composites reinforced with a combination of continuous meshes and discontinuous fibers offers clear advantages. in which the mesh contributes most to the load resistance and the fibers. mostly contribute to crack control. and intermediate layers of mesh are replaced by discontinuous fibers. GENERAL CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON APPLICABILITY OF FRP REINFORCEMENTS From the above assessment. but also costwise. The fibers may be premixed with the mortar matrix or used in a mat structure. In these composites. at least two layers of mesh are placed near the outer surfaces of the composite.3 MPa to about 8 MPa. textiles. a number of recommendations can be inferred. When only 2 layers of Kevlar and Spectra meshes were used. while avoiding excessively costly solutions. The combined utilization of fibers and meshes provides synergistic advantages due to each reinforcing system.
preferably external tendons in order to avoid dowel shear failure. in order to make sure that their tensile strength is not attained at member failure. Unless special requirements are desired and justify a significant increase in cost. at time of this writing. preferably unbonded construction. For FRP sheets: For repair and strengthening. it can be stated that. among which the proceedings of previous FRPRC symposia and the main research studies used to formulate the above opinion assessment. Prestressed.20 FRPRCS6: Keynote Paper For FRP bars or tendons: 0 0 0 Prestressed members in order to take advantage of their strength. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research work of the author has been funded in the past by several grants from the US National Science Foundation and by the University of Michigan. for confinement. preferably unbonded. REFERENCES Hundreds of references are available for information on the topics discussed in this paper. For FRP meshes or textiles or fabrics: Definitely in thin concrete products and cement sheet applications and in combination with fibers. FRP reinforcements are not costeffective in conventional reinforced concrete structures. they exhibit superior performance while being cost effective. thus insuring some ductility. Prestressed. (This application has not been discussed in this paper but is evident from the current state of progress and utilization worldwide). . or for protection from aggressive environments. the author lists below only a very small number of references. Given space availability. Their support is gratefully acknowledged.
June 1993. 715 pages. pp.F. S. and Tan. 1998. 2. 10. June 1992 9.. and Bank.” Proceedings. Technical Report on Continuous Fiber Reinforced Concrete. Manual of Concrete Practice. ACI SP138. Katz. May 2002. Burgoyne. A. No. L. Harris. ACI 440. ACI Committee 440. Guide for the Design and Construction of Concrete Reinforced with FRP Bars.E. 7. and ElSalakawy.G. (Editor). 2.M. 4. ACI October 1999. Washington.. Naaman. May 1994. University of Cambridge. E. and C. Dolan.” Proceedings.E. Japan Concrete Institute (JCI). ACT. FRPRCS 4..FRP Reinforcements in Structural Concrete 21 1. 1. S. Editors. . pp. B56B61. Workshop on Behavior of External Prestressing in Structures.W.. “Effect of Cyclic Loading and Elevated Temperature on the Bond Properties of FRP Rebars. American Concrete Institute. K.” Journal of Composites for Construction. Guide for the Design and Construction of Externally Bonded FRP Systems for Strengthening Concrete Structures. Naaman.. Sherbrooke. Virginia. 19... A. A. 403413. ACI. 8. Vol.” International Conference on the Durability of Fiber Reinforced Polymer for Construction. 1998. B. Berman. TC 952: Committee on Continuous Fiber Reinforced Concrete.” International Concrete Library. ASCE. 2001. Univeristy of Sherbrooke.. and Jeong. No. H. Feb. ACI Committee 440. Remy.. Proceedings 4th International Symposium on FRP Reinforcements in Reinforced Concrete Structures. “FRP Reinforcements in Concrete Structures FRPRCS. France. 1993.2R02. Canada. American Concrete Institute.. ”Considerations of Structural Ductility with External Tendons. Nanni. 12. Tokyo. U.” Proceedings of the FIP X I I Congress. St. Jeong.H. “Durability of FiberReinforced Polymer (FRP) Composites for Construction. Somboonsong. “Application of Continuous Fiber Reinforcing Materials to Concrete Structures. Japan Society of Civil Engineers. JSCE Research Subcommittee on Continuous Fiber Reinforcing Materials. Farmington Hills. Farmington Hills.K. N..K.” Proceedings of 2”d International Conference. Japan. “Investigation of Beams Partially Prestressed with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composite Tendons. pp. 200 1. “New Ductile Hybrid FRP Reinforcing Bar for Concrete Structures. 1998.. C. 3. 2002. American Concrete Institute. and KO.. F.. 6. A. Reston. 11. Proceedings International Symposium on FRP Reinforcements in Concrete Structures. Benmokrane. (Editors). Farmington Hills. 2837.M. W.. Canada. 5.
Editors. and Park. 1997. A. S. Hosni. L. ACI SP138. K.E.. A. S. "Ferrocement with Fiber Reinforced Plastic Meshes: Preliminary Investigation" Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Ferrocement. pp.E.E. A... October 1997. University of Arizona. J. American Concrete Institute. 199206." Proceedings of ACI International Symposium on FRP Reinforcements in Concrete Structures. Sapporo. London. National University of Singapore. 20.M. 11 pages.. and Alkhairi. Japan. Naaman. "FRP Reinforcements in Concrete Structures: Design Issues. Ehsani. A. pp." Proceedings 2nd International Symposium on NonMetallic (FRP) Reinforcement f o r Concrete Structures. A.. .E. Editors. "Ductility Implications of Prestressed and Partially Prestressed Concrete Structures Using Fiber Reinforced Plastic Reinforcements. A. pp. "High performance fiber reinforced cement composites: distinctive attributes for repair and rehabilitation. ICCI 96. A. "Partially Prestressed Beams with Carbon Fiber Composite Strands: Preliminary Tests Evaluation. Nedwell and N. October 1993. and AlShannag.E. 18. 19." Proceedings of the Second Middle East Symposium on Structural Composites for Infrastructure Applications. and Jeong.M. Ghent. January 1996. "Structural Ductility of Beams Prestressed with FRP Tendons. A. Naaman." FIP Symposium 93. Jeong. 21. pp. P. Naaman. England. A. 17. London.. Naaman. 757766." Proceedings of International Conference. 1993. September 1994.E. pp. Japan. E & FN Spon. Sarkarni. 14. pp.. Wroclaw. Edited by H. and Guerrero. Naaman. Manchester. Potential Solutions. FRPRCS3. 15.E. Saadatmanesh and M.E. 178189. RILEM Proceedings 29." Proceedings of International Conference on Structural Failure ICSF5. Tan. Editor. Realistic Applicability.. Belgium. 16. Tucson. A.. 441464. Modern Prestressing Techniques and their Applications. and FN Spon. Poland. 379386. "Bending Behavior of Thin Cement Composites Reinforced with FRP Meshes. "Shear behavior of concrete beams prestressed with CFRP tendons: Preliminary test evaluation. P.. Swamy. I. Naaman. April 1999...." Proceedings of First International Conference on Fiber Composites in Infrastructures. 99118." Proceedings of the Conference on Analytical Models and New Concepts in Mechanics of Concrete Structures. S. Nov. Naaman. Taerwe.R. August 1995.E. Mahfouz and S. E. "Ferrocement: a High Performance Cementitious Third International Composite Laminate. Kyoto. Naaman.22 FRPRCS6: Keynote Paper 13.Y.H. June 1999. Naaman. F.H.
R. S..Y.. A.” ACI Symposium on High Perfonnance FiberReinforced Concrete Thin Sheet Products. 117. 669676.” CICE International Conference on FRP Composites in Civil Engineering.E. “Bending Behavior of Laminated Cementitious Composites Reinforced with FRP Meshes. Parameters Influencing the Flexural Response of RC Beams Strengthened using CFRP Sheets. pp. 971 16..R. and Chandrangsu. pp.Feb. Proceedings of FRPRC 5. “Design of FRP Reinforced Concrete Structures under Fire Conditions. A. S. 23. 2002.. 28.M. M. 2. and Naaman. 29. 991 13.. Park.” Proceedings of 2nd International Conference on Composites in Infrastructure (ICCI 98).. 700806. 2000. and Naaman. Editor.E. No. Saafi.. 2001. A. “FRP Composites of Construction and the Fire Issue: Preliminary Laboratory Results. University of Cambridge.. Peled.” Proceedings FRP Composites in Civil Engineering.E. Saafi..E. “Shear Strengthening of R..Y... pp 7485. Dec. R. M. Elsevier Science Ltd. 1.Y.“ ACI Structural Journal. Shah and N. Hong Kong. . M. Vol. 188202. Naaman. “Shear Behavior of Concrete Beams Prestressed with FRP Tendons.FRP Reinforcements in Structural Concrete 23 22. Edited by A. July 2001. 1986. Lopez. pp. Park. Banthia. Park..P. H. et al.Y. Park.G. Naaman. J. 30. Vol 96. Beams Using Glued CFRP Laminates. C. ACI SP 190.” Techno Press 3000. ASCE.M. A. Editors. S. Vol. Plecknik. 5. U.K. “Temperature Effects on Epoxy Adhesives. Saadatmanesh and M. Ehsani. American Concrete Institute. ISBN 0967403000. K. University of Arizona.Y.E. No. 1.” Journal of Structural Engineering. 372 pages. 27.. S. Ann Arbor. and Till. Lopez. Teng. S.. Kowloon.E.. 1. 25.” PCI Journal.. M. and Till.. A. 125. December 2001. and Naaman. pp. “Ferrocement and Laminated Cementitious Composites. Michigan.D. “Dowel Behavior of Tensioned FRP Tendons. Vol. pp. Park. 106. 24. 26. 1999. Naaman. Editor. Canada. Farmington Hills. January 1998.E. pp. A. 2000. No. Naaman.” 2nd International Conference on Durability of Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) f o r Construction.C.. Montreal. Vol. Reston.. Burgoyne. “Failure Criteria for CFRP Tendons Subjected to Tensile and Shear Forces.. Virginia. A. 44. J. Jan. 31... SeptemberOctober 1999. S.
J. 906913. London. Ghent. 1995. No. Shahawy.” in NonMetallic (FRP) Reinforcement for Concrete Structures.“ ASM Handbook. H. Volume 21: Composites. “NonMetallic (FRP) Reinforcement for Concrete Structures. pp. 96. . Taerwe. and L. Belgium. 35. R. pp. et al. “Durability of CFRPKoncrete Epoxy Bond in a Marine Environment. (1999). 906914.” 2nd International Symposium.. 6. G. pp. 1997. (Editor).24 FRPRCS6: Keynote Paper 32. A..” ACZ Structural Journal. and Spain. M.. 33. Vol. Kahn (2001) “Rehabilitation of Reinforced Concrete Structures Using. Tanano. FiberReinforced Polymer Composites. 2.. 34. Mullins. L.. Zureick. 4350. Japan Concrete Institute. RILEM Proceedings 29. Vol.. E & FN Spon. Sen. “Tensile Properties at High Temperatures of Continuous Fiber Bars and Deflections of Continuous Fiber Reinforced Concrete Beams under High Temperature Loading.
what were the main elements? If not. evaluation. Singapore. reinforced and/or prestressed. risk averse. why not? What are the main catalysts or obstacles? (3) What are the prospects for FRP reinforcements in near future applications in civil infrastructure systems? Do you expect major increases in applications? Give possible examples? INTRODUCTION The author carried out a limited survey of opinions on the use of FRP reinforcements in structural concrete.FRPRCS6. It is important to realize that each bullet represents an opinion from a different person or group of persons. 81 0 July 2003 Edited by Gang Hwee Tan QWorld Scientific Publishing Company PROGRESS AND PROSPECTS OF FRP REINFORCEMENTS: SURVEY OF EXPERT OPINIONS A. cost etc. The experts in the survey were selected to represent different continents and viewpoints. Specifically the survey excluded the use of externally bonded sheets for repair and strengthening. it addressed only the use of FRP reinforcements as replacement of steel reinforcing bars or prestressing tendons in new structures. Those who responded are listed in acknowledgments. NAAMAN Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering University of Michigan. care was taken to keep the information as clear and as close as possible to its original form. The opinions received cover the entire spectrum. 481092125. Not all persons contacted responded to the survey. fire resistance. poor transverse resistance. Special effort was made to preserve anonymity of the respondants. Their responses are summarized below. Ann Arbor. prestressing hardware. The opinion of a number of international experts was sought. Some editing was used for uniformity. It is hoped that the reader will have the opportunity to examine the information gathered and use it to better formulate hisher own opinion. was any "leapfrog progress" made? If yes.E. and applications. durability. from what could be described as optimistic to rather conservative. However. USA This paper summarizes the opinion survey of a number of international experts in the field of FRP reinforcements carried out in response to the following questions: (1) Given the past 15 years of research. what is your assessment of the current state of progress? Are we in an impasse? ( 2 ) Given the technical concerns posed during the initial development phase (ductility. careful. Very similar opinions were not repeated. stressrupture.). . and pessimistic.
Major areas of interest regard bridge decks reinforcement. Considerable progress has been made in developing FRP rebars (glass and carbon fiber) for reinforcing slabs (considering no viable bar existed in the mid 80s). what is your assessment of the current state of progress? Are we in an impasse? Current State of Progress Examples of opinions received include: Since ACI 440.. ACI design guide exists. Since the application of performancebased design is not ripe in structural engineering.especially in R&D . a number of research issues on FRP applications need to be resolved to meet various technical and societal requirements. No progress on FRP reinforced axial members (columns) was made. evaluation and applications.1R01 came out one year ago.and perhaps has the greatest potential for success. slabs on ground.needs to be undertaken in PC type of applications. Progress has been made on developing material specifications for FRP rebars. Less progress has been made on beams where shear capacity and FRP stirrup design remain a problem. Some progress has been made in improving the durability of FRP rebars (particularly with glass fiber reinforcement). More work is needed on development of higher temperature and moisture resistant resin systems.26 FRPRCS6: Keynote Paper SURVEY RESULTS Question 1: Given the past 15 years of research. and tunnel boring machine applications. the number of commercial application is increased in the RC arena. Perhaps there is no need for that. the use of FRF' posttensioning in slabs appears to have the best potential. while some work . the use of FRP reinforcements did not progress significantly. The use of FRP grids as reinforcement has been unfortunately neglected in the US . . Moreover. especially in bridge decks where craclung is a perennial problem. While there are some applications in beams. Considerable progress has been made in developing FRP tendons with carbon fibers.
definitely slowed down compared to FRP sheets. are being capitalized on. The advantages of FRPs in comparison to steel rebars are also clear as well as their disadvantages such as cost. difficulty of handling in PC applications. the National Institute of Standards and Technology. deployment of FRP composites in highway bridges has increased considerably due to funding through the Transportation Equity Act21 / Innovative Bridge Construction Program. There has been significant progress at the research level. we have witnessed exponential growth in research and field demonstrations of FRP composites in civil engineering applications. guideways for magnetic levitation systems. there is concern about their heat resistance and their performance under fire. and state funding agencies.Progress and Prospects of FRP Reinforcements 27 The state of the work is quite good and getting better. Besides external prestressing. the growth was fueled by financial support from the National Science Foundation. a field application of FRP materials in bridges has taken place in practically every state in the US. special facilities housing medical and sensitive equipment for which steel reinforcement would pose interference. the Federal Highway Administration. The progress in FRP rods and tendons have in the last 5 to 7 years. "noncorrosive" nature (in comparison to steel reinforcement). the Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects AdministrationTechnology Reinvestment Project (DARPATRP). tendons. and difficulties related to bent stirrups. It can simply be . and in seafront structures where the aggressive environment is adverse for steel reinforcement. FRP repair is going great even with incomplete science because the economics work. Generally spealung the fundamental properties of RC and PC structural members using FRP reinforcements are clear. It is primarily economic limits that keep the technology in check. These include use in shaft walls so that the penetration and introduction of tunneling shield machines could be easily carried out. During the past decade. grids) have been rather limited to special cases where the low unit weight. Since the late 199Os. In the United States. 0 At least one researcher at almost every university in the US is involved in research on FRP materials. the application of FRP reinforcement (rods. While FRP reinforcements are used in special structures such as buildings for highenergy accelerators. the National Cooperative Highway Research Program. and nonmagnetic properties.
bendability. the use of FRF’ reinforcements for concrete requires one large bridge or building. UK. if the various codes for FWreinforced concrete could be simplified and unified for general applications. but rather as a material in its own right. There have been literally hundreds of research studies. site welding was used on the main towers. rather then mere “use”. and if the cost of F W reinforcements brought down. except perhaps in structures built in space where weight is paramount.28 FRPRCS6: Keynote Paper observed from the number of publications in each field. as having “jumped on the bandwagon. A serious problem for FRP applications is acceptability at the professionalconsultancy level. in the construction of the Millennium Dome in London in 1999. fire resistance and most importantly cost. we may be able to see more applications. it is not clear when and where FRP reinforcements will become equally competitive. as a first step.. To some degree. This largescale demonstration has helped to bring site welding back into the limelight. as a demonstration by the local iron mill that iron could be used to build bridges. but they built an impressively large bridge. As long as the alternative “steel” provides better competitive solution in each of the above. there has been progress. which could be seen as a focal point for its more widespread use. Therefore. but with the goal of attracting research funding . etc .. Equally. but the main issues remain same: ductility. built in 1779 in Shropshire. We have to think of how to overcome the technical deficiencies of FRF’ materials to make them more attractive. shear resistance. or experts. but I also feel that the design guides will need to be substantially rewritten in coming years to ensure that efficient use is made of FRP materials. Had they built a mere 20 ft span. but there needs to be one BIG one. to offset the undoubtedly higher shortterm costs. Many traditional steelreinforced or prestressed concrete researchers and designers look at FRPreinforced concrete researchers. consultants. ACI. noone would have flinched. However. How such a project would arise is a much more difficult question.” with little or no real grasp of some fundamental issues in structural engineering. many practical guidelines (JCI. FRP should not be seen as a direct replacement for steel. I think that the introduction of design guides will help in the shortterm. something that academics would (at the time) usually discourage from attempting.) accompanied by a lot of “fanfare” to encourage the use of FRP reinforcements. An analogy here could be Ironbridge. and the use of iron started. FIB. Demonstration projects are still required.
b) Prestressed concrete Stressrupture limits the efficient use of GFRP in prestressing. But where are the planned applications? I would rather be at the beginning of reinforced or prestressed concrete. the design of flexural members is governed by serviceability conditions which implies the need to provide a sufficient cross section of reinforcement in ordcr to increase flexural stiffness and reduce crack width. Even ARglass is subject to longterm deterioration. They look at FRP research as slightly inferior. This might be a real obstacle to the use of FRP materials in reputable large consultancies. sometimes ambitious. and guidelines available. these highstrength . compared to CFRP (carbon FRP) and AFRP (aramid FRP). Innovation takes time. However. where are the projects and where are the plans for future largescale projects? Compare to the beginning of steel. and untrustworthy to some extent. Today the pace should be exponential.Progress and Prospects of FRP Reinforcements 29 easily. However. or reinforced concrete. Are we at an Impasse? We are not at an impasse. The major obstacles are the high material cost and some particular technical problems which can be summarized as follows: a) Reinforced concrete Most applications seem to focus on GFRP (glass FRP). This additionally increases the cost. GFRP is used because of cost reasons. With extensive research baclung. Progress is substantial. FRP stirrups are a serious practical obstacle in practice: 1) They need to be preshaped and cannot be bent at the site 2) There is significant strength reduction in the bends. While there have been some inappropriate uses of FRP prototype materials there are also many applications that show a convincing trend toward future acceptance for specific applications. or selling the material. In a way we are at an impasse. how to explain that we put glass in an alkaline hostile environment as a solution to the corrosion problem of steel? This is a contradictory situation. Suggesting to use longitudinal FRP reinforcement and steel stirrups is inconsistent. When CFRP and AFRP are used in RC applications. We are indeed in an impasse despite the numerous. test programs worldwide. and that was more than a century ago.
30 FRPRCS6: Keynote Paper materials are not fully utilized. problems arise with high relaxation (up to 20% in wet conditions). For pretensioning. Some of the special anchorages developed so far are complicated to use and not applicable to efficient daytoday practice. Regarding AFRP. durability. This is true for pretensioning as well as posttensioning. requirements are less severe than for posttensioning. And with steel. stressrupture. Question 2: Given the technical concerns posed during the initial development phase (ductility. but it is not. In the first case individual wires. here arises the problem of reliable.. strands or strips need to be anchored temporarily at a smaller capacity than for big cables. where in comparison. fire resistance. poor transverse resistance. and high transverse thermal expansion. cost etc. the solutions so far provided are not sufficiently attractive to make FRP reinforcements competitive in both the short and longterm. we have a longterm proven experience. what were the main elements? If not. Yes indeed we are at an impasse. Relatively limited progress has been made. except for making them as lightweight. cost effective anchorages. Given the tremendous effort (technical and promotional) that introduced FRP reinforcements to the professional community (through research and research centers. Another problem with CFRP tendons is the inherent brittleness which requires severe precautions during handling and tensioning. symposia. practical guidelines. is hard to deal with in FRPreinforced concrete. prestressing hardware. technical journals and newsletters) today's applications of the technology should be widespread. sensitivity to moisture. why not? What are the main catalysts or obstacles? Examples of opinions received include: The issues of ductility. Unless the cost of the most promising FRP materials (that are carbon based composites) diminishes significantly. cost etc. I believe that the whole concept of "hiding" . However. While we understand better the technical issues. educational materials.. Hence there is benefit in using them in prestressed concrete. we can practically do with stainless steel reinforcements all that can be done with FRP reinforcements. large steel cables are commonly tensioned. crack control.) was any "leapfrog progress" made? Zfyes.
even with conventional materials. Still. Progress with FRP reinforcements should be characterized as evolutionary (not leapfrog). however. The cost of carbon FRP strand is still 3 to 6 times that of steel strand. the issue is much more that of economics. this issue is most often not addressed by structural engineers directly. 0 0 No leapfrog progress was achieved so far. Cost should be correlated with the level of performance for FRP applications. which is not bad. I do not see any major obstacles to continue the evolutionary development. The advantages of FRP reinforcements were not demonstrated convincingly. Progress will depend on the assessment of lifecycle cost. 0 Many technical issues related to the use of Flip composites have been addressed in the ACI 440 guidelines. . more needs to be learned. The largest obstacle appears to be the low glass transition temperature of the polymer resin systems currently in use (around 100 "C) and also the poor fire resistance of the materials (however.Progress and Prospects of FRP Reinforcements 31 FRP reinforcements inside concrete is problematic. The few bridges built with FRP reinforcements (for demonstration or trial) were so inefficient that they did not make a breakthrough. their longterm performance level cannot be evaluated yet.) The main catalyst for continuing progress is the search for more durable and predictable construction materials that are exposed to severe environmental conditions. and more experience in the field is needed before unresolved concerns can be treated with the familiarity used in steel reinforcement design. and steel works very well with little problems. therefore malung applications in highway structures much more attractive than in conventional building structures. until longterm performance has been demonstrated. In prestressed concrete. New hardware for prestressing was developed. There was significant progress. In prestressed concrete (including external prestressing) the use of FRP reinforcements enhances durability under severe environmental conditions.
The primary impediment to the deployment of FRP reinforcements is "cost". we still have a long way to go. Many engineers are still unfamiliar with FRP rods and tendons. . Europe. or showcase projects. With the exception of limited special applications. and the main reason was because these were either experimental. which happened during the last decade. for example. some progress has been made (certainly in durability and fire resistance). such as in nonmagnetic or highly corrosive environments. It could be spearheaded for instance by some of the people responding to this survey and started following FWRC6. A testament to that are the codes and/or proposed guidelines that have been published in Japan. to justify their use based on cost. may not be useful for design purposes. or demonstration. Canada. 0 There has been leapfrog progress in terms of ductility. 0 Progress has been made over the years on the issues mentioned. However.32 FRPRCS6: Keynote Paper Research in the area of FRP reinforcement has been extensive over the past 15 years and has advanced the state of the art considerably. by loolung to the concrete. There is need to write a guide (at the international level and for an international audience) which addresses issues about how BEST to use FW materials in concrete. and the US. widespread confidence in FRF'. despite the very extensive research efforts. Further education of the industry and the profession on FRP materials is definitely needed. In the other areas listed." Some of the durability tests. but it cannot be considered "leapfrog. FRP reinforcements have been used in a number of bridges. even impossible. I don't see any major breakthrough for RC and PC applications. the use of FRP reinforcements has been limited. but it is not clear if they could be considered "leapfrog progress. rather than the reinforcement. It would have been very difficult.'' 0 The next true leapfrog advancement must be in terms of how we use FRP materials. It would show designers the versatility of FRP reinforcements and this would be beneficial in terms of providing a more credible.
Repair and rehabilitation will remain the top contender application. Their nonmagnetic properties will remain a key advantage in certain applications. Moreover. The elasticity of FRP reinforcements leads to reduced residual deflections in seismic structures. The field of precast building systems may offer an entirely new technology. Otherwise only specialized applications that require exceptional durability (wastewater etc. and long life are requirements for environmental sustainability. their relatively high cost will limit their use. every other structural component (slabs.Progress and Prospects of FRP Reinforcements 33 Question 3: What are the prospects for FRP reinforcements in near future applications in civil infrastructure systems? Do you expect major increases in applications? Give possible examples? Examples of opinions received include: I do not expect major increases in applications. construction . primarily due to the increased knowledge and confidence that engineers and designers will develop for this new technology. magnetic interference. or if a policy is set by an agency to use them. and other special considerations. beams. FRP reinforcements will see growth in structures where the primary design considerations are corrosion. where FRP reinforcements should not be used. Examples of applications include long lasting skeletons (structural subsystem) of buildings where the remaining subsystems are changeable with time. bridge decks) could be designed using FRP composites as main reinforcement. They will be used if the client demands it. With the exclusion of columns reinforcement. Major increases in FRP applications are expected in the future. However. damage control. Durability. or in structures under severe environmental conditions (such as coastal bridges exposed to chlorides). In highway applications (particularly in bridge decks) the future appears to be promising both for FRP rebars (glass or carbon) and FRP tendons due to the high cost of bridge deck maintenance. FRP reinforcements will be mostly used in special structures.) and electromagnetic transparency (MRIs) appear to have any rationale.
although I do know of a very recent one . educators. we need to think beyond the usual boundaries. even in the short term.. The rational use of FRP is a research priority. Further applications of FRP reinforcements in civil infrastructure systems are possible.. but it is not mentioned in FRP design guides. They cost a fortune to manufacture.(that did not go as desired) . There is absolutely no logical reason why we have bends. which is CHEAPER than steelreinforced concrete. At that stage.. For example: a) Is it not practical to replace partially corroded steel reinforcement with FRP reinforcement or add FRP reinforcement to existing steel reinforcement in concrete structures? In this manner. which is done by using the material in novel ways. in particular. and through such rational use we will create a product. One immediate issue I can think of is bends in FRP bars. It does us no good to point out the longterm cost savings (with no performance records to prove it).. they are unalterable and they are not needed if a helix is placed around the bar in the anchorage location. using a "hotpress"? (c) Can we utilize FRP reinforcements as "smart materials" for structural monitoring? I do not know of a single nearfuture application of any sort. which seems . I think this boils down once again to lack of confidence in the product.. and by doing so.34 FRPRCS6: Keynote Paper companies do not care about using FRP reinforcements since they do not reap the benefits. we achieve a "hybrid reinforcement". for example. this anchors the bar just as well. while manufacturers of FRPs do. I do not foresee a major increase in the use of FRP until its use is first shown to be costeffective in the SHORT term. in my opinion. code writers and professional organizations. could we not improve the ductility of the member? (b) Can FRP rods and tendons be made sufficiently flexible so that they could be bent by hand or simple mechanical tools to form stirrups and the like on site? Can we develop a special thermoplastic that would allow such bending to be done. expect an explosion in use. In the research arena. I predict almost no progress in practical applications in the near future except if the material cost could be substantially reduced. which would lead to redistribution of moments being possible and full use of compression reinforcement. This requires the combined efforts of researchers. for whatever myriad of reasons particular designers have. We need to cut down the initial cost. Nor is any serious attempt made to mention ductility injection into concrete through helical confinement or short fibers. Clients are not interested in this.
0 CONCLUSIONS It is clear from the above questions and answers that in spite of the extensive research so far carried out worldwide on the use of FRP reinforcements in concrete structures. Predicting the future at this time is more challenging than a “wait and see” approach. at time of this writing. Applications will remain limited to smallscale demonstration projects. Similarly to many physical phenomena described by an inverted S curve. or fall in disgrace and forgetfulness phase. STEEL. conventional or stainless. a number of international experts do not see “leapfrog’’ advances and exponential progress in applications. there has been a rapid initial development in FRP reinforcements. is still KJNG of the hill. 2 a b v) Figure 1 Schematic illustration of progress for use of FRP reinforcements in concrete structures . v) Y 8a v1 . however. For reinforcement of QUEEN CONCRETE. it is not clear if what lies ahead is going to be continuing slow steady progress. we seem to be in that steady progress phase. 1 illustrates our current position. reinforcing bars or prestressing strands.Progress and Prospects of FRP Reinforcements 35 unlikely. there is a relative “malaise” about their use and future success. The curves of Fig. or exponentially increasing progress. followed by a slow steady progress and. Exceptions are concrete elements in very aggressive chemical environment and requirements for electromagnetic neutrality (rooms for specific electronic equipment). It is also clear that at time of this writing. in the form of wires.
firoshi Mutsuyoshi. Charles Dolan. Rolla. University of Wisconsin. Antoine E. University of Bath. Building Research Institute. Japan. Technical University of Braunschweig. Naaman. Singapore. USA. California State University. National University of Singapore.36 FRPRCS6: Keynote Paper ACKNOWLEDGMENTS A number of experts were asked to respond to the questions of the survey described in this paper. Antonio Nanni. Ferdinand. Ann Arbor. Those who responded on time are listed next. The author is grateful for their cooperation and their candid answers. University of Michigan. University of Kentucky. Issam E. Germany. Rostazy. USA. UK. Kiang Hwee Tan. Japan. Thanasis Triantafilou. USA. University of Wyoming. Fullerton. Harik. University of Missouri. Tsukuba. USA. University of Ghent. USA. Lexington. Saitama University. USA. They are: Lawrence Bank. . Luc Taerwe. Belgium. Laramie. University of Patras. Hiroshi Fukuyama. Ayman Mosallam. Greece. Tim bell. Madison.
Tokyo. They do not corrode even in chloride environments by sea water and deicing salt. To deal with the problem. INTRODUCTION Concrete structures throughout the world have been deteriorated severely due to chloride induced steel corrosion. Among them. 3). Institute of Industrial Science. The types of FRP commonly being used are rods embedded in concrete for new structures and sheets applied to the surfaces of existing structures. etc. FRP will become a major reinforcing material for concrete in highly corrosive environment. epoxycoated bars. many researches were performed mostly in Japan. FRP has been used throughout the world. Among these attempts. Singapore. Considering the durability of the material.FRPRCS6. University of Tokyo 46IKomaba. FRP was evaluated as one of the best methods to deal with the problem because FRP does not corrode even in chloride environment. ultraviolet ray attack. UOMOTO International Center for Urban Safety Engineering. acid attack. alkali attack to glass fibers and GFRP is the largest problem. This paper explains how to deal with the problem to produce high alkali resistant GFRP using durability design. etc. etc. many attempts were performed. As mentioned by JSCE research committee I). One of the problems of FRP is that some of the FRP rods and sheets deteriorate due to other causes such as alkali attack. To deal with the problem. many attempts are performed. 810 July 2003 Edited by Gang Hwee Tan OWorld Scientific Publishing Company DURABILITY DESIGN OF GFRP RODS FOR CONCRETE REINFORCEMENT T. . It is difficult to apply the material as internal reinforcement of concrete. catholic protection. Japan To deal with the corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete. such as to use galvanized steel bars. a large amount of FRP has been applied to reinforced concrete structures not only to new structures but also to existing structures using recommendations by JSCE *. North America and Europe to utilize FRP as concrete reinforcement since 1980's. Meguro. In Japan.
To deal with the problem. . when tensile load is applied to FRP. As shown in Figure 1. In this paper. Considering these conditions. and also the transition zone between fibers and resin govern the durability of FRP. etc. AFRP and GFRP. explanation is given on FRP rods using carbon fibers. In this paper. MAIN CAUSES OF FRP DETERIORATION FRP is a composite material. But when resin is attacked and deteriorated.38 FRPRCS6: Keynote Paper Concrete structures are normally used for more than 50 to 100 years. Although FRP does not corrode in chloride environment. Aramid fiber reinforced plastics and glass fiber reinforced plastics are abbreviated as CFRP. the cause of FRP deterioration and basic concept to deal with these problems. FRP can resist against load in most cases. Aramid fibers and glass fibers. the fibers fall off from the surface and FRP reduces strength (See Figure 2). carbon fiber reinforced plastics. This makes the deterioration mechanism of FRP complicated compared to steel. Deterioration of both fibers and resin. One method is to use high durable material such as CFRP as concrete reinforcement. As most of the mechanical properties are governed by fibers*). fibers carry load and resin transfers stress to the neighboring fibers. if the fibers are not deteriorated. care must be taken how to use FRP materials as reinforcements for concrete structures4). this paper is written to explain briefly through our works in IIS. Another method is to change the properties of the existing FRP so that it may not deteriorate easily in these environments. and the reinforcements must be also durable enough to reinforce the concrete for the same period of time. composed of millions of fibers and resin. we have already clarified that FRP deteriorates in other environments such as high concentration of alkali and acid. ultraviolet rays from sunlight. The diameters of fibers are in the range of 6 (carbon fibers) to 15 microns (Aramid fibers and glass fibers). The resin can also protect fibers from ingress of harmful ions from their environment.
Durability Design of GFRP Rods 39 Figure 2 Deteriaration of GFRP due to alkali attack .
such as acidic resistance. Again.40 FRPRCS6: Keynote Paper Considering the properties and usage of FRP. measures must be taken to prevent the deterioration from sunlight and acidic water or to replace FRP before deterioration exceeds a certain limit. measures must be taken to prevent resin from the deterioration or to replace FRP before deterioration exceeds a certain limit. although alkali resistance and cyclic fatigue properties are good. In case of Aramid fibers. care must be taken on static fatigue strength. such as out cables or sheet reinforcements. In any of the cases. rods reduce their strength tremendously in all the cases. and items 4) to 6) are for surface reinforcements (mainly sheets). important items on deterioration to be considered are listed below. The items. This is caused by the creep rupture of Aramid fibers. ultraviolet ray resistance and freezethaw resistance are the 3 important items to be considered in case of external reinforcement. 1) Static fatigue fracture 2) Fatigue fracture6") 3) Alkali resistance7) 4) Acidic resistan~e'~) 5 ) Ultraviolet ray resistance") 6) Freezethaw resistance STRENGTH OF FIBERS AND FRP AFTER DETERIORATION Table 4 is obtained from the previous research works of IIS. cyclic fatigue and alkali resistance are the 3 important items to be considered in case of FRP rods. Items 1) to 3) are for reinforcements embedded in concrete (rods). 15) using the material mentioned in Tables 1. In the case of GFRP. carbon fibers and glass fibers have no special problem on durability except ultraviolet ray resistance. As shown in the table. the first 3 items are related to reinforcements embedded in concrete. the fiber itself deteriorates by ultraviolet rays and high concentrated acid. As shown in the table. The resin deteriorates from the surface under ultraviolet rays and this causes the deterioration of CFRP and GFRP. such as static fatigue. 2 and 3. The items. and the remaining 3 items are related to external reinforcement applied to the surface of existing concrete structures. This is caused mainly by the deterioration of glass fibers. . To deal with the problem. especially in case of Kevler 49. CFRP rods have little problem in the aspect of durability. 14. In the case of AFRP. University of Tokyo12.
27 0.D.00 4.02 AFRP. of v.0175 Table 1 Properties )f f . I I I RipoxyRSO2 84.GFRP I 4000 39 0.476 Table 1 Properties of fibers (monofilament ) f 23. of v.D. 3110 37 0. of v. I Elastic Modulus (MPa) Maximum Strain (%) Notes I Average S. c . Average S.D.96 Table Table 1 Properties 1 Properties of fibers of fibers (monofilament (monofilament )f )f .22 0.1 1 0. of fibers (monofilament 0.70 52.15 I RipoxyH6001 67.01 1. of fibers (monofilament 0.9 1.63 c .Durability Design of GFRP Rods 41 Table 1 Properties of fibers (monofilament ) f ble 1 Properties o ble 1 Properties o ble ble 11 Properties Properties oo Ta Ta Ta Ta Table 2 Properties of resins for FRP I I I Tensile Strength Type Average S.0 1 5.946 0.95 0.0836 Table 1 Properties )f Elastic Average 45. c .1 1 135.30 Modulus 1.14 CFRP Table 1 Properties of fibers (monofilament ) f GFRP CFRP Type AFRP Tensile 1340 1690 1690 Average Strength Table 1 Properties of fibers (monofilament ) c . of v.
2000) 14). 40 OC. When used as external reinforcement. care has to be taken on static fatigue properties. Limitation of tensile stress is needed according to the duration time. 40 OC Acidic Resistance 69% 77% 90% 3 years exposure UltraViolet Ray Lesistance 100% FreezeThaw Table 1100% Properties of fibers (monofilament ) f Lesistance Table 1 Properties of fibers (monofilament ) f (Note) * In case of Technola is 85% and Kevlar 49 is 60%. the following can be concluded as written in the previous paper by the author “Durability of FRP as Reinforcement for Concrete Structures” (ACMBS3. etc: 1) We do not have to consider much about the durability of carbon fibers and CFRP used as internal and/or external reinforcement.. excluding the problems of fire and surface defects due to knives.42 FRPRCS6: Keynote Paper Table Durability of fibers and FRP (Strength ratio)14) I Fiber Carbon Glass Notes Aramid 1 Static Fatigue Cyclic Fatigue Alkali Resistance 95% Acidic Resistance 100% UltraViolet Ray lesistance FreezeThaw kesistance 100% 92% 6085?’0* 45% ~~ 15% NaOH. When used as internal reinforcement. except the deterioration of resins caused by ultraviolet rays. 120days. 100 years (Cal. 2) In case of Aramid fiber and AFRE’. .2MJ/m2/hr. not only the sustained load but also deterioration due to ultraviolet rays and acidic environment must be considered. From these results. they have good durability properties except static fatigue.) lOOMpa Amp. 2 million cycles NaOH. 120 days 81% 0. 40 OC. 1OOOhr 100% HCI. 1 OOOhr ~ :RP Rod CFRP 91% AFRP 46% GFRP 30% Cyclic Fatigue 85% 70% 23% Alkali Resistance 100% 98% 29% Static Fatigue Notes 20°C. ultraviolet rays and acidic attack.
it is difficult to use glass fibers of GFRP as internal reinforcement of concrete structures. new Hybrid AGFRP rods are developed". two cases on development of new GFRP are explained. I hope the producers of glass fibers would challenge the work. alkali resistance and ultraviolet rays. obtaining some good results. Here in this paper.Durability Design of GFRP Rods 43 3) Glass fiber and GFRP have poor durability except acidic resistance and freezethaw resistance.49 I . ble 1 Properties o ble 1 Properties o ble 1 Properties oI I ble 1 Properties I I I oI Ta Ta Tabolume fraction of EGlass fiber Vf (%) 1Total volume fraction of fibers IThickness of outer layer (Aramid) Ta ITensile strength of rod I (mm) (Nlmm') 36. DEVELOPMENT OF NEW GFRP TO INCREASE DURABILITY As explained above.59 13. Up till now I do not hear any good news on success in producing these fibers.18 I 1 I 42. GFRP is not recommendable for internal reinforcements. As shown in the table.8 0.83 I I I 48.46 13. Development of Hybrid AGFRP Rod As shown in Table 5 and Figure 3.79 14. the volume content of fibers are fixed to about 66%.8 Vf (%) I 0. changing the amount of Aramid fibers from 19% to 30% and glass fibers from 48% to 36%. 2) Develop new GFRP to reduce the attack of alkali from surface of FRP. In the case of l).4 65. care must be taken of the deterioration due to sustained load. To deal with the problem the following ideas may be used: 1) Develop new alkaliresistant glass fibers to reduce the effect of alkali attack from concrete. Aramid fibers are placed at the surface portion of the rods and glass fibers at the center. When glass fiber or GFRP is used as external reinforcements.4 I 67. fatigue load. In the case of 2).3 66. several attempts have been made in Japan.5 0. They are composed of both Eglass fibers and Aramid (Technora) fibers.
4%) has improved resistance against alkaline solution drastically compared to other FRP rods. original GFRP has lost their strength to 30% at the age of 90 days. 3 0 50 100 Immersion time (days) 150 Figure 4 Retention ratio of tensile strength of AGFRP (Nishimura T.44 FRPRCS6: Keynote Paper Figure 3 AGFRP rods with Aramid fibers and glass fibers (Nishimura T.4%.)") Figure 4 shows the retaining ratios of tensile strength after immersion in alkaline solution (NaOH:lmol/l. This is caused by the resistance of the rod against alkali at the surfaces. 1 0. glass fiber content:42. but these hybrid AGFRP rods possess more than 80% of the initial tensile strength at the age of 120 days. 9 0. Figure 5 shows that AGFRP7 (Aramid fiber content:23. Measured result of Na shown in Figure 6 gives the information that Na ion does not penetrate into the rod compared to GFRP rods. 40degrees) for up to 120 days.)") . As can be seen from the figure.
) .)") Figure 6 Na distribution within AGFRP rod after immersion to alkaline solution (Nishimura T.Durability Design of GFRP Rods 45 12 1 02 0 0 50 100 I n m ersbn tin e (days) 150 Figure 5 Retention ratio of tensile strength of FRP (Nishimura T.
some tests have been done to improve the gap between fibers and resin. high concentration of Na is observed at the boundary between fibers and resin.)') . EPMA was used to the same specimen. As shown in the figure. As shown in the figure. To prove this idea. Figure 9 shows the validity of the method. These two results show that GFRP is attacked by the Na ions from the boundary of fibers. GFRP has improved resistance against alkali to high extent. Figure 8 shows the results obtained by Katsuki'. To obtain the distribution of Na ions in the cross section. Figure 7 SEM photograph showing deterioration of glass fibers in GFRP rod (Katsuki F. Although other properties are still under tests. this method may become a good solution to obtain durable GFRP rods and sheets to reinforce concrete structures as in the case of CFRP and AFRP. one good method to improve the resistance against alkali is to form good interface between fibers and resin so that alkali can not penetrate into GFRP from outside. The photograph shows that the glass fibers are deteriorated from the interfaces between fibers and resin.46 FRPRCS6: Keynote Paper New GFRP rod with Surface Treatment Figure 7 shows the deteriorated portion of glass fibers in GFRP when immersed in alkaline solution". From these observations.
4 0.3 0 60 30 90 120 Immersion time (days) Figure 9 Retention ratio of tensile strength of FRP (Sugiyama M .Durability Design of GFRP Rods 47 Figure 8 Distribution of Na ions in GFRP by EPMA (Katsuki F. ) ' ~ ) CONCLUSIONS The following conclusions can be drawn: (1) Tensile strength of FRF' rods can be used to evaluate the durability of FRP rods in different conditions.)') 1 0. .9 0.
JSCE 2. care must be taken to the deterioration due to sustained load. Futoshi Katsuki (Shibaura Institute of Technology) and Mr. The improvement of the interface is effective to increase the alkali resistance of GFRP to high extent. “Recommendation for Design and Construction of JSCE Concrete Structures Using 1. When used as external reinforcement. When used as internal reinforcement. They are not recommendable for internal reinforcements. fatigue load. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author would like to thank Mr. they have good durability properties except static fatigue. (3) In the case of Aramid fiber and AFRP. “StateoftheArt Report on Continuous Fiber Reinforcing Materials”. REFERENCES JSCE Research Committee on CFRM( 1993). Limitation of tensile stress is needed according to the duration time. except the deterioration of resins caused by ultraviolet rays. ultraviolet rays and acidic attack. such as to combine glass fibers with Aramid fibers when producing FRP. (6) Interface between glass fiber and resin governs the resistance of GFRP against alkali. Concrete Engineering Series 3. not only the sustained load but also deterioration due to ultraviolet rays and acidic environment must be considered. Matoyoshi Sugiyama (Nippon Electric Glass Co. . When glass fiber or GFRP is used as external reinforcements. Dr. Ltd) for granting the permission to use their data in this paper. (4) Commercially available glass fiber and GFRP have poor durability except acidic resistance and freezethaw resistance. alkali resistance and ultraviolet rays. care has to be taken of the static fatigue properties. Tsugio Nishimura (IIS. (5) Durable GFRP against alkali solution can be obtained by changing their composition. A new AGFRP has improved the durability to a very high extent. University of Tokyo). JSCE Research Committee on CFRM( 1997).48 FRPRCS 6: Keynote Paper (2) Durability of carbon fibers and CFRP used as internal andor external reinforcement is good.
et a1 (1995) “Fatigue Strength of FRP Rods for Concrete Reinforcement”. V01.48. JSCE 3.: Development of new AGFRP tendon with high alkali resistance. Doctoral Thesis. Uomoto.30.A. and Ohga. R (1988). Doctoral Thesis. No. Prestressed Concrete.. Uomoto.Loo. Concrete Engineering Series 23.244 13. (1998).. Uomoto. T. H. et al. No.. University of Tokyo. (1996). et a1 (1999). “Study on deterioration of FRP Rods for Concrete Reinforcement on UltraViolet Rays and Creep Rupture” (in Japanese).137146 8. T. “Strength and Durability of FRP Rods for Prestressed Concrete Tendons” (in Japanese). Uomoto. ”Evaluation of Alkali Resistance of FRP Rods for Concrete Reinforcement with Different Types of Fibers” (in Japanese). Y. 125132 10. Edited by. Concrete Engineering Series 4 1. Kobayashi.2. Hodhod.2. Uomoto. (1996).G. F. No.Durability Design of GFRP Rods 49 Continuous Fiber Reinforcing Materials”.2 1.288293 . Doctoral Thesis.Sakai..A. Yamaguchi. JSCE 4. T. ~ ~ 1 9 . Advanced Composite Materials in Bridges and Structures. T. V0. University of Tokyo 12.2 6 5.C. F (1996). T. University of Tokyo 9. “Deterioration Mechanism of Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete and Prediction of Strength Reduction”.(1992): “Employment of Constituents Properties in Evaluation and Interpretation of FRP Rods Mechanical Behaviour”. Report of the Institute of Industrial Science. Edited by K. EASEC. pp. K. Nishimura . JSCE Research Committee on Upgrading of Concrete Structures with Use of CFS(200 l). pp. JCI General Meeting. “Temperature Effect on Fiber Strength in Different solutions”.9. Nishimura T. and Cho. T. NO. Building for the 2 1’‘ Century. pp. pp. Vo1. Vo1. “Performance of Fiber Reinforced Plastics for Concrete Reinforcement”.. Y. “Recommendations for Upgrading of Concrete Structures with Use of Continuous Fiber Sheets”. Uomoto. Katsuki. 1996 11. Integrated Design and Environmental Issues in Concrete Technology.A. 16591664 7. T. T. H. Seisan Kenkyu. No.457460. FN & Spon.5. “ Prestressed Concrete Structure using FRP Tendons (in Japanese). Kato. and Katsuki. pp. (1998).39. Univeristy of Tokyo 6.
2003 (in press) . Uomoto. London 16. Seisan Kenkyu. 1732. FRPRCS5. ACMBS3 15. T (2001): Durability considerations for FRP reinforcements.: Development of new GFRP rods with high alkali resistance. Sugiyama. T(2000): Durability of FRP as Reinforcement for concrete structures.SO FRPRCS 6: Keynote Paper 14. pp. M and Uomoto T. Uomoto. Thomas Telford.
CFR is noncorrosive. UEDA Division of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering. Singapore. Another item introduced in this paper is continuous fiber reinforcement externally bonded with a very soft resin. 810 July 2003 Edited by Kiang Hwee Tan QWorld Scientific Publishing Company NEW TYPES OF CONTINUOUS FIBER REINFORCEMENTS FOR CONCRETE MEMBERS T. Polyacetal fiber gives a better ultimate deformation due to its high fracturing strain. shows warning much clearly before failure. Carbon and Polyacetal Continuous Fiber Flexible Reinforcement. This is especially true for concrete members requiring high deformability which can be found in highly aseismic members. . Japan In this paper continuous fibers for concrete reinforcement with rather unique mechanical and/or other features are introduced. Despite its low stiffness that can be compensated by large amount. Polyacetal fiber also has another feature that is a high fracturing strain of 69%. which are flexible enough to wind freely by hand may provide a solution to overcome a weak point of typical continuous fiber reinforcements and at the same time ease congestion of reinforcement in concrete members in highly seismic regions. CFR. Soft adhesive layer provides a better solution to enhance the delamination strength together with a ductile failure manner. It has a very high strength to weight ratio hence reduces the amount of reinforcement. shows some vulnerability such as low fracturing strain and no plastic deformation. Previous studies mostly focus on properties of fibers not those of adhesive resin. It is easy to handle during construction as cutting CFR requires only a simple cutter. Hokkaido University Sapporo 0608628. INTRODUCTION Continuous fiber reinforcement (CFR) provides us with a new option of internal and external concrete reinforcements. In order to utilize concrete strength and deformability fully its reinforcement should have a fracturing strain greater than 6 % (preferably 10 %). Elastic deformation without plastic deformation (or yielding) is not necessarily a weak point if the material has a high fracturing strain. however. Easy to cut is a good feature but at the same time a weak point. Unlike steel long dominated as the only concrete reinforcement in the past.FRPRCS6. however. The yielding.
Their new features are believed to help overcome some of the weak points found in typical CFR. Two types of CFFR will be introduced in this paper . CFFR is introduced to overcome this problem. CONTINUOUS FIBER FLEXIBLE REINFORCEMENT (CFFR) Carbon Continuous Fiber Flexible Reinforcement (CCFFR) The concept of continuous fiber flexible reinforcement was introduced in the late 1990s by a joint team of Nippon Steel Composites and Hokkaido University’. Particularly a very soft resin with Young’s modulus of 1 MPa is introduced. PAF does not require resin since the strengths of the bundled fiber at both straight and bent portions are not reduced. The first one is “continuous fiber flexible reinforcement” or CFFR. . delamination is unavoidable in many cases.52 FRPRCS 6: Keynote Paper External bonding is a typical method for retrofitting concrete members and CFR is sometime used as a reinforcing material. practical due to the space limit. PAF in fact is the material for CFFR without resin. The second one is a continuous fiber whose fracturing strain is much greater than those of a typical CFR and is called Polyacetal Fiber (PAF). aramid and glass CFR. CFR cannot be bent after the impregnated resin gets hardened due to the small plastic deformability of both fiber and resin. that is the fact that you cannot bend CFR as you do for steel reinforcement. It can ease the difficulties encountered with ’. wound and placed by hand as you wish (see Figure 2). External bonding creates another type of failure mode. This failure mode does not happen in ordinary concrete members with only internal reinforcement. in some cases. In this paper two new types of continuous fiber reinforcement and a resin for use as concrete reinforcement are introduced. The original intention of CCFFR was to eliminate one of the disadvantages with typical continuous fiber reinforcement (CFR) such as carbon. The resin to be introduced here is soft adhesive resin.with postimpregnation of resin and without resin. Since CCFFR can be bent by hand. To provide a full anchorage (or development length) may not be economical or. that is delamination of externally bonded reinforcement. Carbon Continuous Fiber Flexible Reinforcement (CCFFR) is a bundle of thousands of carbon fibers inserted in a transparent PolyvinylChloride (PVC) tube that is injected by VinylEster type low viscosity high flowable resin (see Figure 1). Before the injection CCFFR is flexible enough to be bent. it becomes even easier to handle at construction site. which is used to enhance delamination strength. Therefore.
Five column specimens were tested under the combination of flexure and shear. PVC tube serves as electric isolator for carbon fiber since direct contact between carbon fiber and steel reinforcement causes steel to corrode more easily. Carbon Continuous Fiber Flexible Reinforcement4 congested reinforcements. 4 each on both sides. The ultimate strain of CCFFR is 15600 p and the thickness of the plastic tube is 1 mm. When the resin hardened 24 hours after the injection. The material properties of steel reinforcing bars and CCFFR are shown in Table 1. Pressure injection of resin took 10 minutes after winding CCFFR. S3 and S4 containing an additional 0. the end portion of . Although the elimination of the resin injection should provide us better constructability. 8 D25 bars (deformed bar with a diameter of 25 mm).e. The size of all the columns was 350x350~1050mm and that of footing to which it was monolithically attached was 900x900x800 mm. Besides the two reference columns S 1 and S2.1 % carbon fiber and S5 containing an additional 0. The pattern of winding of CCFFR around the main bar is shown in Figure 2. In order to prove the advantage of CCFFR a series of experiments on reinforced concrete columns confined with CCFFR as the intermediate lateral tie was conducted3. The minimum amount of steel tie reinforcement of 9 D10 stirrups with a centertocenter spacing of 190 mm was provided. All the columns contain the same amount of longitudinal reinforcement i. three columns.. it is less likely the case due to the fact that the tensile strength of bundled carbon fibers is significantly less than that of the fiber. The concrete strengths and loading sequences are given in Table 2.2 % carbon fiber by volume were tested.New Types of Continuous Fiber Reinforcements 53 Continuous Carbon Fiber + Vinyl Ester type low viscosity high flowable resin 1 J Figure 1.
Arrangement of CCFFR4 CCFFR was passed through a steel pipe and fixed to the pipe with an expansive material.54 FRPRCS 6: Keynote Paper st ln a 0 m \c E 0 4 0 II U S m P 0 44 . The observed performance of each specimen is presented in the form of applied force versus column tip deformation in Figures 3 through 5 . The cyclic and reversedcyclic hysteretic loaddeformation relationship of the . m 0 0 5l (D k rv) L m m E E v) (v P * N Figure 2. It was then allowed to set for 24 hours. The steel pipes were anchored with washers and nuts at the column top surface after the concrete was placed.
did not only counteract the degrading strength but also enhanced it by 7.2 % respectively. which means that the ultimate deformation was also enhanced. companion of column S2.1 Sequence of & T& & &? Loading') 1) & Onesided cyclic loading.7 40.0 40.89') 265 1) Crosssectional area of a bundle of carbon fibers only Reinforcement type Ultimate strength (MPa) 551 357 69. Compressive Strength of Concrete and Loading Sequence for Specimens Strengthened by CCFFR Specimen S1 (Ref) S2 (Ref) s3 s4 Average fc ' ('Pa) 44. Specimen S2 even suffered a huge damage from splitting along the longitudinal bar to the loading point.3 35. also counteracted the highly decayed strength in S2 with deformation enhancement.5 % before failure by rupture of CCFFR at 11% lateral drift.7 173 367 2121 D10 71.3 %. 0. To such columns that lack ductility. while the ultimate drift was 6. The strength increment was 9. This demonstrates that addition of CCFFR could effectively confine the core concrete with an introduction of its ductile failure rather than quick extension and widening of diagonal crack leading to shear failure. Column S5 contained 0. Column S4. The strength increment and the ultimate drift was 23. ?& Reversed cyclic loading s5 35.1 and 8. It showed even further enhancement of shear strength and ultimate deformation. companion of column S1.3 183 364 1891 CCFFR 16.New Types of Continuous Fiber Reinforcements 55 Table 1. These columns are S3 and S4.4 &? reference columns S1 and S2 suggest that the columns experienced rapid strength degradation due to insufficient confinement from the tie reinforcement.8 kN Table 2.2 % volume fraction of carbon fiber as CFFR and was the companion of S2 and S4. Column S3. Material Properties in Specimens Strengthened by CCFFR CrossYoung's Yield Yield sectional modulus strength strain area (mm2) (GPa) (MPa) 04 D25 506.1 % volume fraction of carbon fiber as CFFR was added. The superior performance of S5 over the companions indicates the greater confinement efficiency provided by the increased amount of CCFFR and the its appropriate .4 %.
The CCFFR provided the intended lateral confinement to the volumetric dilation of core concrete without any premature rupture of CCFFR. All the column specimens with CCFFR showed the rupture of CCFFR at bend which controlled the ultimate deformation.56 FRPRCS 6: Keynote Paper Localized Rotation 300 \ . This fact implies that predictions of CCFFR strength at bend and strain development in CCFFR are necessary. LoadDeformation Curves of Reference Specimens without CCFFR (Specimens S1 and S3 placed horizontally in the photo)4 winding pattern as well as the efficiency of the clamping system at its extremities. An experimental investigation of bentportion of CCFFR (see Figure 6) shows clearly that the bent strength ratio (ratio of bent portion strength to straight portion strength) has a tendency to decrease with an increase in angle of winding (0 in Figure 7 ) as shown in Figure 8 where d is CCFFR diameter and L is CCFFR length in concrete before bend. As . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 I1 Effective Lateral Drift (%) Figure 3.
New Types of Continuous Fiber Reinforcements 57 s2 200 300 s4 I sz 300 11 9 7 5 3 1 1 3 5 Effective Lsteral Drift (%) 7 9 11 Figure 4. LoadDeformation Curves of Specimens with CFFR (Specimens S2 and S4 placed horizontally in the photo)4 other CFR bar reinforcement. The author’s group at Hokkaido University recently developed a threedimensional nonlinear finite element program for both concrete and steelconcrete composite members’. the bent portion strength decreases as the bent radius decreases (which means here the decrease in diameter of main reinforcement around which CCFFR was wound). the constitutive model for force transfer versus slip relationship at the bent portion should be implemented. It is considered that the force transfer mechanism is characterized by the plastic tube compressive deformation and the resin . In order to apply this program for analysis of members with CCFFR. Numerical analysis with nonlinear finite element method is one of the methods to predict mechanical behaviors such as strain development in reinforcement.
LoadDeformation Curves of specimens with Different Amount of CFFR (Specimens S2 and S 5 placed horizontally in the photo)4 failure in compression.58 FRPRCS 6: Keynote Paper s2 s5 1 300 11 9 7 5 3 .I 1 3 5 EffectiveLateraI Drift ( I % ) 7 9 11 Figure 5. . Based on those observations the empirical model was proposed4. The winding angle affects the force transferslip relationship.
Element tension test for bentportion of CCFFR4 . Displacementcontrol pull from Hydraulic actuator Topthreaded 300mm long steel tube containing highly expansive material to confine CFFR 300 20mm diameter Prestressing rods to fix specimens with the base plate n . Specimen 350 1 Base Plate 600x600~25 e l I 1 Laboratory Strong Floor I 1 (All dimensions in mm) Figure 6.New Types of Continuous Fiber Reinforcements 59 4 a End Clamp Tube for CCFFR b Continuous Arrangement of CCFFR c Main Bar 25 mm diameter d Steel Stirrup 10 mm diameter e Prestressing rod to fix Base Plate to the Strong Floor.
6 F 0.4 c. In order to prove the applicability of PAF as CFFR (PCFFR).60 FRPRCS 6: Keynote Paper Angle of winding Main Bar Figure 7. PAF does not require impregnating resin or attention to the bentportion strength. Unlike CCFFR. MI C !! .8 c c.2 5 5 15 25 35 45 Angle Deg.2 . Angle of winding CCFFR4 1. These features make PAF a good material for CFFR. It has a low stiffness but a high fracturing strain in comparison with a typical continuous fiber such as carbon. aramid and glass as shown in Table 3. however is rather new for concrete reinforcement6’’. Bent Strength Decrease with Winding Angle4 Polyacetal Continuous Fiber Flexible Reinforcement (PCFFR) Polyacetal fiber (PAF) has been used as ground reinforcement. a p: 0. Other features of PAF are that practically no strength reduction exists at bent portion or in the case without impregnating resin. : m 0.j 0.0 1 c. a series of tests on reinforced concrete columns with steel and PAF tie reinforcement . Figure 8.
27 resistance 3500 Polyacetal 1730 20’’ 69 1. The reason may be that PCFFR was placed within the core concrete.8 1.4 1. Figure 10 clearly indicates that the ultimate deformation of the specimen with PCFFR is significantly greater than that of the specimen with only steel tie reinforcement.New Types of Continuous Fiber Reinforcements 61 Table 3.9 20002800 350450 0.45 3110 77 4. .40.3 1.04 21 1) Polyacetal fiber shows material nonlinearity.41. which was wound around the longitudinal reinforcement.9 7801000 3840 2.5 1.8 1.12.39 35003600 7475 4. Figure 9 and Photo 1 show the arrangement of PCFFR. The tie reinforcement ratios of both specimens are similar as shown in Table 4.8 2. which was observed in a comparable specimen S4 with CCFFR (see Table 4). Properties of Fiber for CFR Fiber Carbon (PAN) Carbon (Pitch) Aramid High strength type High elasticity type Ordinary type High strength and elasticity type High strength type High elasticity type Eglass Glass Tensile strength (MPa) Young’s modulus (GPa) Fracturing strain Density PA) (g/mm3) 26004500 200240 1.6 Alkali 8oo 7076 23 2.71.1 2800 130 2. It should be mentioned that the greater deformation was possible because of the absence of PAF fracture even at the ultimate deformation. The initial stiffness is 40 GPa.81.61.7 30003500 400800 0. The details and test results of each specimen are given in Table 4.92.31. was conducted under reversed cyclic loading.45 Polyester 219 1. Comparison of the loaddeformation curve between specimen P22 with PAF and steel tie reinforcement and specimen P21 with only steel tie reinforcement is shown in Figure 10. The test results indicate that PCFFR increases the ultimate deformation.5 1.
Arrangement of PCFFR (in specimen S l ) Although no fracture of PAF was observed in all the specimens. prediction of strain in PCFFR is important. This is because the tensile fracture of PCFFR is still possible and because the contribution as shear reinforcement of PCFFR can be quantified by the tensile force carried by PCFFR at ultimate.62 FRPRCS 6:Keynote Paper Outer PAF Strain gage Inner PAF Back Front View from front face Front Back View from back face Figure 9. The measurement of PCFFR strain in details shows that .
Arrangement of PCFFR . Photo 1.61 of average steel tie reinforcement strain to PCFFR one4. Gap likely to exist between steel tie reinforcement and longitudinal reinforcement cannot make the steel tie as efficient as PCFFR. Based on the experimental observation a simple formula to predict the PCFFR strain as a function of maximum deformation was proposed by assuming a constant ratio 0.New Types of Continuous Fiber Reinforcements 63 early strain development in PCFFR indicates better efficiency than steel tie reinforcement and is caused by direct contact between PCFFR and the longitudinal reinforcement.
7 P21 2. LoadDeformation Curves of Columns with PCFFR and Steel Tie Reinforcement .2 1) PCFFR for specimens P12.51 0.2 8.4 13. pcf: continuous fiber reinforcement ratio as tie reinforcement.10” 35. dU: ultimate deformation.3 4.02 158.1 7.5 10. P13 and P22 and CCFFR for specimen S4 2) ps: longitudinal reinforcement ratio. and p: ductility ratio Specimen Ps Pw PA) PA) Pcf (%) Deformation (mm) ~ Figure 10.52’’ 29.64 FRPRCS 6: Keynote Paper Table 4.79’’ 32.28 211.21 0.1 213.17 0. Pmm: maximum load.7 176.2 30.0 57.68 27.f’.04 0.8 65.58’) 29.3 4.2 33.51 23.8 3.7 0.8 128.96 159.4 3.7 0.3 43.) P11 2.9 10.3 174.7 0.2 8.0 0. 8.8 P22 2.: concrete compressive strength.04 0.4 2.2 P13 2. pw:steel tie reinforcement ratio.54 255.6 P12 185.28 196. Details and Test Results of Reinforced Columns with PCFFR and CCFFR 4 fc PY P m all iu (MPa) @N) (mm) @N) (mm) (SJS.2 s4 2.4 139.: yielding deformation. Py: yielding load.51 0.
reduces the attractiveness of the material. This is mainly due to the high fracturing strain of the steel reinforcement. In ordinary reinforced concrete members concrete crushing rather than fracturing of steel reinforcement is the cause of member failure. In order to utilize the concrete strength fully a higher fracturing strain is necessary.New Types of Continuous Fiber Reinforcements 65 CONTINUOUS FIBER WITH HIGH FRACTURING STRAIN Here “high fracturing strain” is stressed in comparison with “high strength” and “high stiffness”.4 to 5 % as shown in Table 3). On the other hand. which is likely for the material with high strength or stiffness. Unlike strength or stiffness. adding the material cannot compensate for the low Deformation (mm) Figure 1 1 . lower strength andor stiffness can be compensated by providing more material. High strength and/or stiffness reduce the needed amount of material. However the high cost of material. which are often cited as a good feature of reinforcing material. On the contrary fracturing of continuous fiber reinforcement is usually the cause of member failure in concrete member with typical CFR because of its rather low fracturing strain (0. LoadDeformation Curve of Column with PAF Sheet Jacketing Failing in Flexure .
146 and 0.291 % for PJ1. The only solution is to use material with a high fracturing strain. Three specimens PJ1. 0.151 %. PAF Sheet for Jacketing at Ultimate Deformation without its Fracture . aramid and glass fibers as shown in Table 3. PAF sheet ratios were 0. PJ2 and PJ3 that were identical except for PAF sheet ratio were prepared. A series of tests on reinforced columns with and without PAF sheet was conducted7. while ratio of steel tie reinforcement was 0. PJ2 and PJ3 respectively. which are 2 to 6 times of those in carbon. PAF can be used as both external and internal reinforcement to utilize its high fracturing strain. Enhancement of Ultimate Deformation The fracturing strain of Polyacetal Fiber is 6 to 9 %. PAF a s external reinforcement is in a sheet form for jacketing and bonding. Photo 2.66 FRPRCS 6: Keynote Paper fracturing strain. The internal reinforcement of PAF was already introduced as PCFFR in the previous section.
Because of its high fracturing strain the PAF sheet in the experimental specimens did not fracture when the shear capacity was reached. Three specimens T1. Specimens TI and T2 gave higher shear capacities than specimen C with carbon fiber sheet whose stiffness as 250 200 3 150 TI 8 I 100 50 0 0 20 40 60 80 I00 Deformation(mm) Figure 12. This phenomenon is not seen in specimens with carbon and aramid fiber sheet jacketing in which the sheet fracture causes a sudden drop of the load carrying capacity.29 1 % respectively were prepared.New Types of Continuous Fiber Reinforcements 67 Figure 11 indicates that the ultimate deformation of the specimens with PAF sheet is greater than that of the specimen without PAF sheet. The carbon fiber sheet ratio is 0. LoadDeformation Curve of Column with PAF Sheet Jacketing Failing in Shear . Enhancement of Shear Strength Another series of tests on the enhancement of shear capacity of columns by PAF sheet jacketing was conducted7. and between specimen T2 and specimen C. therefore the loaddeformation curves show very ductile behavior even after the ultimate deformation. T2 and T3 and specimen P. 0. In most of the specimens PAF sheet did not fracture at the ultimate deformation (see Photo 2).017 %. T2 and T3 identical except for the PAF sheet ratios that are 0. T2 and T3.151 %. Comparisons were made between specimens T1. same as those in specimens TI.077.153 and 0. P without PAF sheet jacketing while C with carbon fiber sheet instead of PAF sheet. Two reference specimens P and C whose steel tie reinforcement ratio is 0. were prepared.
The material constants are given in Table 3. can also improve the ultimate load transfer ability of CFRconcrete interfaces as shown in Figure 14. Polyacetal and polyester fibers are no exception. Recent experimental results’ indicate another interesting fact that using adhesives with low shear stiffness. which is introduced by either increasing the thickness or decreasing of the elasticity of adhesives. such as average bond strength and local bondslip relationship. CONTINUOUS FIBER REINFORCEMENT BONDED WITH SOFT RESIN For externally bonded continuous fiber reinforcement three types of resin are necessary. at least the total loss of load carrying capacity for vertical load in columns can be prevented despite its extremely low stiffness.68 FRPRCS 6: Keynote Paper reinforcement (defined as product of reinforcement ratio and Young’s modulus) was similar to or greater than those of PAF sheet’ as shown in Figure 12. The carbon fiber sheet fractured at the peak load causing shear failure. The experimental study on polyester fiber sheet jacketing’ indicates that if the jacketing material does not fracture. resin for adhesive and resin for impregnation. a polyester fiber with even higher fracturing strain of around 20 % was applied to jacketing method’. The Young’s modulus of the former and the latter is 10 to 20 % and 1 % of that of carbon fiber respectively. Recent studies found that usage of soft adhesive resin can improve the delamination capacity in both pullout bond test and beam test” 10 Bond Behavior Bond properties of CFR. Generally fiber materials with high fracturing strain indicate low Young’s modulus. were investigated by pullout test as shown in Figure 13. namely resin for primer. It is known that a higher stiffness of CFR gives a higher pullout force of the CFR externally bonded to concrete when delamination happens. While specimens T1. T2 and T3 show very ductile manner even after the peak load. specimens C and P show rather brittle manner that is the nature of shear failure. Prevention of Total Collapse under VerticalLoads Another type of fiber. Decreasing the shear stiffness of adhesives reduces the interfacial strain distribution gradient as well as increases the effective bond length .
It should be noted that effects of adhesive resin are significantly different from those of impregnating resin. . decreasing the shear stiffness of adhesives leads to a lower interfacial maximum bond stress and more ductile bondslip behavior. A lower stiffness of impregnating resin for CFR does not give a higher pullout capacity.New Types of Continuous Fiber Reinforcements 69 Load cell t 7 Hinges / Steel plates attached to the both sides of CFR Bolts for fixing the concrete block on the base 4 Vinylon tape Enhancing anchorage bolts I CFR ‘ ‘” Concrete block with four preset tubes Steel basement for fconcrete block Prestressed bolts K ig floor Figure 13. although both ways increase the ultimate load transfer capacity. instead it may cause fiber to fracture more easily. Setup for Pullout Bond Test significantly (see Figure 15). Unlike increasing the CFR stiffness.
2 5 3 G P mm +C F R P ..+FPR 0 1 % 6GPamm GFRP262GPamm fracture I 3 2 4 Ea Pa) (a) Effects of adhesive’s elastic modulus &CEXP25 . Effects of Shear Stiffness of Adhesive on Pullout Bond Force .70 FRPRCS 6: Keynote Paper &C F R P .: 20 +i _”  1 I *FRP 10  0  +C F R P .60 50 3GPamm .5 0 CFRP759GPamm +AFRP63lGPamm 20 10  .   z 4 030.7 5 9 G P a m m fki I 1 (b) Effects of adhesive’s thickness Figure 14.
m 2 'Et/taGPa/mm8 ) 4 Figure 15.New Types of Continuous Fiber Reinforcements 71 + CFRP253GPamm . a new adhesive resin with low Young's modulus and high deformability was applied between primer and FRP reinforcement. The CFR is carbon fiber sheet (CFS) with impregnating resin whose stiffness is 2. CFS used in this study is unidirectional strengthening 0 I< 900 >I Strain gage on steel Strain gage on sheet Figure 16. Beam Specimen Strengthened by Externally Bonded Carbon Fiber Sheet with Extremely Soft Adhesive Resin (ESAR) .0 GPa./ G F R P . Provision of better bonding characteristics of the interface can improve the performance of a strengthened member. Effects of Adhesive's Shear Stiffness on Effective Bond Length Member Behavior In beams with externally bonded CFR sheet or plate as flexure reinforcement.8 7GPamm + AFRP18 5GPamm !i O O CFRP50 6GPamm CFRP756GPamm GFRP262GPamm 0 GFRP436GPamm AFRP319GPamm AFRP63 7GPamm . failure mode caused by delamination of CFR is often observed. In a previous experiment".
0 114. SPC2 and SPC3 contain 1 layer.C ~ Sfailed by concrete cover failure (see Photo 3(b)). the crack width . When ESAR is used.0 78.C ~ and S SPC~S.0 B SPc2 33. ESAR is applied between CFS and the primer with the thickness of 0.7 MPa (hereafter referred to as extremely soft adhesive resin or ESAR).167 mm.0 C SPC2s 33.0 D SPc3 33.5 mm.1 A SPco 30. Specimen SP0 is a reference specimen without CFS. Specimens SPC 1 and SPC2 without ESAR failed due to delamination of CFS at the area between about 150 mm from the loading point and the end of CFS (see Photo 3(a)).1 148. respectively. Seven beam specimens were prepared (see Figure 16 and Table 5).The number of CFS layers of those specimens is identical to specimens SPC1. Black and white circles in Figure 17 indicate the load when the tension reinforcement starts to yield.0 101. tensile strength of 4120 MPa and thickness of 0.0 D SPC3s 33. Specimens SPCl. The specimens with CFS attached by ESAR are SPCIS.1 109. Specimens SPC~S.0 108. Figure 17 shows relationships between load and deformation of all specimens. Experimental Results of Specimens Strengthened by CFS with ESAR Concrete Ultimate Type of load failure strength FN) mode /MPa) 44. The ultimate load and failure mode are shown in Table 5.0 C 30. SPC2 and SPC3 respectively. Specimens SPC 1s containing ESAR failed due to breakage of CFS. The soft resin is a kind of epoxy resin with a Young’s modulus of 1 MPa and a tensile strength of 1.72 FRPRCS 6:Keynote Paper Table 5.0 D A: Crushing of concrete after yielding of rebar B: Breakage of CFS C: Delamination of CFS D: Concrete cover failure Specimen material with Young’s modulus of 236 GPa. Typical flexural failure that is crushing of concrete after yielding of tension reinforcement was observed in specimen SP0. 2 layers and 3 layers of CFS.3 SPCI SPCIS 30. S P .SPC3 and S P .
C ~ Swhere concrete cover failure along the longitudinal reinforcement happened. no difference in the ultimate load is observed in either specimen SPC3 or S P . members with ESAR show the remaining delamination strengths equal to or better than those without ESAR. .C ~ because S ESAR delays and halts the propagation of delamination. On the other hand. It can be considered that with higher amount of CFS the capacity of concrete cover failure becomes less than those of the breakage of CFS and delamination of CFS. After the application of fatigue loading. Failure Modes of Specimens Strengthened by CFS with Extremely Soft Adhesive Resin increases causing the tensile stress in the reinforcing bar to reach the yielding stress earlier. the ultimate load increases in specimens SPC 1s and S P . the load at yielding decreases to about 90% of that without ESAR. Another study was conducted to see the effectiveness of ESAR under the effects of fatigue loading12. Decrease in member stiffness during fatigue loading is less in members with ESAR. However.New Types of Continuous Fiber Reinforcements 73 (a) Failure mode C (Delamination of CFS) (b) Failure mode D (Cover concrete failure) Photo 3.
(e) Soft adhesive resins for externally bonded CFR improve the load transfer capacity at interface between CFR and concrete and the ductility in delamination. but increase the effective bond length. In order to estimate the ultimate deformation and shear strength. (c) CCFFR usually fractures at ultimate. . (d) A high fracturing strain of Polyacetal fiber does not only counteract its low stiffness in terms of enhancement of shear strength and ultimate deformation but also shows the possibility of greater enhancement for both in comparison with the typical continuous fiber reinforcement (CFR) such as carbon. LoadDeformation Curves of Specimens Strengthened with ESAR CONCLUSIONS (a) Continuous fiber flexible reinforcement (CFFR) can be an option to ease the difficulty in arrangement of congested reinforcement. while PCFFR does not. (b) Both Carbon and Polyacetal continuous fiber flexible reinforcements (CCFFR and PCFFR) show the efficiency to enhance both shear strength and ultimate deformation. the strain development in CFFR should be predicted. aramid and glass fiber reinforcement.74 FRPRCS 6: Keynote Paper Deformation (mm) Figure 17. (f) The extremely soft adhesive resin with the elastic modulus of 1 MPa shows the enhancement of delamination strength of tension CFR in beams under both static and fatigue loadings. For this purpose the methods were proposed.
S. 3. Sugiyama. Y. A. Y. Iihoshi. Sugiyama. Matsumoto. ACI Special Publication SP188. 1322. Tomita... American Concrete Institute. March 2003 (in Japanese). March 2003. Doctoral Dissertation Submitted to Hokkaido University. S. Fiber Reinforced Polymer Reinforcement for Concrete Structures. November 1999. R. “Deformational Characteristics of Reinforced Concrete Columns with Continuous Fiber Flexible Reinforcement”. 4... 2. Fourth International Symposium. Proceedings of the Eighth East AsiaPacific Conference on Structural Engineering & Construction (CDROM). Okubo. pp. Paper No... pp. December 200 1. Dr Roshan TULADHAR and Dr DAI Jianguo of Hokkaido University for conducting the valuable research briefly introduced in this paper. A. C. 195207. R... R..... Doctoral Dissertation Submitted to Hokkaido University. November 1999. Sato. T. T. and Abe. “Strengthening Effect of Reinforced Concrete Elements with Polyacetal Fiber Sheets”. November 1999. Fourth International Symposium. Kobayashi. Tuladhar. S. Fourth International Symposium on Fiber Reinforced Polymer Reinforcement for Reinforced Concrete Structures. A.. 6. S. Fiber Reinforced Polymer Reinforcement for Concrete Structures.New Types of Continuous Fiber Reinforcements 75 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The author would like to express his gratitude to Dr SAT0 Yasuhiko. ACI Special Publication SP1882. Ueda. and Kobayashi. “Study on Shear Strengthening of Beams Using Continuous Fiber Flexible Reinforcement”.659669. Y. Many of the figures and tables are taken from the dissertation submitted by Dr TULADHAR. REFERENCES 1. Continuous Fiber Flexible Shear Reinforcement for Concrete Piers. H. Analysis of Concrete Member Behavior by ThreeDimensional Nonlinear Finite Element Method. Tuladhar. Kouzaki. ACI Special Publication SP188. 2 . pp. “Development of Continuous Fiber Flexible Reinforcement”. 5. T.. and Kobayashi. Y ... 1298.. Takahashi.. S. T. American Concrete Institute. Ueda. Fukuyama. Tomita. Sato. Y. and Kakuta. Sato.
J. pp. Kabeyasawa. Proceedings of JCI. March 2003 (in Japanese). Ueda... . and Tsubouchi.. Proceedings of the International Conference on FRP Composites in Civil engineering. 11. Structural Engineering International. “A New Method of Strengthening Reinforced Concrete Columns against Axial Load Collapse during Major Earthquake”. and Ueda. Ito. FRP Composites in Civil Engineering. 9..10411050. Paper No. May 2002. Japan Concrete Institute. Y . Proceedings of the Eighth East AsiaPacific Conference on Structural Engineering and Construction (CDROM). T. 1459. pp. K. V01. Y. Ueda. 1 1 1. December 2001. Tasai. December 200 1. pp. Master Thesis submitted to Hokkaido University. Dai.24. 12. Proceedings of 71h Japan International SAMPE Symposium & Exhibition. T.. “Strengthening Behavior of Carbon Fiber Sheet Using Flexible Layer”. Sato.2. Vo1.. No. “Improving the Load Transfer and Effective Bond Length for FRP Composite Bonded to Concrete”. 1316 November 2001.2. 12.. pp. “Bond Behavior and Seismic Retrofitting Effect of Polyacetal Fiber Sheet”. 10. A Study on Fracture Characteristics of RC Member Reinforced by Carbon Fiber Sheet with Soft Layer. International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering (JABSE)..2. T. T. Sohda.. “New Approach for Usage of Continuous Fiber as NonMetallic Reinforcement of Concrete”. S. 8. T. and Igarashi.76 FRPRCS 6:Keynote Paper 7. A.395398. Maeda. T. €I.. Y. Vol. June 2002. No. Komaki. 14231428. and Sato.1 16.
FRP Materials and Properties .
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F. Properties. Midland. 810 July 2003 Edited by Kiang Hwee Tan @World Scientific Publishing Company PERFORMANCE OF THERMOPLASTIC FIBER REINFORCED POLYMER REBARS A. Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) rods and rebars have introduced a viable alternative to steel reinforcement for concrete members. Singapore. Inc. Thermoplastics are in general tougher.A. Skokie. In this endeavor. C. Thermoset resins cannot be bent after the product is cured.* The behavior of concrete members using FRP rods . A series of bondcreep tests were completed.. INTRODUCTION Owing to their high strength and excellent resistance to corrosion. To this end. achieving an acceptable bond between concrete and FRP rods was critical. and more ductile than thermosets.B. VANDERPOOL The Dow Chemical Company. R. MEHRABI.'. An experimental program was carried out to investigate the mechanical properties of the thermoplastic composite rods and to optimize the product for use as a replacement of steel in reinforced concrete applications. A new technology has been introduced for production of FRP utilizing a thermoplastic polymer matrix. and surface treatment parameters to optimize the surface and crosssectional shapes. geometrical. USA D. MI 48674. bends must be made during initial production. Several series of tests were conducted using various mechanical. Development of the optimum rebar product is completed. An advantage of thermoplastic polymer resins is their ability to be formed after initial manufacturing of a straight profile similar to traditional steel rebar. FULCRUM Thermoplastic Composite Technology 2040 Dow Center.. advantages and limitations of FRP rods have been studied by several investigators. a new test procedure was developed to address concerns about longterm bond performance of the rods with new material. more impact resistant. including the use of FRP rods as reinforcement for concrete. USA Extensive efforts are being directed to application and development of FRP products in civil engineering structures. ELREMAILY Construction Technology Laboratories. the test program consisted of tensile strength and modulus of elasticity tests and bond to concrete tests. IL 60077. LIGOZIO AND A. In addition.FRPRCS6. 5400 Old Orchard Rd. applications.
800 MPa].000 to 44. ~These investigations have resulted in the recent publication of ACI 440. more impact resistant. this technology promises to produce pultruded composites with exceptional performance. An experimental program is being carried out to investigate the mechanical properties of the thermoplastic composite rods. In this endeavor. using a new technology.5 Among all characteristics of FRP rods as reinforcement bars. demonstrating mechanical properties comparable to highperformance thermoset composites. the bond performance with concrete is perhaps the most in~estigated. Bond strength was obtained through pullout testing. Several series of tests were conducted using various mechanical. Thermoset resins cannot be bent after the product is cured. To this end. The goal of the study is to optimize the product for use as a replacement of steel in reinforced concrete applications. using several specimens with different bond lengths. The tensile ultimate strain ranged from 2 to 2.' Preliminary tensile testing indicated a tensile strength ranging from 120 to 140 ksi [830 to 965 MPa] and a modulus of elasticity ranging from 5500 to 6500 ksi [38. ~ .80 FRPRCS 6: FRP Materials and Properties have also been investigated by many and design relationships have been proposed for formulation of their structural b e h a ~ i o r . An advantage of thermoplastic polymer resins is their ability to be formed after initial manufacturing of a straight profile similar to traditional steel rebar. This new technology promises overcoming the traditional manufacturing problems for continuous fiber thermoplastic matrix composites. the test program consisted of tensile strength and modulus of elasticity tests and bond to concrete tests using procedures similar to those utilized in previous FRP research. Thermoplastics are in general tougher.'.1R01 . This has limited the use of FRP rods for some applications and has been seen as a major disadvantage when comparing with steel reinforcing bars. Using unique resin technology in combination with special fabrication techniques. thermoplastic polymer has been used as resin for glass fiber reinforced composite rods.~. and bends must be made during initial production. and more ductile than thermosets. achieving an acceptable bond between concrete and FRP rods is critical. At the end of each test series. and surface treatment parameters to optimize the surface and crosssectional shapes. For bond . depending upon bar configuration and design. In one of the most recent efforts.' Extensive efforts are being directed to application and development regarding the use of FRP products in civil engineering structures.' Fiber loadings as high as 70 percent by volume have been achieved.2 percent. representative samples were dissected to observe the failure mode. geometrical.
1. The bars were aligned and centered inside the pipes using a special jig.7 mm] nominal diameter FRF' rods. A series of bondcreep tests were completed and showed no significant time dependent creep for the thermoplastic GFRP rods. a steel pipe was used at each end to anchor the specimen. and the second series included rods with surface deformation similar to deformed steel bars using various surface materials. A picture of one of the test specimens is shown in Fig. The brittle failure of specimens was initiated by longitudinal splitting of the rod and partial rupture along the free length. The first series included rods with twisted star shape cross section of various pitches. A new test procedure was specifically developed to address concerns about longterm bond performance of the rods with new material. The latter represents the rods optimized for their bond performance in concrete. results varied with different surface treatment and different surface deformation. . on concrete structural members to demonstrate the actual performance of the thermoplastic GFRP rods as reinforcing bars and to verify the applicability of existing design formulation for GFRP.2 MPa]. The calculation of the tensile strength. bending and shear testing. Table 1 summarizes the test results as an average of three tests.g.5 However. The bond strength to concrete for the specimens with surface deformation of various material types ranged between 1100 to 2500 psi [8.3 to 15. Development of the optimum rebar product is now completed. The space between the steel pipe and the rod was filled with expansive cement. and ultimate strength as well as the test procedure followed the recommended provisions of ACI committee 440. e. The behavior of the specimens in tension was linear all the way to near rupture. In the tests reported herein.Pe$ormance of Thermoplastic FRP Rebars 81 testing.. TENSILE TESTS Two series of tensile tests were conducted using onehalfinch [ 12. Recommended future work includes a series of structural testing. the free length requirement could not be complied with. An essential requirement for conducting tensile test is a suitable anchorage system to grip the specimen without causing slippage or premature local failure during the test. modulus of elasticity. due to short length of specimens provided.
010] 0. E WPaJ Ultimate Strain. To reduce the turn around time for testing. The bond pullout tests were performed using only vertically cast single block specimen^. To obtain the desired bond lengths. & MPaI Modulus.670] 0.0206 RibFormed White 136. For comparison. The concrete used for casting the cubes had a cylindrical compressive strength between 4 and 5 ksi [28 and 35 MPa]. Tensile test results Tensile Strength. geometrical.1 [876] 6384 [44. with a minimum ultimate strength of 11. and surface treatment parameters to optimize the surface and crosssectional shapes.3 [892] 5851 [40.8 [929] 6538 [45. The slip of the rod was measured at the free end using an electronic displacement transducer.8 kips [52. [64 and 102 mm] bond lengths. Depending on the type of surface treatment and deformation shape and bond length.3 [878] 6335 [43.070] 0.5 kN].0210 Specimen mi) mi) Ell BOND TESTS Several series of tests were conducted on onehalfinch [13 mm] nominal diameter FRP rods with various mechanical. A standard 22kip testing machine was used to carry out the pullout tests under displacement control. debonding sleeves were used at the exit points of the rods from the concrete block. 5 times and 8 times the nominal diameter of the rods resulting in 2.0201 Star 2 PitcWm 129.340] 0. Figure 2 shows a variety of specimens tested for their bond performance.7 [894] 6067 [41. a concrete mix was designed to reach the desired strength within one week from casting.^ Two different bond lengths were used.0214 Star 3 PitcWm 125. the failure .900] 0.5 and 4 in.0214 RibFormed Brown 127. Star I PitcWm 127.830] 0.7 [942] 65 13 [44.82 FRPRCS 6: FRP Materials and Properties Figure 1 An FRF' tension test specimen Table 1.0200 RibFormed Black 134. tests were also conducted using standard grade 60 #4 [#13] steel reinforcing bars conforming to ASTM A6151°.
Bond test results for 2. [64 mm] bond length Material Cross Section Surface Bond Strength (psi) PPaI FRP Round Smooth 172 [1.9503 FRP Round RibFormed 2058' [14.820] FRP ~~~ ~ Steel Round Standard Deformation 2326' r16.4401 FRP Round RibFormed.7801 FRP Round RibFormedBrown 2530 ri7. Figure 3 shows a typical loadslip curve from bond test.Pei$ormance of ThermoplasticFRP Rebars 83 was governed by shearing and wearing of rod surface deformation andfor the confined concrete between ribs (shorter bond length).556] Round RibFormed 2603 [I 7.5 in.White 1096 [7. At the end of each test series. F W rod samples length of 2. Specimens were conditioned for 24 hours at 140 . representative samples were dissected to observe the failure mode.440] FRP Square Epoxy Sanded 2080 [14.475] FRP Star Smooth 221 11.340] FRP Round RibFormedBlack 1709 [ 1 1.5241 FRP Round Epoxy Sanded 1950 [13. Table 2 summarizes some of the test results for bond Figure 2. 1 . [64 mm] as an average of three tests.5in. Table 2. and by splitting of concrete (for some of specimens with longer bond length).040i 5°F [60 t 3 C] prior to test.190] Steel Round Standard Deformation 3020 [20.186] FRP Square Smooth 214 [1.
) [mm] 4 [lo21 4 [ 1021 4 [I021 Test Temp (OF) [C] 70 f 5 [21 f 31 140 f 5 [60 f 31 140 k 5 [60 k 31 Test Load Dead + 20% Live Dead + 20% Live Dead + Live . using debonding sleeves to achieve the desired bond length.84 FRPRCS 6: FRP Muterials and Properties 500.10 0. Test Specimens The test specimen was designed to obtain data relevant to incremental bond creep over a discrete and short length of reinforcing rod.) Figure 3 .0 f 0.00 0. Table 3 .15 0. FRP rods were embedded in 6in. Implementing this procedure for the case of the new FRP rods will provide baseline data that can be used to develop structural models. A total of 3 sets of three specimens were prepared for the test program according to the details shown in Table 3 .20 Slip (in. to quantify bondcreep properties. Typical loadslip curve obtained from bond test BONDCREEP TEST PROCEDURE To investigate the bond creep characteristics of reinforced polymer rebars (FRP rods) in concrete at ambient and elevated temperature and to evaluate the bond performance of the rods relative to standard deformed steel reinforcement. [ 150mml concrete cubes. a new test procedure was developed. and to establish design criteria.05 0. Test matrix Specimen Set 1 2 3 Bond Length (in.0 0.
f f u .36 kips [ 15 kN] under sustained loading. Assuming a dead to live load ratio of 2: I will result in a rod load of 4. Measurements were made less frequently over the final 40 days of the test period. &. A typical creep test setup is shown in Figure 4.2L).Pegormance of Thermoplastic FRP Rebars 85 The concrete used to fabricate the test specimens was designed with a 28day compressive strength between 4000 and 5000 psi [28 and 35 MPa]. Specimens were preconditioned prior to loading for a minimum of 48 hours. is assumed to be 120 ksi [827 MPa]. The FRP rods protruded approximately 1 in. [25 mm] from the bottom of the block to allow slip measurements to be made at free end of the specimens. elastic springs were considered adequate to maintain load over the duration of the creep test. Because the creep displacements were known to be small. or until the internal temperature readings in the specimens stabilized for a minimum of 24 hours.4 kN] at dead plus full live load. The concrete cubes for testing at elevated temperature contained thermocouples to measure the internal temperature of the block. Test Procedure Bond strength tests conducted and presented earlier were used to establish the baseline bond strength of the FRP rods at ambient and elevated temperatures. Elevated temperature tests were conducted in a hot room. assumed to be dead plus 20% of live load (D + 0. . Using a factor of 0. Displacements were measured at the back of the block using a digital depth gage.2 for sustained loading and creep consideration’ results in an allowable stress of 16.8 ksi [ I 16 MPa] and a total load in the rod of 3. The full test load was applied and locked into the specimen using spacer shims and the load spring. Applying a design factor of 0. Determination of Creep Test Loads The guaranteed tensile strength of the FRP rod. of 84 ksi [580 MPa].7 for environmental considerations’ gives a design tensile strength. Creep displacements were measured at least every hour for the first six hours of testing and then approximately daily for the first 20 days. The initial elastic displacement was measured at the back of the specimen within 3 minutes of load application. Load was applied using a small calibrated hydraulic ram.58 kips [20.
86 FRPRCS 6: FRP Materials and Properties fRP Rod / Steel Bor Chuck and Wedges H)vraufic Ram Prestressihg Cboik Bar / R o d Anchor (P#e with expansive grout for fRF rod Mech. coupler for Steel Bod Shim Plate(s) Load Spring 6 x 6 Concrete Specimen Block Measurement frame Figure 4.5 in.g. [lo0 mm] (approximately 114 of the total development length) will carry a bond force larger than that calculated proportional to length. The basic development length can be estimated as? d b f f i .1/ 2 x 84.. including both initial elastic displacement and creep displacement.68 kips [7. The bond stresses are not evenly distributed over the development length. one half the load rather than one quarter. resulting in the highest bond stress and most conservative test load.000 1 = 15.2 kN] at D + L.47 kN] at D + 20% L and 2.29 kips [10. modification factors for development length will not be considered. This approach has been utilized for . e.2700 2700 To obtain the shortest possible development length. Test Results The average total displacement at the end of the test. [394 mm] (1) bf . This results in test loads of 1.Schematic of test specimen The total load in the rod is carried over the entire development length of the rod. for both ambient and elevated temperature tests was compared to the average displacement observed in the corresponding ultimate strength test. so it is reasonable to assume that the first four in.
The data show relatively large fluctuations within this range.”* A test procedure was also developed to investigate the bondcreep performance of the FRP rods under ambient and elevated temperature. (Editors) “Fiber Reinforced Plastic Reinforcement for Concrete Structures”. 2. These tests indicated that creep for these specified rods under described test conditions were negligible. “FRP reinforcement for concrete structures. CONCLUSION An experimental investigation was carried out to help the development of FRP rods using thermoplastic polymer matrix and to determine the mechanical properties of the new product. ACI Special Publication.005 [+0. Erki.” ACI Compilation 28. including adhesive anchors. FULCRUM Composite Technology.A. S. The measured changes in movement at the free end of the FRP rods were very small. A. SP138. and Dolan. and Rizkala.Performance of Thermoplastic FRP Rebars 87 bond creep performance evaluation for similar applications. As such. C. 1993.. American Concrete Institute. indicating that measurement tolerances account for a significant portion of the measured movements. Nanni. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The investigation presented here was supported by the Dow Chemical Company. The results have indicated that the tensile and bond strength of the new FRP rods are comparable to those of high performance FRP rods using thermoset polymer matrix. M. REFERENCES: 1. Synthetic and Other NonMetallic .1 mm]. A series of tests were conducted using this procedure on thermoplastic GFRP rods. The future work includes structural testing of concrete elements reinforced using the new FRP rods.H. The tests consisted of tensile strength and bond strength testing in concrete. the total displacement due to initial elastic displacement and creep displacement measured under both ambient and elevated temperature is negligible when compared with the average displacements observed in the ultimate bond tests. typically within the range of 20..
1996... NY. Theriault. Masmoudi. H. 92(4).E. Institute for Research in Construction. C.. S. Bakis.. Freimanis. 391400. Saadatmanesh. 8. and Nanni.” SPE ANTEC 1999.J. 6. Sherbrooke. MI. Farmington Hills.88 FRPRCS 6: FRP Materials and Properties Fiber Reinforcement of Concrete. “Fourth International Symposium on Fiber Reinforced Polymer Reinforcement for Reinforced Concrete Structures”. “Effect of Resin Material on Bond and Tensile Properties of Unconditioned and Conditioned FRP Reinforcement Rods” Durability of Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites for Construction. “Standard Specifications for Deformed and Plain BilletSteel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement”. 200 1.. Rahman. 1998. C. “Thermoplastic pultrusion based on ISOPLAST engineering thermoplastic polyurethanes. Rizkalla.. American Concrete Institute. PA. A. 263 1. 9.L. and Tao. d’Hoodge. Gremel. E. 4. A.. B... R. ASTM International. pp. Dolan. M. 525535. 1999. A. 3. CDCC. pp.. 1998.. Nanni. Ehsani. American Concrete Institute. Universite de Sherbrooke.H. M. 1994. pp. pp. C. D. Benmokrane. “Bond of Hooked Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) Reinforcing Bars in Concrete... Farmington Hills. “Flexural Behavior of Concrete Beams Reinforced with Deformed Fiber Reinforced Plastic Reinforcing Rods”. StateoftheArt Report on Fiber Reinforced Plastic Reinforcement for Concrete Structure”.W. 665676.. 5. ACI Structural Journal. New York. American Concrete Institute. Guide for the Design and Construction of Concrete Reinforced with FRP Bars. B. Eds. and Edwards. 10. H..M. ACI Special Publication SP188. .. ACI Committee 440.. Ottawa.R. ACI Committee 440. 7. 2002.. West Conshohocken. and Benmokrane. ASTM A6 15/A615M01b.1.” ACI Materials Journal. 1995. American Concrete Institute. S. 95(6). MI.
810 July 2003 Edited by Kiang Hwee Tan OWorld Scientific Publishing Company EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON POISSON’S RATIO FOR FFW TENDONS M. and with the axial change in length. TANAKA AND M. Japan T. the gradual changes of water level inside the tube gives the equivalent volume of the slandering of the FRP. so the application in prestressed concrete structures becomes significant. India This experimental research investigates the Poisson’s ratio of the Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP). The conventional method of using microstrain gauges to determine the Poisson’s ratio cannot be applied to the FRP tendons. Bunkyou Ku. A theoretical approach on transfer length made for steel tendons is . the bonding between the tendons and concrete is a key requirement for transferring bond. filled with colored water and using the universal testing machine (UTM). compared to the ordinary reinforced concrete applications. many fundamental research projects have been conducted on the application of Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) in the field of construction.FRPRCS6. Therefore. National Institute of Technology Srinivasnagar 574157. Karnataka State. parameters that are not clearly defined are friction factor and Poisson’s ratio. In order to use the material with reliability and safety. HARADA Department of Structural Engineering. Singapore. Nagasaki University 114. FRP tendons are still quite expensive. Unlike the steel for construction. At present. In pretensioned type prestressed concrete structures. To determine the transfer bond for the FRP. The FRP used for this experiment are Aramid and Carbon fiber types. the authors carried out the experiments by tension test of FRP tendon placed inside the acrylic tube. the Poisson’s ratio is determined respectively. Nagasaki. for the past twenty years. some basic characteristics of FRP tendons must be clarified. INTRODUCTION In Japan. VENKATARAMANA Civil Engineering Department. Japan K. KHIN Department of Civil Engineering. Kokubu City. Under the cyclic tension test. Daiichi Institute of Technology 1102 Chuo. the FRPs have various surface texture and patterns.
Poisson’s ratio of FRP tendons and the friction factor between FRP and the ambient concrete are still not clearly established. FRPs have various surface texture and patterns. The experimental results are reported and complemented with the previous results. Experimental studies on the friction coefficient of FRP tendons in concrete have started a few years ago and reported previously. the authors carried out the experiments by tension test of FRP inside the acrylic tube filled with colored water. the gradual changes of water levels inside the tube for the corresponding pullout loads give the equivalent volume of the slandering of the FRP. PREVIOUS RELATED RESEARCH In the past. the analytical approach for transfer length of FRP tendons was made using the relationship for the prestressing steel tendon. and with the axial change in length. The conventional method of fixing microstrain gauges on the surface of the steel tendon to measure the Poisson’s ratio cannot be applied directly to the FRP tendons. Also in the analytical approach. This present paper will focus on the Poisson’s ratio of FRP. Unlike the steel for construction.90 FRPRCS 6: FRP Materials and Properties used in lieu of the one for FRP’22. the transfer lengths of FRP tendons are determined using the established existing relationships for the prestressing steel tendons. Therefore. Under the cyclic tension test. the Poisson’s ratio is determined respectively. Watanabe’s equation’ for initial transfer length of steel tendon in pretension type prestressed concrete is as follows: . on the universal testing machine (UTM).Among the factors affecting the transfer length of FRP.
The tensile strength and the modulus of elasticity are also determined in the laboratory. = Poisson’s ratio of concrete.08 to 0. (1) was used to calculate the initial transfer length ho using six sets of Poisson’s ratio and friction factor. the Poisson’s ratio ranged between 0.= friction coefficient. ‘. v.06 to 0. The fiber contents are taken from the makers’ data. the Poisson’s ratio of between 0. When Eq. For aramid tendons. = Poisson’s ratio of steel. OUTLINE OF EXPERIMENTS Materials Table 1 shows some of the physical properties of the FRP tendons used for this experiment. it was found that to agree with the experiment data’ well. T~ = initial concrete.6. The approximate values for aramid FRP was found to be higher than 0.23 for aramid FRP. and n = modular ratio. .27 for aramid and 0. oSe=initial tensile stress of tendon.32 for carbon FRP and 0. p.Poisson’s Ratio for FRP Tendons 91 where ho= initial transfer length.32 and 0. v.62 have been reported by Gerritse and Schurhoff Mikami’ made an experimental study for Poisson’s ratio of aramid FRP by fixing the 1mm straight microstrain gauges on the axial and tangential directions on the FRP surface. The Poisson’s ratio ranged from 0.1 to 0. Aramid and carbon FRP tendons with an epoxy resin matrix are used.6 studied the Poisson’s ratio of FRP tendons in the long slender concrete specimen at prestressing and measured the strains from the surface of the concrete. rl= radius of steel tendon.5 to 0. Sano et a1. The method of using strain gauges is likely to be localized and the average value of Poisson’s ratio may differ for the overall tendon. Using the thick wall cylinder theory. r2 = radius of dr: . = r? bond stresq. The surface texture of aramid is crosswound and the carbon is stranded. The diameters for the FRP tendons are determined from volumetric measurement using cylinder filled with water and then diameters are calculated from the predetermined length of FRP samples.r? ).23 for carbon FRP.
Types of FRF' tendon SYm Bol Dia'($ Fiber (mm) Type Matrix Fiber Matl. str (kW 152 (GPa) 60 CrossWound 129 Strand .70 Epoxy 65 AraInid ________________________ CFRP 7.92 FRPRCS 6: FRP Materials and Properties Table 1. the FRP tendon is placed at the center of a steel sleeve and held vertically with a bracket against the wall._________ Carbon Epoxy 64 208 Surface Texture Test Specimens As shown in Fig. These HEM anchors can also be used for tensile test of FRP tendons. The microstrain gauges fixed on the surface of the steel sleeve are used to monitor the pressure development inside the sleeve. (%) AFR P 9. hence forming the HEM anchorage system. The application of this kind of anchor system is to protect the tendon from the grip of the jawchuck of the UTM. 1. The lower parts of the steel sleeves are sealed with silicon.. Unlike steel. .. The highly expansive material (HEM) slurry is poured into the small opening between the FRP tendon and the steel sleeve. When the expansive pressure took place the FRP tendon is firmly gripped inside the steel sleeve.52 ~ Ten. the FRPs are strong in the axial direction only.
. A transparent acrylic tube having a diameter larger than the FRP tendon is used and the bottom of the tube is sealed with silicon. Colored water is introduced and small markings are made near the surface level.2 shows the test assembly.Poisson I s Ratio for FRP Tendons 93 Steel sleeve Fig. 1 Specimen preparation Fig.2 Specimen assembly Fig.
Dial gauges as well as digital slide caliper having precision of hundredth of a millimeter are used to measure the displacement and change in water levels. 4 (a) and (b). the specimen is placed on the UTM and cyclic pullout test are carried out. 3.3 Assemblage for pullout test Test Procedure As shown in Fig. The relationship between load and extension for aramid and carbon FW tendons during the tension tests are shown in Figs. .94 FRPRCS 6: FRP Materials and Properties Fig.
4 Load vs. the loadextension relationships were found to be linear.5 58 Length of specimen (cm) (a) Aramid FRP 20 10 0 42 42./. ten sets of loading cycles for every step of load and the respective readings from gauges are recorded simultaneously. .5 43 Length of specimen (cm) (b) Carbon F W Fig. Poisson’s Ratio for FRP Tendons 95 . length of specimen The linear relationship for loadextension is taken to determine the average Poisson’s ratios. RESULTS AND CONCLUDING REMARKS Small metal frames are attached to the FRP portions to monitor and the actual elongation of the FRP only. The pullout loads ranged from 5kN to 45kN with 5kN intervals. Throughout the experiments.oad (kN) iI Aramid FR 20 10  0 ]( I Load (kN) 58. For each specimen. The maximum load is taken as the 60% of the ultimate tensile capacity of the FRP tendon.
of FRP before tension L.96 FRPRCS 6: FRP Materials and Properties Before tension Under tension Fig. of FRP under tension L2 : water level under tension d. of acrylics tube . 5 Outline of FRP tendon before and under tension Qdia. :water level before tension h: water level difference P: tensioning load AL : elongation of FRP at tensioning L : length of FRP before tensioning cD2:dia.: inner dia.
(4) @ 2 = / . ranging from 0.38 0.^.L.Lz)d. Prior to this investigation. The results obtained from these past experiments showed higher Poisson’s ratios. .^. can be expressed as: &. due to the HEM protruding from the steel . can be expressed as: & y AL = L Therefore the Poisson’s ratio v of FRP can be expressed as: Specimen AFRP CFRP Poisson’s ratio 0.7 to 0. = @I .2 .9. which gives the diameter of the FRP under tension 02as: (L. the one without steel sleeve anchors and the other one without the additional frame for dial gauges at the FRP tendons. before and under tension. the authors have carried out two preliminary experiments on FRP tendons. This reason is considered to be the larger elongation at higher load levels. A simple relation can be obtained from the volumetric equivalency of the water before and during the tensioning. * @..Poisson’s Ratiofor FRP Tendons 97 Figure 5 shows the enlarged portion of the water level difference and the state of FRP tendon.@ z @I The longitudinal strain E. The values are in agreement with those obtained by other^^.45 Table 2 shows the average values of Poisson’s ratio obtained from this experiment.y  The radial strain E.
Sano. Watanabe: Studies in Transmission Length of Pretensioned Prestressed Concrete.526N29 1995 3. 1986 5.. REFERENCES 1. Ltd. 1965. Oct.. Special Report of Technical Research Institute of Mitsui Construction Co. Third International Symposium on NonMetallic (FRP) Reinforcements for Concrete Structures. more refined data can be expected if the UTM have a larger clearance to accommodate a longer specimen. Proceedings of JCI. Gerritse. Susumu Matsumoto and Takashi Idemitsu: Experimental Study on Friction Factor for FRP Tendons in Pretensioned Prestressed Concrete Members. Kyushu University. S. No. Takashi Idemitsu. The UTM used for this study have a chuck clearance of only 120cm. Mikami: Study on Application of Braided FRP Rods for Reinforcement of Concrete Members. When the jawchuck was directly applied to the FRP.3. Schurhoff Prestressing with Aramid Tendons. Sapporo. Myo Khin. 1992 6 . Naaman of Michigan University who kindly suggested this idea of pulling the FRP tendon in a fluid to determine the Poisson's ratio. .98 FRPRCS 6: FRP Materials and Propeaies tube. Myo Khin. 2. New Delhi. 10' FIP Congress. Kohji Takewaka. Japan. June 1994.E. Memoirs of Faculty of Engineering. Takashi Idemitsu. Takehiro Yamasaki and Myo Khin: A Study on End Anchorage of CFRP Reinforcements on Pretensioned PC Thin Slabs. 4. Therefore. the end portions were crushed.J.. Kohji Takewaka and Susumu Matsumoto: Fundamental Study on Bond Behavior of Various FRP Rods in Pretensioned PC Members. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors would like to thank Professor A. No. and H. H. JSCE Journal. 1997. causing further elongations in the axial direction.
FRPRCS6, Singapore, 810 July 2003
Edited by Gang Hwee Tan
@WorldScientific Publishing Company
STRESSSTRAIN MODEL FOR FRPCONFINED CONCRETE
FOR DESIGN APPLICATIONS
L. LAM AND J.G. TENG
Department of Civil and Structural Engineering,
The Hong Kong Polytechnic Universiq, Hong Kong, P.R. China
Existing stressstrain models for FRPconfined concrete can be divided into
two categories: designoriented and analysisoriented models. While a
number of designoriented models are available, they suffer from various
deficiencies. A new stressstrain model is proposed in this paper for
concrete confined by wrapped FRP with fibres only or predominantly in the
hoop direction. This model is simple and therefore suitable for direct
applications in design. A comparison with test data also shows that the
proposed model is accurate.
INTRODUCTION
Fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composites have found increasingly wide
applications in civil engineering due to their high strengthtoweight ratio
and high corrosion resistance. One important application of FRPcomposites
is as a confining material for concrete in the retrofit of existing reinforced
concrete (RC) columns by the provision of an FRF' jacket. In such
applications, the fibres are present only or predominantly in the hoop
direction.
Many investigations have been conducted into the behaviour of FRPconfined concrete and as a result, a number of stressstrain models have
been proposed. These models can be classified into two categories: (a)
designoriented models 17, and (b) analysisoriented models*". In the first
category, the compressive strength, ultimate axial strain (hereafter, referred
to as ultimate strain for brevity) and stressstrain behaviour of FRPconfined
concrete are predicted using closedform equations based directly on the
interpretation of experimental results. In the second category, stressstrain
curves of FWconfined concrete are generated using an incremental
numerical procedure. In this second approach, an active confinement model
for concrete is used to evaluate the axial stress and strain of passively
confined concrete at a given confining pressure and the interaction between
the concrete and the confining material is explicitly accounted for by
100 FRPRCS 6: FRP Materials and Properties
equilibrium and radial displacement compatibility considerations. In the
three studies cited above, the model of Mander et al. was used as the
active confinement model.
Although analysisoriented models have advantages in accounting for
the interaction between concrete and confining materials including both
steel and FRP composites, the complexity of the incremental process
prevents analysisoriented models from direct use in design. They are,
however, suitable for incorporation in computerbased numerical analysis
such as nonlinear finite element analysis. Compared to analysisoriented
models, designoriented models are particularly suitable for direct
application in design calculations. A simple and accurate designoriented
stressstrain model offers an approach that is familiar to engineers for
determining the strength and ductility of FRPconfined RC structural
members.
While a number of designoriented models are available, they suffer
from various deficiencies as discussed in the next section. This paper
presents a new designoriented model for concrete confined by wrapped
FRP with the reinforcing fibres being only or predominantly in the hoop
direction, in which these deficiencies are overcome.
DEFICIENCIES OF EXISTING DSIGNORIENTED MODELS
FRPconfined concrete has been extensively studied in recent years. The
experimental behaviour of concrete confined by wrapped FRP has been
discussed in detail elsewhere12 using a test database assembled from the
published literature. Based on the experimental observations and given that
a stressstrain model for design applications should be simple and accurate,
the deficiencies of existing designoriented models are summarised below.
Shape of StressStrain Curve
It has been well established that FRPconfined concrete exhibits a
monotonically ascending curve which is nearly bilinear in shape, if the
amount of FRP exceeds a certain threshold value. Existing designoriented
stressstrain models for FRPconfined concrete have adopted different
approximations to such typical bilinear stressstrain curves. In the models of
Karbhari and Gaol and Xiao and Wu2, the two portions of a bilinear curve
are approximated using two straight lines. This approach is simple but not
realistic. Samaan et aL3 proposed a model for FRPconfined concrete in
which the nearly linear second portion of the stressstrain curve is
StressStrainModel for FRP Confined Concrete 101
characterized by its slope E2 and its intercept with the stress axis. Another
salient feature of this model is that the stressstrain curve is represented by a
single equation, with the transition from the first portion to the second
portion being controlled by a shape parameter n. The use of a single
equation, however, necessarily leads to an equation of a more complex form.
Toutanji4 and Saafi et aZ.5 proposed an alternative form for the stressstrain
curve, in which the two portions of a bilinear curve are approximated using
two separate equations, with both equations producing a curved shape. A
smooth transition between the two portions is also provided. Based on the
same general equations, two models were proposed by them separately for
FRPwrapped concrete and concretefilled FRP tubes by calibrating the
model parameters with corresponding test data. The models of Samaan et
al.3,Toutanji4 and Saafi et al.’ can predict the shape of a bilinear stressstrain curve reasonably closely, provided their predictions of the
compressive strength and ultimate strain are accurate. However, the relative
complexity of these three models in form means inconvenience or difficulty
in section analysis for the determination of section capacity or ductility,
where integration of the stress over the section is required.
Miyauchi et aL6used Hognestad’s l 3 parabola followed by a straight line
to describe both the increasing and decreasing types of stressstrain curves
of FRPconfined concrete. A stressstrain curve with a decreasing postpeak
branch is exhibited only by concrete with rather weak FRP confinement.
This parabola, given by the following equation, is commonly adopted in
codes of practice such as BS 8110 l4 and Eurocode 215 to describe the
ascending part of the stressstrain curve of unconfined concrete for design
use:
L
where oc and sC are the axial stress and strain respectively, f;, is the
compressive strength of unconfined concrete and E,, is the axial strain at
fLo
. However, the direct use of Hognestad’s parabola as adopted in
Miyauchi et d ’ s model6 cannot reflect the process of gradual development
of confinement. In fact, the FRP confinement is activated once microcracks
in concrete are initiated under loading. Lillistone and Jolly’ attempted to
account for this effect in their stressstrain model for concretefilled FRP
tubes in which the first portion of the stressstrain curve is described using
Hognestad’s p a r a b ~ l a plus
’ ~ an additional term related to the hoop stiffness
102 FRPRCS 6: FRP Materials and Properties
of the FRP tube, while the second portion is a straight line. This additional
term used to account for the effect of confinement (not the contribution of
the longitudinal stiffness) is equal to l.282E,tsc / R , with Er, and t being
the elastic modulus and thickness of the confining FRP jacket and R the
radius of the concrete core. This means that the initial slope of the predicted
stressstrain curve can be significantly greater than that of unconfined
concrete, which is obviously not supported by test results.
Definition of Ultimate Condition
Central to any stressstrain model for FRPconfined concrete is the
determination of the ultimate condition of FRPconfined concrete which is
reached when the FRP ruptures. This ultimate condition is characterized by
two parameters: the ultimate axial strain and the corresponding stress level
which is generally but not always the compressive strength of FRPconfined
concrete. There are three major deficiencies in existing designoriented
stressstrain models in predicting the ultimate condition of FRPconfined
concrete.
Firstly, it is commonly assumed that rupture of FRP occurs when the
hoop strain in the FRP jacket reaches the ultimate tensile strain determined
from material tests, with the only exception being Xiao and Wu’s model2 for
which the hoop rupture strain was assumed to be 50% of the FRP material
ultimate tensile strain based on their own test observations. This assumption
is however not valid, and leads to difficulty in producing a unified stressstrain model for FRPconfined concrete as the ratio of hoop rupture strain to
FRP material tensile strain varies with the type of FRP’*.
Secondly, the effect of the stiffness of the FRP jacket on the ultimate
condition has not been well established and explicitly accounted for,
although it is implied to some degree in the ultimate strain equations of
Samman et d 3 Toutanji4
,
and Saafi et al.’ The stiffness of the FRP jacket in
fact has an important effect on the stressstrain response of FRPconfined
concrete, particularly the ultimate axial strain as shown later in the paper.
Thirdly, as a result of the above two deficiencies and due to the use of a
limited database, there is room for improvement to the accuracy of the
predictive equations for the compressive strength and ultimate strain of
FRPconfined concrete in existing designoriented models through the use
of a larger test database.
StressStrainModel for FRP Confined Concrete 103
ASSUMPTIONS AND GENERAL EQUATIONS
To overcome the above deficiencies, a new stressstrain model is proposed
here in which the actual hoop rupture strain instead of the material tensile
strain of FRP is used. The model represents an improvement to the authors'
previous model16.The new model is based on the following assumptions: (i)
the stressstrain curve consists of a parabolic first portion and a straightline
second portion, as given in Figure 1; (ii) the initial slope of the parabola is
the same as the elastic modulus of unconfined concrete E, ; (iii) the
nonlinear part of the first portion is affected to some degree by the presence
of an FRF' jacket; (iv) the parabolic first portion meets the linear second
portion smoothly (i.e. there is no change in slope between the two portions
where they meet); (v) the linear second portion ends at a point where both
the compressive strength f j c and the ultimate axial strain &,,of confined
concrete are reached.
A
I
I
%o
(Eurocode2)
11
I
11
I FRPconfined
88
0.0035
I
I
=."
Axial strain E~
Figure 1. Proposed stressstrain model for FRPconfined concrete
These assumptions are in overall accordance with the test observations
of concrete confined by an amount of FRP that is greater than a threshold
valueI2. This threshold value has been suggested to be an actual
confinement ratio not less than 0.07, based on Spoelstra and Monti's work'
and an analysis of the available test data12. The actual confinement ratio is
defined as the ratio between the actual maximum confining pressure
provided by the FRP fi,, and the compressive strength of unconfined
concrete fcL , with the former being given by
A,,=
where
&h,rup
EfrptEh,rup
is the hoop strain of FRP at rupture.
104 FRPRCS 6: FRP Materials and Properties
The above assumptions lead to a stressstrain curve which is similar to
those adopted by existing design codes for unconfined concrete and account
for the fact that the initial stiffness of FRPconfined concrete is little
affected by the FRP which is activated when the behaviour of the concrete
becomes nonlinear. The third assumption makes the model different from
Miyauchi et al.’s model6 in which the shape of the parabola remains the
same as that for unconfined concrete and is not affected by the FRP
confinement at all. The last assumption is obviously valid for FRPconfined
concrete with a monotonically increasing stressstrain curve, but may not be
reflective of reality for some cases as observed in the existing test data12. In
such cases, the FRP confinement results in a significant strength
enhancement but the compressive strength is still reached before FRP
rupture. The proposed model however provides a good approximation for
these cases for design use. This is somewhat similar to the case for
unconfined concrete. The design stressstrain curve of unconfined concrete
is represented by a parabola followed by a horizontal straight line in both
BS 81 1014 and Eurocode 215, despite that test stressstrain curves display a
descending postpeak branch. In addition to these assumptions, the intercept
of the stress axis by the linear second portion f , is taken to be equal to the
unconfined compressive strength fLo for simplicity (Figure I), based on the
database” assembled from the literature which shows an average ratio of
1.09 for f , / L:o.
Consequently, the proposed stressstrain model can be expressed as
follows:
and
o,= f,; + E,E, for
(3b)
The parabolic first portion meets the linear second portion with a
smooth transition at E, which is given by
E, I
E, IE,,
2fco
tE, 4)
where E, is the slope of the linear second portion, given by
El
E,
=
=
L
.Lo
(4)
StressStrain Model for FRP Confined Concrete I05
This model allows the use of test values or values suggested by design codes
for the elastic modulus of unconfined concrete. In addition, it reduces to
Hognestad’s parabola for unconfined concrete.
ULTIMATE STRAIN AND COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH
A number of studies3,’ have suggested that the behaviour of passively
confined concrete depends not only on the confining pressure but also the
confinement stiffness. As a result, similar levels of confining pressures do
not result in similar ultimate strains of confined concrete. Although the
effect of jacket stiffness has not been properly accounted for in designoriented models, it is always accurately represented in analysisoriented
models through equilibrium and compatibility considerations of the concrete
and the jacket. This issue can thus be explained by making use of
predictions from an analysisoriented model.
Figure 2 shows four stressstrain curves predicted by the analysisoriented model of Speolstra and Monti’ for concrete cylinders confined by
three different confining materials: steel, CFRP and GFRP with their
properties given in Table 1. For confinement by CFRP, predictions are
provided for two scenarios: the FW ruptures at its material ultimate tensile
strain from coupon tests and the FRP ruptures at an assumed hoop rupture
strain of 60% of the material ultimate tensile strain, which is similar to the
average of test observations. The compressive strength of unconfined
concrete is 35 MPa, while the diameter of the cylinders is 150 mm. For all
four cylinders, the FRP jackets are assumed to supply the same ultimate
tensile capacity in the hoop direction and thus the same maximum confining
pressure, but they have different stiffnesses. The substantial differences
between the predicted responses including the ultimate strain are due to the
differences in the stiffness of the four jackets only.
Further discussions using a constitutive model for concrete under a triaxial state of stress based on nonlinear elasticity have also shown a strong
dependence of the ultimate strain of FRPconfined concrete on confinement
stiffnessI2. A careful interpretation of the database12 that has been
assembled from the open literature during this study results in the following
equation for the ultimate strain of FRPconcrete12:
106 FRPRCS 6: FRP Materials and Properlies
100
80
d
*
60

B
40
20
0
0
001
002
003
004
005
h a 1 strain E,
Figure 2. Stressstrain curves predicted by Spoelstra and Monti’s
analysisoriented model for concrete confined by different materials
ble
ble
ble
11Properties
1Properties
Properties
oo o
Elastic
modulus
(MPa)
Confining
TaTa
Ta material
Steel
CFRP
CFRP (actual rupture
strain)
GFRP
where E,,,
I
Rupture or
yield strain
Thickness of
confining
jacket (mm)
300
3530
(%)
0.15
1.5
2.35 x 10’
2115
0.9
0.567
23 100
462
2.0
2.6
2 x 10’
2.35 x 10’
1
Rupture or
yield stress
(MPa)
I
1
4
0.34
is the secant modulus of elasticity at the compressive strength
of unconfined concrete and = f c i /.cc0.This equation is seen to correlate
well with the test results of concrete cylinders wrapped with different types
of FRP from the open literature (Figure 3).
On the other hand, Figure 2 shows that the stiffness of the confining
jacket also has an effect on the compressive strength of concrete with the
same confinement ratio. As this effect is far less than that on the ultimate
strain, it is ignored in the following equation for the compressive strength of
FWconfined concrete proposed on the basis of the assembled database’*:
f””=1+3.3 h . a
(7)
fco
fco
The dependence of the strengthening ratio fLc / fLo on the actual
confinement ratio
/
fLo
is shown in Figure 4 using test results from the
StressStrain Model for FRP Confined Concrete 107
assembled database. It should be reminded that a significant strength
enhancement can only be expected with an actual confinement ratio
/ fcyo 2. 0.07. The use of Eq. (7) is recommended to be subjected to this
fci
condition. For the case of FRPconfined concrete with h,u/ < 0.07, no
strength enhancement should be assumed when using the proposed model.
8
I
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
00
05
10
15
20
25
rud%)'45
Figure 3. Ultimate axial strain: test data, trend line and prop(osed equation
(EfipUE,.R)(%
4
Trend
line
. . . Proposed
I
0
00
02
0.4
0.6
0.8
Actual confinement ratio fi,arm
Figure 4. Compressive strength: test data, trend line and proposed equation
FRP EFFICIENCY FACTOR
In the above section, the definitions of the ultimate strain and compressive
strength of confined concrete and the minimum amount of FRP for
sufficient confinement are all in terms of the actual confinement ratio, so
the actual hoop rupture strain of the FRP is required. To facilitate the
application of the model, an FRP efficiency factor has been defined as the
,
~
~
~ concrete
ratio of the actual FRP hoop rupture strain E ~ in FRPconfined
to the FRP rupture strain from flat coupon tests
E
~ This
~
factor
~
. is found to
be 0.586 on average for the 52 CFRPwrapped specimens in the database'*.
108 FRPRCS 6: FRP Materials and Properties
Making use of this factor, Eq. (7) is then consistent with an equation
previously proposed by the authorsI7 for the compressive strength of FWconfined concrete, which is given by
f"=1+2fco
f,
(8)
fco
where f i is the nominal confining pressure that is calculated from Eq. (2)
with E ~ ,replaced
~ ~ , ~ by E~~~ . The authors suggest that for a given FRP
material, if this efficiency factor is not available, it should be determined by
a small number of confined cylinder tests.
COMPARISON WITH TEST DATA
Figure 5 shows a comparison between test stressstrain curves and
predictions of the proposed model. The test stressstrain curves were
recently obtained by the authors from the tests of concrete cylinders of 152
mm in diameter and 305 mm in height, which were wrapped with 2 layers of
CFRP (Figure 5a) and GFRP (Figure 5b) respectively. The FRP efficiency
factors were found to be 0.583 and 0.669 for the CFRP and the GFRP
respectively from tests. These test results are not part of the database used
for calibrating the parameters of the proposed model, so the close agreement
between the test and predicted stressstrain curves provide an independent
check of the accuracy of the model. Further details of the tests can be found
elsewhere".
CONCLUSIONS
This paper has presented a new stressstrain model for concrete confined by
wrapped FRP with the fibres being present only or predominantly in the
hoop direction as is commonly the case in retrofit applications. This model
has been based on the actual hoop rupture strain of FRP in confined cylinder
tests and accounts for the effect of jacket stiffness on the ultimate axial
strain. As a result, a unified model has been achieved for different types of
FRP, overcoming the deficiency of the authors' previous modelI6 for which
separate ultimate strain equations were proposed for CFRP and GFRP.
Compared to other existing designoriented models, it offers several
additional advantages including its simplicity and accuracy.
StressStrain Model for FRP Confined Concrete 109
80

... 70
a
5
60
5g
50
$
40
5

30
8
e
ti

0
s ;;
80
70
60
50
40
30
s ;;
0
0
0
0005
001
0015
Axial strain E~
002
0025
0
0005
001
0015
002
0025
003
Axial strain zC
(a)
(b)
Figure 5 . Comparison between test and predicted stressstrain curves: (a) wrapped
with 2 layers of CFRP and (b) wrapped with 2 layers of GFRP
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The work presented in this paper forms part of a research project (Project
No: PolyU 5064/01E) funded by the Research Grants Council of Hong
Kong SAR. The first author has been financially supported by The Hong
Kong Polytechnic University through a postdoctoral fellowship and through
the Area of Strategic Development (ASD) Scheme. The authors are grateful
to both organizations for their financial support.
REFERENCES
1. Karbhari, V.M., and Gao, Y., “Composite jacketed concrete under
uniaxial compressionverification of simple design equations”, Journal
of Materials in Civil Engineering, ASCE, 9(4), 1997, pp. 185193.
2. Xiao, Y. and Wu, H.., “Compressive behavior of concrete confined by
carbon fiber composite jackets”, Journal of Materials in Civil
Engineering, ASCE, 12(2), 2000, pp. 139146.
3. Samaan, M., Mirmiran, A., and Shahawy, M.,”Model of concrete
confined by fiber composite”, Journal of Structural Engineering,
ASCE, 124(9), 1998, pp.10251031.
4. Toutanji, H.A., “Stressstrain characteristics of concrete columns
externally confined with advanced fiber composite sheets”, ACI
Materials Journal, 96(3), 1999, pp.397404.
5 . Saafi, M., Toutanji, H.A. and Li, Z, “Behavior of concrete columns
confined with fiber reinforced polymer tubes”, ACI Materials Journal,
96(4), 1999, pp.500509.
110 FRPRCS 6: FRP Materials and Properties
6. Miyauchi, K., Inoue, S., Kuroda, T., and Kobayashi, A., “Strengthening
effects of concrete columns with carbon fiber sheet”, Transactions of
the Japan Concrete Institute, 21, 1999, pp.143150.
7. Lillistone, D. and Jolly, C.K., “An innovative form of reinforcement for
concrete columns using advanced composites”, The Structural Engineer,
78(23/24), 2000, pp.2028.
8. Mirmiran, A., and Shahawy, M., “A new concretefilled hollow FRP
composite column”, Composites Part B: Engineering, 27B(34), 1996,
pp.263268.
9. Spoelstra, M.R. and Monti, G., “FRPconfined concrete model”,
Journal of Composites for Construction, ASCE, 3(3), 1999, pp. 143150.
10. Fam, A.Z. and Rizkalla, S.H., “Confinement model for axially loaded
concrete confined by circular fiberreinforced polymer tubes”, ACI
Structural Journal, 98(4), 200 1, pp.45 1461.
1 1. Mander, J.B., Priestley, M.J.N. and Park, R., “Theoretical stressstrain
model for confined concrete”, Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE,
114(8), 1988, pp.18041826.
12. Lam, L. and Teng, J.G., “Designoriented stressstrain model for FRPconfined concrete”, to be published.
13. Hognestad, E., A Study of Combined Bending and Axial Load in
Reinforced Concrete Members, Bulletin Series No. 399, Engineering
Experiment Station, University of Illinois, Urbana, U.S.A., 1951.
14. BS 81 10, Structural Use of Concrete, Part 1, Code of Practice for
Design and Construction, British Standards Institution, London, UK,
1997.
15. ENV 199211, Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures  Part I :
General Rules and Rules for Buildings, European Committee for
Standardization, Brussels, 1991.
16. Lam, L. and Teng, J.G., “A new stressstrain model for FRPconfined
concrete”, PRF Composites in Civil Engineering, Proceedings of the
International Conference, edited by J.G. Teng, Elsevier, Oxford, UK,
200 1, pp.283292.
17. Lam, L. and Teng, J.G., “Strength models for fiberreinforced plasticconfined concrete”, Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, 128(5),
2002, pp.612623.17.
18. Lam, L. and Teng, J.G., “Hoop rupture strains of FRP jackets in FRPconfined concrete”, Proceedings, Sixth International Symposium on
Fibrereinforced Polymer (FRP) Reinforcement for Concrete Structures
(FRPRCS6), Singapore, 2003, submitted.
FRPRCS6, Singapore, 810 July 2003
Edited by Kiang Hwee Tan
QWorld Scientific Publishing Company
ACCELERATED TECHNIQUES TO PREDICT THE STRESSRUPTURE BEHAVIOUR OF ARAMID FIBRES
K. G. N. C. ALWIS AND C. J. BURGOYNE
Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge
Trumpington Street, CB2 IPZ, U.K.
To obtain the stressrupture data at low stress levels, accelerated testing has
been suggested using either the time temperature superposition principle or
the stepped isothermal method. These techniques will be applied to Kevlar49 yarns. The important aspects in obtaining smooth master curves and the
validity, both of the techniques and the resulting curves, will also be
discussed.
INTRODUCTION
Many models have been suggested over the past decades to predict the
longterm stressrupture behaviour of aramid fibres but they were based on
data obtained at high stress levels; extrapolation techniques have been used
to predict the behaviour at low stress levels'x2.Thus, the validity of these
methods is an open issue.
As an alternative, two accelerated testing methods have been suggested
to predict the stressrupture behaviour at low stress levels: the time
temperature superposition principle and the stepped isothermal method.
These methods offer many advantages when compared to conventional
creep tests as testing requires shorter time scales to obtain longterm data.
DESCRIPTION OF THE ACCELERATED METHODS
Time Temperature Superposition Principle (TTSP)
It is assumed that raising the temperature will increase the creep rate but not
alter the mechanism. Several individual creep tests are performed at
different temperature levels, to obtain strain versus logarithmic time curves.
These curves can then be time shifted, parallel to the logarithmic time axis,
by an amount a, to give a single reference curve, on which all the separate
test results are superposed. This master curve applies for a certain
temperature and a fixed stress level. A comprehensive literature review on
112 FRPRCS 6: FRP Materials and Properties
early development of the timetemperature superposition principle can be
found elsewhere3 and there have been many application^^^^.
Materials and experimental set up
In the sample tests described here, Kevlar49 yarns were used. The average
breaking strength load (ABL) of the yarns was 445 N, obtained from 12
shortterm tests. The cross sectional area of the yarn was 0.1685 X
m2.
The tensile tests were carried out in a conventional testing machine,
using round bar clamps that have also been used for longterm deadweight
testing of yarns. The load was applied by moving the crosshead of the
machine at a specific rate; the crosshead movement and the load level were
recorded.
One of the difficult tasks is to determine the absolute zero of the
stressstrain curve, due to initial slack and slippage of the yarn around the
jaws. It is essential to know accurately the strain of the specimen just after
the initial loading in order to compare the creep curves at different
temperatures. A small error of this value would result in displacing the
creep curves on the creep strain axis which then makes it impossible to
obtain valid, smooth master curves only by making time shifts.
The testing setup is shown in Figure 1. The oven is set up within the
test machine, with the two clamps mounted on extension pieces so that the
complete test specimen lies inside the oven. Figure 2 shows accurate stressstrain curves, determined at different temperatures. This figure was used to
determine the initial strains for a given stress level at different
temperatures. For example, points at which the line AB crosses the stressstrain curves are the initial strain values at 70% ABL. This process is
described in detail elsewhere6.
A series of creep tests were carried out at 70% ABL on Kevlar49 at
different temperatures (25, 40, 60, 80, 100 OC). The initial loading rate was
5 m d m i n and the specimen length was 350 mm (centre to centre distance
of the jaws). In each test, load was applied only after the temperature had
reached the desired value. Thus, by adjusting the initial strains for each test
as described above, only time shifts were needed to obtain the master curve.
Results and discussion
Figure 3 shows the raw data of Kevlar49 specimens at different
temperatures. Initial strains of the creep curves just after loading were
adjusted according to Figure 2.
StressRupture Behaviour of Aramid Fibres 113
Figurel. Experimental set up for Tensile, TTSP and SIM tests
/
80
/
A
v1v1
*
40
 25
+
30
OC
6OoC
20
,
0.5
1
1.5
2
Strain (YO)
Figure 2. Stress vs. Strain curves at different temperatures6
2.5
114 FRPRCS 6: FRP Materials and Propeaies
1.7 
D
f
o*
All creep curves (after one hour) were shifted to a reference curve as
described earlier until they generate a sufficiently smooth curve. Initially, a
graphical method was used to find approximate shift factors, which were
then varied in an iterative manner to produce a smooth master curve (Figure
4).
1.94
I
d r
Master curve
1.92
I .9
1.88
h
5
.2
1.84
b
rA
1.82
18
1.78
176
1.74
1
2
3
Time, log,,,(hours)
4
5
I
6
Figure 4. Master curve at 25 OC and 70% ABL
One of the problems was to decide how the creep response of Kevlar49
yarns should be parameterised. In past models, the creep response of
StressRupture Behaviour of Aramid Fibres 115
Kevlar49 was plotted against the loglo (time) and linear variations were
predicted2. Alternatively, a power low variation was also used7. Tamuzs'
has done similar testing on Kevlar assuming a series of Kelvin
viscoelasticity models to predict the creep behaviour. However, his data can
also be fitted with a polynomial of order three. The problem is to select the
correct degree of polynomial to describe the data. A higher degree
polynomial will give a better fit but there is risk of overfitting the
variables. There are many statistical checks available to decide the
appropriate degree of polynomial9. In this analysis, a 6th order polynomial
was used to describe the creep data of the master curve.
A series of conventional creep tests has also been performed to check
the validity of this method. These tests have been carried out in a controlled
temperature (25 'C) and a specified humidity (65% RH). These are the two
nominal parameters of the master curve. Figure 5 shows the conventional
creep curve plotted with the master curve. The initial part of the
conventional curve clearly follows the master curve.
The double curvature of the master curve over log,, (hours) = 2 to 3 of
Figure 5 is notable. This may be attributed to rearrangement of the internal
fibers and further microscopic investigations are necessary. However, the
reverse curvature of the master curve might imply that the mechanism had
changed, which would invalidate the model. To check this, all shift factors
were plotted on an Arrhenius plot which gave a straight line. This implies
that there is no change in the underlying process, despite the reversal of the
master curve. The creep activation energy was found to be 116.3 kJ/mole
(27.78 kcal/mole).

h
s
e
v
.C
?i
1 0'
L
3
L
6
T i m e , loglo(hours)
Figure 5. Master curve at 25 OC and 70% ABL with conventional creep data
116 FRPRCS 6: FRP Materials and Properties
Stepped Isothermal Method (SIM)
This approach was first applied to polyester yarns to predict the stress
rupture behaviour at moderate tensile loads”. The results appeared to be
similar to the results obtained from the conventional TTSP tests. In a SIM
test, a single specimen is tested at various temperature levels under a
constant load, whereas in TTSP testing different specimens are tested at
each temperature level. SIM testing thus lends itself to automated testing
once the specimen has been loaded into the machine. The SIM procedure
can be summarised as:
(a) The test method is similar to that for TTSP. A single specimen is used
and the temperature is increased in a series of welldefined steps.
(b) Individual strain versus time curve segments corresponding to different
temperatures are shifted in the strain direction to account for thermal
contractiodexpansion,
(c) Rescaling in the linear time direction is carried out to account for the
thermal history of the specimen,
(d) All curves are shifted parallel to the logarithmic time axis to obtain a
reference curve as described in TTSP.
The additional steps needed for SIM interpretation are described below.
Adjustment of strain
Figure 6 shows a schematic picture of a temperature step. The temperature
is raised from TI to T2 over the time, t,. Point B represents the creep strain
just after the temperature step; B’ is the creep strain that would have been
observed due to thermal contraction (aramid fibres have a negative
coefficient of thermal expansion). However, the final creep strain, B is
observed due to continuing creep over time, t, ( BB‘ ). The adjusted strain
just after the temperature step ( B) can be found:(a) by adding the thermal contraction, so = B + B’B’’ , or
(b) by adding the creep over t,, so B = B” + B‘B
To calculate the distanceB’B” , an accurate value of the coefficient of
thermal expansion is needed, but in the literature different values are stated,
so method (a) is not reliable.
StressRupture Behaviour of Aramid Fibres 11 7
4
After adjustment.
+
Time
Figure 6. Change of creep behaviour at a temperature step
In contrast, Method (b) can be performed using measured values.
Changes of the creep rate over time t, can be found by conducting separate
creep tests from temperature TI to a variety of different temperatures. This
allows the variation of creep rate with temperature to be measured; the
creep over time, t, (BB') can then be found by integration. A similar
procedure has to be applied for each temperature step.
Resealing procedure
One of the main differences with the SIM approach is that the history of the
specimen at different temperatures is not as same as in TTSP. In TTSP a
specimen is subjected to a certain temperature level starting from the room
temperature whereas in SIM the specimen has a temperature history. Figure
7 shows the strain response for two temperature steps. The curve OABC is
the measured response of the SIM specimen through the first two
__
temperature steps. OABC is the response after making the strain
adjustment. PQ is the response of a TTSP test carried out at the higher
temperature T2. It is now necessary to determine the time t'which
represents the notional starting time for a TTSP specimen that would have
the same response as the SIM specimen at the higher temperature. The
value t"t' is assumed to be the time needed for a specimen which had
always been at T2to arrive at the creep state at time t" . It should be equal to
118 FRPRCS 6: FRP Materials and Properties
t* from the TTSP curve. The selection of t’ for each temperature step has a
great influence when obtaining smooth master curves.
4
Time
t
Figure 7. Rescaling procedure for SIM
A numerical procedure has been developed to select the rescaling time
t’ (which is applied in linear time) and the time shifting parameter a,(which
is applied in logarithmic time), to produce a smooth master curve. Figure 8
shows three master curves, one obtained from a set of TTSP tests, and the
other two obtained from SIM tests with different combinations of
temperature steps. If the method has any validity, these master curves
should be similar, to within the normal limits of variation between different
fibres. The results in Figure 8 show that the method is promising.
It is now possible to investigate stressrupture behaviour. Each of the
master curves on Figure 8 ends with the failure of a yarn. If the master
curves are truly representative of the creep curves of the yarn, then it is
reasonable to suppose that the times to failure on the figure represent the
times to failure that would have been observed in longterm tests.
StressRupture Behaviour of Aramid Fibres I I9
1.9 
s
1.85
v
C
.3
rd
&
1.8
1.75 
1.7
1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Time, loglO(hours)
Figure 8. Master curves from TTSP and SIM
CONCLUSION
TTSP can be successfully applied to predict the longterm creep behaviour
of aramid. The SIM method can be used to mimic the behaviour of TTSP
tests. Both methods can be used to predict the rupture times of yarns at low
stress levels.
The fundamental question remains whether the master curve obtained
by the two methods described here, which appear to be selfconsistent and
repeatable, truly represents the behaviour of fibres tested over very long
timescales at ambient temperature. If this could be proved, then the SIM
method has great potential for accumulating data very quickly.
REFERENCES
1. Guimaraes, G.B., "Parallellay aramid ropes for use in structural
engineering", PhD Thesis submitted to the University of London, 1988.
120 FRPRCS 6: FRP Materials and Properties
2. Ericksen, R.H., "Creep of Kevlar 49 fibres", Proc. of 2nd Symp. on
failure modes in composites. Metall. SOC.of AIME, New York, 1984
302 pp.
3. Ferry, J.D., "Viscoelastic properties of polymers", John Wiley and
Sons, Inc., 1970.
4. Povolo, F. and Hermida, E.B. "Analysis of the master curve for the
viscoelastic behaviour of polymers", Mechanics of Materials, No. 12,
1991, pp. 3546.
5. Brinson, L.C. and Gates, T.S., "Effects of physical aging on long term
creep of polymers and polymer matrix composites", Znt. J. Solids and
Structures, Vol. 32, No. 617, 1995, pp. 827846.
6. Alwis, K.G.N.C, PhD thesis in preparation, University of Cambridge.
7. Walton, R.E. and Majumdar, A.J., "Creep of Kevlar 49 fibre and a
Kevlar 49cement composite", Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 18,
1983, pp. 29392946.
8. Tamuzs, V., Maksimovs, R. and Modniks, J., "Longterm creep of
hybrid FRP bars", 5ih International Symposium on FRP Reinforced
Concrete Structures (FRPRCS5), Cambridge, July 8 10, 200 1, Vol. 1,
pp. 52753 5.
9. Draper, N.R., and Smith, H., "Applied regression analysis", John Wiley
and Sons, Inc., 1966.
10. Thornton, J.S., Allen, S.R., Thomas, R.W. and Sandri, D., "The stepped
isothermal method for TTS and its application to creep data on
polyester yarn", Sixth International Conference on Geosynthetics,
Atlanta, USA, 1988.
Bond Behaviour
This page intentionally left blank
FRPRCS6,Singapore, 81 0 July 2003
Edited by Gang Hwee Tan
OWorld Scientific Publishing Company
BOND CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS FRP
STRENGTHENING TECHNIQUES
S. H. RIZKALLA
Distinguished Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, North Carolina State
University Campus Box 7533, Raleigh, NC, USA 276957533
T. HASSAN
Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, AinShams University,
Cairo, Egypt
Strengthening of reinforced concrete structures using FRP has emerged as a
potential solution to the problems associated with civil infrastructure. Many
researchers have reported significant increases in strength and stiffness of concrete
structures strengthened with FRP. Nevertheless, possible brittle failures of the
strengthened system due to delamination of the FEW strips and/or sheets could limit
the use of the full efficiency of the FEW system. This paper presents a bond failure
hypothesis for near surface mounted FRP bars. Closedform analytical solutions are
proposed to predict the interfacial stresses for near surface mounted FRP strips and
externally bonded FRP sheets. The models are calibrated by comparing the predicted
behavior to test results. Quantitative criteria governing interfacial debonding failure
of near surface mounted FRP bars, strips and externally bonded FRP sheets are
established.
NSM FRP BARS
Transfer of stresses from a deformed NSM FRP rod to the concrete is
mainly by mechanical interlocking of the lugs with the surrounding epoxy.
The resultant force exerted by the lug on the epoxy is inclined at an angle p
to the axis of the bar as shown in Figure 1, where Man fl is the coefficient
of friction, p between the bar and the adhesive. The radial component of the
resultant force creates zones of high tensile stresses at the FRPepoxy
interface as well as at the concreteepoxy interface. Finite element analysis
was employed to provide indepth understanding of the load transfer
mechanism between NSM FRP bars and concrete. Figure 2 shows the mesh
dimensions used in modelling a portion of a concrete beam strengthened
with a NSM FRP bar. Groove dimensions, bar location and properties of
concrete and epoxy were set identical to the bond specimens tested by
Rizkalla and Hassan, 2002'.
124 FRPRCS 6:Bond Behaviour
Internal
,
+t
TIP
Force
components
on epoxy
Figure 1. Forces between NSM
FRP bar and adhesive
4
4
TIP
I
I
Major
crack
I
Force
components on
bar
Radial pressure was applied at the bar location to simulate the bond
stresses transferred from the bar to the surrounding epoxy. Typical principal
tensile stress distribution is shown in Figure 3. It should be noted that the
elastic modulus of the adhesive is generally less than that of the concrete.
Such a phenomenon results in a stress discontinuity at the concreteepoxy
interface as shown in Figure 3 .

30

20
10
10

10
P
”
>

T
High tensile stresses are observed at the concreteepoxy interface as well as
at the FRPepoxy interface. Two different types of debonding failures could
occur for NSM FRP bars. The first mode of failure is due to splitting of the
epoxy cover as a result of high tensile stresses at the FRPepoxy interface,
and is termed “epoxy split failure”. Increasing the thickness of the epoxy
cover reduces the induced tensile stresses significantly. Furthermore, using
Bond Characteristics of FRP Strengthening Techniques 125
adhesives of high tensile strength delays epoxy split failure. This type of
debonding failure forms with longitudinal cracking through the epoxy
cover. The second mode of failure is due to cracking of the concrete
surrounding the epoxy adhesive and is termed “concrete split failure”. This
mode of failure will take place when the tensile stresses at the concreteepoxy interface reach the tensile strength of the concrete. Widening the
groove minimizes the induced tensile stresses at the concreteepoxy
interface and increases the debonding loads of NSM bars. Concrete split
failure was the governing mode of failure for the bond specimens tested by
the authors’. Large epoxy cover and high tensile strength of the epoxy
adhesive provided high resistance to epoxy split failure and shifted the
failure to occur at the concreteepoxy interface. The tangential bond stress,
z, can be expressed as:
d*FRP
=4 L .
d
where d is the diameter of the bar, and Ld is the embedment length needed to
develop a stress offFRp in the NSM bar. If the coefficient of friction between
the bar and the epoxy is p, the radial stresses, Prad,a/, can be expressed as:
. ~at ~the~
The tensile stresses at the concreteepoxy interface, c ~ , ~ and
FRPepoxy interface, o ~ R can
~ be. expressed
~ ~ ~ in~terms
~ ,of the radial stress
as follows:
c7
FRP  epoxy
(4)
where GI, G2 and G ; are coefficients determined from the finite element
analysis based on a unit radial pressure applied at the bar location and using
specified groove dimensions, concrete and adhesive properties. The
maximum tensile stress at the FRPepoxy interface, o  ~ ~depends
. ~ ~ on
~
the coefficients G2 and G‘, , whichever is greater as shown in Figure 3.
Equating the tensile strength of concrete to Eq. (3), the minimum
I26 FRPRCS 6: Bond Behaviour
embedment length needed for NSM FRP bars to prevent concrete split
failure can be expressed as:
Equating the tensile strength of the adhesive to Eq. (4), the minimum
embedment length needed for NSM FRP bars to avoid epoxy split failure
shall not be less than:
r
1
where fcr and &,xy
are the tensile strength of concrete and epoxy,
respectively. Increasing the ratio of the elastic modulus of the concrete to
that of the adhesive generates high tensile stresses at the concreteepoxy
interface and low tensile stresses at the FRPepoxy interface. Practical
values of the modular ratio could vary between 5 and 40. This range covers
various types of concrete and adhesives that are commonly used in concrete
structures. Figure 4 shows the proposed design chart for the development
length of NSM FRP bars.
C/d for G2 andlor G '2 curves
4
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
1.4
1.6
1.2
1.4
1
0.8
0.6
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.4
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
C/d for GI curves
Figure 4. Design chart for the development length of NSM FFW bars
Bond Characteristics of FRP Strengthening Techniques 127
To simulate the most critical conditions for design purposes, the coefficient
G, was evaluated for a modular ratio of 40. The coefficients, Gz and G;
were evaluated for a modular ratio of 5 and the greater value was plotted in
Figure 4. The chart covers a wide range of possible epoxy covers and
accounts for three different groove sizes. Using the proposed design chart,
the coefficients GI and the greater value of either Gz or G; could be
evaluated for a given groove width, w, and using a specified clear cover to
bar diameter ratio (C/d). The governing development length for NSM FRP
bars could be predicted using the greater of Eqs. ( 5 ) and (6). The proposed
approach compared very well with the test results and overestimated the
development length of NSM CFRP bars by less than 5 percent'.
NSM FRP STRIPS
This section presents a closedform analytical solution to predict the
interfacial shear stresses for NSM FRP strips. The model is validated by
comparing the predicted values with test results'. The proposed model is
based on the combined shearbending model for externally bonded FRP
plates and is given in Figure 5.
+dafdx
ac
t
daC
dx
dx
I dx
I
L'
2
Lr,
u
300
I
Figure 5. Analytical model for NSM FRP strips
The model is modified to account for the double bonded area of NSM strips.
The model accounts also for the continuous reduction in flexural stiffness
due to cracking of the concrete. Debonding of NSM strips is assumed to
128 FRPRCS 6:Bond Behaviour
occur as a result of high shear stress concentration at cutoff point. The
derivation of the model is reported elsewhere'. For simply supported beams
subjected to a concentrated load, P, at midspan, the shear stress at the strip
cutoff point,? can be expressed in terms of the effective moment of inertia,
re,,,and the thickness of the CFRP strip, tf, as follows:
where, u 2 =
Ef
2Ga ; n = ; Ef is elastic modulus of the FRF' strip,
tatf E f
Ec
E, is elastic modulus of concrete, G, is the shear modulus of the adhesive, to
is the thickness of the adhesive, I, is the unbonded length of the strip; y is
the distance from the strip to the neutral axis of the transformed section and
Zef is the effective moment of inertia of the transformed section. Debonding
will occur when the shear stress reaches a maximum value, which depends
on the concrete properties. Premature debonding of NSM CFRP strips is
governed by the shear strength of the concrete. Other components of the
system such as the adhesive and the CFRP strips have superior strength and
adhesion properties compared to concrete. Knowing the compressive and
tensile strength of concrete, the MohrCoulomb line, which is tangential to
both Mohr's circles for pure tension and pure compression, can be
represented and the maximum critical shear stress for the pure shear circle
can be expressed as:
rmax =
f
'c
fct
f 'c + fct
wheref, is the compressive strength of concrete after 28 days andf,, is the
splitting tensile strength of concrete. Equating the shear strength proposed
in Eq. (8) to the shear stress given in Eq. (7), debonding loads for NSM
CFRP strips can be determined for simply supported beams subjected to a
concentrated load at midspan. The development length is highly dependent
on the dimensions of the strips, concrete properties, adhesive properties,
internal steel reinforcement ratio, reinforcement configuration, type of
loading, and groove width. The proposed model in Eqs. (7) and (8), can be
used to estimate the development length of NSM strips of any configuration
as follows:
199S3. Figure 6. . and . igth . General procedure to determine development length of NSM strips EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP SHEETS The proposed approach modifies the analytical model developed by Malek et al.. . + Embedment length ~ . The resulting curve represents a failure envelope due to debonding of the strip at cutoff point. The predicted debonding loads underestimated the measured values by less than 6%'. (b) Use a cracked section analysis at sections of maximum induced normal stresses and determine the ultimate load required to rupture the strip as shown in Figure 6. Rupture loadfor the strips 4 3 4 rgaeqoqaipg . z. . For simply supported beams subjected to a concentrated load at midspan. . Both expressions were originally developed to predict the deflections of concrete members after cracking4. yef are proposed to account for the continuous degradation in stiffness as cracking progresses. . . 1 and an effective neutral axis depth. . (c) Determine the development length at the intersection of the line corresponding to flexural failure of the strip with the curve representing debonding failure at cutoff point. (7) and (8) to determine the debonding load of the strip for different embedment lengths as shown in Figure 6. The proposed approach compared very well with the experimental results.New expressions for the moment of inertia and the neutral axis depth of the concrete section at cutoff points are introduced. . the shear stress. The calculated development length will preclude brittle failure due to debonding of the strips and will ensure full composite action between the strip and concrete up to failure. An effective moment of inertia.Bond Characteristics of FRP Strengthening Techniques 129 (a) Use the proposed Eqs.
on. yeflis the effective distance from the sheet to the neutral axis of the section. Delamination of externally bonded FRP reinforcement can be determined using a critical combination of both normal and shear stresses at cutoff points. I. at the ends of the externally bonded FRP reinforcement can be expressed by: where and t. concrete and FRP. G. is the shear modulus of the adhesive.130 FRPRCS 6:Bond Behaviour the normal stress. on. n is ratio of the elastic modulus of the FRP to that of the concrete. respectively.z and the normal strength. Ec. relationship between the shear strength. t. is the unbonded length of the FRP sheets. by is the width of the FRP reinforcement. . . The critical combination of these two stresses was established by using a delamination circle'.: and the concrete tensile strength.. P is the applied concentrated load. Efand are the modulus of elasticity of the adhesive. as follows: . and V. This relationship can be expressed in terms of the concrete compressive strength. Ea. is the thickness of the adhesive.f . The delamination circle provides a . Mu is the applied moment on the concrete section at cutoff points.&.. If is the moment of inertia of the FRP sheets. is the thickness of the FRP sheets. is the shear force in the concrete beam at the sheet cutoff point. Iefis the effective moment of inertia of the transformed section.
Experimental results compared with the proposed approach . The predicted delamination loads using Malek's model.2 S1. The analysis is extended further to include specimens Fl.Bond Characteristics ofFRP Strengthening Techniques 131 max = fcf ct fcf ct ct I n max c J Vfc+f ct ) (11) fcf. Figure 7 shows the predicted delamination loads using the proposed approach compared with the experimental results. Interfacial debonding loads are predicted using MohrCoulomb failure criterion.2 and SI. All the selected specimens experienced concrete cracking with various intensities at the sheets' cutoff points prior to delamination. SI. C2 and Gl as well as specimens Sl.4 tested by other researchers to examine the validity of the proposed approach5'6. ct _2 n max The maximum normal and shear stresses are evaluated for the bond specimens tested by the authors using the proposed approach4. Furthermore. The figure clearly indicates that delamination loads can be predicted with a sufficient accuracy using the proposed approach. using fully cracked concrete sections at cutoff points provided very conservative delamination loads. 300 *• Proposed Approach 250 T3 cd C O • Experimental Results ZOO + Malek's Model ISO A Brosens Model 100 50 ID Q 0 Cl C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 Fl C2 Gl SI S1. are also shown for comparison.4 Hassan 2002 Brosens 2001 Hearing and Test specimen Buyukozturk2001 Figure 7. as well as those predicted using Brosens model.O. Assuming uncracked concrete sections at the sheets' cutoff points overestimated the strength of the beams considerably and led to huge errors.
1998.142152. H.D. A. Hassan. Belg. Brosens..304 pp. Thesis. (b) Two different types of interfacial debonding failures can occur for NSM FRP bars: (i) Epoxy split failure..225 pp. 6. 2. 2000.. Leuven. U. Ph.D. University of Manitoba. 287pp.” ASCE. “Prediction of failure load of R/C beams strengthened with FRP plate due to stress concentration at the plate end”.D. ACI Structural Journul. S... increases the resistance to concrete split failure.. Malek. “Delamination in reinforced concrete retrofitted with fibre reinforced plastics”. Thesis. and (ii) Concrete split failure. “Effectiveness of FRP techniques for strengthening concrete bridges” Journal of the Znternational Associationfor Bridge and Structure Engineering. T. “Investigation of bond in concrete structures strengthened with near surface mounted CFRP strips. 2002. 95(1). 2001. and Rizkalla. Hearing. Ph. and Buyukozturk... 2002. 3. MIT. 12(l). “Flexural behavior and bond characteristics of FRP strengthening techniques for concrete structures”. Rizkalla. T. and Hassan T. S. 2002. O. (c) Increasing the groove width and/or using high strength concrete. Thesis. 4. Using high strength adhesives and/or increasing the epoxy cover layer delays epoxy split failure for NSM FRP bars. ultimate load carrying capacity and mode of failure.. 5.132 FRPRCS 6:Bond Behaviour CONCLUSIONS (a) The efficiency of using CFRP bars as NSM reinforcement is controlled primarily by the bond characteristics of the bars as well as by the bond between the adhesive material and the concrete. in press. . REFERENCES 1. Ph. Hassan. Saadatmanesh. pp. Journal of Composites for Construction. K. “Anchorage of externally bonded steel plates and CFRP laminates for the strengthening of concrete elements”. B.. K. (d) The proposed analytical models and failure criteria for NSM FRP strips as well as for externally bonded FRP sheets are capable of predicting the interfacial shear stress distribution. M. Canada.. and Ehsani.
s relationships' and proposed that the relationship be represented by the Popovics formula which has been applied to compression stress . Japan H. 3050802. To develop a simple prediction formula for bond strength..FRPRCS6. Tsukubacity. Building Research Institute Tatehara. . FURUTA Civil Engineering and Construction Products Div. Kakogawacity. FUKUYAMA Dept. bond stress (shear stress). 67501 04. Bando Chemical Industries Ltd. A new prediction formula is proposed for two cases: one for bond length longer than the effective bond length and another for shorter bond length.slippage (relativity displacement). the bond stress . Tsukubacity.slippage model proposed by the authors (Popovics model) is considered and equivalent bond stress block (EBSB) is newly defined. Singapore. INTRODUCTION In many studies related to bond behavior between FRP laminates and concrete. Tsuchiyama. Japan This research presents the bond strength between FRP laminates and concrete. The bond stress is assumed as a constant value throughout the bonded region. strain distributions of FRP and the effective bond length show a good agreement with experimental results. one of the most important characteristics related to bond behavior is the bond strength in actual design of FRP laminates. Japan T.s. the relationships at the local region is examined. Some . KANAKUBO Institute of Engineering Mechanics and Systems. The first two authors have also investigated local T . This model was used in the numerical analysis for bond behavior of FRP laminates. T. University of Tsukuba Tennohdai. On the other hand. of Structural Engineering. Hiraokacho. 3058573. 810 July 2003 Edited by Kiang Hwee Tan OWorId Scientific Publishing Company BOND STRENGTH BETWEEN FIBERREINFORCED POLYMFR LAMINATES AND CONCRETE T.strain relationship of concrete. for which the strain and slippage of FRP laminates are easily obtained by solving a simple second differential equation. The analytical results of bond strength. The predicted values show very good agreement with experimental results reported previously.
Bond properties are basically obtained by analyzing second differential equation.134 FRPRCS 6: Bond Behaviour formulas for bond strength calculation are proposed233 by regression analysis of experimental results and not based on consideration of mechanical behavior. bond stress is considered as a constant value along the bonded region or effective bond length. s. The dimensions and mechanical properties of specimens used in the analysis are as follows : a) Dimensions : Section = 100 x lOOmm. . relationships in local region of bond between FRP laminates and concrete. Laminates width (bf) = 50mm. The purpose of this study is to derive a simple calculation formula for bond strength considering the mechanical behavior. However. as follows: where rb = bond stress in local region. o = concrete compressive strength (in MPa) Eq. s = slippage.(3) by substituting 3 for a : Analytical results by numerical calculation I are shown in Figures 1 and 2. T.( 1) is expressed as Eq. stiffness of FRP laminates (= thickness x elastic modulus) and effective bond length. a = constant (equal to 3). slippage. they have similar characteristics involving the influence of concrete strength.065mm). For this purpose. r b . m a = maximum bond stress (this is not equal to average bond stress). The constant stress distribution is termed as the equivalent bond stress block (EBSB). BOND STRESS DISTRIBUTIONS OF FRP LAMINATES Numerical Analysis Using Popovics Model The authors have proposed Popovics model' to express bond stress. smax= slippage at maximum bond stress (equal to 0.
The cases of bond length of 30mm and 60mm correspond to the case of a bond length shorter than effective bond length. In the case of 120mm bond length. (b) FRP strain distribution. defined as equivalent bond stress block (EBSB).065mm). the bond stress is distributed on a limited region.s (0. In the bond stress distributions of Popovics model analysis.60. d) Mechanical properties of concrete : Concrete compressive strength (Q) = 57. The crosses ( x ) indicate the maximum tensile load. and this region moves from central position to loaded end of specimens. The concrete blocks are subjected to uniaxial tensile force via reinforcement bars inserted in the concrete blocks. for which. Elastic modulus of fiber (EJ = 230GPa. . and the case of 120mm correspond to the case of a bond length longer than that. 60mm and 120mm bond lengths.065mm).167mm. The left. center and right side graphs correspond to the case of 30mm. The circles indicate that the slippage of central position of bonded region (s. and slippage distribution is parabolic.slippage relationships in the case of bond length of 30. Figure 2 shows analytical results for (a) bond stress distribution. c) Mechanical properties of FRP : Thickness of fiber (q)= 0. 60 and 120mm. the distribution curve shows a symmetrical form with a maximum bond stress. Hatched boxes in (a) and dotted lines in (b) and (c) indicate the distributions obtained by a constant bond stress. and (c) slippage distribution along the axial direction with distance from the loaded end of specimen. In the case of 30mm bond length.6MPa.Bond Strength between FRP Laminates and Concrete I35 b) Specimen : Two concrete blocks are connected at the center only by laminates. m a x ) = 7.) had reached the value of smm (0. respectively.56MPa e) Bond length of laminates : l b = 30. Maximum local bond stress ( r b . Solid lines indicate the results of analysis using Popovics model. when slippage of central position of bonded region (8. FRP strain (corresponds linearly to tensile stress of FRP) distribution is linear. 120mm (3 cases) Figure 1 shows analytical tensile load . . bond stress of more than 5MPa is observed in the whole bonded region.) becomes equal to. . Equivalent Bond Stress Block (EBSB) Equivalent bond stress block (EBSB) is defined such that the bond stress distribution has the same area with the actual bond stress distribution.
5 2 0.4 0.2 0.8 Slippage at center (mm) Figure 1.4 0.2 0.2 0.8 0 102030 0 Distance from the end (mm) 40 60 80 100 120 Distance from the end (mm) 20 (b) FRP strain distribution 0.8 Slippage at center (mm) 0 0 0 0. It increases as bond length becomes shorter.8 Slippage at center (mm) 0. FRP strain and slippage distributions Bond stress of EBSB changes with bond length as shown in Figure 2.sc = Smex 0.slippage relationships /b = 30mm /b = 60mm /b = 120mm m 8 a E.6 0.136 FRPRCS 6:Bond Behaviour .4 0.4 v) g! v) '0 2 0 m 0 Distance from the end (mm) 20 40 60 80 100 120 Distance from the end (mrn) (a) Bond stress distribution 0.2 CL 0 102030 0 20 40 60 0 Distance from the end (mm) 20 40 60 80 T O Distance from the end (mm) 120 (c) Slippage distribution Figure 2. Analytical results of tensile load .5 0.6 0.6 0. and decreases as the bond length . Analytical results of bond stress. 6 h .
Eq. A. Therefore.(5) when the function is arbitrary. A.Ef . a lower limit of bond stress of EBSB could be defined. even if any other variables are not changed... rb. it is not possible to solve Eq.(5) can be solved easily. and constant k @<I). However. using EBSB. Eq.max. then  d 2s  k‘ b mox dx tf . (7).(6) can be expressed as Eq. Ef = elastic modulus of fiber.(5). The influence of concrete deformation to bond behavior is small because of large differences of stiffness between fiber and concrete. the bond strength can be calculated by solving Eq. . by = width of FRP laminate. For a specified effective bond length. as shown in Eq. PREDICTING FORMULA FOR BOND STRENGTH Basic Equations The following second differential equation expresses the bond between FRP laminate and concrete: where s = slippage. and rb = bond stress Deformation of the equivalent section is neglected in order to derive a simple prediction formula. steel reinforcement and resin. 9 = thickness of fiber. When rb is assumed to be constant.(4) can be written as If 76 is taken as a function of s. If the bond stress of EBSB is defined as the product of maximum bond stress.Bond Strength between FRP Laminates and Concrete 137 becomes longer. that is. Eq.(8). Em = stiffness of equivalent section including concrete. ~ Defining a “bond length index”.
so can be obtained from Eq. as shown by Eq. applying the boundary condition that FRP strain q = 0 at x = 0 leads to Cl = 0. from which Eq. Eq. the area of bond stress distribution according to Popovics model is obtained by integration of Eq. =El. Slippage at the central position of specimen.k dx2 Af Integration of Eq. with Cl.( 1 1) by substituting bond length l b for x .(8) gives Eq.138 FRPRCS 6:Bond Behaviour d2s. which is ratio of bond stress of EBSB to maximum bond stress Tb.that is : Defining As as the difference between sI and sf. the slippage at central position of bonded region. One is the case of a bond length longer than effective bond length. .( 1 1 ) by substituting x = Ib / 2. For the purpose of calculating constant k.(15). Constant Bond Stress First. Cz as integration constants. E? ds dx = ( k / A f ) x+ .mox. and another is the case of a shorter bond length. c. can be calculated by Eq. as given by Eq. two cases are considered. When the origin in the axial direction is defined at the loaded end of specimens. hence where sf is defined as slippage at the loaded end of specimen and is an arbitrary value. sI.(9).(13).(3) giving Eq.( 1 4 ) .(9) gives the FRP strain.(lO) can be obtained.
(22) gives the effective bond length.444 or. The area of Popovics model of this range is calculated as Eq.(20) P ( s ~) P(0) = 0.)P(O)}I{s.and at the central position of the specimen. this limited region is defined such that the bond stress is at least 10% of maximum bond stress as obtained from Popovics model analysis..004mm. Consequently.( 12) can be written as Eq. Therefore. Hence. SI. can be obtained as : for which se 1 sm. can be given as Eq.). slippage. O}= 0.ze2 (21) .become equal to 0 and s. = 0. = 0.. slippage at the loaded end of specimen s.428 (19) (20) When bond length of specimen. (k.067.151410. = (1 2). = 0. which corresponds to 10% stress on Popovics model. which is the constant bond stress ratio in case of longer bond length. lb. for smax=0. and Eq.354 (17) (mm) (18) Ignoring the small value of s. the actual bond stress is distributed within a limited region. is equal to effective bond length l..065mm.( 19)..354mm.(2 l). S. slippage which corresponds to 10% of maximum bond stress in Popovics model.004.354 = 0. Eq. 5.15 14 k . = {P(s. 0. s./ a. In this study. occurs from 0 to 0. k. respectively. s.Bond Strength between FRP Laminates and Concrete 139 Bond length longer than effective bond length In case of a long bond length.
The constant stress is derived by taking into account that the bond stress distribution curve of Popovics model analysis shows a symmetrical form with a maximum bond stress.s +(3/8).( 13)..(24) and Eq. Eq. From Eq.(kN) Figure 4 . s..(k/a.(25). = s m m (23) Sf. However. (k / af)'Ib* (24) sl. which is ratio of bond stress of EBSB to maximum bond stress in case of shorter bond length.). and slippage at the central position of specimen. can be expressed as where As.(27) represents the equation to solve for the bond length. respectively.lb2 (25) The constant k. s. slippage at the loaded end. Figure 3 shows Eq. is already given by Eq.=. sJc. can be stated as Eq. = s. are obtained as Eq. s/.(1 / 8). slippage at the central position of bonded region. . Hence.(14) and Eq. and the magnitude of the constant bond stress of EBSB changes with bond length. Eq.140 FRPRCS 6: Bond Behaviour Bond length less than effective bond length In the case of shorter bond length.(27) cannot be solved mathematically.c =. for which an approximate formula expressed as Eq.(28) could be defined : Predicting Pma. l b . (27) using numerical analysis.(12). Comparison of calculation . the actual bond stress is distributed in whole bonded region.(23)..
and oB= concrete compressive strength (in MPa) Figure 4 shows the comparison between experimental bond strength and predicted values calculated by Eq. The lower limited ratio of 95 percentiles is 0. The ratio of experimental values to calculated values is 0. s.(32).. m a x = 3. b f . 4.Bond Strength between FRP Laminates and Concrete 141 Prediction Formula for Bond Strength The following formulas for the prediction of bond strength between FRP laminates and concrete are obtained based on the discussion in the earlier sections: k [:: ) 1k = L .cos n 2 +1 + k. where. Proposal for design procedure The following equations are proposed for actual design procedures. = bond strength (in tensile force).0. l e . 2.50gO.max = maximum local bond stress ( r b . = effective bond length.428). I.~~).2 . 5 and 6 . 0.m). = slippage in effective bond length (= 0. l b = bond length. bf = width of laminate.74.(29) . Pb ~1. ke = bond stress ratio in effective bond length (= 0. Af= bond length index (Af= tf'Eflzb. += thickness of fiber. E f = elastic modulus of fiber.1. k = bond stress ratio.. rb. P. The experimental values are obtained by bond test done in References 1.99 in average. Some constant values are substituted and the ratio of 95 percentiles is multiplied to equations (30) and (3 1).354mm).
Proceedings of the Japan Concrete Institute. Nakamura. T. pp. Nishida. 3. Iso. Yahara and Y. T. V01. pp. T. V01. No. Furuta and H. Analysis of Bond and Debonding Behavior of Continuous Fiber Sheet Bonded on Concrete. The predicted values show a very good agreement with experimental results reported previously. Ueda. June 2000. Concrete Structures and Pavements. 98. Matsuzaki. Proceedings of the Japan Concrete Institute. Bond Behavior between FiberReinforced Polymer Laminates and Concrete.3. November 1999.43 1436.634. K. Bond Strength between FRP Laminates and Concrete Led by the Equivalent Bond Stress Block Method.2737.3. Experiment of Carbon Fiber Sheet on CFRP Adhesive Method. which is defined as the area of EBSB has same area of the Popovics model. Furuta and H. Sagawa. T. pp. JCI Concrete Research and Technology. Y. JSCE Journal of Materials. (in Japanese) 4. (in Japanese) 6. No. M. ACI Structural Journal. Sonobe and H.295300. Y. Takeo. Asano and T.20. K. June 2000. (in Japanese) 5 . JSCE Journal of Materials. 359367. Vol. T. Y. pp. May 2000. (in Japanese) 3.142 FRPRCS 6:Bond Behaviour CONCLUSIONS New formulas predicting the bond strength between FRP laminates and concrete is proposed by solving second differential equation of bond problem using EBSB. Satoh. Kamiharako. Kanakubo. September 200 1. Maruyama and H. Matsushita.648. pp. Experimental Study on Bond Behavior between Continuous Fiber Sheets and Concrete. (in Japanese) . A. Kanakubo. Fundamental Study on Bond Mechanism of Carbon Fiber Sheet. pp. Shimomura. H. Yoshizawa.7187. K. No. 197208. No. 1. T. Fukuyama. Concrete Structures and Pavements. Vol. Y. Nakaba. MayJune 2001 2. 12. REFERENCES 1.22. No. No.
the optimal use of adhesives was seldom studied. the improvement of bond performance between FRP and concrete is an important task facing the FRP strengthening technology. Analytical results based on the proposed model show good agreement with the experimental ones. concrete surface processing. the high strength of FRP material can be utilized more efficiently. However. which is affected by concrete strength. Many research works had been carried out to evaluate the interfacial performance. 810 July 2003 Edited by Gang Hwee Tan @WorldScientific Publishing Company LOCAL BOND STRESS SLIP RELATIONS FOR FRP SHEETSCONCRETE INTERFACES J.FRPRCS6. many past studies (see Ref. Depending on the fracture energy and the experimentally obtained strain distributions of FRP. freezing and thawing and so on. Japan Both increasing FRP stiffness and decreasing adhesive’s shear stiffness can enhance the interfacial performance of FFW sheets bonded to concrete. FRP stiffness. the latter one can improve the interfacial fracture energy due to the good toughness and nonlinearity of low shear stiffness adhesives. Therefore. DAI AND T. Singapore.G. when the amount of FRP material is increased in use. which govern the ascending and descending parts of the interfacial bondstress slip curves respectively.1) indicate that the existence of effective bond length renders the interfacial load be transferred only in a limited distance. bond length. Sapporo 0600808. Comparatively. However. Epoxy adhesive bonding system has proven to be an efficient way to transfer the stresses between FRP and concrete. Hokkaido University Kita 8 Nishi 5. In . All these factors lead to the wasteful way of utilizing FRP materials in consideration of their advantages but high cost. Kitaku. UEDA Division of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering. In addition. in comparison with the former way. the strength of FRP materials available for design decreases significantly. INTRODUCTION The interfacial bond between FRP and concrete plays a critical role in maintaining the mechanical performance and durability of FRP strengthened concrete structures. In particular. this paper applied an optimum backcalculation method to propose a nonlinear interfacial bond stressslip model. unexpected premature interfacial fracture always happen inevitably due to the local shear stress concentration. All the necessary parameters serving for the model are the fracture energy and two other empirical constants a and p. As a result. in which the effects of all interfacial components can be included.
adhesive layer and first resin matrix layer) can be measured. Meanwhile. the thickness of each bonding layer (primer layer. Different from the previous studies. tensile coupon tests for adhesives were carried out according to the test specification JIS K71131995 (the section area of adhesive specimens is 20x60 mm and the marked distance for measuring the deformation is 80 mm). a reasonable interfacial constitutive model is proposed. 5 Fig. 1 Microscopic observations of FRP sheets after test 10 15 20 Fig. Correspondingly. the FRP sheets attached with a thin layer of failed concrete were processed after the pullout tests. The mechanical properties of FRP are shown in Table 1. one of the objectives in this study is to observe the effects of lower shear stiffness epoxy adhesives on the interfacial fracture mechanisms. Three types of FRF' materials (CFRP.2 Loaddeformation curves of adhesives . From their photos taken under microscope as shown in Fig. AFRP and GFRP) and four types of epoxy adhesives (FRE3P. highstiffness rather than lowstiffness adhesives were selected in the past studies probably due to the lack of commercial offers and the criteria of ensuring nonadhesive failure. 1. in order to simulate and predict the interfacial bond behaviors between FRP sheets and concrete accurately. To evaluate the properties of adhesives and get the detailed geometrical information of all adhesive components. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES A common singlelap pullout test setup as described in previous studies' was applied in this study. CN100 and primer FPNS) were used. SX325.144 FRPRCS 6:Bond Behaviour general.
0 Design thichness Elongation (%) (mm) 0.80 1..5 29. To observe the whole peelingoff process. The sheet bonding system was applied in the present study. The slips at the loading points of bond areas are obtained through integrating the strains measured continuously along the FRP sheets. But .4 2. 2 and the Table 2 respectively.39 1. $.1) and in the matrix of FRP materials were different. However.175 0.11 0. acted as the resin matrixes in all specimens. thickness and Poisson ratio of primer and resin layer respectively.118 1.3 and Fig. readymixed early strength concrete with the compressive strength of 35 MPa was prepared. The circled points are considered to correspond to initial peeling. yr are the elasticity modulus.5 4.45 29 39 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS All observed maximum loads and maximum slips at loading points of FRP sheetsconcrete interfaces are shown in Table. Fig.381 0.Bond Stress Slip Relations for FRPConcrete Interfaces 145 The derived loaddeformation curves of adhesives and the mechanical properties are described in Fig.1 Table 2 Mechanical properties of adhesives Types ofadhesives Mixing ratio (resinshardener by weighrj Elastic modulus (GPa) Tensile strength (MPa) Flexural strength (MPa) CNI00 1 . the bond length of 300 mm was applied in all specimens.6 74.24 13.4 show the experimental load versus loaded end slip relations. tr and yp. Adhesive FRE3P.6 83.6 FRE3P 2:l 2. which is commercially used as the resin matrix and the bonding adhesive for carbon fiber sheets.3.46 22.1 0. because after that the overall interfacial stiffness changes significantly.45 29 39 FPNS (Primer) 2: 1 2. The shear stiffness of adhesive (shear modulusithickness) is related to the shear force and deformation in adhesive and can be calculated as follows3: where: Ep. the resins used in the adhesive layer (see Fig. Table 1 Mechanical properties of FRP materials Fiber Carbon Aramid Glass Ppe Density of Fiber FTSCI20 AT40 AT90 FTSGE30 (dm’) 1. E.55 Tensile strength (MPa) 3550 2520 3030 1550 Elasticity modulus (GPa) 230 83.6 2.0 3.39 2. To keep the same concrete strength for all specimens.7 SX325 2: 1 1.
46 0.45 0.27 0.55 2.68 3.63 2.27 0.169 33.003 24.51 FF 0.27 1.63 2. SX325 and CN100 respectively I F R P type.17 75.23 0.27 1.45 0.13 0.72 CF CR3Ll 0.45 0.70 13.574 40.36 60.45 0.52 CF 1.4 0 5 0.63 2.123 GRlLl 2.45 0.63 2.4 0.21 CF GR3L3 0. glass and aramid respectively.45 0.46 0.7 ARIL3 2.19 63.0 Slinlmm) Fig.68 50.9 CF 0. FF: FRP fracture Pu FRP fracture Concrete crack propagation .759 55.0 0.0 CF 1.40 0.14 50.68 CF AR3L3 0.2 0.17 25. .3 0.2 and 3 mean FREiP.45 0.45 0.45 0.50 2.71 1 39.26 1.21 CRlL3 2.0 CF CR3L3 0.21 0.427 51 .61 2.22 1.46 0.45 0.27 1.27 1.50 3.45 0.12 CF CRlL2 2.0 8.63 2.994 64.54 1.0 25.30 CF CR3L2 0.0 4.962 24. no obvious change to overall stiffness was observed.45 0.0 43.63 2.45 0.5 CR2L3 1.27 1. Failure type: CF: Concrete failure.00 FF ARlLl 2.63 2.68 25.388 39.27 0.8 CF CRlLS 2.84 50.27 1.oo 3.00 1.988 21 .90 2.04 26.45 0.0 CF 1.4 >2.20 CF CRlLl 2.461 47.7 CF GR2L3 1.55 2.46 0.0 1.6 0.27 0.44 58.27 0.63 2.0 50.0 CF 0.2 >32.45 0.532 35.63 2.45 0.63 18.0 17.0 CF CR2L2 1.0 FF 0.63 2. sm.30 1.68 75.45 0.45 0.45 0.13 75.0 1.2 41 .56 26.63 2.08 CR3L2 0.46 0.60 1.98 CRlL3 2.25 137.0 0.45 0.62 CF CRlL2 2.27 1.90 1.46 0.8 FF CRlL2 2.24 0.27 1.27 0.oo 1.7 0 8 S M W Fig.CRlLl dm * CRlLz 1 CRlW 4 40 1 60 40 30 30 20 20 CRlL2 CR2L2 10 0 0.09 50.24 0.25 GR 1L5 2.45 0.0 75.27 1.27 0.24 0. 1.45 0.45 0.24 0.537 48.0 1.45 0.50 1.24 CF CR2Ll 1.0 25.45 0.185 24.146 FRPRCS 6: Bond Behaviour for specimen CR3L2 with the softest adhesive (in Fig.0 0 1 0.45 0.27 1.45 0.60 1.63 2.45 0.45 0.63 2.45 0.45 0.24 0.22 1.00 1.63 2.83 CRlL3 2.27 1.20 1.7 1.976 >30 >1.0 0.45 0.0 0.4 Interfacial loadslip relationship and effect of adhesive stiffness .45 0.6 CF ARlL2 2.55 2.45 0.0 CF 1.4).6 0.27 GRlL2 2.63 2.07 29.60 1.352 33.60 1.4 CF GRlL3 2.62 2.0 1.45 0.813 28.45 0.8 1.0 1.28 0.45 0.0 0.30 1.322 24.77 31.45 0.oo 2.13 50.713 46.62 2.63 2. G f type' specimens Er tr (GPa) (mm) (GPa) (mm) (GPdmm) (GPamm) (mm) (kN) @/mm) CRlLl 2.724 38.45 0.15 CF CRlLl 2.67 63.45 0.45 0.00 1.45 0.2 CF 1.40 0.7 AR2L3 1.528 42.22 1.0 1. Table3 Details of specimens and test results Codes of Failure EP tP G a ' t a E f t .3 Interfacial loadslip relationships and effect of FRP stiffness 0.10 2.22 1.45 0.91 CF fRtLThe number of the FRP sheets' ulies Adhesive type.0 0.51 26.13 63.27 0.0 0.01 2.54 1.2 0.27 0.685 50.20 1.0 CF 0.00 2.63 2.80 2.45 0.40 1. G and A mean carbon.05 FF 1.0 75.60 CR2L2 1.45 0.63 2.24 0.17 0.63 2.63 2.63 2.63 2. The reason will be explained later.14 25.27 1. C.866 33.45 0.50 1.0 50.
This higher bond stress is accompanied by less interfacial softening ductility. The overall interfacial stiffness is greater if the adhesive is stiffer before the initial peeling off. From the initial peeling off to the macro interfacial crack propagation or the maximum interfacial load (marked with ellipses). Comparatively. After that. This fact can be understood as follows: higher FRP stiffness leads to lower local strain level but longer load transfer length at initial peeling. The whole interfacial fracture energy hardly changes irrespective of FRP stiffness.4). upon which the observed different bond mechanisms can be clarified precisely. it does not decrease obviously when the softer adhesive is used. Meanwhile. Many experimental studies show that the maximum local bond stress increases but the strain of FRP sheets at peeling decreases with increasing the FRP stiffness 2.Bond Stress Slip Relations for FRPConcrete Interfaces 147 peeling and ultimate interfacial loads increase with the FRP stiffness (elasticity modulusxthickness). the local peeling does not affect the overall interfacial stiffness obviously in comparison with the cases where higher shear stiffness adhesives are used.3). the progressive interfacial softening is interrupted by the FRP fracture (see CR3L2 in Fig.395.4. As the authors reported previously2. the overall interfacial stiffness decreases significantly in the case of stiffer adhesive. these differences necessitate the development of a reasonable interfacial constitutive model. And finally. The initial peeling happened at almost the same slip values (see Fig. As a result. In other words. may be similar in both cases. These different interfacial fracture mechanisms affected by different adhesive shear stiffness indicate that the overall structural performances of FRP strengthened RC elements can be optimized through appropriate adhesives. the lower shear stiffness adhesives increase the effective bond length significantly. The effects of adhesive layers on the loadslip curves are shown in Fig. the interfacial energy Gf is defined as the area under the bond stress slip curve. INTERFACIAL FRACTURE ENERGY Based on the nonlinear fracture mechanics. It can be seen that low shear stiffness adhesives can lead to higher initial peeling and ultimate interfacial loads. concrete prefers fracture at higher stress but lower strain level when the high stiffness FRP is used in the interfaces. So the overall slip value. and vice versa. as shown later. the overall interfacial stiffness decreases more slowly when the stiffness of FRP stiffness is lower. lower FRP stiffness leads to higher local strain but shorter load transfer length4. However. In a single lap pullout . which is the integration of the FRP strains along the load transfer length.
Fig.E . I I = I E . = 0 0 0 ECAC (x) At the maximum interfacial load P.6 shows the experimental ultimate loads of the interfaces with different FRP types and different FRP stiffness but the same adhesive. E .(4) was proven by previous researcher^^.924~0514 10 x=l x=o a 0 20 0 40 60 80 Ertf (GPamm) b Fig. the boundary conditions E(x)=P.. A p I (x) + E . ( x ) . / b . It is obviously seen that Gf increases with decreasing shear stiffness of adhesive layers. (l+)E. It can be seen that the ultimate load is nearly proportional to the square root of FRP stiffness.. a can be approximated as 0..(2) as follows: m G.(4) and the shear stiffness of adhesive layer. ( E . at any interfacial location: E . = (1 + Q ) ( P .5.A. Ac&./E&fbfat x=O and E(x)=O at x=l can be substituted into Eq. (x) = 0 (2) If the interfacial slip is defined as the strain difference between FRP sheets and concrete then. Eq.(4) is not only applicable for bilinear but also for any unknown Ts relation. it can be seen that the interfacial fracture energy is almost a constant value regardless of FRP type or FRP stiffness.Eftf relation case as shown as in Fig.(4). ~ .the whole . so that G .6 and Eq. V or P.^. Based on energy or force equilibrium method and the assumptions of some bilinear Ts relations.7 shows the relation between the calculated interfacial fracture energy based on Eq. ( x ) ) ~ (Ex ~) = J E . It is clearly shown that Eq. t .148 FRPRCS 6:Bond Behaviour pu (W t experin entaldata ke regressng 20 y4.6 P. Gf can be written incorporating Eq. in general. To have a further view of the adhesive's effects on the Gf .(x)d&. A. Fig.= b d'4" (4) 2Eftf where a=EfAdE. for the case of long bond length (end slip s(x)=O at x=l).(3). Through the comparison between the regressed expression in Fig.5 Single lap shear test Fig.
.. an extra interfacial Gfl is consumed (see Fig.8).7 Effects of adhesive on Gf Fig. =G. LOCAL BOND STRESSSLIP RELATION An important task of pullout bond tests for FRP sheetsconcrete interfaces is to propose a precise interfacial bond stressslip model. m m m G . the adhesive layer undertakes a loading and unloading process before and after initial peeling.ta/Ga. = jrds = j r d ( s . +G. As a result.Bond Stress Slip Relations for FRPConcrete Interfaces I49 interfacial slip can be separated into two parts: the adhesive's shear displacement s. If the interfacial crack surface propagates a unit area. ) = 0 jrds.5 0 0 0. the thickness almost has no affect as reported previously'./fa ( G P a/m m ) Fig. When stiff adhesive is used. + s o . Therefore. and slippage sacbetween adhesive and concrete. when the shear stress in the soft adhesive layer reaches the interfacial peeling stress zmaX2.5 1 1.5 b G . So the shear displacement of adhesive layer before and after the interfacial softening can be written as: sa=T. Though many interfacial bond tests have been carried out.8 Shear stressdisplacement of adhesive However. As shown in Fig. the adhesive lies in nonlinear period. (5) 0 In fact. when the shear stress in hard adhesive reaches the interfacial peeling stress T... no reasonable model has been proposed probably mainly due to the observed random scattering of Ts curves at different location^^'^.therefore: G/(N/mm) * experh e n t a l d a t a 1..~'.. 0 0 m + J T ~ S . the adhesive layer lies in elastic period. it is not convincing to pick up one of those different Ts curves as the overall interfacial model. It can be seen as well that the thickness of bond layer affects the interfacial performance more in soft adhesive cases due to its larger plastic shear deformation capacity.8. And also it is difficult to discuss the effects of interfacial components on the Ts .
S*). = f(r(s). rmmE ( Z .s2 are the possible ranges of.150 FRPRCS 6:Bond Behaviour relations. 10 Proposed z .2 0 0.z2and s1. the experimental strain of FRP sheets at every interfacial location E(ij)exp(j=l. Therefore. upon which a reasonable interfacial bond stressslip model can be proposed.  G f T m m “max 7 E(SI. determined based on pullout test results of every specimen. upon which the most suitable Ts relation is determined. S m a x l+A P where: zI. strain gages with a small interval are usually required to be arranged along the FRP sheets to record strain distributions of FRP during the whole test procedure. The criterion. (7b) s > smaY The objective function is: m J =Min I=] 2 n 1C ( E .n. .7 .n is the number of continuously arranged gages) can be obtained.n) can be obtained analytically as well’. the interfacial strain distribution E(ij)na U=l. .. On the other hand.E f t .R1L3 36 RZLl R3L1 w5 4000 3000 2000 1000 U 0 c4 8 3 2 1 0 ++F~~C3~NLC N N 0.  which are .Smax 1) ‘ma. l ) .6 Locatbn 6m ) 0. which is assumed as follows: 7 = Tmax (1 s .8 Sbhm) Fig.012m 0 I 7000 6000 5000 8 .9 comparison between experimental and analytical interfacial strain distribution Fig.. the following constraint conditions for the optimum calculation are given according to the definition of the Gf: I ‘mm . 7 S 2 (7a) Smax Smax = e x ~ ( . .s relations Corresponding to each step of load (PI) or slip (sJ. . Z 2 ) . it is necessary to build up a rule. 1 J Meanwhile. ~ ”~ ) E. z and sm. In order to obtain the local interfacial bond behaviors.z 2 In ‘g9 m exp 4s=0._ . A e ( 0 . is to find an optimum solutions to minimize the differences between E(i. if a local bond stressslip model is given. In this study a multidimensional nonlinear optimum program is made to calibrate the unknown parameters needed for a nonlinear Ts relation.4 0.j)expand for every specimen.P ( s.  .
554 K0. which ~ .575aK + J 2 .’(MPa) 3. 12).12 Comparison of experimental and analytical results (adhesives’ effects) . Gf(N/mm) can be obtained as follows: G/ . Fig. 540 50 3 30 ‘CRlLl 0CRILI Ew 40 ANA 30 20 0 0.7.028 ( E f t f ) 0 . 2 5 4 (9) (10) /3 = 0.CRlW EXP CRlW ANA  10 0. 4 8 1 a ’ K in.5 Slip(mm) Fig. the above loadslip relations can be predicted as well (see Fig.1 0.9.1.11 Comparison of experimental and analytical results (FW stiffness’ effects) .CR3L2 EXP 10 0 0..0 0.(7) to 13.7 0.2 0. ~ . Through these bond stress slip curves. t . (8) 28 /(a) = 0.0 ~ 20 . It can be concluded that reasonable agreement is reached.3 0 4 0. can be predicted by these models appropriately.8 Slip(mm) Fig.1 0.6 0.7(b) can be determined as follows: .2 0.3aP 2 K G . finally the parameters for Eq.343 (13) According to Eqs.CRlL2 EXP 0CRIL2ANA ‘CWLZEXP ACWL2 ANA .Bond Stress Slip Relations for FRPConcrete Interfaces 151 Fig. Through the optimum back calculation analysis on all specimens with different FRP stiffness and adhesives.10 gives different bond stressslip curves of FRP sheetsconcrete interfaces with different adhesives and number of FRP layers.’ 4 (1 1) smax ~1 = rmax A = 0.0035 K ( E . The experimentally observed maximum bond stress and interfacial d u ~ t i l i t y ~ . ~ . 11 and Fig. = + 6.are affected by FRP stiffness and adhesives. (fc’)0. ) 0 . Based on the prksent study and with the consideration of the effects of concrete strength f.7(a) and Eq.3 0.9 shows an example of comparison between the experimental and analytical strain distribution.449.4 0.5 0.575 (12) where K=Ga/ta (MPdmm) and Eftf (GPamm) are the stiffness o adhesive and FRP respectively.
784791 T. pp. pp.2. Vol.N. 2739. pp. No. 5. 1996. ACI Structural Journal. J. a local nonlinear interfacial bond stressslip model is developed based on the interfacial fracture energy and an optimum method. Proceedings of an International Symposium on Adhesion between Polymer and Concrete..253266. Vol. JSCE. Journal of Structural Engineering.167.7. Strengthening of Concrete Prisms Using the Platebonding Technique. pp. 127. 3. Ueda et al. No. Chen.Bizindavyi and K. ASCE.152 FRPRCS 6:Bond Behaviour CONCLUDING REMARKS Using moderately low shear stiffness adhesive may become a selectable way to improve the interfacial performances of FRP sheets bonded to concrete and to utilize the high strength of FRP materials in a more efficient way.359. 4. J. et al.2001.. Swamy.3.. Bond of FiberReinforced Polymer Laminates to Concrete. Increasing the FRP stiffness can result in an increase the maximum bond stress and the ultimate bond force. Hong YUAN et al. L. No. the interfacial fracture energy and the strength efficiency of FRP cannot be improved.W. No. No. Mech. REFERENCES 1. pp. 9. Bond Behavior between FiberReinforced Polymer Laminates and Concrete. ACI Material Journal. The good toughness and the nonlinearity of low stiffness adhesive contribute to longer effective bond length. 2001. Translationfrom Proceedings of JSCE. However..1. 2001. V.Neale. 7.82. Structural. New Approach for Usage of Continuous Fiber as NonMetallic Reinforcement of Concrete.18.F. 6. Transfer Length and Bond Strength for Sheets Bonded to Concrete. and Teng. 8.648N47.3.98. pp.2000 Bjorn Taljsten. Nakaba et al. The proposed model can be taken as a reference for selecting suitable interfacial bonding materials and optimizing the design of FRP strengthened RC elements.. 3. Earthquake Eng. 2002. No. Structural Engineering International... Anchorage Strength Model for FRP and Steel Plates Bonded to Concrete. V01. 4. pp. 2. To describe the different interfacial bond mechanisms caused by different interfacial components. pp 153160 Yasuhiko Sat0 et al. . V. R. Laura De Lorenzis et al. more ductile interfacial deformation and higher interfacial fracture energy. J.256264. Shear Adhesion Properties of Epoxy Resin Adhesives. International Journal of Fracture. 1986... Vo1.741755 K. Journal of Sheets for Construction. Theoretical Solutions on Interfacial Stress Transfer of Externally Bonded SteelKomposite Plates.1999. Fundamental Study on Bond Mechanism of Carbon Fiber Sheet.98.G. July.111116. Sept.
bond problems can be treated mathematically. With transparent models. With this tool. this strengthening method has been used even more often and today many applications can be found. In many practical cases. The latter situation is characterized by the presence of a crack which has a weakening effect. 810 July 2003 Edited by Kiang Hwee Tan QWorld Scientific Publishing Company BILINEAR STRESSSLIP BOND MODEL: THEORETICAL BACKGROUND AND SIGNIFICANCE T. In order to find an appropriate way to investigate arbitrary bond situations. the existence of this property is considered as given and no further investigations are performed. 8600 DuebendorJ. Singapore. VOGEL Znstitute of Structural Engineering (ZBK). 8093 Zurich. Since then. . In the 80s and 90s. concrete and plate reinforcement. research projects aimed at establishing the use of carbon fibrereinforced plastic plates for the same purpose. it is possible to derive the hardening behaviour "at low load" and the softening behaviour "at high load". some micromechanical considerations are presented first. Switzerland U. there are only few scientifically established but applicable approaches which help to treat this question'. requires the presence of a sufficient bond which enables the transfer of forces. INTRODUCTION The application of externally bonded steel plates for the strengthening of reinforced concrete structures was already widespread in the 1970s. a good agreement between theoretical and experimental results can be found. The simplest way to idealize these findings is a bilinear stressslip relationship. ULAGA AND T. The interaction between the components. Switzerland Bond is the basic property that enables a successful strengthening of concrete structures with CFRP plates. Finally. In fact. some simple but very useful formulas can be derived. MEIER Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA) Ueberlandstrasse 129. ETH Zurich Hoenggerberg.FRPRCS6. In the case of anchorage capacity considerations.
the bond situation turns into that of "bond at high load". A continuous increase of the load will cause the sudden development of a crack in the weakest element.+ dN. it can be used as a powerful tool for a variety of bond considerations. Y8 c Nl adhesive N. When this occurs.154 FRPRCS 6:Bond Behaviour In order to characterize the bond properties. that is. A slip displacement. laminate' 8 Y YP failure criterion Figure 1: "Bond at low load" Assumptions The shear deformations are considered to be concentrated in the adhesive layer only. a stressslip relationship can be used. . of the two elements is possible due to shear deformations in the adhesive layer. When the curve is simple but still sufficiently considers the real behaviour. sI. in the concrete body. BOND ANALYSIS "Bond at low load" Basics Figure I(a) displays a CFRP plateconcrete bond situation "at low load". The corresponding shear stressshear strain relationship is given in Figure l(b).
so that the Walraven theory must be modified in order to find an appropriate bond stress model. therefore the situation can be considered as "bond at high load".. which can be estimated with the modified Coulomb failure criterion2 [Figure I(c)].. the aggregate particles cause local abrasion effects in the matrix of the opposite crack face..f. Apparently. In the case of the present considerations the displacement process is different. respectively. In order to model the geometry of this process a simple assumption appears to be appropriate: the displacement of the crack faces is governed by an inclined opening where the angle a is the decisive parameter. orf. Assumptions The concrete body consists of perfectly spherical aggregate particles which are embedded in a cement matrix. also requires an increase of the crack width. This stress is related to the concrete shear strength.Bilinear StressSlip Bond Model 155 Modelling With the diagram in Figure l(b) the slip. This aggregate interlock mechanism enables the transfer of bond forces across the crack plane. s~. He established a closedform mathematical model which was used to determine bond stresses in specimens that were subjected to pure shear load. is defined . A crack plane has separated the plate from the body. For compatibility reasons. (2). A crack in the concrete body will start to grow when the shear stress q0 is achieved.. The aggregate ratio. the increase of the slip. With Eq. w. pa. s/... The analysis of aggregate interlock mechanisms was investigated by Walraven3. "Bond at high load" Basics In Figure 2(a). it is possible to consider the fact that zIo is focused on one particular location and therefore generally will be slightly higher thanf.can be determined according to Eq. a longitudinal section through a CFRP platestrengthened concrete beam is given. (1).
p =v a a (3) vc The abrasion of the matrix causes normal and shear stresses.76 FRPRCS 6: Bond Behaviour according to Eq. ( 5 ) and can be estimated corresponding to experimental results found by Walraven [Eq..1. (4). in the cementaggregate contact zone [Figure 2(b)]. (3) and the distribution of the diameters is described by the Fuller function in Eq. These stresses are related according to Eq. (6)]. 'mu = P'Omu (5) Figure 2: "Bond at high load" Aggregate interlock theoryfor an inclined crack opening: an overview The crack faces contain aggregate particles which partly protrude from the cement matrix. The question that shall be treated in a first step is how many . om.and z~.
the contact angle.. r 7 . For this purpose. d o 2. (12).. respectively.Bilinear StressSlip Bond Model 157 aggregate sphere caps could be expected to be found in a unit area of a crack face.. and T~. o. or F. cp. The answer can be formulated as a probability density function for the twodimensional case: Eq... follows from Eq.sin(cr+p)] The third step aims at combining the single aspects that were treated before. The most probable contact angle.ornu 'sin p~[cos(a+p)p. K 4 In the second step.. When the length and the angle of an opening vector. Integration of the stresses in the contact zone will provide the interlock forces of the considered intersection circle [Eq..sin p. $. is known. (9). Eq. some probabilistic aspects need to be considered.. . can be determined from Eq. '5mu . v and a. and integration over the entire aggregate diameter range. (8).[sin(a+p)+p.can be determined by multiplication of p n and F. The global aggregate interlock stresses according to Figure 2(c). F. are given and the embedment depth of the intersection circle. .. . L .cos(a + p)] FmZ(p) = do. (10) and ( 1 l)]. c. (p) = do. (7) indicates the number of intersection circles with a diameter do2which can be expected to be intersected by a horizontal unit length. the geometry and the stresses of the contact zone of an intersection circle with a diameter do2 is studied [Figure 2(b)].
3 0 s/[mml 0. f2'3 G s .= 43 MPa " 0 s/ [mml 0. (5) and (6). f. according to Eq. f.4.. In the present considerations the concrete strength parameters A. a.f.fo. not as fixed constants..158 FRPRCS 6:Bond Behaviour Parameters In order to evaluate the theoretical aggregate interlock model.. In the vicinity of the concrete surface large aggregate particles are missing.. (13). Stressslip relationship: theoretically derived and idealized curve The considerations that were presented before can be combined in order to obtain the stressslip relationship in Figure 3(a).225 [mm] .725. are related to the concrete cylinder compressive strength. a = 4/3 "at low load": "at high load": p. is of major significance. pa. Finally. s.. therefore the depth of the crack plane. d.3 Model Parameters Gg= 10 GPa. a set of parameters must be defined.. and the maximum aggregate size. = 0. fo. t. The parameters correspond to the average results from numerous experiments and can be considered as "reasonable" values. are geometrical parameters that describe the architecture of the concrete structure.5 mm Characteristic parameters zI0= a . The aggregate ratio. om.= 0. tg = 1 mm. a = 45" t = 1. = sIn Figure 3: Stressslip relationships + 0.. is used to characterize the inclination of the crack face displacement. dmx = 8 mm. and T~.8 .. 5 in  in t.. the crack opening vector.
was calibrated according to experimental results. The characteristic parameters of the hardening branch. Eq. (14) '. The parameter of the softening branch. (1 7) and (1 8). A good approximation can be achieved with the bilinear stressslip relationship in Figure 3(b). In the case of a particular bond problem. T ~ Oand sl0. SIGNIFICANCE Theory In Figure 4(a). the stresses and strains can be derived easily.Bilinear StressSlip Bond Model 159 In order to use the stressslip relationship for theoretical investigations the curves in Figure 3(a) must be simplified. sI1. Figure 4: Theory basics . the boundary conditions can be formulated in order to determine the coefficientsA . a differential element of a tension chord reinforced with CFRP plates on two opposite faces is given.With further calculations. When concrete and plate display linear behaviour according to Figure 4(b). The function zI(sl) represents an arbitrary stressslip relationship [Figure 4(c)]. can be derived from the case "bond at low load". B. C and D. respectively. equilibrium and compatibility requirements result in the differential Eq. The integration of these equations provides the general solutions. It can be replaced by the bilinear stressstrain relationship in Figure 3(b) and the differential equation can be transformed into Eqs. . (15) and (16) which correspond to mathematical models for the hardening branch (index I ) and the softening branch (index I .
(22). tests by several authors were considered4s5969728. a comparison between theory (according to Eq. The admissible simplification according to Eq. When the length of the bond zone is shorter. The specific bond fracture energy. it is important to know the capacity of such a detail. a set up similar to that . ZbO. the capacity remains constant according to Eq. Fb. For practical dimensioning tasks. that is. S/" =0 Comparison with experiments In Figure 5. (21) indicates the bond capacity.corresponds to the area underneath the bilinear stressslip curve and can be determined according to Eq. GFb. (20). Eq. For this purpose. (23). a model of an anchorage situation is displayed. The basics that were given above can be applied to find very useful formulas. (19) enables one to find the most efficient bond length. any lengthening beyond Zbo will bring no benefit. When it is longer.160 FRPRCS 6:Bond Behaviour Anchorage capacityformulas In Figure 4(d). (20) to (22)) and experimental results for bond capacity is given. Eq. In all cases.
stresses and strains and bond coefficients.27 mm. = 200 GPa f.=25MPa & = 52 Mpa / uO 'b0 Fb/ b. = t 5 mm. = 175 GPa 0 Figure 5 : Comparison between theory and experiment CONCLUSIONS With mechanical bond analysis. Hence.27 mm. E. = 175 GPa f. In general. it is possible to derive the shape of the stressslip relationship: a hardening branch turns into a softening branch when a crack occurs that weakens the bond structure. = 1000 Imml uo 'b0 Fb / b. a good agreement between theory and experiment can be observed. Further potential The derivation of anchorage capacity formulas represents one possible application of the bilinear stressslip bond model. It can also be used for the examination of tension chords with mixed reinforcement: internal steel bars and external CFW plates.Bilinear StressSlip Bond Model 161 in Figure 4(d) was used. E. [Nlmm] f. [N/mm] 1. A simple but appropriate idealization of the bond behaviour can be obtained with the . Fb / b. E. a variety of applications is possible. The analysis provides crack distances. [Nlmm] 1. = 1.
Beuth Verlag GmbH. 8. U.272. W. S. pp. fracture 0 1 aggregate 2 bond concrete.: Tragverhalten von Stahlbeton. Delft University of Technology. V. Berlin. Berlin. shear modulus internal force volume coefficient. pp.. 7. 2. The bilinear stressslip relationship can be used for the mathematical investigation of various bond situations and therefore represents a powerful analysis tool. pp. E. Meier. Hankers. ~ . J. Holzenkampfer. Beuth Verlag GmbH. Lulea University.: Zur Trugfihigkeit von Verklebungen vischen Buustuhl und Beton. 5. DABtb. 1997. P. Sept. 173 pp. Alvarez. 1999.162 FRPRCS 6: Bond Behaviour bilinear stressslip relationship. Dissertation.381. Kaufmann. Proceedings of the IABMAS'02 Conference. M. B.. distribution width embedment depth diameter strength length modular ratio slip.: Aggregate Interlock: A Theoretical and Experimental Analysis. IBK. cube 3 I g adhesive II i interlock I plate m matrix max maximum min minimum n number r crack t tension u ultimate r shear F a b c index index index index index index REFERENCES 1. Strengthening of Existing Concrete Structures with Epoxy Bonded Plates of Steel or Fibre Reinforced Plastics. Heft 54. pp. 301 pp.. 190 pp. Ch. 1999. PhD thesis. Sigrist. Barcelona. Division of Structural Engineering.H. TU Braunschweig. 4. 7 . 2002. 3.: The premature Failure of CFRP laminateStrengthened Concrete Structures. Marti. DAfStb. ETH Zurich. Neubauer.. 109 209. 1980. 271 . Rostasy. Taljsten. 6. Ranisch. depth displacement v vector length w crack width x coordinate y coordinate z coordinate a angle y shear strain E strain q substitute p coefficient of friction p ratio (T normal stress T shear stress cp angle m substitute Fuller. C. U. Heft 473.: Zum Verbundtragverhalten laschenverstarkter Betonbauteile unter nicht vorwiegend ruhender Beanspruchung.: Plate Bonding.: Bond Failure of Fiber Reinforced Polymer Plates at Inclined Cracks Experiments and Fracture Mechanics Model. F. 197 PP. length thickness. 1997. Proceedings of the FRPRCS4 Symposium. Vogel. P.: Ingenieurmodelle des Verbunds geklebter Bewehrung fur Betonbauteile. Publikation SP008. Ulaga. Heft 473. T. Walraven.. 369 .. Baltimore. T. 1982. NOTATION Roman and Greek letters A E F G N V a 6 c d f I n s r u Subscripts area modulus of elasticity force fracture energy. Delft University Press.107.
Structural Engineering. Singapore. A non linear interface law is then proposed. so that the stiffness of the initial branch is well predicted.concrete interface is proposed. In the present paper. MAZZOTTI DISTART . local slips may be so high that stress state reaches the softening branch of interface law. mechanical and physical properties of concrete.slip data.FRPRCS6. It is also shown that. It is shown that compliances of both adhesive and concrete cover must be considered.concrete bonding. Estimate of corresponding stiffness requires both adhesive and a layer of concrete cover to be taken into account. The interface law is almost linear for shear stresses lower than half of maximum shear stress. Italy A non linear interface law is proposed for FRF' . The thickness of concrete cover contributing to overall . for service loadings. SAVOIA.' Nevertheless. the definition of a nonlinear constitutive law for the FRPconcrete interface is still an unsolved problem. composite and adhesive play an important role in the bonding and effectiveness of the reinforcement. 810 July 2003 Edited by Gang Hwee Tan QWorld Scientific Publishing Company NON LINEAR BONDSLIP LAW FOR FRPCONCRETE INTERFACE M. B. where strains on FRP plates are measured at different loading levels. Starting from a set of experimental results reported in the literature 2. Two sets of experimental results concerning strains in FRPplates and sheets at different levels of axial force and different bond lengths are used to derive local values of shear stress . The corresponding stiffness estimated from experimental data is compared with theoretical previsions. a non linear constitutive law for FRP . Interface behavior can be considered linear for shear stresses lower than one half of maximum stress. Faculty of Engineering. FERRACUTI AND C. 3. A small statistic variation in data is obtained at low stress levels. A correct interface law is required to predict behavior under both service loading and ultimate failure load. Its assessment is performed by numerical simulations making use of a model recently developed by the authors: Strains in the bonded region are found to be in good agreement with experimental results. INTRODUCTION In FRPplatelsheet strengthening problems. shear stress . University of Bologna.slip couples are calculated and used to define a local bondslip law for the FWconcrete interface. Bologna. the thickness of the latter being equal to about 30 mm. since they strongly influence both strength and stiffness.
the interface law is highly non linear. Finally. local slips may be so high that shear stress state reaches the softening branch of interface law. deformation of an external layer of about 3050 mm thickness is considered in practical cases. Fracture energy of constitutive interface law is an important condition to be satisfied to predict the correct value of maximum transmissible load through the interface. interface compliance depends on shearing deformation of both adhesive and external cover of concrete. on the features of the adopted structural model. plates and. It is shown that. the transmission length of interface is very small. Several data on strains or displacements must be obtained within that length. Using the model recently developed by the authors for the study of FRPplated tensile members. Good agreement between experimental and numerical results has been found. even for service loadings (about one half of failure load). with reference to a member under pure tension. less than about 80100 mm from extremities or cracked sections.164 FRPRCS 6: Bond Behaviour interface compliance can be estimated to be about 30 mm. Moreover. in agreement with results by other authors. On the other hand. where the second item is usually the prevailing one due to the small thickness of the adhesive (about 0. as is to be expected. In the softening branch of the interface law (that is. much more scattered. possibly. for slips greater than that corresponding to the maximum shear stress) the experimental results are. Moreover. slip must be referred to as average displacement of concrete . In fact. if plane strain assumption is adopted for individual elements (concrete. The peak shear stress is shown to strongly depend on the kind of failure.1 mm in real applications). steel bars). 5 experimental tests have then been numerically simulated. DEFINITION OF A FRPCONCRETE INTERFACE LAW The definition of a constitutive interface FRPconcrete law is still a difficult task for several reasons. experimental evaluation of total shear force . that is. For instance. as far as strains in FRPplateshheets and maximum loads are concerned. Fracture energy is mainly governed by the softening branch.maximum slip curves alone is not sufficient to provide data to define a local interface law. slip may exceed that corresponding to the maximum shear stress. At load levels typical of service loadings (about 50 % of maximum load). the interface law also depends on the kinematic variables the law is referred to. Usually. Failure modes that occurred at the interface level (peeling failures) show peak shear stresses about one half of those corresponding to concrete failure. 4. allowing one to one predict a correct order of magnitude of transmission length.
the average value of shear stress between two subsequent strain gages can be written as a function of the difference of measured strains as: X  h. Considering an elastic behavior for the composite. interface law must be defined with reference to adhesive thickness only. The two series of tests are named CFJTPlate2 and MNDSheet. in the following. POSTPROCESSING OF EXPERIMENTAL DATA Two set of experimental data are analyzed (Figure 1). This aspect is very important also when interface properties are obtained by postprocessing experimental data.2 mm). = thickness and shear modulus of adhesive. it must include deformability of concrete external layer. [mml 1..37 Fi ure 1: Geometrical and mechanical roperties of specimens tested by Chajes et al. that is. Q P  . For instance. Strain profiles were shown at different loading levels and maximum load was measured.Non Linear BondSlip Law f o r FRPConcrete Inte@ace 165 crosssection.8 mm length and subject to pure axial load.bond length. Nanni and De Lorenzis.8 mm to 203.E. if shear stress / slip data are obtained from strains in FRPplates. the interface law includes deformation of both adhesive and concrete cover (see the following Section).6 1. respectively. Five strain gages along the bonded plate were used to measure axial strains in FRPplate. Nanni and De Lorenzis (BL .slip data (Figure 2). if a F. The second set of data is obtained from an experimental test performed by Miller.f. Seven strain gages were used to measure FRP strains. The first set of tests was performed by Chajes et a1 on CFRF' plates bonded to concrete blocks with four different bond lengths (from 50. and Miller. twodimensional discretization is adopted. strain data along the FRP plate at different loading levels have been used to calculate shear stress . G. In the present study. On the contrary. The origin of xaxis is taken at the end of the bonded plate. adopting a particular bending setup where a composite carbonfiber sheet was bonded on the concrete for a 304. = compressive strength of concrete). h.
 S.02 mm) is almost independent of bond length and loading level. available data do not allow to conclude if this irregularity is due to the small thickness of the sheet (compared with the k . Ep being cross section and elastic modulus of the composite. an evident softening behavior can be seen.166 FRPRCS 6: Bond Behaviour with Ap. Comparing results from CFJTPlate tests. All the data sets exhibit a maximum value of shear stress between 6.+]is then computed. . The soobtained shear stressslip couples ( S. it can be verified that stiffness of initial branch (slip 5 0.8 mm) where actual slips are underestimated.5 MPa. probably due to the assumption of null slip at the extremity. For slips higher than 0. respectively. The only exception is represented by the results obtained from the smallest bond length case (50. a unique peak value of shear stress can hardly be defined in this case: local values of shear stresses at lower levels of axial force are greater than those obtained under higher forces. Since one bond length only has been considered.5 MPa and 7.+l (4 (b) (c) Figure 2: (a) Experimental data on strains in FRPcomposites. Results obtained from MNDSheet3 are similar from the qualitative point of view.2) are reported in Figs 3 and 4 with reference to CFJTPlate and MNDSheet tests. with x.05 mm. Nevertheless. (b) average shear stresses and (c) FRPconcrete slips. I x < xi+l: where the initial condition s(O)=O is assumed. The average value of slip between x. Moreover. and x. assuming for the sake of simplicity that perfect bonding (no slip) occurs at the end of bonded plate and concrete strain is negligible with respect to FRP counterpart. and results are more scattered.+l. integration of strain profile gives the following expression for the slip at x.
291 KN 12.3 Slip (mm) 4.1 0.1 0.2 0.900 KN 11.561 KN 7.12 KN 13.5 1.4.57 KN 16.2 0. .8 Slip (mm) Figure 4: Shear stress . 203.57 KN 4.3 0.2 mm).9 1.034 KN 7.813 KN ___. for 304.2 0.2 1.001 KN 9.8 mm bond length.3 0 0.6. 101.8.slip data obtained from experimental data MNDSheet3.707 KN 10.  +8. slips significantly higher than in the previous case are reached in the softening branch.3 0 0. 0 0. Moreover.6 0.2 0.Non Linear BondSlip Law for FRPConcrete Integace 167 previous case) or it represents a statistical deviation.46 KN + 0 0.3 Slip (mm) Slip (mm) Figure 3: Shear stress .1 Slip (mm) 0.198 KN 11. for different values of bond length (50.203 KN W m $ 6 i3 \ \\ 0 0.350 KN 15.1 0. 152.624 KN 7. 5.slip data obtained from CFJTPlate2 tests.
and n is a free parameter. All the data related to the same experiment are grouped together.z is the peak shear stress. Table 1: Stiffness of initial branch of interface law: mean value and correlation index. since they are considered as local data.concrete interface obtained from CFJTPlate experimental data. Since bond failure occurred by concrete failure.5 fc0. The so obtained bond .concrete interface law. .168 FRPRCS 6:Bond Behaviour THE PROPOSED NONLINEAR INTERFACE LAW Shear stress .3 3.1 MPdmm 0.. independently of the value of axial force and bond length.proposed interice law =. Parameters S . S a reference slip (close to the slip corresponding to zmax). with fc stress was estimated by the authors2 as.4 n = 2. thickness of concrete cover contributing to interface compliance. An interpolation function is then proposed ’ where.l 0. Comparison with Experimental Results by Chajes et al.’.2 Slip (mm) 0.9355 hc Mean value 26 mm .slip curve for FRP .slip data are used to calibrate a non linear FRP . 10 ~ results Curvefitting parameters .051 m m 0. 1 0 0. CFJTPlate2 Interface stiffness Mean value Correlation index 184. .860 Figure 5: Bond .93 MPa . .z ..*9 = 6.slip law is reported in Figure 5 and compared with experimental data. (3) have been obtained from a least square minimization between theoretical and experimental data.93 MPa S= 0.n in Eq.z denoting the compressive strength.5f.”= 6. the maximum value of shear = 3.
The value of fracture energy of the proposed interface law has been also computed. z = k. strains in FRPplates along the bonded length are reported. and subscripts a.e. for different values of applied force.mm. maximum transmissible load is strictly related to interface fracture energy.1 . = Iz(s) d s =1. In Figure 6.~. The data show that a concrete cover of 26 mm thickness contributes to interface compliance (see Table 1).2 mm). resulting in: G. According to reference~~. fracture energy can be estimated as4 Gf=ahrrn = 1. where stiffness coefficient k.0. so assessing the proposed interface law. The model adopts axial displacements and axial forces of different materials as unknown variables. Moreover.No# Linear BondSlip Law for FRPConcrete Inte$ace 169 In order to estimate the stiffness of the initial branch. Moreover. = 1 (4) ha IGa + hc IGc where h.concrete slips.658). s. Interface laws between different materials are defined. . the thickness of concrete cover hc contributing to interface compliance has been evaluated by assuming a linear interface behavior. Considering a Mode I1 fracture mechanism for the concrete.mm (with a=0. Finally. Moreover. experimental tests have been simulated making use of the model recently proposed by the authors for FRPplates RC members. This result confirms the experimental evidence that adhesive thickness usually has no significant influence on interface stiffness.c for adhesive and concrete.723 MPa. in real applications. Results obtained by numerical simulations agree well with experimental results (considering the unavoidable scattering of experimental results). 12% higher than given by the present interface law. and concrete compliance contribution may be even more than 5 times greater than adhesive counterpart in this case. adopting the bondslip interface law reported in Figure 5. and the governing equations are solved by Finite Difference Method. It is also worth noting that compliance of concrete cover is comparable with adhesive compliance. respectively.537MPa. Figure 7 shows the corresponding profiles of shear stresses along ’.. (5) It is worth noting that the softening branch of the curve has a strong influence on fracture energy. a statistical analysis of experimental data has been performed. whose results are reported in Table 1. is given by: k. i. adhesive thickness is even much smaller (usually about 0. G stand for thickness and shear modulus. that is for low value of FRP .
109 kN $0 ' 0 40 x (mm) 80 120 0 50 100 150 200 250 x (mm) Figure 7: Shear stresses along the FRP . obtained from numerical simulation.6 rnrn 40004 2 3000 w k 1/3 2000 1000 20 x (rnrn) 40 00 5000  0 1 1 60 120 5000  L= 152.6 mrn L=203. . 8 L=101.170 FRPRCS 6:Bond Behaviour the bonded surface.concrete interface for different loadings. at the beginning of bonded length.2mrn 11.813 kN 2.2rnrn 50 0 x (mm) 100 150 200 250 x (mm) Figure 6: Strains in FRP plate (CFJTPlate' tests): experimental results and numerical simulations adopting the proposed non linear interface law. when the maximum 5000li 50007 L=50.57 kN 12.80 mm L101.4mm 40 80 120 160 L=203. Note the softening interface behavior.
Good agreement between numerical and experimental results is found.Non Linear BondSlip Law for FRPConcrete Inteflace I71 2 33 c 8000 4000 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 BL (mm) Figure 8: Maximum transmissible force vs. bond length (CFJTPlate2tests): experimental results and numerical results adopting the non linear interface law. As already stated. experimental results and numerical simulations. Finally.05 mm. Nanni and De Lorenzis. Nanni and De Lorenzis Analogous study has been performed with reference to experimental results by Miller.e. slip is greater than 0. maximum transmissible load as a function of bond length is reported in Figure 8. L=304.5 1 Slip (mm) (a) 1. i.8 m m 'i$ 6000 proposed interface law 2000\ 0 0. The bond slip curve obtained 10000 7 8000 6  . Softening interface behavior corresponds to a change of curvature in FRP strain diagrams (see Figure 6).5 2 0 100 200 300 x (mm) (b) Figure 9: MNDSheet3tests: (a) proposed non linear interface law. . the higher scattering of experimental results is probably due to the fact that singlelayer FRP sheets (0. (b) strains in FRP sheets. Comparison with experimental results by Miller. for axial forces about 60 percent of failure loads.165 mm) were adopted in This case.
Eng. Mech.. "Cracking evolution in WC tensile members strengthened by FRPplates". Germany.98 and S =0. 2002. 208217. Project "Theoretical and Experimental Analysis on CompositeConcrete Bonding for RC Members Reinforced by Composites".W. "A numerical approach to the complete stressstrain relation for concrete". pp.3.. Omnipress Publs. "Plate end shear design for external CFRP laminates". Externally bonded FRP reinforcementfor RC structures. 4. ACI Material J. Mech. 1996. pp. ACI StructuralJ. with significant values of transmissible shear stress for slips up to about 1.. Vol. 8.. jr. Popovics S. the resulting fracture energy is greater than in the previous case (2. The remaining parameters have been set as n= 1. "Bond of FRP laminates to concrete". 1989. USA. Freiburg. 583599. 3. and De Lorenzis L..01 84(tpEp)0.mm). "Bond and force transfer of composite material plates bonded to concrete". Vol.M. pp.J. Finally. Softening branch is very pronounced. S. 2. Francisco. Januska T.slip data is reported in Figure 9(a). as ~. 246254.. University and Research). 1973. and Van Gemert D. Aedificatio Publs. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The financial support of MIUR (Ministry of Education.. 7.. July 2001. Vol. 6.068 mm. "Shear and normal stresses in adhesive joints". pp. Rokugo Eds. H. J. Mihashi.. 24602476.. 115(1l). jr. Ferretti D.A.I72 FRPRCS 6:Bond Behaviour from shear stress . Figure 9(b) shows FRPstrains obtained from numerical simulations and compared with experimental results. pp. Fract. Vol. 17931804. Chajes M.F.214 MPa. technical report. 2001. "Creep behavior of RC tensile elements retrofitted by FRP plates". FIB TG 9. Roberts T. Finch W. 93. FIB. 70(78).. This corresponds to neglecting the high values of shear stresses obtained for lowtomedium values of axial force (see Figure 4). and Mazzotti C. ICCI02. K. Miller B.5 mm. Hence.. Savoia M..5=3. ASCE. PRTN 200 1 Grant. 2003. Cone..6MPa. and Thomson T. Ferretti D. 1998. The authors stated that anchorage failure occurred by FRP peeling at the adhesive level. REFERENCES 1. Nanni A. Maximum shear stress has been then evaluated. pp. . 5.. FRAMCOS3. 10691083. Vol.=0. Cem. 98(3). Brosens K. as proposed by the authors... Eng. and ex 60% Grant are gratefully acknowledged. CA. 3(5).. Bullettin no 14. Rex. and Savoia M.
characterizing a mode I1 fracture condition.FRPRCS6. Therefore. cyclic and long term loadings indicate that the method is promising and of practical interest. However.DOS SANTOS Escola Polite'cnica da Universidade de SCo Paulo T. bonded with FRP and pulled apart. In this paper the results of the static loading tests are discussed. Cylindrical concrete specimens.N. INTRODUCTION Today a great number of new materials and techniques are available for the retrofit and reinforcement of damaged structures. 810 July 2003 Edited by Gang Hwee Tan QWorld Scientific Publishing Company EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF INTERFACE BETWEEN CFRP AND CONCRETE USING CYLINDRICAL SPECIMENS A. The test setup has been developed to reproduce in a more realistic way the pure mode I1 fracture behavior of the interface under shear and to evaluate the maximum load capacity of this interface. The load transferred through the interface between the reinforcing material (FRP) and the substrate (concrete) is a key issue to ensure the effectiveness of the reinforcement. such a technique still presents uncertainties with respect to the load transfer capability of the interface between the substrate and the composite. Two concrete cylinders are placed endtoend. The results obtained for static.C. Singapore.GETTU Universitat Politicnica de Catalunya In this work an experimental methodology to determine the bond capacity of the interface between CFRP sheets and concrete was investigated. subjects the FRPconcrete interface to shear. One of the most important collapse mechanisms observed in theses cases is the loss of adherence and consequent sliding of the FRP with respect to concrete structure. also used in tests for compressive strength. The tensile load. which separates the cylinders.BITTENCOURT Escola Politkcnica da Universidade de S& Paulo R. a test methodology capable of correctly reproducing the mode I1 fracture of the interface is important to evaluate its maximum load . Among these. the use of fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) is becoming one of the most common. have been adapted in this study. for ultimate and service load conditions.
In the present study.5 times as the first. so that reproductability can be achieved. This type of specimen is widely used in the civil construction industry and has the advantage of being employed in cast and extracted forms. although here only the static loading results are discussed. a test configuration is proposed for the evaluation of the shear failure of the interface between FW sheets and concrete under static. (Figure 1). flaw and zone of adhesion belcw. cyclic and long term loadings.174 FRPRCS 6: Bond Behaviour transfer capacity. Cylindrical specimens can be used for this purpose. A small zone is left unbounded over one specimen to serve as a defect where the shear failure is supposed to initiate. TEST PROCEDURE Three strips of the fiber composite are glued on a set of two 150mm x 30mm cylindrical specimens placed endtoend. E E 0 is m Lrn Ls \upenor 4dhesion E E ti Lni Flaw LI Inferior Adhesion 0 (1 150rnm Numerical simuIation A numerical study (2D and 3D) of the stress distribution along the interface has been carried out in order to evaluate the most appropriate positions of . Three distinct zones can be identified: zone of adhesion above. This set is subjected to uniaxial tension and the load is transferred through the strips of FRP from one specimen to the other. A concrete with average compressive strength of 48 MPa and sheets of CFRP have been employed is this investigation. The length of the last is always 1. is the main objective of this work. with the purpose of inducing the failure in the zone above. The definition of the minimum lengths of strips.
(1938). while the surface where the FRP is applied should be treated in a way that the coarse . fibl4. V2 and V3) and along the width over three distinct horizontal axes (Hl. (2001). The results also show that the shear stresses are practically constant along the width of the strip. This study permitted the definition of the flaw length . These distributions agree with the ones found in the literature (Volbersen. ACI 440F. (Figure 2) Figure 2 3D simulationofthe interfke zone The distributions of the shear stress (T) a long the length over three distinct vertical axes (Vl.(Figure 3a). Machado. 10 0 1 2 3 6 8 AmOman) 7 8 8 1 0 0 1 0 I I 1 2 1 1 . as well as to determine the influence of their curvature (Figure 2). indicating that the curvature of the interface plays no key role in the overall behavior of the test (Figure 3b).Analysis of Inteflace using Cylindrical Specimens I75 the three strips. 4 1 6 I 8 ma(m) Figure 3: Shear stress &Mon dongthe length andwidth ofthe inttxfBce Preparation of Specimens. The end plane faces of the specimens should be polished.to ensure an interface shear failure. (2002)). H2 and H3) have been obtained. (2001).
Application of FRP The preparation and the application of FRP have been done under controlled temperature and humidity. This prevents the primer and the saturant from having contact with the concrete below. Testing of Specimens Positioning of specimens The prepared specimen is fastened to the loading plates using a chemical adhesive. The slip (sliding) records are obtained through LVDTs positioned . Figure 4c). The saturant is applied before the hardening of the primer. The application is made with a brush or a roller and should not exceed a period of 20 minutes at 25" C (Figure 4a). This way the effects of these two variables over the tests have been minimized. Figm 4 Applicationofthe shipsof CFRPsheds The specimens should be kept in a climatecontrolled room for 3 days in order to obtain the necessary strength of the resin. The adhesion zones are demarcated by applying silicon over the unbounded or flaw area. the CFRP sheet is positioned with the application of a little pressure to impregnate all the fibers in the sheet (Figure 4b. After applying the first layer of the saturant. Finally another layer of the saturant is applied on the CFRP sheet. affecting the performance of the reinforcement.176 FRPRCS 6: Bond Behaviour aggregates are partially exposed. The primer is the first to be applied due to its low viscosity guaranteeing a deeper penetration in the concrete pores. otherwise the chemical bonds between the layers will be compromised.
allowing the control of unwanted load excentricities (Dos Santos. In experiments with prismatic specimens the . Theses tests will be analyzed in this paper. because the determined sliding displacements for each strip are similar in all the tests carried out (Figure 5).Analysis of Inteface using Cylindrical Specimens I77 adjacent to the strips.O p d s . with 10 data points per second. ble 1 Properties o Grw 1 2 7 3 Ta W(i) 20 40 60 80 rs(i) 100 h(i) 40 ble 1 Properties o Ta Group W(i) 5 4 6 2 40 rs(m) 25 50 75 Lm ( i ) 40 100 The plots of the tensile load and the separation displacement (sliding of the interface) of the specimens show a region of linear behavior.O Hz frequency. The LVDT readings showed no major exccentricity in the load application in each strip. one may observe a decrease of the stiffness and also the presence of residual displacements until the ultimate load is reached. The data acquisition is done at a 1. cyclic and long term loadings. In this region no residual displacements are observed when the specimens are unloaded. Test procedure Three different loading schemes can be considered in this test setup: monotonic. one may verify that the values obtained for each each strip are very close. With respect to the validity of the results of ultimate loads. In the monotonic test the loading is achieved through an increasing displacement of the piston at a speed of 1 . This is in fact one of the advantages of this test setup. Test Results In this study the tests have been organized in groups with a varying strip width (Table 1) and with a varying adhesion length (Table 2). 2001). Following the load trajectory.
one obtains average results of three simultaneous interface tests. it is verified that this equation reproduces in a satisfactory way the interface behavior found in the tests (Figure 6). . Souza. Reproductibility The results under monotonic static loading demonstrate the reproductibility of the test.I78 FRPRCS 6:Bond Behaviour presence of excentricities cannot be avoided and only one ultimate load value can be determined for each test (Brosens. Comparing the loaddisplacement curves obtained for each group of tests with the one provided by Eq. 1998). a. 10 Proposed interface model Once the validity of the test has been verified. (l). 2001. obtained experimentally. s = sliding of the fiber of FRP (pm). For all the tested groups of cylinders the ultimate load and the associated displacements (sliding) have been found to present a low deviation (Figure 5). b = constant parameters of the model. an exponential expression to represent the results can be proposed: where P = load (kN). Here.
/W) x slip Variation of the adhesion length The results found for Groups 2. 2. However.Analysis of Interface using Cylindrical Specimens I79 Variation of strip width The tests accomplished with Groups 1 .. 4. the ratio between the ultimate load and the strip width (P. O m U X ) 6 0 0 B W r m l m SIP (rm) Figure 7: (P. 5 and 6 demonstrated that the ultimate loadwidth ratio is practically constant beyond a minimum adhesion length .M/W) is practically constant beyond a minimum value of the strip width (Figure 7).. 3 and 7 demonstrated that the ultimate load increases with increasing width of the FRP strips..
the inexistence of large excentricities and good reproductibility can be listed as the major advantages of the test methodology presented here. The test also allows the . This value has been adopted for the other group tests. this trend should be investigated more carefully in future tests and analyses. The simplicity of the test. Test Group01 Groupm Grour.180 FRPRCS 6: Bond Behaviour (Ls). However. Fracture energy Fracture energy values (Gf) can also be obtained in the tests.07 Group 03 Table 3: Fmchue empy values TpofCP w(m) 20 40 60 80 Gflh) 125 030 0.68 050 CONCLUSIONS 1. Some results are listed in Table 3. One may observe a trend for the value of Gf to converge to a value as the width of the strip reaches a certain minimum value. The use of cylindrical specimens is very common in the civil engineering activities. This adhesion length (Ls) is found to be 100 mm (Figure 8).
Michigan. 200 1. above minimum values of each of them. reducing the number of specimens. The proposed interface model equation presented a very good comparison with the test results. Bronsens. S%oPaulo. Editora PINI. 6. Bittencourt. “Determinaqgo experimental da carga de colapso na interface entre o concreto e . R.. A. A. R. Machado.. brazilian research agencies. REFERENCES 1.N.. The ultimate load varried with the width of the strip and with the adhesion length. 200 1. Luftfahrtforschung. “Plate and shear design for external CFRP laminates”. Belgium. EUA. The shear stress distribution along the length and the width of the FRP strip has not been very much influenced by the strip curvature. “Die nietkraftverteilung in zugbeanspruchten nietverbindungen mit konstanten laschenquerschnitten”. Katholieke Universiteit Leuven. American Concrete 2. 4. “Guide for the Design and Construction of Externally Bonded FRP Systems for Strengthening Concrete Structures”. ACI 440F00.Analysis of Inte$ace using Cylindrical Specimens 181 2. 1998. thesis Doctorate. Volkersen. Bulletin No 14. 6. The authors would like to express their gratitude to the Universitat Politicnica of Catalunya (UPC) for the laboratorial support for this research. 200 1. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This work has been funded by CAPES and CNPq. However. The reuse of the specimens should be also stressed. Dos Santos. The tensile loadsliding displacement curves showed a linear behavior up to 75% to 85% of the ultimate load. execution of 3 simultaneous interface tests. K. Institute. 5. In all tests carried out a brittle rupture of the interface has been observed. the ratio between the ultimate load and the width is practically constant. Switzerland. 3. Instituto superior tecnico. P. 7. 3. T. Lisboa. “Reforqo de estruturas de concreto armado com fibras de carbono”. 2002 Souza. “Avaliaqilo da aderCncia de urn comp6sito armado com tecido de fibra carbono a superficie do betilo”. 4. 1938. Federation International Du Beton (fib). Gettu. Relat6rio ICIST no 28/98.C. “Externelly bonded FRP reinforcement for RC structures”.
200 1. “Study of the bond failure between carbon fibers and concrete under shear”.318. ISBN9026518587. pp. Composites in Construction. Revista IBRACON. pp. . Bittencourt. Dos Santos. Gettu.C. T. Porto. Portugal. October. A.29.2002. 223226. R.I82 FRPRCS 6:Bond Behaviour Polimero Reforqado com Fibra (PRF)”. ISSN: 1415224x3 8.N. vo1. 1012 October.
. INTRODUCTION Many studies. both in uncracked and cracked concrete zones. Singapore. reference 1). The model has been also extended to include nonlinear interaction with the existing reinforcement steel bars in order to evaluate the cracks width for serviceability checks (not shown in the paper). M. from which two predictive equations for both the maximum stress and the anchorage length are obtained. The accuracy of the model has been validated against a series of anchorage tests. The bond mechanism is highly nonlinear and this renders the whole phenomenon extremely difficult to model. the abovedeveloped model has been used to predict the interaction between the two ends of an FRP sheeuplate between two adjacent cracks. purposely carried out. have been carried out on FRPconcrete adhesion (for a list see. RENZELLI AND P. The maximum stress taken by an FRP platehheet depends on its anchorage length. The accuracy of the FE in evaluating both the anchorage strength and the associated (effective) bond length in uncracked zones is demonstrated through correlation studies with experimental tests. Italy The effectiveness of strengthening techniques employing FRP relies on the adhesion between the FRP platekheet and the concrete surface of the element to be strengthened. along which it is transferred through a bond mechanism from the FRP to the concrete surface. by also modelling the strain and bond fields along the anchorage length. which is then used to model anchorage zones. MONTI. A clear distinction . When mechanical fastening is not used.g. 81 0 July 2003 Edited by Kiang Hwee Tan QWorld Scientific Publishing Company FRP ADHESION IN UNCRACKED AND CRACKED CONCRETE ZONES G. 53 . a fully nonlinear finite element is developed.00197 Roma. Universita La Sapienza di Roma. e. For FRP sheets attached to concrete in cracked zones. The model has then been used in a parametric study. Gramsci. Predictive equations are proposed. the efficiency of the strengthening element depends on the correct design of its anchorage zone. In this paper. both theoretical and experimental. LUCIAN1 Dipartimento di Ingegneria Strutturale e Geotecnica. accounting for the presence of cracks and for their spacing.FRPRCS6. with proper consideration of the nonlinear bondslip behaviour at the plate/adhesive/concrete interface. Via A .
FRP ANCHORAGE ZONE : FINITE ELEMENT FORMULATION The differential equation underlying the phenomenon is expressed incrementally. and E b = (variable) tangent modulus of bond. The discretized expression of Eq. beyond a certain applied force.(l) is obtained by assuming a polynomial approximation for the unknown slip increment field as: . no finite element (FE) has been developed to stepwise model the nonlinear response. and at midspan. The FE here developed allows one to analyze the response of an FRP sheet. a crack could form and propagate parallel to the bonded FRP platehheet near or along any weak interface in the plate/adhesive/concrete packet. with debonding developing at a major crack and propagating towards the plate end. both in the uncracked end zones of a RC beam. This failure mode is referred to as “debonding in concrete”2. (b) for beams and slabs flexurally strengthened with FRP strips bonded along the soffit. This has been observed to be the most common anchorage failure mode for: (a) platedsheets bonded on the beam sides for shear strengthening. mostly for uncracked concrete zones. In both cases. due to the nonlinear nature of the bondslip constitutive law3: where: tf = FRP platehheet thickness. (a) in uncracked zone and (b) in cracked zones. cf ) is linearelastic up to failure. or. where the presence of cracks considerably modifies the resisting mechanism. All nonlinearity in the overall response is due to the local bondslip relation ( ATb = Eb(u). E f = (constant) tangent modulus of FRP. To the author’s knowledge. Au(x) = unknown (incremental) slip field along the abscissa x.184 FRPRCS 6:Bond Behaviour between two different cases exists. The constitutive law of FRP ( of = Ef .Au) at the weakened concrete layer where debonding occurs. while for cracked zones still some aspects need to be clarified. Various predictive equations are available in the literature for determining the anchorage strength associated to a given anchorage length.
by /bc) 1 +bf/lOOmm (5) where fCtm = concrete mean tensile strength.FRP Adhesion in Uncracked and Cracked Zones I85 A&) = N(5). the discrete equilibrium equation is then written as: [Kf + K b ] . Au in 5 = ( .kb. with: kb = i 1. l ) . E. E. A U =As where Kf is the element ‘material’ stiffness matrix: (2) 1 and K b is the element ‘bond’ stiffness matrix ( tf = FRP thickness): Also. and kb .5 .Cf with: C f = 0 . and dref = 50 mm and (3) the slip at ultimate. = adhesive thickness and elastic modulus.8. respectively. corresponding to local debonding of FRP from the concrete surface: y =l. depends on b f = width of the FRP platelsheet. 3 m m (7) . In matrix form. Any law can be adopted. = width of the concrete surface. which accounts for scale effects.l. This formulation does not depend on the law used to describe the local bondslip.} is the load vector and B(<) = dN(<)/dk is the shape function vector for the strain field along the FRP sheet.1 . (2) the slip at peak bond strength. AS = {ASI M. (2 . = concrete elastic modulus. a simple yet accurate law4 was chosen. and b. This very simple law depends on three parameters’: (1) the peak bond strength: T~~~ = kb ’1. Here. in terms of the nodal displacements Au . corresponding to local interface cracking in the FRP/concrete interface: where t o .fCt.
186 FRPRCS 6: Bond Behaviour FRP ANCHORED IN UNCRACKED CONCRETE ZONES Figure 1 shows the applied force vs. end displacement diagram at the pulled end of a FE model of an FRP anchorage zone under increasing applied force. Through parametric studies conducted with the FE..5 End Displacement(mm) Figure 1.3. denoted by squares. The associated bond distributions are depicted in the boxes within Figure 1. are noted: (1) separating the linear from the nonlinear response. The safety factor Y d can be assumed as 1. and p=sin(7cL/2Le) for L < L. . and. and. 00 01 02 03 04 0. (3) corresponding to the debonding penetration into the anchored length. (L is the available FRP anchorage length). Forceslip response of FRP sheet in uncracked concrete zone. here the maximum anchorage force Fmaxis achieved and the current bond length is termed “effective” and denoted by L. Three characteristic points.z is given in (5). two predictive equations for both anchorage strength and effective bond length have been developed6 and assessed against a large number of tests: where p=1 for L 2 L. . corresponds to the initiation of interface cracking at the pulled end. (2) corresponding to the attainment of the ultimate slip y at the pulled end and to the initiation of debonding.
. in both a constant and a variable bending moment zone is considered (Figure 2). is smaller than twice the effective length Le .e. the applied force at the onset of debonding. is larger than twice the effective length L.. because the available bonded length is sufficient to equilibrate the applied force. Case: . a beam slice can be analysed. 2 2L. Note that interface cracking (i. Figure 2: Beam slices in constant (left) and variable (right) bending moment zones. The two parts of the sheet behave in the same way as shown in Figure 1. which is equal to the area under the bond stress curve) is given by Equation (8). in a constant bending moment zone Figure 3 shows the bond stresses and the force along the FRP sheet at the ~ onset of debonding. with the FRP sheet subjected to two opposite tensile forces at the cracks. No interaction takes place between the two ends of the sheet (at midpoint both the bond stress and the force are zero). and 2) the slice size s. Two cases are studied: 1) the slice size sr. e.(8). therefore the anchorage strength (i.s. where the normalized bond stress reaches f 1 ) progresses from the two ends towards the slice midpoint. The bond stress is normalized with respect to T The force is normalized with respect to the anchorage strength in Eq.. . Between two adjacent cracks. . at a spacing s.FRP Adhesion in Uncracked and Cracked Zones 187 FRP ANCHORED IN CRACKED CONCRETE ZONES The response of an FRP sheet anchored to a beam.
(a) Bond stress along the FRP.188 FRPRCS 6:Bond Behaviour 805 $07 P $04 b03 E 02 01 0 05 0 05 NolrnallzedFRP lenqht U2Le 1 Figure 3. (b) Force along the FRP for . In this case there is interaction between the two ends of the sheet (at midpoint both bond stress and force are non zero). (a) Bond stress along the FRP. Figure 4(a) shows that the area under the bond stress is lower than in the previous case. s < 2Le Case: srm < 2Le in a constant bending moment zone Figure 4 shows the bond stresses and the force along the FRP sheet at the onset of debonding. while Figure 4(b) shows that the anchorage strength is higher than that given in (8). . (b) Force along the FRP for srm 2 2L. because the available bonded length is insufficient to equilibrate the applied force and therefore the two parts "hook" to each other. L 85 Normalized FRP lenght UZLe Normalized FRP ienght u 2 ~ e Figure 4.
A parametric study for the determination of the anchorage strength of FRP anchorages in cracked concrete zones has been carried out. Same as Figure 4. Same as Figure 3. It is seen. fo4 go3 02 01 8s NormaIliadFRP lenoht W L e 41 41 01 01 N~mallz(KIFRP Isnght m e o Figure 6.FRP Adhesion in Uncracked and Cracked Zones 189 Response in variable bending moment zones The same remarks be extended to the case of variable bending moment zones. in a variable bending moment zone. The FRP sheet is subjected to different forces at the two ends (for illustrative purposes. a ratio of 113 has been chosen). in a variable bending moment zone. The same diagrams as in the previous figures are shown in Figure 5 and 6 . The results . c 0 6 01 0 8 ' ' L  1 4 5 O 05 Normalad FRP lsoght W L e 1 05 0 05 I Nomalked FRP lsnghl V2Le 1 Figure 5. Note also that interface cracking progresses only from the pulled end on the right.(8). . as expected. Note how the available bond length is divided between the two sheet parts in proportion to the applied force: that subjected to a higher force requires a longer bond length.Q6 i05 * I . that delamination occurs on the more stressed end (on the right) giving rise in both cases to the same anchorage strength as Eq.
.. while type T20 represent “large” slices (with L = srm/2> L. The FRP sheets have been instrumented with strain gauges along the length of Slice 2 in order to measure the stress field. as predicted through a numerical model.. which represents a modification factor of the bond strength due to the “hook” effect. Because this factor modifies the uncracked bonded strength (8) by a factor whose maximum value is 1. Comparison with Experimental Tests The behaviour described in the previous section. ). is equal to 1 and Equation (8) applies. then the term in brackets. Specimens type T10 represent “small” slices (with L = s. that the maximum bond strength can be taken as in Equation (8) both for uncracked and cracked concrete zones. for the sake of conservativeness. In the case where L=s. S2. S3. while FRP modulus was 230. Specimen for adhesion tests./2 I L. which led to the following equation for the anchorage strength in cracked zones: which is valid for an available bonded length L = s. Concrete Figure 7.000 MPa. .. Specimens have been prepared as shown in Figure 7. . has been confirmed through direct observation of purposely performed experimental tests./2> L. / 2 I L. it can be stated.. Concrete cubic strength was 25 MPa. by cutting three slices (S1. as described in Table 1) that have been joined together through FRP sheets at opposite faces.25..).190 FRPRCS 6:Bond Behaviour have been elaborated through regression analyses.
Comparison between measurements of Right and Left Strain Gauges and model. 30 25 g*0 n I g I5 10 5 0 0 0 20 40 60 FRP lenght (mm) 80 10 20 30 40 Applied Force (KN) 50 60 I00 Figure 8. Geometrical characteristics of test specimens (measurements are in mm). the most relevant results are presented as obtained from test specimens 1T1080 (representing a “short” slice) and specimen 1T2080 (representing a “long” slice) along with the corresponding simulations. Right: Variation of FRP force at midslice. ble 1 Properties o ble 1 Properties o ble 1 Properties o Ta Ta Ta In Figure 8 and 9. “Short” specimen 1T1080. the diagrams on the left represent the FRP force fields along the slice length with increasing applied force. Left: FRP force fields at various levels of applied force. Comparison between experiment (continuous) and model (broken). The latter diagrams serve to show the activation of the “hooking” phenomenon. In both figures. while those on the right represent the relationship between the FRP force at midslice and the applied force at the two ends of the specimen. . In the “short” slice.FRP Adhesion in Uncracked and Cracked Zones 191 Table 1 . It should be noted that in both cases correlation between the experimental results and the predictions obtained with the model is extremely satisfactory at every force level. this phenomenon is activated at an earlier stage with respect to the “long” slice.
Under the opposing tensile forces at the cracks. G. while it develops a sort of “hook” resisting mechanisms if the cracks are closely spaced. Monti. E. . ASCE. Journal of Structural Engineering. implemented and used in a series of studies aiming at defining design equations for FRP sheets anchored in uncracked and cracked concrete zones. Germany (in German). Anchorage design for externally bonded carbon fiber reinforced polymer laminates. 2. G. (1997). As in Figure 8.C. Design and Use of Externally Bonded FRP Reinforcement (FRP EBR) for Reinforced Concrete Structures..192 FRPRCS 6: Bond Behaviour 16 16 14 g12 $0 118 2 6 4 2 0 0 50 100 FRP lenght (mm) 150 200 0 5 10 15 20 Applled FOI 25 30 35 40 45 (KN) Figure 9. the FRP sheet behaves as in uncracked concrete if the cracks are widely spaced (more than twice the effective bond length).3 ‘FRP Reinforcement for Concrete Structures’. Symposium on FRP Reinforcement for Concrete Structures.F. J. (1999). Ingenieurmodelle des Verburides geklebter Bewehrung fur Betonbauteile. D. pp. fib (2001). Filippou. USA. 635645. (1994).. Chen. (2001).. ASCE. Finite element for anchored bars under cyclic load reversals. f l b Task Group 9. F. REFERENCES 1 . ASCE. P. 14. Anchorage of FRP to uncracked concrete. Journal of Compositesfor Construction. of Structural Engineering.. 127(7). Correlations to experimental tests are presented and predictive equations are proposed for both cases. 5 . and Teng. and Renzelli. J. Brosens. 3.. Anchorage strength models for FRP and steel plates bonded to concrete. Proc. Bulletin no. in press. CONCLUSIONS A FE model for anchored FRP to concrete has been formulated. Baltimore. M. (2003). 6. for “long” specimen 1T2080. TUB. and Van Gemert. 129(5). Dissertation.G. Monti. J. 4Ih Int. Spacone. 4. K. Holzenkampfer.
Following a discussion of the background of the problem. SMITH School of Civil and Environmental Engineering. and (2) those that initiate at a flexural or flexuralshear crack and then propagate from such a crack towards a plate end. China A large number of experimental studies have been carried out in the past decade on reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened in flexure by the bonding of a fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) plate to the tension face. In this paper.T. 2052.R. P. Tests on such strengthened beams have shown the strength of FRPplated RC beams to be limited often by the plate being suddenly separated (debonded) from the RC beam before the flexural capacity of the beam section has been reached. or its soffit for the more commonly considered case of simply supported beams.' The observed modes of debonding can be broadly classified into two types': (1) those that initiate at or near a plate end and then propagate from the plate end. The Hong Kong Polytechnic Universiv. 810 July 2003 Edited by Gang Hwee Tan OWorId Scientific Publishing Company NEURAL NETWORK PREDICTION OF PLATE END DEBONDING IN FRPPLATED RC BEAMS S. Hong Kong. Sydney. Several strength models to predict this debonding have been developed but their accuracy is often less than satisfactory. INTRODUCTION The flexural strength of a reinforced concrete (RC) beam can be increased by bonding a fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) plate to its tension face. the development of a reliable artificial neural network (NN) model using existing test data is described. Australia J.FRPRCS6. a study exploring the use of artificial neural networks as an alternative method for the prediction of debonding in FRPplated beams is presented. LU Department of Civil and Structural Engineering. Considerable testing of FRPplated RC beams has been conducted in the past decade and a thorough review has been given by Teng et al. Many of these studies have reported sudden failure by debonding of the FRP plate from the RC beam which initiates at or near one of the plate ends.G. The capability of the trained NN model is then illustrated by presenting results from a parametric study. Singapore. Debonding that . The University of New South Wales. NSW. TENG AND M.
. leading to the conclusion that the prediction of plate end debonding in FRPstrengthened RC beams is a very complex problem and requires much further research. This paper presents the results of a study exploring the feasibility of using NNs to predict plate end debonding in FRPplated RC beams.e. The capability of the trained NN model is then examined through a parametric study using the NN model. but do provide a mapping between a set of inputs and outputs. Crack propagation (a) Concrete cover separation (b) Plate end interfacial debonding Figure 1. Many variables exist in this problem (i. They do not provide a scientific explanation for a specific problem or produce a scientifically based solution. The twelve existing debonding strength models showed varying behaviour when assessed against the test data.194 FRPRCS 6:Bond Behaviour initiates near a plate end is referred to as plate end debonding and this includes the failure modes of concrete cover separation and plate end interfacial debonding as shown schematically in Figures l a and lb. An artificial neural network (NN) is a powerful tool that can deal effectively with illstructured problems in which an explicit model is too difficult to formulate or the behaviour is too complicated to explain. RC beam. concrete cover separation. Plate end debonding failure modes of FFWplated RC beams Considerable research has been conducted to develop models to predict plate end debonding and a detailed summary of various models has been given by Smith and Teng'. NNs have been widely applied to many areas including civil engineering4. Smith and Teng3 assessed twelve existing debonding strength models with a large test database consisting of fiftynine beams that had failed by plate end debonding. FRF' and adhesive geometric and material properties) making it difficult to assess their importance as well as incorporating them into a reliable debonding strength model. A NN model trained using the experimental data collected by Smith and Teng395is presented. in particular. Artificial neural networks attempt to imitate the learning process of the human brain. This paper is only concerned with plate end debonding. Debonding that initiates at an intermediate flexural or flexuralshear crack in the beam and then continues to one of the plate ends is referred to as intermediate crack induced debonding.
Plate End Debonding in FRPPlated RC Beams 195
PLATE END DEBONDING FAILURES AND AN EXPERIMENTAL
DATABASE
Of the two plate end debonding failure modes shown in Figure 1, failure by
concrete cover separation has been reported much more frequently. This
failure mode can be quite easily identified in tests and has therefore been
described more accurately in the technical literature than the less common
mode of plate end interfacial debonding. For these reasons, this investigation
is limited to cover separation failures.
A total of fiftynine experimental results of FWplated beams failing by
plate end debonding (fortyfour results for concrete cover separation and
fifteen results for plate end interfacial debonding) are given in Reference 3.
The fortyfour concrete cover separation results were used for training and
testing the NN presented in this paper. Seven additional concrete cover
separation results were obtained from tests conducted at The Hong Kong
Polytechnic University’. For inclusion in Smith and Teng’s database3 the
following requirements had to be met, (a) failure of the beam was by plate
end debonding, (b) the FRP plate was neither prestressed nor anchored in
any form at its ends, (c) the beam never experienced loading before being
loaded to debonding failure, and (d) sufficient details for the various
geometric and material parameters were provided to enable the results to be
used with confidence. The tests reported by Smith and Teng’ satisfied the
requirements of Smith and Teng’s database selection criteria3. Table 1
defines the input and output parameters considered by the present authors to
be of significance, their definition, and the units adopted in this study.
Twenty eight input parameters are listed as well as one output parameter
where the output parameter is the shear force at the plate end to cause
debonding. Table 2 gives the minimum, maximum and mean values and the
standard deviation for each of the input and output parameters.
NEURAL NETWORKS
The idea of parallel distributed processing has given rise to the back
propagation neural network algorithm that is conceptually simple but
theoretically capable of approximating a wide range of mathematical and
logical functions6. The MultiLayer Perceptron (MLP) NN trained with the
back propagation algorithm (referred to as BPNN hereafter) is the most
popular and widely used network paradigm in forecasting’ and in the
majority of NN applications in civil engineering4. A typical BPNN has a
multilayer structure (Figure 2). An iterative weightadjusting scheme is
used to propagate backward the error term by modifying the weights of all
196 FRPRCS 6: Bond Behaviour
Table 1. Basic input and output parameters
Input
No.
1
2
3
4
Input
Symbol
bC
h
PC
5
6
E,
h
7
h”
8
S
9
10
11
As
AS,
12
13
14
15
16
17
fct
$
As,
fYS
fYC
fYV
Es
EX
Definition (units)
Width of RC beam (mm)
Overall depth of RC beam (mm)
Concrete cylinder compressive strength (MPa)
Concrete cylinder splitting tensile strength (MPa)
Modulus of elasticity of concrete (MPa)
Distance from base of steel tension reinforcement to base of
RC beam (mm)
Distance from top of steel compression reinforcement to top
of RC beam (mm)
Centretocentre spacing of steel shear reinforcement
(stirrups) (mm)
Diameter of steel tension reinforcing bar (mm)
Crosssectional area of steel tension reinforcement (mm2>
Crosssectional area of
steel compression reinforcement (mm2)
Crosssectional area of steel shear reinforcement (mm2)
Yield strength of steel tension reinforcement (MPa)
Yield strength of steel compression reinforcement (MPa)
Yield strength of steel shear reinforcement (MPa)
Modulus of elasticity of steel tension reinforcement (MPa)
Modulus of elasticity of
steel compression reinforcement (MPa)
Modulus of elasticity of steel shear reinforcement (MPa)
Thickness of adhesive layer (mm)
Modulus of elasticity of adhesive (MPa)
Width of FRP plate (mm)
Thickness of FRk plate (mm)
Tensile strength of FRP in the main fibre direction (MPa)
Modulus of elasticity of FRP
in the main fibre direction (MPa)
Method of formation of plate (pultruded, P, or wet layup, W)
Distance from support to nearer end of FRP (mm)
Distance from support to nearer concentrated load
(shear span) (mm)
Clear span of the beam (mm)
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
Efrp
25
26
27
P/W
a
B
28
L
output
No.
1
output
Symbol
Definition (unit)
vex,
Shear force at plate end at debonding (kN)
ESY
t,
E,
bfr,
tf,,
ffrp
~
Plate End Debonding in FRPPlated RC Beams I97
the connections in the NN structure in a stepwise fashion that is
mathematically guaranteed to converge6. An easytofollow elaboration on
the algorithm, the inputoutput firstorder derivative of BPNN, along with a
comparison of the BPNN with the conventional multiple linear regression
technique can be found elsewhere'. For the remainder of this paper the
BPNN will be referred to simply as the NN for brevity.
Input Layer
,ut&%f
Node
Hidden Layer

Output Layer
Processing Element
BiasNode
Figure 2. Structure of a OneHiddenLayer BPNN Model
The rate and accuracy at which a NN learns is dependent on its
architectural and learning parameters. The architectural parameters to be
varied are the number of hidden layers and the number of nodes in each
hidden layer, while the learning parameters to be varied are the learning rate,
momentum term, number of learning iterations, and initial weights. Despite
the considerable amount of research that has been undertaken on NNs, there
is still a lack of welldefined guiding rules for choosing
architecturalAearning parameter^^^'^, so the commonly adopted trialanderror procedure was also employed in this study. Such an approach applied
to NNs with one hidden layer and standard sigmoid transfer functions was
used in this study.
NN Applied to RC Beams Strengthened with FRP
During the present study, an extensive literature search was conducted,
which revealed that only one archival journal article has been published to
date on the application of NNs for modelling FRPplated RC beams". Flood
et al. predicted the deflection response of FRPstrengthened RC beams".
The value of Flood et al.'s study is limited by the fact that all his beam
I98 FRPRCS 6:Bond Behaviour
samples had the same geometric and material properties. No work has been
found in the published literature so far which addresses the application of
NNs to the prediction of plate end debonding failures in FRPstrengthened
RC beams.
NN MODEL FOR PLATE END DEBONDING IN FRPSTRENGTHENED RC BEAMS
Training and Testing Data
Of the fiftyone experimental records for concrete cover separation from
Smith and Teng375,ten records were set aside at random and used for
validation of the NN, while fortyone records, also known as NN training
data, were used to train the NN. Of the ten validation records, five are
termed control data while the remaining five assessment data. The control
and assessment data sets were compiled by selecting every fifth
experimental record of the database with fiftyone records. Every oddnumbered experimental record selected formed the control data while every
evennumbered experimental record formed the assessment data. NNs are
usually not able to extrapolate12,therefore the value of a given parameter of
a record belonging to the control or the assessment data set should not fall
outside the maximum or minimum value of that parameter in the training
data. One of the experimental records initially selected for testing the NN
was found to be a sole outlier for a particular input parameter, consequently
the next experimental record in the database was selected in place. The NN
is considered trained when the error between the NN output and control data
is minimised. The trained NN is then independently checked with the
assessment data.
Training and Testing the NN
In the present study, the NN described in Reference 13 was trained using the
test data described above for the prediction of plate end debonding. In such
training, it is important to select suitable architectural and learning
parameters in order to achieve a welltrained NN. The architectural
parameters are the number of hidden layers and the number of nodes in each
hidden layer, while the learning parameters are the learning rate, momentum
term, number of iterations, and random initial weights. Training a NN is a
time consuming exercise given the trial and error nature of determining the
optimal architectural and learning parameters. A detailed account of the NN
training process is given el~ewhere'~.
An optimally trained NN (i.e. a trained
NN that fits best the training data, control data, and assessment data) is very
Plate End Debonding in FRPPlated RC Beams 199
difficult to obtain due to the large number of permutations of the
architectural and learning parameters, but for practical purposes, a nearoptimal NN generally leads to little loss of accuracy but avoids an excessive
training effort.
2z
2
l4
l2
10
8
3<
s
$
1
!>
Training
6 4 
2
Minimum assessment error
Minimum control error

Control
Assessment

v
bleble
1 Properties
o o
1 Properties
Ta
Ta
Figure 3 illustrates how the number of iterations affects the accuracy of
the NN model when compared with the training data, control data, and
assessment data for the first set of random weights' with the number of
hidden nodes equal to the number of input data (twentyeight), and the
learning parameter and momentum term equal to 0.2 and 0.1 respectively. A
minimum absolute error exists for the two validation data sets while the
training data gives ever closer predictions to the experimental results. A
problem that a NN can experience is overtraining. The NN in Figure 3 risks
being overtrained as the number of iterations becomes excessive so the
optimal number of iterations becomes that to give a minimum error for the
control data. Note that the NN risks being overtrained when the assessment
data error is at a minimum. The behaviour of the control data error up to
100,000 iterations was investigated and only one minimum was found to
exist. It took approximately six minutes to complete 10,000 iterations on a
Pentium I11 1GHZ personal computer.
The effects of varying other parameters of the NN have also been
investigated but cannot be given here due to space limitation. The NN
architectural and learning parameters eventually adopted in this study are:
number of hidden layers = 1, number of hidden nodes = 29, learning rate =
0.1, momentum = 0.05, first initial weight set, and 1932 iterations.
Comparisons between the NN output and the training data, control data, and
assessment data, in terms of the shear force at the plate end at debonding Vdb,
200 FRPRCS 6: Bond Behaviour
are shown in Figures 4 to 6 respectively. The average absolute error for the
training data (Figure 4) is 1.82 kN (a relative error of 2.21 % over the output
range of 16.0 kN to 98.2 kN), the control data (Figure 5) is 4.86 kN (a
relative error of 9.03 % over the range 18.3 kN to 72.1 kN), and assessment
data (Figure 6) is 2.82 kN (a relative error of 5.67 % over the range 18.3 kN
to 68.0 kN). The relative error of the control data is higher as two of the five
results in Figure 5 are not predicted by the NN very well. Close inspection
of the control input data for these poorly modelled points revealed that only
one or two input variables have a considerable impact on the debonding load.
The NN model is clearly not able to detect dramatic changes in the
debonding load due to the variation of one or two input variables in this case.
The NN has, however, been trained to fit the training data satisfactorily as
well as the assessment data. Note that the assessment data did not consist of
dramatic changes in output due to the effect of one or two input variables.
.?
0
40
2
20
0
Figure 4
20 40 60 80 100
Actual Result, Vexp(kN)
NN predictions versus training
data
1
2
3
4
5
Control Record Number
Figure 5. NN predictions versus control
data
Compared to all existing debonding strength models3, the predictions of
the present NN model is far more accurate, illustrating the power of the NN
approach. The main limitation of the NN model developed here is the size,
scope and quality of the data used €or its training. For example, it cannot be
expected to provide accurate predictions outside the range of the training
data. It is also possible that the model did not fully capture the influence of
some of the input parameters.
Plate End Debonding in FRPPlated RC Beams 201
60
50
9
40
c
.O 30
0
3 20
Y
2
i
l;
1
2
3
4
5
Assessment Record Number
Figure 6. NN predictions versus
assessment data
0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
Plate thickness, tfrp (mm)
Figure 7. NN prediction of V d b versus
soffit plate thickness
PARAMETRIC STUDY
The trained NN model was next employed to conduct a parametric studyI3
on a fictitious FRPplated beam subjected to fourpoint bending. The
geometric and material properties of the RC beam, FRP plate, and adhesive
layer are given in the final column of Table 2 and were so chosen that they
are all contained by the lower and upper bounds of the training data. Figure
7 shows the effect of varying the thickness of the plate, while other results of
the parametric study are available elswhereI3. As the plate thickness is
increased, the debonding load is also increased. This trend was reported by
Beber et al.I4 and David et al." where the plate thickness was the only
parameter varied in their tests. Some debonding strength models'6217
predict
the debonding load to reduce as the plate thickness is increased but this is in
contrast to the NN results and experimental observations. It should be noted
that the NN model is based purely on the test data it is trained with, and as
the data of Beber et al.14 and David et al? was used to train it, the NN
predictions can be expected to follow the same trends as the training data.
These results show that the present NN model has accurately captured the
experimental trends of the training data. Of course, a larger test database
will enhance the reliability and power of the trained NN. The ultimate
moment capacities of the unplated and plated sample beam (with dimensions
given in Table 2) are 40 kNm and 98 kNm respectively. The NN predictions
in Figure 7 show that debonding will occur well before the ultimate capacity
of the plated section is reached.
202 FRPRCS 6: Bond Behaviour
Table 2. Statistical characteristics of input and output parameters for all fiftyone
experimental records and details of a sample beam
Input'
Range
Average
bC
h
100154
100305
25.751.7
2.444.20
22,75439,900
13.047.7
13.040.0
50250
620
85792
57 157
14157
350586
350738
350738
185,00023 1,000
195,00023 1,000
195,000231,000
0.372.00
2,00012,800
45 152
0.505.30
1613,140
10,343 181,000
pultruded I wet
layup
03 75
300 1,065
9002.800
pc
fCt
EC
h
h"
S
4
AS
As,
AS,
fYS
fYC
fP
ES
ESC
Esv
t,
E,
bfrn
tfrp
ffrp
Efr,
Piw
a
B
L
130
218
41.1
3.40
29,939
30.4
27.6
93
10
214
84
77
469
499
482
204,765
207,487
206,039
1.08
7,76 1
106
1.86
1,204
82,526
Standard
Deviation
20
74
6.7
0.43
4,768
11.5
10.3
38
3
173
44
51
85
131
119
11,546
10,374
9,368
0.72
3,354
36
1.27
774
47,089
Sample
Beam
150
280
40
4.0
30000
35
35
120
16
402
157
157
460
460
460
200,000
200,000
200,000
1.o
10,000
150
1.5
2,500
150,000
P
101
602
1.702
96
248
619
150
1,000
2.500
Sample
Std
Deviation
Beam
16.098.2
50.5
21.8
vex,
Twelve beams did not contain compression reinforcement and ese beams have
been omitted from the statistical analyses of the input parameters h , A,,, f,,, and Esc.
output
'
Range
Average
Plate End Debonding in FRPPlated RC Beams 203
CONCLUSIONS
This paper has presented the results of a study exploring the use of NNs for
the prediction of plate end debonding failures in FRPplated RC beams. The
prediction of such debonding failures is a complex problem involving many
parameters, but the NN trained using existing data has been shown to
provide accurate predictions. The authors believe that a trained NN has two
important applications, one is to use it to gain new insights as demonstrated
by the results from the parametric study and another is to use it directly in
structural design as a predictive tool when sufficient test data is available.
An advantage of the NN approach is that its power and reliability can evolve
with the expansion of the available database. For the same reason, its
limitation also rests with the scope, distribution and quality of the available
database. A similar study should be undertaken again in the future when a
larger test database can be assembled. It will be interesting to see whether
the NN trained with the limited test database used in this study will give
comparable results to a NN trained with a larger database. This will have
important implications as to the size of the training database required to
adequately train a NN for the plate end debonding problem.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This research was commenced while the first author was under the
employment of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University. The authors wish to
thank The Hong Kong Polytechnic University for the financial support
provided through the Area of Strategic Development Scheme.
REFERENCES
Teng, J.G., Chen, J.F., Smith, S.T. and Lam, L., FRPStrengthened RC
Structures, John Wiley & Sons, UK, 2002,245 pp.
Smith, S.T. and Teng, J.G., “FRPstrengthened RC structures. I: Review
of debonding strength models”, Engineering Structures, 24(4), 2002, pp.
385395.
Smith, S.T. and Teng, J.G., “FRPstrengthened RC structures. 11:
Assessment of debonding strength models”, Engineering Structures, 24(4),
2002, pp. 397417.
Adeli, H., “Neural networks in civil engineering: 19892000”, ComputerAided Civil and Infiastructure Engineering, 16,2001, pp. 126142.
204 FRPRCS 6:Bond Behaviour
5. Smith, S.T. and Teng, J.G., “Shearbending interaction in debonding
failures of FRPplated RC beams”, to be published.
6. Rumelhart, D., Hinton, G. and Williams, R. “Learning representations by
backpropagating errors”. Nature, 323, 1986, pp. 533536.
7. Zhang, G.B., Patuwo, B.E. and Hu, M.Y. “Forecasting with artificial
neural networks: the state of the art” International Journal of Forecasting,
14(1), 1998, pp. 3562.
8. Lu, M., AbouRizk, S. and Hermann, U., “Sensitivity analysis of neural
networks in spool fabrication productivity studies”, Journal of Computing
in Civil Engineering, ASCE, 15(4), 2001, pp. 299308.
9. Adeli, H. and Hung, S.L., “An adaptive conjugate gradient algorithm for
efficient training of neural networks”, Applied Mathematics and
Computation, 62, 1994, pp.81102.
10. AlDeek, H.M. “Comparison of two approaches for modeling freight
movement at seaports”, Journal of Computers in Civil Engineering,
ASCE, 15(4), 200 1, pp. 28429 1.
11. Flood, I., Muszynski, L. and Nandy, S., “Rapid analysis of externally
reinforced concrete beams using neural networks”, Computers and
Structures, 79,2001, pp. 15531559.
12. Flood, I. and Kartam, N., “Neural networks in civil engineering. I:
Principles and understanding”, Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering,
ASCE, 8(2), 1994, pp. 131148.
13. Smith, S.T., Teng, J.G. and Lu, M., “A neural network model for plate
end debonding in FRPstrengthened RC beams”, to be published.
14. Beber, A.J., Filho, A.C. and Campagnolo, J.L., “Flexural strengthening of
WC beams with CFRP sheets”, Proceedings, Eighth International
Conference on Structural Faults and Repair, edited by M.C. Forde,
London, U.K, 1999.
15. David, E., Djelal, C., Ragneau, E. and Bodin, F.B. “Use of FRP to
strengthen and repair RC beams: experimental study and numerical
simulations”, Proceedings, Eighth International Conference on Structural
Faults and Repair, edited by M.C. Forde, London, U.K, 1999.
16. Raoof, M. and Zhang, S., “An insight into the structural behaviour of
reinforced concrete beams with externally bonded plates”, ICE
Proceedings: Structures and Buildings, 122, 1997, pp. 477492.
17. Saadatmanesh, H. and Malek, A.M., “Design guidelines for flexural
strengthening of RC beams with FRP plates”, Journal of Composites for
Construction, ASCE, 2(4), 1998, pp. 158164.
FRPRCS6, Singapore, 810 July 2003
Edited by Kiang Hwee Tan
@World Scientific Publishing Company
BOND BEHAVIOUR OF CFRP STRIPS GLUED INTO SLITS
M. BLASCHKO
Bipnger Berger AG, Department of Civil Engineering
Kistlerhofstr. 144, 813 79 Munich, Germany
Experimental and theoretical examinations were carried out on the
structural behaviour in bond of CFRP strips glued into slits. The test results
are described and discussed. A conclusive bond model is derived, which
explains stresses and deformations of the concrete and of the CFRP strip. It
correlates with the test results well. A design approach, which can easily be
used in practice, is proposed for the bond capacity of this system.
INTRODUCTION
"CFRP strips glued into slits" is a new method of supplementing concrete
structures with reinforcement and thus of strengthening them [ 11. The
method consists in gluing CFRP strips into grooves which are cut into a
concrete specimen perpendicular to its surface, see Figure 1. Therefore it
belongs to the category of "FRP mounted near surface".
concrete
I
I.
I
I
...
/7inner reinforcement
/
/
I
I
.
.
.
.
.
&
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
Figure 1. CFRP strips glued into slits
The strips are between 1 to 2 mm jn thickness and about 20 mm in
width. The depth of the cut grooves should be about 3 mm larger than the
width of the strip and the width of the grooves should be about 3 mm larger
206 FRPRCS 6: Bond Behaviour
than the thickness of the strip. Therefore the adhesive layer is about 1 to 2
mm in thickness.
A large program on experimental and theoretical investigations was
carried out to find the design parameters needed to use “CFRP strips glued
into slits” in practice [2]. This paper focuses on the bond behaviour between
the CFRP material and the concrete member.
EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS
In a first step, experimental examinations of the structural behaviour in
bond were carried out.
Tests
About 100 pulloff tests were carried out on concrete specimens of 300 mm
by 300 mm in crosssection (Figure 2). The bond length, dimensions and
material properties of the strip, the concrete strength, the treatment of the
concrete surface, the type of loading and the distance a, between the
concrete edge and the strip were varied. The distribution of the axial tensile
force in the CFRP strip, the slip between the strip and the concrete member
and deformations of the concrete block were measured.
i
bondless area
bond length Iv
Figure 2. Pulloff test
The parameter a,, which is defined as the distance between the concrete
edge and the longitudinal axis of the strip, was introduced into the tests to
simulate the behaviour of a strengthened beam (Figure 3). But during the
tests it was seen that this parameter is very useful to simulate the stiffness of
the concrete surrounding the strip.
Bond Behaviour of CFRP Strips Glued into Slits 207
distance from
the edge
I
Figure 3: Definition of the parameter ur
Results
Different failure modes were observed. If the bond length increased in
length by about 150 mm and the strip was far away from the concrete edge
(e. g. a, > 100 mm), the strip failed in tension.
Bond stress zv M P J
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
0
25
50
75
100
Distancefrom loaded end [mm]
Figure 4: Bondstressdistribution along the bond length for different load levels
(bond length 1" = 100 mm, distance a, = 150 mm)
If the strip was applied very close to the concrete edge (e. g. a, <
20mm), the concrete comer was split off. In all other cases the bond failed
inside the adhesive layer. That means that a cohesive failure in the adhesive
208 FRPRCS 6:Bond Behaviour
occurred. But even after a bond failure had occurred, the strip had to be
pulled completely out of the concrete member with a certain force.
A typical distribution of the bond stresses along the bond length is
shown in Figure 4 for a test with a bond length of 1" = 100 mm. It can be
seen that the highest bond stresses are located at the loaded end of the strip
for low load levels. The more the load is increased, the further they move to
the unloaded end of the strip.
The shearsliprelationships can be calculated from the distribution of
the axial force in the CFRP strip and the strain of the strip. The result is
shown in Figure 5. It can be seen that there is not one typical relationship.
In detail there are different relationships, each valid at a certain section of
the bond length. It can be concluded that there must be an important second
influence on the bond stress distribution beside the slip.
bond shear stress TV [Nlmm']
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
0 00
0 20
0 40
0 60
0 80
1 00
slip s [mm]
Figure 5. Shearsliprelationshipsfor different sections of the bond length
(bond length I"= 100 mm,distance a, = 150 mm)
Figure 6 shows the deformations of the edge of the concrete member
perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the CFRP strip, which was placed
at a distance from the edge of a, = 20 mm. In this case the deformations
reached high values of about 0.1 mm. They are much lower the more the
distance a, increases. Further more the maximum of the deformation curves
moves towards the unloaded end of the bond length with increasing load
just as the maximum of the bond stress distribution does.
Bond Behaviour of CFRP Strips Glued into Slits 209
concrete deformations at the edge v, [mm]
40
0.120
0
:
:
:
I
40
: :
:
I
80
:
x along bond length [mm]
120
160
200
: : ' : : : ' : :
:
I
i
: : :
i
240
: : :
+FL=20kN
bond length Iv = 200 rnm
I
I
I
Figure 6. Deformations at the edge of the concrete member for different load levels
(bond length lv = 200 mm, a, = 20 mm)
BOND MODEL
The experimental observations can be explained by the deformations of
the concrete perpendicular to the strip.
The bond stresses create deformations in the surrounding concrete and
the deformations themselves influence the bondslipbehaviour of the
adhesive (see Figure 7). Near the loaded end of the strip the concrete moves
away from the strip and therefore creates tension in the adhesive layer
perpendicular to the shear stresses. Because of this tension the maximum
shear capacity of the adhesive is reduced. The load transfer is reduced in
this area. On the other hand, the concrete is pressed against the adhesive at
the unloaded end of the strip. Therefore the load transfer increases here.
210 FRPRCS 6:Bond Behaviour
I/
1
k
lv
,half
of CFRPstrip
.  symmetric line
F.12 f
FJ2
Figure 7: Interaction between bondstresses, deformations and stresses perpendicular
to the axis of the CFRP strip
A conclusive bond model is derived, which takes these effects into
account. The bondslipbehaviour of the adhesive is modelled using the
differential equation of the shifted bond:
EA, + EA,
EA, EA,
*
where s = slip between CFRP strip and concrete, bL = width of the strip, zv
= bond (shear) stress, EAL = stiffness of the strip and EA, = stiffness of the
concrete.
The behaviour of the concrete is modelled using the differential
equation of the elastic supported girder:
where v = deformation of the concrete, EA, = idealized stiffness of the
concrete edge, ci = idealized elastic support of the concrete edge and pv
resp. m, = load calculated from the bond stresses.
Both equations are connected with a failure criterion, which is based on
the failure criterion of Mohr [3] and supplemented with a friction model:
Bond Behaviour of CFRP Strips Glued into Slits 211
where rKmax
= maximum transferable bond stress, g,= shear capacity of
the adhesive, v, = deformation at which the normal stress in the adhesive
reaches the tension capacity of the adhesive.
In Figure 8, the measured distribution of the tensile force in the CFRP
strip along the bond length is compared with the results of the model. It can
be seen that there is a very good correlation for all load levels.
Tensile force in the strip FL(x) [kN]
40
30
20
10
0
0
25
50
75
100
Distance from the loaded end [mm]
Figure 8: Measured and calculated distribution of the tensile force in the CFRP strip
along the bond length for different load levels
DESIGN APPROACH
On the basis of the results of the experimental data and the bond model a
design approach, which can easily be used in practice, is proposed for
calculating the bond capacity.
If the slip between the strip and the concrete exceeds a certain value, the
transferable bond stress is limited to the friction between the strip and the
concrete. Therefore two equations have to be used to calculate the bond
capacity according to the bond length. The first equation is valid until the
adhesive still behaves elasticplastic and the second equation takes the
friction stresses into account. For simplification the border between both
equations is fixed to a constant value of the bond length.
212 FRPRCS 6:Bond Behaviour
for I , 51 15mm :
for I , > 115mm
K.[
FV,k= b, . z ~. , ~ 26,2 + 0,065  tanh
. (1,
(;o)
1
 1 15)
(4b)
where FKk= characteristic (5%fractile) bond strength [N], b, = width of the
CFRP strip [mm], ZK,k = characteristic shear strength of the adhesive, a, =
distance between strip and edge of the concrete member [mm] (a, I 150
mm) and 1, = bond length [mm].
0
10
20
30
Fv,sikuhted
40
50
60
70
[kNl
Figure 9: Comparison between calculated and measured values for the bond capacity
In both equations (4a and 4b) the value a, has to be limited to 150 mm if
a, > 150 mm, because then the stiffness of the concrete around the strip is
not influenced any more by the free edge of the concrete specimen. The
shear strength TK,k of highly filled, twocomponent epoxy resins is within
the range of 20 to 25 N/mmz.
Bond Behaviour of CFRP Strips Glued into Slits 213
Figure 9 compares the measured bond capacity from the tests with the
results of the proposed design approach. It can be seen that there is a good
correlation.
Bond capacity Fv,r [ky
80
++* = 100 m m
60
+a=
50 m m
40
00
200
100
300
Bond length IV[mm]
Figure 10: Bond capacity of a CFRP strip glued into a slit according to the bond
length lv and the distance from the edge a,
Figure 10 shows the resulting bond capacity according to the bond
length for different distances from the edge a,. It can be clearly seen that the
bond stresses  the slope of the curves in Figure 10  are varying along the
bond length. They become constant after a certain bond length and are then
limited to the friction. If the distance to the edge a, is close to 0, the
resulting curve is similar to the bond behaviour curve of CFRP strips glued
onto the concrete surface.
CONCLUSIONS
This paper presents the results of pulloff tests, which were carried out on
the structural behaviour in bond of CFRP strips glued into slits. A bond
model is described, which explains stresses and deformations of the
concrete and of the CFRP strip. It shows that the deformations in the
concrete have a strong influence on the distribution of the bond stresses and
therefore on the bond capacity. A design approach is proposed for the bond
capacity of this system.
214 FRPRCS 6: Bond Behaviour
The very strong and stiff bond behaviour of “CFRP strips glued into
slits” can be explained by the three dimensional distribution of the bond
stresses in the concrete (Figure 11). In the system of “strips glued into slits”
all bond stresses and tensile forces are kept more or less within the plane of
the concrete, because the strips are thin compared to their width. There are
no tensile stresses perpendicular to the surface of the concrete member.
On the other hand in the system of an embedded bar, the radial
distribution of the bond stresses create forces which push the bar out of the
concrete surface. Therefore this system can fail by spalling of the concrete
cover.
distribution of
bond stresses
Figure 11: Bond stress distribution in the crosssection of a CFRP strip glued into a
slit and of an embedded reinforcing bar
REFERENCES
1. Blaschko, M. and Zilch, K., “Rehabilitation of concrete structures with
CFRP strips glued into slits”, Proceedings of the 12th International
Conference on Composite Materials, Paris, July 5  9, 1999.
2. Blaschko, M., “On the mechanical behaviour of concrete structures with
CFRP strips glued into slits”, PhD thesis, Technische Universitat
Munchen, 200 1 (in German).
3. Schneider, W. and Bardenheier, R., “Versagenskriterien fur
Kunststoffe. Zeitschrift fiir Werkstofftechnik”, Vol. 8, 1975, pp. 269280 (in German).
ble 1 Properties o
Ta
This page intentionally left blank
FRPRCS6, Singapore, 81 0 July 2003
Edited by Gang Hwee Tan
OWorld Scientific Publishing Company
LOAD CAPACITY OF CONCRETE BEAMS
STRENGTHENED WITH EXTERNAL FRP SHEETS
Z.J. WU AND J.M. DAVIES
Manchester Centre for Civil and Construction Engineering, Manchester, Mi50 I QD
A theoretical method to predict the loading capacity of a FRP reinforced
concrete beam is developed. The beam, subjected to threepoint bending, is
externally reinforced with unidirectional FRP sheet near the bottom surface of
the tensile zone. No slip between the FRP sheet and plain concrete is
assumed. Only Mode I fracture propagation is considered. A fictitious crack
approach which has been used previously in conjunction with finite element
method in the fracture analysis of concrete is adopted here to estimate the
equivalent bridge effect of the fracture process zone (FPZ) of concrete. The
predicted results of loading capacities are then shown graphically.
INTRODUCTION
A worldwide interest is being given to the use of fibre reinforced polymer
(FRP) in the rehabilitation of infrastructure, particularly of concrete
structures. In the present research, a flexural FRP reinforced concrete beam
with rectangular cross section and subjected to an external loading system
of threepoint bending is considered. Along the axial direction, the beam is
reinforced with unidirectional FRP sheets near the bottom surface of the
tensile zone (Fig. 1).
The research is intended to develop a theoretical method to predict loading
capacity of such a FRP reinforced concrete structure, based on the
consideration of the constitutive relations and deformation properties of
individual constituents, that is, plain concrete and FRP sheets. From the
global equilibrium of the cracked crosssection, the change of the loadbearing capacity of the beam against crack depth is determined. A fictitious
crack approach which has been used previously in conjunction with finite
element methodI7*in the fracture analysis of concrete is adopted here to
estimate the equivalent bridge effect of the fracture process zone (FPZ) of
concrete.
The constitutive relation of plain concrete and FRP sheets which will be
used as the basis of the model to be developed is given in the next section.
Detailed modelling analysis of the loadingbearing capacity of the FRP
reinforced concrete beam is then presented. Numerical results that
218 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure
demonstrate the effect of the FPZ on the loading capacity quantitatively are
shown graphically.
.......... .............................
._.................................
sheet
Fig. 1 Threepoint bending FRP reinforced concrete beam with rectangular cross
section.
CONSTITUTIVE RELATIONS OF CONCRETE AND FRP SHEET
The constitutive relation of plain concrete is given by
(E
2 E , ,tensilesoftening)
(0 I E I E , ,tensile)
(1)
that is, the compressive behaviour of the concrete is given by a parabolic
curve proposed by Hognestad3 ( f, and E , are the maximum compressive
stress and the corresponding strain of concrete, respectively), and the
tensile behaviour is basically characterized by a linear stressstrain relation
up to the ultimate tensile strength. Beyond the ultimate tensile strength or
maximum tensile stress f, (=EG, where G is the tensile cracking strain),
further strain increase gives a decreasing stress, which is commonly known
as ‘strainsofteningy4.In the cracked concrete beam structure, it is mainly
reflected by the existence of tortuous segments (fracture process zone) in
Concrete Beams Strengthening with FRP Sheets 219
the front of the crack (Fig.2). Many studies have shown that the softening
behaviour of plain concrete should be described by using stress (4)displacement (w),relation which is considered as a property of materials’,
rather than a stressstain relation. In current research, an arbitrary q(w) is
assumed in theoretical analysis. The numerical calculations are for two
extreme cases, that is, the upper and lower limit analyses, to show the
influences of the choice of q(w).
The FRP sheets in reinforced concrete structures are normally used to
carry tensile stresses. The stressstrain laws of the FRP sheets (glass fibre
or carbon fibre reinforced plastic ones) used in civil engineering are almost
linearly elastic up to its ultimate strength. The tensile loads carried by the
FRP sheets are transferred from the concrete through the bond at the
interface of the FRP sheets and concrete. To facilitate the investigation on
the loading capacity of the reinforced beam, a perfect bond between FRP
sheets and concrete is assumed (no slip effect is considered).
hb
Undamaged
wne
Fig.2 Sketch of FRP reinforced concrete crack and fracture process zone.
LOADBEARING CAPACITY OF THE FRP CONCRETE BEAM
Consider the FRP reinforced concrete beam shown in Fig. 1 . The beam has
a rectangular crosssection and a notch or precrack a0 at the midspan. When
the beam is loaded, the crack propagates to a, in which a FPZ (Fig. 2) is
developed. According to Hillberborg’s fictitious crack model3, the bridging
stress in the FPZ is normal to the crack surface and can be given by the
softening stressseparation law of plain concrete. Assuming that plane
section remains plane after deformation, a linear distribution of strain over
the beam depth is obtained [Fig. 3(b)]. Combining this strain distribution
and the constitutive relations for both concrete and FRP sheets, the stress
220 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure
distributions on the crosssection at the midspan of the beam can be shown
in Fig. 3(c).
The modulus of concrete can be obtained from Eq.( I), that is,
The resultant force in the compression zone of the concrete is given by
where
and xI is the depth of the neutral axis from the bottom of the concrete beam
where the origin of x lies.
The resultant tensile force on the crosssection consists of contributions
from three parts: the tensile stress in concrete following the linear elastic
law given by CT = EE from zero tof; ,the assumed stress distribution in the
vicinity of the crack tip, that is the FPZ, and the tensile force due to
extension of the FRP sheets. From Fig. 3(c), the resultant, T, can be
expressed by
in which Zp is the length of FPZ, q(w) is the distribution function of bridging
closure stress in the zone, and w=w(x) is one half of crack opening
displacement (Fig. 2). Tf,shown in Fig.3c, is expressed by
where Ef and Af are, respectively, the longitudinal modulus and total area of
the reinforced FRP sheets. The corresponding strain q is given by
Y
Ef =
"I
x,  a
E,
(7)
Concrete Beams Strengthening with FRP Sheets 221
The equilibrium of the beam requires that Eq.(3) must be equal to Eq.(5),
that is,
A E  XI
'x,a
in which F, =
+J;(x,a).b+F,
I
= b L (dxl)2
2
x1 a
[
':
:3'
(8)
xl a
14,q(w) b dx is the resultant bridging force provided by
the FPZ which satisfies 0 5 F, < bl, . f,.
Letting a = a / d ,
becomes
J?  3[(1 a)(l+ )4L
J;
7 = x, / d  a ,
the equilibrium equation (8)
+4L ( L
+ )v2
AP
+3[(1 a)'((l+)2.L 4J
4L Afn
J; bd J;
bd
J;

J; bd
from which 7 and hence the location of neutral axis can be determined if
F, is known and where n is the ratio of the modulus of the FRP sheets to
that of concrete. ( E , / E ).
Following the similar procedure used to derive Eq.(9), the bending
moment due to the internal stresses on the symmetric cracked cross section
is given by
The bending moment M is equal to the moment on the cross section due to
external loads and is PS/4 for the threepoint bend beam (Fig.1). Hence, the
applied load P can be expressed by
222 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure
(12)
, = S 1 d is the spandepth ratio of the beam. From the solutions of
where O
Eqs.(9) and (12), the loading capacity of the beam can be calculated once lp
and q(w) are known.
....
n
(c) stress distribution
Fig.3 Strain and stress distributions across beam section at cracked plane.
NUMERICAL RESULTS
In this section the new model is used to show the influence of a set of
material and geometric parameters on the loading capacity of a carbon FRP
reinforced concrete threepoint bend beam. The material properties of the
(MPa),
plain concrete are as follows6: f,=23(MPa), E=4730
J; = 0 . 6 G ( M P a ) . Hence,
E,
= 0.002 based on Eq.(2). The geometric
parameters of. the beams are shown in Table 1. The beams are lightly
reinforced with a FRP sheet. The modulus of elasticity of the reinforcement
FRF’ sheets, Eh is taken as 90GPa.
Concrete Beams Strengthening with FRP Sheets 223
Table 1. Geometry of the threepoint bend beam
Span
S(mm)
1400
Depth
d(mm)
3 80
Total area of FRP sheets
A~ (mm2)
Initial notch
b (mm)
102
78.5
38
Width
a0
(mm)
Fig. 4 shows the loading capacity (loadcrack depth curves) predicted
by the present model for the concrete beam reinforced with 1 mm thickness
FRP sheet. The curves shown in this figure are the results corresponding to
the different lengths of the FPZ, in which the solid lines are for Zp=O, that is,
the lower bounds of the loading capacity, while the others represent the
upper bounds of the capacity associated with the given lp. It can be seen that
the crack propagation of Mode I is arrested after its growth to a certain
position depending on the length of the FPZ. A larger FPZ results in a
smaller arrested crack and a higher loadbearing capacity.
0
0
100
200
300
Crack depth (alD)(mm)
Fig. 4. Load capacity against crack depth for h=lmm.
Fig.5 further shows how the load capacity is influenced by different
thickness of the reinforcement sheets (and hence different reinforcement
crosssectional areas and reinforcement ratio). In this figure, the dotted
curve is in fact the same as the dotted one in Fig.4 because the ratio of FPZ
to the height of beam cross section ZJd for both dotted curves is the same
and equal to 0.01.
224 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure
!.
g 20
U
m
0
J
lo
.
0 
Fig. 5. Load capacity ofthe beam with different sheet thickness when lD/d=O.O1
When the sheet thickness increases to 1.2mm (Afincreases to the value
of 122.4mm2), there is still a load drop but the maximum relative drop is
getting smaller. However, when the thickness of the sheet is thinner (say
h=0.5mm), a larger load drop is observed. Hence an appropriate reinforced
ratio is necessary to prevent a large load capacity drop once a crack has
formed.
The similar phenomenon and tendency can be observed if the elastic
stiffness of the reinforcement sheet is changed. Generally larger Young's
modulus of the reinforcement will lead to a higher load capacity and a
lower relative load drop percentage for the composite reinforced beam,
which means carbon fibre sheets are more effective than glass fibre ones in
retrofitting engineering.
CONCLUSIONS
A theoretical method to predict loading capacity of FRP reinforced concrete
flexural beams is developed. The constitutive law of FRP sheets and the
responses of plain concrete with appropriate tensile and compressive
stresses are incorporated in present model. The influence of the bridging
stresses provided by the FPZ at the tip of fictitious fracture is examined. It
has been shown that the FPZ has a considerable effect on the arrest of the
rack. A large FPZ is more effective in increasing the strengthening effect.
.. 1992: 617625. by Baker G. and Evans R. eds. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co.. and Karihaloo B. Elsevier Applied Science.A fracture mechanics approach. 1992: 413436.. London. London. A.. K. ACI Structural J. Berkshire. H. J.. Baluch M. Analysis of crack formation and crack growth in concrete by means of fracture mechanics and finite elements. Karihaloo B. Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete. and Ashmawi W.Concrete Beams Strengthening with FRP Sheets 225 REFERENCES Hillberborg A. Ltd.. R.. by Carpinteri. and Saouma V. Rahulkumar P. Ingraffea A.. 1995: 3550. Cement and Concrete Research. H.. Gerstle W. 6(6).. Prasad N. of the Structural Division.. Fracture mechanics of bond in reinforced concrete. 1976: 773782. Crack growth in flexural members. E & FN Spon Pub. V. and Xie M. Kong F. Rock and Ceramics. England. Gerstle W.. ASCE. Tension softening diagrams and longitudinally reinforced beams. ed. N. Gergele P. Fracture of Brittle Disordered Materials: Concrete. K. 1984: 871890. Chapter 16 in Applications of Fracture Mechanics to Reinforced Concrete .. 89(6). 1987. Dey P. 110(4). ModCer M. H. Azad A.. Fracture mechanics application to reinforced concrete members in flexure. H... and Petersson PE. L. 31d edition. P. L..
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and the test results examined with respect to flexural strength.13. these members are subject to large deformation and severe cracking before demonstrating the desired ductility. Singapore. experimental tests were performed on reinforced concrete beam specimens strengthened by commercially available CF and AF sheets.'. aramid fiber (AF) and glass fiber (GF) have been used as practical materials. JOH Division of Structure & Geotechnics. On the contrary. since AF and GF have relatively large ultimate strain but small stiffness. flexural stiffness. Since CF has a high stiffness but a low ultimate strain. 0608628 Japan Z. WANG AND H. Nishi8. . crack width and ductility factor. Kita. Japan In applying fiber reinforced polymers such as carbon fiber. 810 July 2003 Edited by Gang Hwee Tan @World Scientific Publishing Company REINFORCING EFFECTS OF CFRP AND AFRP SHEETS WITH RESPECT TO FLEXURAL BEHAVIOR OF RC BEAMS 0. In the present study. flexural stiffness. Therefore.. and the test results examined with respect to flexural strength. aramid fiber and grass fiber to improve flexural strength of reinforced concrete members. Hokkaido Universiv.FRPRCS6. However. crack width and ductility factor. Carbon fiber (CF). This study is part of a research and development on hybrid FRP sheets3. these materials can improve the ductility of RC members to a great degree'. Constec Engineering Corp. tests were carried out on reinforced concrete beam specimens of which bottom surface was reinforced by carbon fiber or aramid fiber sheets.. IBE Technical Development Dept. In the present study. it can be used to strengthen RC members but not to improve the ductility of RC members. because elastic stiffness and ultimate elongation of the materials are quite different from each other. Tokyo. it is necessary to analyze the effects of these materials on behaviors of crack width and deflection of the members. the mechanical behaviors of RC members repaired by CF and AF sheets must be clarified in order to develop a rational improvement method for bending performance. INTRODUCTION Rehabilitation by fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) improves the bending strength and stiffness of existing reinforced concrete members. Sapporo. Kilaku.
The depth of the crosssection simulated actual reinforced concrete beams used in normal framed buildings. Table 1 lists the mechanical properties of these materials and those of the steel bars. The reinforced concrete beams were identical in all specimens.6 MPa.a.21 SD295Dl6 332 0. tensile strength and crosssectional area of the sheets used in the beams. applying primer.f. respectively. which have a medium and high elastic modulus. An epoxytype resin (FR) was used as the adhesive. The strengthening process consisted of four steps: scraping away weak surfaces from the beam bottom using a wire brush. that spanned the entire length of the beam.modulus strength strain ment CF AF FR kN/mmz 390 78..985 4.5 2. rf = fr a f l f . were used for the experiments. In the present paper. these effects are represented as the FRP stiffening ratio Gand the FRP strengthening ratio 73 which are defined as follows: Ef afl Esa. Two types of FRP sheets. respectively. 24. and using epoxy resin to adhere to the beam two layers of FRP sheets. Readymixed concrete of normal strength. as shown Table 1.37 ___ Yield Yield strength strain N/mm2 % SD295Dl9 352 0.. flattening rough surfaces using putty.5 0. the beams were strengthened by FRP sheets.33 N/mm2 % 3840 3430 46. of either 70 or 80 mm in width. breaking strength and crosssectional area of FRP sheets.228 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement for Flexure EXPERIMENTAL WORKS Design of Specimens All specimens had a Tshape crosssection and were arranged using an adequate number of stirrups in order to avoid shear failure. The improvement to stiffness and strength of RC beams obtained by the use of FRP sheets depends on the stiffness. respectively. The test involved three specimens. and Es. and the other two specimens were strengthened by either CF or AF sheets. Main beam bars and slab bars were of normalstrength and stirrups in the beams were of highstrength. was used.19 SHD685DlO 723 0. af are stiffness.&. a l (1) where Ef. One specimen had no strengthening. yield strength and crossL $ = ble 1 Properties o Young’s Tensile Break Fiber Ta reinforce. are stiffness. but the width was approximately half the scale of the actual beams in order to allow easy production of the specimens.40 Steel bar . CF and AF. After generating beams of concrete of desired strength.
respectively. However. because the concrete strength was lower than expected and shear failure possibly occurred in sections between loading and support points (shear spans) under the original loading distance. Table 2 shows the details of the specimens.6 Note: C.7 BM2AF 2D19:572 1000 AF 0 .urea = crosssectional area of FRP. ratio = strengthening ratio FRP sheets \ 2400 Figure 1 Configuration of beam specimen (unit: mm) sectional area of tensile beam bars. Loading and Measurement Methods All specimens were supported by simple beam systems and were subjected to symmetrical twopoint vertical loadings. the tips of FRP sheets were extended to the end surfaces of the beams and anchored by a steel plate and anchor bolts to avoid anchorage failure. respectively. Vertical displacements at the loading points and the center of the beam were measured .S.s. Strg.4 5. Since the purpose of this test was to clarify the mechanical behavior of the central part of the beam with constant moment distribution. 1 1 0 ~ 7 0 ~ 215. the distance between loads of 1000 mm (bending span) was applied to two strengthened specimens.Reinforcing Effects of CFRP and AFRP Sheets 229 Table 2 Details of beam specimens Specimen Tensile bars & as bm2) Bending span (mm) Type Of FRp depth(mm) width(mm) x layers C. Strg.8 46. sera Stiffen.200 mm and 700 mm. ratio ralio "f2 (mm) Tr 7zr (?A) (%) 2D19:570 700 non Non non non non BM4 BMICF 2D19:571 1000 CF 0 . 1 6 9 ~ 8 0 ~ 2 27 2.1 29. Figure 1 and Table 2 show the configuration and strengthening method of the specimens. The prearranged distances between supports and between loading points were 2.
and the M. and stiffness before yielding were larger than those of BM4. increased continuously BM4 160 120 E 120 & 8o 80 2 4 E: 0 40 0 0 1 BM2AF 160 . The central deflection of the beams bb6. showed a remarkable increase of deflection and widening of flexural cracks after yielding of the beam bars.6 mm after yielding. In specimens strengthened with FRP sheets. the resistant moment at initial flexural cracking and at yielding. without FRP sheets. The resistant moment of specimen BM2AF.i. Deflection Curve All specimens failed in flexure accompanied by yielding of beam bars and breaking of FRP sheets.’ was defined as the average of relative deflections measured at both sides. and the key results are listed in Table 3. and the relative deflection was calculated as the average difference in deflection measured from the central point to the loading points.am. Specimen BM4.160 1 20 40 60 BM1CF 20 0 M 40 60 : Flexural moment in bending span 120 B : Deflection at beam center A : Yield of beam bars X : Break of FRP sheets &id 80 40 0 0 20 40 60 Figure 2 Moment versus deflection relations at midspan of beams .230 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcementfor Flexure on both sides of the specimens. curve of BM4 exhibited a gradual increase in moment accompanied by strain hardening of the beam bars.&Id curve after breaking the CF sheets shifted to that of BM4. Since CF sheets of specimen BM1CF broke at a of 5. RESULTS OF BENDING TESTS Relationship of Failure and Load vs. The relations between bending moment in the bending span and the central deflection are shown in Figure 2. however. the resistant moment decreased rapidly and the M.
3 and BM2AF at M=98.00 (Before FRP breakin tM=llO!?kNrn h 5 1.50 0.60 h 5 0. Strain Distribution of FRP Sheets Figure 3 shows the observed strain distributions in the FRP sheets. lkNm (Just before yielding) +. lkNm (Just after yielding) 0.oo 6.3kNm (Before FRP breaking) +M=91.00 *M=142.9kNm V I 0.00 1200 A 800 400 0 400 800 1200 Distance from beam center (mm) +M=84. lkNm 2.00 1 0 800 400 0 400 800 Distance from beam center (mm) 1200 A Support 3.3kNm (Just before FRP breaking) 0M=98. the strain of BM2AF increased markedly not only in the bending span but also in the shear spans as load . and the strain increased only in the bending span just after yielding (see the strain distributions of BM1CF at M=98.80 BM1CF v ~l Loadingpoint 3CM=101.1).7kNm after cracking) 1 . However.M=98.8kNm (Just after yielding) +M=84.M=53.50 0M=142. Although AF sheets showed higher performance with respect to deflection than CF sheets.20 0. the resistant moment also decreased rapidly to the moment of resistance of the RC beam.0kNm (Just before yielding) A Support Figure 3 Strain distribution in FRP sheets with increasing deflection until the AF sheets broke at a amid of 41 mm after yielding.Reinforcing Effects of CFRP and AFRP Sheets 231 \I 0.1kNm (Just before FRP breaking) 2.50 & (Just +M=23.40 w' 0. The strain distributions were similar to the moment distribution of the beams before yielding of the beam bars.
In the case of BM1CF.6 0. which is lower than that of the AF sheets. the beam would show a slight increase in maximum moment but not ductility.3 27.20 6mid Ky (mm) 4.1 18.04 3.36 (GN) 20.1 0.21 90 93. ble 1 Properties o Specimen BM4 BMICF BM2AF Mcr 6m.1 27. and the strain approached the breaking strain of the AF sheets running the entire distance between both supporting points (see the strain distribution of BM2AF at M=141. Consequently.0 0. respectively. because the bond stress between the sheet and the concrete reached the bond strength and the bond resistance was lost.2). This means that if a beam is strengthened using twice the number of CF sheets (qy is approximately equal to that of BM2AF). particularly in the shear spans.6 0.30 3. compared to that of the nonFRP specimen .2 0. Therefore.99 86.7 ~ ~ I M Y caI/ (kNm) exp 80.4 86 90.8 0.0 18.22 76 81. before the bond stress in the shear spans was lost.d Kcr My (kNm) (mm) (GN) (kNm) 16. the strain of the sheets did not concentrate in a small portion of the beam and the beam resisted large deflection. the strain in the bending span reached the breaking strain of the CF sheets.95 82. the beam exhibited an exceedingly small ductility.232 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement for Flexure and deflection increased.89 bleble 1 Properties oo 1 Properties bleble 1 Properties 1 Properties o o ble ble11Properties Propertiesoo ble 1 Properties o Ta Ta at yielding of tensile beam bars at initial cracking Ta Ta Ta Ta Ta Ta EFFECT ON FLEXURAL PERFORMANCE Strengthening Effect The yield moments of the specimens having CF and AF sheets increased by 11% and 14%.
9D ../Msy was defined as the first term in Eq. exhibited brittle failure just after maximum moment and their resistance reduced rapidly to that of the original beam without FRP sheets. and rl/ for the present test results. calculated yield moment of the beam unreinforced by FRP sheets .2. the term of ultimate indicates the maximum and the breaking of FRP sheets) were obtained using the following equations: . as a result of disregarding the stress hardening of the beam bars and using a catalogue value presented by the fiber manufacturer as the breaking strength of the AF sheets. the calculated ultimate moment was extremely small.. The maximum moment of beams strengthened by FRP sheets increased as 771 increased.. 1800 mm in length and 400 mm in bending span) strengthened by a large number of CF sheets and other types of sheets. On the other hand. Figure 4 shows the relationship between M J M . 200 mm in depth./Mu (here./My and at ultimate .9d. whereas those of BM2AF were underestimated. Hereafter. highstiffness CF sheets may provide a better strengthening effect on the yield moment of a beam than AF sheets when the crosssectional areas of both fiber sheets are same because the q o f CF sheets is larger than that of AF sheets./Mu = as& 0. along with experimental results for comparison.Reinforcing Effects of CFRP and AFRP Sheets 233 “MJY)’. This means that the arrangement of CF sheets in strengthening RC beams is riskier than that of AF sheets. Therefore.. however. Calculated moments at yield . All specimens.. . but the resistance reduction after the maximum moment also becomes larger and the deflection at maximum becomes smaller than those of beams strengthened by AF sheets. who carried out flexural tests using RC beams (1 20 mm in width. The calculated moments of BM1CF were in relatively good agreement with the experimental moments. but the upper limit of the moment increase appeared in the region beyond a qf of 200%.The increasing rate of yield strength by reinforcement of FRP sheets should depend on the number of Gat least theoretically.. in Table 3 and Figure 5. In particular.My = a. as well as those for the test results of Pareek et al.& 0.90 (2) where d is the effective depth of the RC beam and D is the beam depth. that is a value of a.& 0. the arrangement of AF sheets cannot be applied to improve the serviceability of RC beams in order to obtain high flexural stiffness and avoid cracking because the AF sheets provide a higher maximum moment at large deflection but a lower yield moment at small deflection than the arrangement of CF sheets.’. These calculated results are presented..9d f affr0.9d + af ( E / E s ) h0.
4 c] FS1series: Covered by 1 layer CF P 1. and future investigation is necessary.A Covered & by AFRP 0 Our tests Stiffening Effect Based on the results shown in Table 3.8 % 1. Maximum crack width of the BM1CF and BM2AF specimens at yielding was approximately 0. A I 2 3 4 ca/Mu 'ca/Msy Figure 5 Relation of calculated and experimental strengths I 1. . which was 13%.. Figure 6 shows the relationship of the rate of increase in stiffness and the FRP stiffening ratio <p The rate of increase in stiffness slightly depended on a <fin the range of <f less than 20%.234 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure 3 f. but the deviation between these values was so great that the relation could not be clarified. Effect on Crack Width Crack widths appearing at the level of tensile beam bars on the side surfaces of the beams with FRP sheets were narrower than those of the nonFRP beam when subjected to the same moment. One reason may be that the stiffness depends on the bond condition between the sheets and concrete.2 1 0% 20% 40% 60% FRP stiffening ratio c.2 mm.6 0Fseries: Covered by one layer \" CFRP sheet 1. However. the stiffening effect of FRP sheets became larger at yielding as the rate was 37%. the stiffening effect of FRP sheets at initial flexural cracking was not as large as the average rate of increase (= stiffness ratio of FRP beam Kfi to nonFRP beam Ks. Figure 6 Increase of stiffness at yielding sheet confined by Ushape sheets FS2sereies: Covered by 2 layer CF sheets confined by Ushape sheets .). 15 3 1 0% 100% 200% 300% 400% 500% FRP strengthening ratio qf 1 Figure 4 Increase of ultimate strength 2 . 2.
where the crack width was maximum. was six times larger than that of specimen BM1 strengthened by CF sheets. the factor was defined as a ratio of beam deflection at maximum moment to that at yielding).Reinforcing Effectsof CFRP and AFRP Sheets 235 the width at maximum moment just prior to breaking of the sheets was 0. CONCLUSIONS The load versus deflection relationship. Therefore. The location of maximum crack width in each crack changed from the beam bottom to the middepth of the beam. the effect was found to depend on the stiffness of FRP sheets. top of beam middepth bottom of beam Figure 7 Crack pattern of BM2AF reinforced by AF sheets Ductility The ductility factor of specimen BM2 strengthened by AF sheets (here. the following conclusions are derived: (a) The rate of increase of flexural strength of RC beams was approximately proportional to the FRP strengthening ratio. and the bond strength. as shown in Figure 7. the strain distributions of steel bars and fiber sheets and the processes of cracking and failure were discussed and an estimation of resistance was carried out. which was defined as the ratio of (fiber tensile strength) (fiber crosssectional area)/(beam bar yield stress) (crosssectional area of tensile beam bars). The effect of CF sheets on increase of resistant moment at yielding was higher than the effect of AF sheets. based on the results of approximately 30 tests performed by the authors and other researchers. . the FRP strengthening ratio. As a result. whereas the effect of CF sheets on increase of ductility was not expected.4 mm in BM2AF. The effect of FRP sheets on the reduction of crack width was due to the combination of resistant moment and the repression of crack widening at the beam bottom.5 mm in BMl CF and 1.
Culture. pp. Wang. 2002. Z.. CDROM.687696. 1999. Since these results show that it is difficult to improve both initial stiffness and ductility of RC beams by using independent FRP. Baltimore. Joh. (c) Maximum crack widths for all specimens. Subject No. O. accompanied by sheet breaking. We would like to express our deepest gratitude for this support. The Third Middle East Symposium. Aswan. R. The FRP sheets used for the experiment were provided from Nittetsu Composite Co. S. whereas that of the beam strengthened by AF sheets was no less than approximately 12 which implied large energy absorption before the sheets broke. Proceedings of the forth FRPRCS. and Ibe. V01.4 mm. 1999. pp.2 I( I). . Morton. “Externally Bonded Composites for Strengthening Concrete TBeam Bridges”.. “StressStrain Relationship of Hybrid Fiber Sheets Consisted of Carbon Fiber and Other Material Fibers”.. M. at maximum resistance.5 mm and 1. were approximately 0. 11450201). 2. Transactions of Japan Concrete Institute.. sufficient consideration is needed to design serviceability for RC members strengthened by AF sheets. whereas those for specimens having CF and AF sheets were 0. REFERENCES 1. “Flexural Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Beams by Continuous Fiber Sheets”. H.. 3.. witWwithout fiber sheets.201207.2 mm at yielding of the beam bars. Science and Technology (GrantinAid for Scientific Research (B)(2). respectively.236 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement for Flexure (b) The ductility factor of the beam strengthened by CF sheets was approximately two at maximum resistance. and Sotoyama. because the remaining crack width after yielding becomes large and may not be within allowable limits. the development of hybrid FRP sheets which show not only high initial stiffness but also large breaking elongation are in need of further study3. Kurata. ACKNOWLEDGMENT This study was subsidized by the Ministry of Education. S. ACI SP188. Therefore. December 1719. Ltd. Pareek.
Experimental data on strength. Japan This paper presents the results of an experimental program on the behavior of RC beams strengthened using continuous carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) sheets. The purpose of reinforcing existing concrete structures with continuous fiber sheets is mainly to increase flexural and shear strength of members. of Civil Engrg. Japan Y. three of them were reinforced with a soft adhesive layer and CFRP sheets. INTRODUCTION A continuous fiber reinforced sheet is considered to be an effective material for strengthening and rehabilitation of existing RC structures. The results generally indicated that (1) the flexural strength of the strengthened RC beams increased. is excellent in terms of tensile strength.. Nishi 11chome.Minami26j0u. Kitaku. (2) the ductile behavior of the beam reinforced with strips of CFRP sheet was significant. Hokkaido 0608628. Sapporo. strain of tension steel rebar and CFRP sheet. TAKAHASHI Dept. Singapore. and the remaining three were reinforced with a soft layer and CFRP sheets plus 5cmwide strips of CFRP sheet wrapped around the web. especially a CFRP sheet. and resistance to corrosion and chemical attack. and (4)the maximum load was determined by the CFRP sheet breakage.I1. Kita 13jou. on of Struc and Geotech. lightness. deflection. three of them were reinforced with only CFRP sheets on the tension surfaces of the RC beams to enhance their flexural strength. SAT0 Div. In addition. and failure mode of each of the beams were obtained. Graduate School of Engrg. and the number of existing concrete structures in which these reinforcing sheets are used has been increasing. Hokkaido 0640926. Sapporo. Nishi 8chome. Externally reinforced concrete beams with epoxybonded CFRP sheets were tested to failure using a symmetrical twopoint concentrated static loading system. Hokkaido Univ. A large deflection capacity is also required for strengthening a bridge pier. Engrg. A continuous fiber sheet. (3) the failure mode was a breakage of the CFRP sheet by the joint use of a soft adhesive layer. a CFRP sheet can be handled easily because of its . One of them was a control beam without CFRP sheets. 810 July 2003 Edited by Gang Hwee Tan OWorld Scientific Publishng Company FLEXURAL BEHAVIOR OF RC BEAMS EXTERNALLY REINFORCED WITH CARBON FIBER SHEETS Y.FRPRCS6. Ten specimens were cast for this test program. stiffness. Chuoku. Hokkai Gakuen Univ.
1.238 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure flexibility. A chamfer of 15 mm in radius was made in the corner edge of each specimen. the static bending tests were carried out using specimens with strip type CFRP sheet wrapped up to entire web height. 200x300 mm in cross section and 2200 mm in length. The midspan and loading point deflections were recorded at each load increment of 5 kN using linear variable displacement transducers (LVDTs). Specimens in group B were reinforced by bonding of CFRP sheets only to the beam soffit: . OUTLINE OF EXPERIMENT Ten reinforced concrete beams. The flexural behavior of a RC beam with CFRP sheets on the bottom surface and the strain behaviors of CFRP sheets and tension steel rebars were examined. and two D6 (deformed steel bar with a nominal diameter of 6. dimensions.5 mm) was placed between the concrete and CFRP sheet interface before bonding the vertical CFRP strips. However. resulting in a reinforcement ratio of 1. equally spaced at 100 mm centertocenter throughout the span of the specimen. the strength and deflection of a structure member reinforced with a CFRP sheet are often governed by the peeling of the sheet unless the CFRP sheet is wrapped around the member on its web side.35 mm) rebars at the top.53 mm) rebars. Beam sketches. and detailed reinforcement are shown in Fig. A large deformability soft adhesive layer (layer thickness: 0.146 percent. All specimens were reinforced in shear by closed stirrups of D10 (deformed steel bar with a nominal diameter of 9. Strain gauges were attached to the CFRP sheet from the center to both supports of the beam at a pitch of 100 mm. Specimen FO was a control beam without CFRP sheets attached to the beam soffit (group A). All of the beams were simply supported over a clear span of 1600 mm and subjected to monotonic static loading under two concentrated loads to failure as shown in Fig. To try to resolve these problems.1 mm) rebars at the bottom with a total area of 573 mm2. 1. were cast for the test program. In this case. The reinforcement consisted of two D19 (deformed steel bar with a nominal diameter of 19. The epoxy generally used for CFRP sheets was used as an impregnating adhesive resin. and strain gauges were also mounted on the tensile steel rebar. the tensile strength of the CFRP sheet cannot be well exhibited'32. Many studies have been carried out to try to establish a rational retrofit design method. The beams were divided into four categories according to the reinforcement schemes shown in Table 1.
two and three CFRP sheets in specimens F1.F5 and F6) were reinforced with CFRP sheet as in group B as well as a soft adhesive layer (hereafter called "buffer layer") applied between the CFRP sheet and bottom concrete face.2.2 Cross sectional detail . CFRP sheet Fig. 1 Test specimen Fig. Specimens in group C (F4.RC Beams Reinforced with Carbon Fiber Sheets 239 one. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. F2 and F3. Specimens in group D (F7. 3. wrapped up to 30 cm in height (full height of the web). F8 and F9) were reinforced by the same procedure as those in group C but with an additional 5 cm wide strip of CFRP sheet (hereafter called "Ujacket") in some places. respectively.
the failure modes of test specimens were examined. . The watercement ratio and finecoarse aggregate ratio were maintained at 45% and 38%.3 Wrapped appearance by Ujacket using an airjet. The failure mode of the specimen with only CFRP sheets attached to the beam soffit was delamination of CFRP sheets from the concrete. The concrete surface was initially roughened using a handytype grinder to insure a good bond between the epoxy glue and concrete surface. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS Ultimate Strength and Failure Modes As shown in Table 1. and the deflection at midspan of the specimen and that just under the loading point were recorded at each load increment. and the mechanical properties of the materials used for these test specimens are shown in Table 2. The concrete was composed of high earlystrength Portland cement. The surface was then thoroughly cleaned of debris Fig. CFRP sheets were bonded to the beam soffit in the longitudinal direction. reinforcing with CFRP sheets increased the ultimate strengths of the specimens. sea sand and river gravel. For comparison with experimental results. respectively. and the strains in a tension steel rebar and CFRP sheets. the beams were also analyzed by the section analysis method. The experimental results are shown in Table 1. In this study.240 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcementfor Flexure The CFRP sheets were bonded to the concrete surface by similar procedures for all beams. The resin and hardener were mixed and applied to both the CFRP sheet and concrete surface.
RC Beams Reinforced with Carbon Fiber Sheets 241 Table 1. failed due to the breaking of the CFRP sheet in the center of the span length (Photo 1). in which a buffer layer and one layer of CFRP sheet. Test results bleble 1 Properties 1 Properties o o bleble 1 Properties 1 Properties o o bleble 1 Properties 1 Properties o o bleble 1 Properties o o 1 Properties bleble 1 Properties 1 Properties o o Ta Ta Ta Ta Ta Ta Ta Ta C. specimen F4. P:Peeling. and specimen F7. FTF:Flexural Tension Failure. FCC:Failure of Concrete Cover Ta Ta . failed through the concrete cover near the intermediate point between the supporting point and the loading point (Photo 2). in which two layers and three layers of CFRP sheets were used.BC:Breakage of CFRP sheet. respectively. BU:Breakage of Ujacket Table2 CFRP ble 1 Properties o Ta AMOUNT OF FIBER CFRP sheet Thickness Elastic modulus Tensile strength Strain of breakape Yield strength Tensile strength Yield strength Tensile strength Tensile strenpth Elon Pation 7 Rebar 1 :LA) Buffer material I I v I I 0.167mm 230Gpa 3480MPa 15130~ 371MPa 570MPa 3 77MPa 537MPa 1MPa 123% On the other hand. as well as a buffer layer.B:Control beam. in which Ujackets were used in addition to the reinforcement used in the specimen F4. . Specimens F5 and F6.
350 350 300 300 250 250   3 200 2 0 5 150 200 150 100 100 50 50 0 0 0 5 10 15 D E F L E C T I0 (a) N In m 20 25 0 5 ) Fig. The failure mode changed from breakage of the CFRP sheets to failure through the concrete cover when the number of CFRP sheet layers were increased and a buffer layer was used.242 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement for Flexure Photo 2 Specimen F5 Photo 1 Specimen F4 Specimens F8 and F9. failed due to horizontal breakage of the Ujacket at points 15 cm and 25 cm from midspan section in the corner of the wrapping after peeling of the CFRP sheets. the maximum load of RC beams with CFRP sheets increased 32% on average and that of RC beams with CFRP sheets and Ujackets increased 36% on average. Compared to the maximum load of the beam without a CFRP sheet. in which buffer layers. 4 Loaddeflection relationships 10 15 DEFLECTIONlnm) (b) 20 25 . CFRP sheets and Ujackets were used.
RC Beams Reinforced with Carbon Fiber Sheets 243 Deflection Behavior and Strain Distribution of Tension Steel Rebars Loaddeflection relationships at the loading point are shown in Figs .4 (b) shows the relationships between load and deflections of the specimens with a buffer layer and different numbers of CFRP sheet layers. but after this value. the maximum load and ultimate deflection were increased by the use of a buffer layer in the concreteCFRP sheet interface. In this analysis. the compressive stressstrain curve of concrete given in reference3 and the tensile stressstrain curve of concrete. An increase in the number of CFRP sheet layers resulted in an increase in maximum FO 0 I0000 20000 30000 40000 Strain ( x 10") Fig.4 (a) shows the relationships between load and deflections of the specimens withlwithout a buffer layer and Ujackets and with two CFRP sheet layers. The figure also indicates that an increase in ultimate deflection can be expected by using Ujackets. including the tensile stiffening mode4.4 (a) and (b). 5 Loadstrain relationships of the tension steel rebar . Fig.4(a). The values calculated by the section analysis for the beams with two CFRP sheets are also shown in Fig. Fig. the calculated deflection is smaller than the actual deflection. but that an increase in maximum load can not be expected. and the deflection of the beam was thus calculated by integrating the curvature at each segment.4(a). The beam was divided into 60 layers of 5 mm in thickness in the section height direction and 160 segments of 10 mm in length in the longitudinal direction. As shown in Fig. were used. This is because the calculation process does not consider the reduction in rigidity. The reinforcement ratio used in the analysis is the total area of the reinforcement divided by the area which is the section width is multiplied by twice the concrete cover. The analytical deflection values seem to evaluate of the actual deflection of beams correctly up to around 200 kN.
show that in the case of beams without Ujackets. The parameter in each figure is the number of CFRP sheets. However.4(b)).244 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement for Flexure load. This figure shows the relationships between the beams witWwithout a buffer layer and Ujackets for the two layer of CFRP sheets. These results indicate that the CFRP sheet takes enough of the applied load from the strain distribution in the CFRP sheet which is described later.5% p (strain of 15% being almost the sheet breakage strain).8% and the beam with a buffer layer. The transition of tension force on the concreteCFRP sheet interface was smooth when a buffer layer was used and the tension force was applied uniformly to the  350 I I I I I 350 300 300 250 250 5 200 a m 2 150 100 100 50 50 0 0 4000 8000 12000 16000 Strain ( x 10") (4 0 4000 8000 12000 16000 Strain ( x 10" (b) . Strain Distribution in CFRP Sheets Loadstrain relationships of CFRP sheets on the beam soffits of all specimens at the midspan are shown in Figs. respectively. However.5 0. the ultimate deflection tended to decrease with increase in the number of CFRP sheet layers (see Fig.5. the load reached the maximum value (and failure mode was peeling of the CFRP sheet) at a strain of 0. the load reached the maximum at a strain of 0. Loadstrain relationships of the tension steel rebars just under the point of applied load are shown in Fig. the yielding load increased at around 275 kN with the use of a Ujacket. (b) and (c) for group B. 6(a). group C and group D.1. the decrease in toughness is considerably improved by Ujackets. The toughness tends to decrease with an increment in the number of CFRP sheets. 6(a) and (b). Figs.8 . The yield of the tension steel rebar occurred at around 220 kN regardless of whether a buffer layer had been used or no.
but the ultimate deflection was about 2. and a beam with two or three CFRP sheets and Ujackets failed as a result of debonding of the CFRP sheet and breakage of a part of the Ujackets at the corner.6 Loadstrain relationships of CFRP sheet CONCLUSIONS The results of these experiments are very encouraging. The following conclusions are made: (a) Failure of a beam in which a buffer layer was not used was caused by debonding of the CFRP sheet.8 times higher in specimens with a buffer layer and Ujackets than in those without these. . In the case of a beam with one CFPR sheet and a buffer layer. the increase in ultimate deflection cannot be expected by simply increasing the number of CFRP sheets. Ujackets and a buffer layer are indeed a feasible method for upgrading the strength and stiffness of an RC beam. (d) The possibility of determining the maximum load on the beam by CFRP sheets breakage was suggested by the results of tests on specimens in which a buffer layer and Ujackets were used. It has been demonstrated that bonded CFRP sheets.RC Beams Reinforced with Carbon Fiber Sheets 245 350 300 250 5 v 200 V 3 150 100 50 0 0 4000 8000 12000 16000 Strain ( x 10") (C) Fig. (c) The yielding load for the tension steel rebar was raised by using a buffer layer and Ujackets. (b) Without the use of a buffer layer. the failure mode was by breakage of the CFRP sheet (also in the case of a beam with Ujackets). A beam with two or three CFRP sheets failed as a result of a sudden failure of the concrete cover.
T.246 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure ACKNOWLEGEMENTS The authors would like to express their gratitude to Nippon Steel Composite and Shin Nippon Oil Co. 2. Y. Hata.20... Sato. Ueda.. “Experimental Study on Flexural Behavior of Aramid Rods Reinforced Concrete Beam Strengthened with an Externally Bonded Carbon Fiber Sheet”. Vol.. respectively. 3.. and Kobayashi. . REFERENCES 1. Okamura. Takahashi. pp. This project was financially supported by a research grant from the Academic Frontier Promoting Center at Hokkai Gakuen University. Y.327334. pp. pp. pp. Transactions of JCI. Japan Society of Civil Engineering (JSCE).. “Nonlinear Analysis and Constitutive Models of Reinforced Concrete”. A. Maeda. V01. K. T. Takahashi. 4. Y. “Flexural Behavior of RC Beams with Externally Bonded Carbon Fiber Sheets”. 1. Ltd. and Maekawa.. which is gratefully acknowledged.. T. for providing the CFRP sheets and epoxyglue material. C.3638. Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on NonMetallic (FRP) Reinforcement for Concrete Structures.97104. 1998. Gihodo Inc... 1997. and to former students who contributed to the experimental project work at Hokkai Gakuen University. 1991.24. and Maeda.. ”Standard Specification for Design and Construction of Concrete Structures (Design)@ Japanese). H. 1996.
The external reinforcement was bonded to the soffit and web of the beam extending into the flange. Victoria. LEE AND R. The relative simplicity in the application combined with the FRP's superior corrosion resistance and weight to strength ratio have replaced conventional construction materials such as steel as the preferred medium for strengthening. Photogrammetry measurement and experimental results are presented. using Lshaped CFRP plates. This in turn minimizes disruption to services for the duration of the strengthening and maintenance process. Monash University Clayton. Three of the beams were shear strengthened with the external CFRP reinforcement at different spacing. Prefabricated Lshaped CFRP laminate strips were used in the current study. All beams were designed to exhibit shear failure. the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research. Testing carried out by EMPA. Approximately 1500 monitoring points or targets were placed on the beams' and CFRP reinforcement's surfaces to record the positions of the individual targets at selected load levels. Four largescale Tbeams with identical reinforcement details were fabricated and tested to failure. has shown that the . Its light weight meant easier handing and application. Australia 3800 Advanced photogrammetry measurement technique was used to study the deformation mechanism of shear deficient reinforced concrete Tbeams post strengthened with web bonded Lshaped CFRP laminate strips.FRPRCS6. deflections of the beams and slip between the CFRP and concrete at selected locations. All beams were instrumented to measure strain in the CFRP reinforcement. the post strengthening of reinforced concrete structures using externally bonded FRP has become a common practice. Singapore. ALMAHAIDI Department of Civil Engineering. which eliminates the need for mechanical lifting o r anchoring devices. INTRODUCTION Background Today. Several shearstrengthening arrangements exist for the post strengthening of Tbeams. 810 July 2003 Edited by Kiang Hwee Tan QWorld Scientific Publishing Company STRENGTH AND FAILURE MECHANISM OF RC TBEAMS STRENGTHENED WITH CFRP PLATES K.
248 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure strengthening system to be effective (see references 1 and 2).0. The beams were subjected to fourpoint loading using two hydraulic actuators under displacement control. In the present study. The experimental results and failure mechanisms are presented and discussed. The labelling of the gauges is shown in the figures. Beam Details and Test Set Up The steel reinforcement details of the Tbeams are illustrated in Figures 1 and 2.50D. The beams were designated as 'Control' beam. The beams were designed to have significantly higher flexural capacity than the shear capacity to determine the failure mode of the CFRP strengthening system.75D. . It does not appear to suffer from end anchorage problems common in other systems.60D and Beam '0. Beam '0.60D and 0. The shear span to depth ratio (aJd) was approximately 3. Beam '0.x qnnn I Figure 2.0. third and fourth beams were strengthened with the Lshaped laminate strips spaced at 0.75D'.50D where D is the overall depth of the beam. The loading configuration is illustrated in Figure 4. I 120 720 I i c225_1 Figure 1 . Longitudinal details of beams The CFRP arrangements on the beams are illustrated in Figure 3. Crosssectional details of beams I s2 :: 1 u I s4b. The first beam was used as the control specimen with no strengthening carried out. four largescale beams were fabricated and tested to failure. Strain gauges were bonded to the shear reinforcement and CFRP reinforcement to determine the contribution of each component. The second.
RC TBeams Strengthened with CFRP Plates 249 4 1 1 I c3 ' c2r rl clc: C 6 R C8: c5 c7 c 4 h c9 C12' C11' i I ~' 4 r I I I I I I I I I I I I i I Figure 3. The CFRP Lshaped plates consist of layers of carbon fibres aligned longitudinally and held together in a durable epoxybased thermoset matrix. The plates have a 90' bend with an internal radius of 25mm. The tensile elastic modulus is approximately 137.00OMPa.2mm.9MPa. The average concrete strength of the Tbeams was 3 1. Loading configuration Material Properties The shear and flexural reinforcement used were lOmm diameter round bars and 28mm diameter deformed bars with average yield stresses of 351MPa and 445MPa respectively. The leg lengths of the CFRP are 200mm and 5000 mm respectively. CFRP reinforcement arrangement Load Load n 4 975 1265 * 1520 1265 975 Figure 4. which has been determined from tensile tests carried out on CFRP coupons. The nominal width of the plates is 40mm with a thickness of 1. Figure 5 illustrates the .
which was a typical setup of all the beams. The information is then processed in a separate computer workstation and results of the displacements of the individual targets are available within minutes of the imagery being recorded. Highpressure water jet was used to clean the concrete surfaces exposing the aggregates.250 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcemenl f o r Flexure application of the CFRP reinforcement. Approximately 1500 targets were placed on each beam on the concrete surface as well as on the Lshaped CFRP plates. The camera consists of a flash and digital data measurement device that records and stores information about the positions of the individual targets. Figure 6 Lxperimental test set up of Beam ’0 50D’ Monitoring points or targets were placed at selected locations on the beams’ surface.06mm. threedimensional digital photogrammetric measurements were made at twelve camera locations or epochs at selected load levels. . The accuracy of the system employed was f0. I igure 5 Application or CFRP reinforcement Photogrammetry Measurement Set Up Figure 6 illustrates the experimental test set up with photogrammetry targets of Beam ‘OSOD’. using a specifically designed camera. The photogrammetric measurements allow the determination of the shear crack width development with load and movements of the Lshaped CFRP plates relative to the concrete layer. For each beam.
The load shown in the diagram corresponds to the measured support loads at the span where failure occurred. z s 100 C E 0 0 5 10 15 20 Midspan displacement (mm) 25 Figure 7..54 1.RC TBeams Strengthened with CFRP Plates 251 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS Load Displacement Response The load versus displacement response of each Tbeam is illustrated and compared in Figure 7. Comparison between experimental and predicted ultimate loads Beam Control '0.750' '0.cfijRu.81 At the early stages of loading.1 381.rol 1. For the strengthened beams. Main Flexural Reinforcement Response The main flexural reinforcement in the different Tbeams exhibited almost identical load strain responses. !z 400 300 : 200 L.600' '0. the CFRP reinforcement impeded shear crack propagation and growth hence the stiffer response. Table 1 summarises the shear capacities of the four Tbeams..2 0 V.3 446. The use of the . shear cracks began to propagate and widen causing significant deflection. the stiffness of all the beams was almost similar to each other.SOD' Shear capacity 247. The presence of the external shear reinforcement did not affect significantly the initial stiffness of the strengthened beams compared to the control beam at first loading. as the load level increased further. straining linearly with load until structural failure as shown in Figure 8.61 1. For the control beam. Load displacement behaviour of Tbeams Table 1. The main reinforcement did not yield in any of the beams indicating that flexural failure did not occur.0 398.con.
the stirrups were carrying very small loads. At low shear load level. S2 . There is a general trend that the smaller the spacing of the external reinforcement. shear cracks formed at approximately the same shear load level. 400 3 300 0 200 eI 2 100 0 I 0 8 a ' 1000 ' ' I 1718 I 2000 3000 Strain (x10'j n ' ' I I I I I I ' ' 4000 Figure 9.252 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure external shear reinforcement did not increase the flexural stiffness of the beams but had increased the utilisation of the beams' flexural capacity. the external CFRP reinforcement contributed to carrying part of the total shear load. the lesser the strain hence load carried by the stirrups at a given shear load. The presence of the external CFRP reinforcement had an insignificant influence on the initial formation of shear cracks. Behaviour of main flexural reinforcement Internal Shear Reinforcement Response The internal shear reinforcement responses are compared in Figure 9. Fo0 3300 : 200 m 0 2 100 0 0 500 1000 15pO Strain ( ~ 1 0) 2500 2000 Figure 8. there was very little difference in the responses between the Tbeams. Behaviour of stirrup at location S1. In all the beams. As the cracks started to widen sufficiently. The stirrups with gauges S 1 and S2 at the failure spans yielded before the beams reached its respectively peak shear loads whereas the stirrups with gauges S3 and S4 did not yield when failure occurred. In all of the beams.
For beams ‘0. It can be observed that the behaviour of the CFRP reinforcement was very similar to the internal shear reinforcement. The shear load level at which the reinforcement began to carry larger load was similar for all the strengthened beams.60D’ and ‘0.60D’. C7 and C9 at the failure span of Beam ‘0. the abrupt ripping of the concrete portion at the CFRP bend zone caused failure. The reinforcement then failed at the bend zone in a similar manner to beams ‘0. The general trends in the behaviour of the CFRP reinforcement in the Beams ‘0.75D’ and ‘0. This caused concrete around the flange anchorage zone of the CFRP reinforcement to pull out from the flange resulting in a sudden transfer of shear force to neighbouring CFRP reinforcement. 400 300 d 5m 200 2 100 Lo 1500 1500 4500 Strain (x1O6) 7500 Figure 10.60D. C4. Prior to failure. Behaviour of CFRP of Beam ‘0. At low shear load levels. The control beam failed in a ductile and gradual manner whereas the strengthened beams failed in an abrupt manner with a significant drop in load level almost immediately after .75D and ‘0.75D’ Failure mechanism The control beam failed due to formation of two large diagonal shear cracks at the west span (see Figure 11).50D’ were similar. The CFRP adhesive system has relatively low stiffness and therefore would sustain load only when shear cracks had formed and widened to a particular width.75D’ are illustrated in Figure 10. the CFRP reinforcement showed small strain readings.50D.RC TBeams Strengthened with CFRP Plates 253 CFRP Lshaped Reinforcement Response The load strain responses for C 1. For beam ‘0. shear cracks extended to the webflange junction and propagated into the flange. photogrammetry measurements indicated that significant portions of the CFRP reinforcement had debonded from the concrete on the web. which was approximately 1 5 0 k ~ .The CFRP reinforcement where strain gauge C9 was bonded carried very little shear load as it was outside of the shear span.
At the midspan. All targets on the concrete overhang were held fixed as they displaced almost like a rigid block. Each line shows the displacement of the targets from zero loading to the load level of the photogrammetry survey taken prior to failure. The lengths of the lines simply indicate the relative magnitude of the displacements.50D. the paths of the shear cracks in the web are clearly identified by the sudden change in length of the lines.254 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure reaching the peak load. Unlike the shear span. Failure occurred in the west span of all the beams except for Beam '0. Significant portions of the targets on the web and flange in the shear span on the upper side of the shear crack can be observed to have remained stationary with the concrete overhang. the targets displace mainly in the vertical direction. At the shear span. Shear failure in beams Beam Deformation The displacements of the targets hence beam deformations at the failure span are illustrated in Figure 12. targets on the lower side of the shear cracks displaced fairly vertically with respect to the targets on the concrete overhang. the concrete overhang at the support was a noncritical section. which are held stationary. Figure 11. In the Control Beam. The illustrations show the displacements of the targets on the beams with respect to the targets on the concrete overhang at the support. In .
. Ill l l ~ l ' " " " " " " " " " " " " " " ".. .. .. ... ....... I I I IIIIIIII '0... ..I .... .. . . .. ... it can be observed clearly that the shear deformation mechanism were simply the separation of two rigid blocks of concrete at the location of the shear crack.60D ' 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ~ l l I I I I I l I l l I I I ..50D' n Figure 12. ... . . ... . .. .. Deformation of Tbeams Although the load levels at which the photogrammetry survey taken were higher compared to the load level in the control beam. I. the location of the shear cracks for the strengthened beams were not as apparent as the .. . . .. . .. Control '0....I I 1I I1 I1 I 1I 1I 1I II I1 I1 11 11 1I I1 I 1I 1I I1I 1I .. ll I l I l l l l l l I o .. ... . I.. ... . ... .. I. .. . .. .. .75D' . '0..RC TBeams Strengthened with CFRP Plates 255 the web. ... .... . L 1 I Displacement of targets on beam I 1 I1 I1 I1 I1 I1 I1 I1 I1 I1 I1 I1 I1 ... . . .. . . ... .. . ... I .. . .... .... ... .. ..
256 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure control beam. The deformation mechanisms in the strengthened beams were similar to the beam that has not been strengthened. 2. Near the lower side of the shear crack closest to the support. The presence of the CFRP external reinforcement did not delay the initial formation of shear cracks but impeded its propagation and growth. Similar to the control beam. DEETYA. Switzerland for providing partial funding and the materials required for this research. The general deformation mechanisms of the strengthened beams do not differ significantly from the control beam. targets on both the concrete and CFRP plates at the shear span displaced almost vertically with respect to the concrete overhang. This shows that the external CFRP reinforcement have reduced the shear crack width. REFERENCES 1. 169’219E/2. Sika Australia Pty. “Testing of CFRP Shear Strips on Reinforced Concrete TBeams TI and T2”. Report No. the concrete overhang and a portion of the web and flange in the shear span remained quite stationary. EMPA. “Testing of CFRP Shear Strips on Flexural Beam T3”. 169‘219E/l. EMPA.39 pp. CONCLUSIONS In the study. Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research. Report No. Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research. 1998. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors would like to thank the Australian Research Council. . All of the beams had failed in shear. 17 pp. This implies that the CFRP plates were loaded mainly along the longitudinal direction. The rigid blocks displaced almost vertically with respect to each other at the location of the shear crack. 1998. Ltd. and Sika AG. a maximum increase in shear capacity of 81% was achieved in one of the Tbeams strengthened with the external CFRP reinforcement.
Although there are various analytical solutions proposed to evaluate the state of stress at and near the FRP cutoff points as well as the maximum CFRP tensile stress for intermediate crackinduced debonding. MAALEJ Department of Civil Engineering. The most commonly reported failure modes include ripping of the concrete cover and interfacial debonding. Singapore I I 7576 This paper presents the essentials of a research program. National University of Singapore 1 Engineering Drive 2. FRP has become a very attractive construction material and has been shown to be quite promising for the strengthening of concrete structures. Singapore. Three different effective beam depths and two CFRP thicknesses are considered. LEONG AND M. These failure modes occur mainly due to interfacial shear and normal stresses concentrations at FRPcut off points and at flexural cracks along the beam. 810 July 2003 Edited by Gang Hwee Tan @World Scientific Publishing Company EFFECT OF BEAI S ZE 0 I [TERFACIA SHEAR STRESSES AND FAILURE MODE OF FRPBONDED BEAMS K. Although epoxy bonding of FRP has many advantages. most of the failure modes of FRPstrengthened beams occur in a brittle manner with little or no indication given of failure. The test variables include the RC beam size and the CFRP thickness. The experimental works involve flexural testing of 17 FRPstrengthened beams under thirdpoint loading. corrosion resistance. INTRODUCTION Epoxybonding of fibre reinforced polymers (FRP) has emerged as a new structural strengthening technology in response to the increasing need for repair and strengthening of reinforced concrete structures. The main . Because of its excellent strength. there is a lack of definite laboratory tests and numerical analyses supporting the validity of the proposed models. and the benefit of minimal labor and downtime.and stiffnesstoweight properties. The objectives are to investigate the effects of reduced scaling and the influence of the FRP thickness on the interfacial shear stresses and the failure modes of the FRPstrengthened beams as well as to confirm the validity of proposed analytical models for the prediction of interfacial shear stresses. both experimental and numerical. S. designed to study the interfacial shear stress concentration at FRP cutoff points and the failure modes of RC beams strengthened in flexural with externallybonded carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets.FRPRCS6.
106% of the gross concrete crosssectional area (i.2 mm was used for specimens in Series A.330mm and 368x0. Specimen Reinforcing Details Three sizes of beams (breadth x depth x length = 115x146x1500mm. Beams in each group were geometrically similar beams but of different sizes. B and C were 25. B and C.l65mm. B and C and had size ratios of 1:2:3.258 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure objective of this study is. which required six layers of CFRP are not presented in this paper as these were not available yet at the time of the writing. while those .212% of the gross concrete cross sectional area. B3B4 and C3C4 and had a CFRP reinforcement ratio (pp=AJAc) equal to 0. therefore. The stirrups were placed in order to avoid shear failure. Readymix concrete with 9mm maximum coarse aggregate size was used to fabricate all the specimens. The beams were geometrically scaled in all aspect except for aggregate size and stirrups spacing. Further details on the specimens are provided in Table 1 and Figure 1.2. Because most structures tested in the laboratory are often scaleddown versions of actual structures (for practical handling). respectively. The variables were the size of beam and the FRP thickness.e. The first group consisted of Beams A3A4. respectively. A. two groups of beams were considered. it would be interesting to know whether the results obtained in the laboratory are influenced by the difference in scale. 50 and 80 mm. 2 15. = 107. For the sizeeffect investigation. The second group consisted of Beams A5A6. The concrete fracture energy and the tensile splitting strength at testday for both Series A and B were 133 N/m and 3. 30 and 51. A clear concrete cover of 15. to investigate the interfacial shear stress concentration at the CFRP cutoff regions as well as the failure mode of CFRPstrengthened beams as a function of beam size and FRP thickness and compare the test results with theoretical and numerical predictions. 23Ox292x3000mm and 368~467~4800mm) were considered in this study. underreinforced. For each variable. respectively. respectively). The beams were designated as Series A. The CFRP cutoff points for Series A.495mm. two specimens were cast. Results for Beam C5. B5B6 and C5 and had a CFRP reinforcement ratio equal to 0. normal strength concrete beams were tested in flexure under thirdpoint loading.8xO.6x0. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION Seventeen simplysupported.41 MPa.
330 0 0. Material DroDerties Series A Series B Series C R6 TI0 Conc.82 0.s Exfernal reinforcements (CFRp sheet) Sheet No.14 1. A6 BI./bd (%) (%) (%) 1.14 1.35 .71 1. B2 B3.165 0.71 1.14 1.82 0. Section details ofbeams Property/Materials Yield stress (MPa) Yieldstrain (%) Ultimate stress Table 2.14 1.82 0.82 0.8" 488 644 39.990 SERIES C Figure 1./b.71 1.14 1.0~ 181 42Ab 25 .71 1.71 1.82 0. C2 C3.495 0.82 0.8b 42.82 0.20 584 39.71 1. A4 A5.45 650 41.82 0.17 460 547 324 544 324 0.14 1./bd A.71 1.14 1. B4 B5.8b Modulus (GPa) 237 180 27 199 183 27 188 28Day cylinder strength TestDay cylinder strength 552 0. R16 T32 Conc.71 1. Series Beam Table 1.Effect of Beam Size on Inter$acial Shear Stresses 259 for Series C were 128 N/m and 3. A summary of other related material properties is given in Table 2.24 MPa.0.0. 348 0. B6 CI.17 0. C4 c5 L 120 120 120 240 240 240 384 384 384 1500 1500 1500 3000 3000 3000 4800 4800 4800 A. Description of specimens Dimension Internal reinforcements fmm) Tensile Comp. A2 A3. R12 T20 Conc.82 2T20 R12120 A.14 0.14 1.660 0 0.35 . respectively. Shear D A B C A I .71 1.330 0. of layers (mm) 0 1 2 0 2 4 0 3 6 $1D'/:ly 133 3T32 3T20 SERIES B SERIES A 0 0.ga 492 @fp4 42.
the loading points and at midspan during testing. However. respectively. . RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Loaddeflection curves for all specimens are plotted and summarized in Table 4 and Figure 2.015 Instrumentation Four and Five strain gauges were installed on the transverse and longitudinal reinforcements.260 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure The CFRP composite consisted of 0. To measure the interfacial shear stress distribution following the method proposed by Maalej and Bian'. The tensile strength. the CFRP sheets were instrumented with 27. B and C.. and one strain gauge was installed on the top middle of the concrete specimen.165 mm thick carbon sheets bonded to the tensile face of each beam using a two partepoxy resin. (mm/mm) 0. It can be seen that all CFRPstrengthened beams performed significantly better than the control beams with respect to loadcarrying capacity. ('Pa) Value 3034 G . Test Procedure The beams were tested in thirdpoint bending using an MTS universal testing machine with a maximum capacity of 1000kN for Series A and 2000kN for both Series B and C. the observed strength increases were associated with reductions in the deflection capacity of the respective beams..636 235 3550 E.. modulus and maximum elongation of the CFRP reported by the manufacturer were 3550 MPa and 235 GPa and 1. respectively. The beams were simplysupported on a pivot bearing on one side and a roller bearing on the other. The CFRPstrengthened beams failed prematurely with no concrete crushing occurring at ultimate load and only one type of failure modeintermediate crackinduced interfacial debondingwas observed. CFRP properties provided by manufacturer Property E . 29 and 31 electrical strain gauges distributed along the length of the sheet for Series A. (mm) E .(MPa) 0. ('Pa) 1084 t . A total of four LVDTs (Series A) and three LVDTs (Series B and C ) were used to measure the displacements of the beams at the supporting points.5%. Table 3. (GPa) f.. The details of CFRP properties are shown in Table 3. respectively.
60. B and C. As the strengthened beams approached yielding.6 263.3 50.4 74 concrete crushing.5 128 22.17 1. and C .4 77.5% higher than the control for Series A...106%) was 51.5 200.212%) the average midspan deflection capacity was 49%.3 141 30. 29.7 46.5 125 21.69 1.4 144 21.0%. respectively. B and C . 63..106% CFRP (Group 1) was 27.0 76. respectively.16 1. I U D = A.4 70 669.6 60.01 1.2 59 284.. B. and 57.0 64 260. / L  (%) ' p 2. respectively.57 3.Effect of Beam Size on InterJacial Shear Stresses 261 Table 4.212% CFRP (Group 2) the average strengthened capacity was 43. For beams strengthened with 0. Figure 2 also shows that beams with higher CFRP reinforcement ratio have lower deflection capacities but higher stiffnesses based on the measured loaddeflection curves.09 1.4 38.5%.2 519.17 f~r.3 129 56. a linear loaddeflection response is exhibited by all the beams. 9910 8213 6745 6273 7463 7995 5761 4691  5824 7731 Failure mode CC CC ICID ICID ICID ICID CC CC ICID ICID ICID ICID CC CC ICID ICID Intermediate crack induced interfacial debonding Effects of Strengthening Figure 2 shows the loaddeflection curves for beam Series A.5% higher than the control for Series A and B.5% and 72% lower than the control for Series A.3 129 34.9 59.9 63 294. (mm) %of ctrl.. Summary of test results series A1 (ctrl) A2 (ctrl) A3 A4 A5 A6 BI (ctrl) B2 (ctrl) B3 B4 B5 B6 CI (ctr() C2 (ctrl) c3 c4 A CC Beam Load atfailure = Deflection atfailure Pf.5 130 35.8 142 20. Af.0% and 43. the strain in the . It can also be seen that up to a load of approximately 60kN. respectively.0% and 27. B and C.8 51 87.59 1.98 1. The average strengthened capacity for beams strengthened with 0.45 1. 200kN and 400kN for Series A..7 146 32.0 52 75.09 1.4 55 520.1 74.47 1.0 49 85.07 1.55 1.0% lower than the control for Series A and B.39 1. For Group 2 beams (pp = 0.3 652. respectively.40 1. The average midspan deflection capacity' for Group 1 beams (pp = 0.9 49 203.9 126 52. (kq % of ctrl.
The calculated ductility indices for beams A3A4.35 and 1.262 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure CFRP sheets was still larger than that in the reinforcing bars.16. if one looks at the deflection ductility index of the CFRPstrengthened beams.. 200 0 V 0 20 40 60 80 Midspan displacement (mm) Figure 2.Al(ctrl) y'A3 zi 4 '45 A6 I 300 5' 250 40 20 I 0 0 10 20 30 40 Midspan displacement (mm) 800 0 50 0 20 40 60 Midspan displacement (mm) . defined as the deflection at failure divided by the deflection at which the longitudinal bars yield2. 100 350 J p 80 A4 .18 and 1. respectively as shown in Figure 3. B3B4 and C3C4 were 1. 600 f.30. the deflection capacity. and those for beams A5A6 and B5B6. The data suggest . were 1. suggesting satisfactory bond transfer between the CFRP sheets and the beams. there seems to be no significant difference among the values for the different Series of beams. 1. However.34. The results shown in Table 4 indicate that the strengthening ratios SR (defined as the strength of beams with CFRP reinforcement divided by the strength of control beams) for beams with same CFRP reinforcement ratios pp but different sizes are similar. with larger beams showing smaller (relative) deflection capacity. respectively. suggesting that the beam size does not significantly influence the extent to which a RC beam can be strengthened (provided that the beams are not shearcritical). expressed as a fraction of total span length seems to be different for the different Series of beams. Loaddeflection curve for all Series of beams On the other hand..
6 g0.2 0.4 0.8 g 0.1 for a was used in the model and the results are shown in Figure 4. Figure 3. values \ Predicted (Smith and Teng’)  A 5e 12000 0 .4 0. Normalized loadmidspan displacement curve for Group 1 and 2 Failure Modes All control beams failed in the conventional mode of steel yielding followed by concrete crushing.0 00 00 05 15 10 00 05 10 15 s/s. Comparison of measured and predicted3 CFRP debonding strains . The failure mode for all CFRPstrengthened beams was intermediate crackinduced interfacial debonding. exp. .6 0. a very thin layer of concrete and aggregate generally remained attached to the CFRP sheet. Upon debonding. A comparison was made between the experimental results and the analytical results using the model proposed by Smith and Teng3 for the ultimate strain in the CFRP for intermediate crackinduced interfacial debonding. values Avg. 1. ’ g t.2 0.2 1. An average value of 1.9 6000 .0 0.0 1.8 0.z 14000 Exp. 10000 8000 .C  4000 0 Group 2 100 200 300 Beam depth (mm) Estimated point 400 500 Figure 4.Effect of Beam Size on Interfacial Shear Stresses 263 that geometry scaling the beams does not affect the deflection ductility of the beams significantly.
9h).8 ' $0. . Nominal bending moment at peak load as a hnction of beam depth 1. the CFRP failure strain decreases.=PJbd) versus beam depth shown in Figure 5b. It can be seen that Series A generally have higher nominal bending moment capacity compare to Series B and C. However.2 0. specimen (average) 200 400 Beam depth (mm) 600 Figure 5b. specimen (average) 200 00 Beam depth tmm) 1 600 Figure 5a. The bending moment is normalized to My. To further illustrate this. the nominal bending moment (M. the strengthening ratio did not seem to be affected.(0.0 0. where 0.9h = effective beam depth.0 { 0 3 Ctrl. 12 1.264 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure It can be seen that Smith and Teng's model predicted fairly well the CFRP strain at failure with the experimental results being within 15% of the predicted results.0 5'0 ClC2  0 J c) eCtrl. it can be seen that when the beam size increases. A similar pattern can also be observed from the plot of nominal stress at ultimate load (defined as o.) corresponding to the peak load (plotted as a function of the beam depth) for the control specimens is shown in Figure 5a. leading to almost similar strengthening ratios among the different beams.6 0. the interfacial shear stresses for all beams are generally low enough not to . It seems that the reduced contribution of the CFRP (in terms of the maximum CFRP tensile strain that was able to develop) to the strength increase in largesize beams is offset by the reduced nominal load capacity of the unstrengthened beam4 (see Figure 5). The results show that the interfacial shear stresses vary significantly along the CFRP sheet in the curtailment region with the peak stress occurring at the FRP cutoff point. Nominal bending stress at peak load as a function of beam depth Interfacial Shear Stresses The interfacial shear stress distributions along the CFRP interface at the CFRP curtailment region were computed according to the procedure proposed by Maalej and Bian'. From Figure 4.4 0. Although the CFRP failure strain decreased with increasing beam size.0 1 I Strength limit My = f y A s (0 9 4 ~  AIA B1B2  1 4. the lowest possible bending (yielding) moment calculated according to My = f#.
. 0.. .0 100 200 300 400 bw(m 0. The results also indicate that the interfacial shear stresses increase with increasing load.0 500 Group 2.. and the peak shear stress values at ultimate load for both beam Groups 1 and 2 (pp = 0. Only half of the beam was analyzed with appropriate constraints at the centerline.....8 x 5 I .212%. / / t  Num. nonlinear finite element modeling was carried out. In this study.81. 5 0.6 z1......88 and 1.37 and 1.4 3 a 2..(nominal) ’ 100 200 300 400 Beam depth (mm) Figure 6....8  E 1.106% and 0.212%). the peak interfacial shear stresses were 1. It can be seen from this figure that for both Group 1 and 2 the peak interfacial shear stresses seem to increase with increasing beam size as well as with increasing CFRP reinforcement ratio... 2. the above FE beam model as well as the analytical model proposed by Smith and Teng’ were used to compute the interfacial shear stress distributions... .212% ..53 MPa for Series A and B. twodimensional fournode planestress elements were used and lineinterface elements were used to model the interfacial layer between the adhesive and the concrete To evaluate the effect of beam size may have on the peak interfacial shear stresses....... The finite element software package “DIANA” (Version 8) was used to analyze the CFRPstrengthened beams because of its ability to model the nonlinear behaviour of both steel and concrete....106% 0. . respectively) increase with increasing size of the beam. respectively.. c. B and C..0 z2. . To further support the experimental results.. +  ++ Smith.4 0.Effect of Beam Size on Integacial Shear Stresses 265 cause failure by endplate debonding or ripping of the concrete cover.2  Y 0.0  81..32 MPa for Series A.6 D 2 1.4 c Group 1..... For Group 2 (pp = 0.Tenz EXp.. Variation of peak interfacial shear stress for different percentages of CFRP composite area.. For Group 1 (pp = 0...4=0.&=0. The peak shear stresses predicted by Smith and Teng’s model seem to be in good agreement with the both the experimental results and results obtained from finite element modeling... The peak shear stresses were plotted in Figure 6 along with the experimentallyobtained values.... including cracking.. respectively.4  2. 500 ..2  0.106%)’ the peak interfacial shear stresses were 0..
54. and Lam.F. Bencardino.G.. “Interfacial Stresses in Plated Beams”. Engineering Structures. England.5to predict intermediate crackinduced debonding and interfacial shear stresses at FRP cutoff points were found to agree fairly well with observed test data. S. a third year MIT student.T. LTD. with the laboratory work during his threemonth attachment with National University of Singapore. J. . pp. S.N.G. 245 pp. Michael Chen. J. Teng. 163169.1051 12) from the National University of Singapore. 23. nor does it significantly affect the deflection ductility of CFRPstrengthened beams. “Interfacial Shear Stress Concentration in FRPStrengthened Beams”. 4. John Wiley & Sons. Composite Structures. 5. “Minimum Reinforcement Requirement for RC Beams”. 2.. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors would like to acknowledge the assistance of Mr. REFERENCES 1. 2002. L. Carpinteri. Maalej.. Oxford 1999. (b) The models proposed by Smith and Teng3. J.. pp. Chen. and Swamy..2002. F. Spadea G. ESIS Publication 24. 181201.. Elsevier.. A. Smith. Ozbolt J. 857871. M..266 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure CONCLUSIONS Tests in this study showed that increasing the size of the beam leads to increased interfacial shear stress concentration in CFRPstrengthened beams as well as reduced CFRP failure strain. 4 17426. pp. Ed. R. “Strength and Ductility of Reinforced Concrete Beams Externally Reinforced with Carbon Fiber Fabric”. The work has also led to the following conclusions: (a) The beam size does not significantly influence the strengthening ratio. Smith. and Teng. ACI Structural Journal. 3.T.200 1. 99(2). pp. in Minimum Reinforcement in Concrete Members. and Bian Y.. and Bruckner M. Part of this research was supported by a research grant (R264000. FRPstrengthened RC structures.
the need to repair older. SPACONE AND V. imperfection of bond between adhesive and concrete. brittle failure modes such as mid span debonding and end peel off need to be further investigated. The necessity to increase the load carrying capacity of existing structures. are still not fully explained. strengthtoweight ratio and durability when compared to conventional structural materials. 810 July 2003 Edited by Kiang Hwee Tan @World Scientific Publishing Company DEBONDING FAILURE OF RC STRUCTURAL MEMBERS STRENGTHENED WITH FRP LAMINATES G. The numerical results compare well with available experimental data. University of Colorado. A number of researchers reported that the failure mode of an FRPstrengthened RC beam changes due to Externally Bonded Fiber Reinforced Polymers (EBFRP) reinforcement. Although the failure mechanisms of the poststrengthened system have been extensively studied. Singapore. The influence of various parameters on the failure mechanisms. The model accounts for localized and distributed damage and is capable of describing the geometrical discontinuities that cause the brittle failure mechanisms. concrete cracking. such as adhesive behavior. E. offer unique mechanical and chemical characteristics in terms of stiffness. CO 803090428. Environmental and Architectural Engineering. SAOUMA Department of Civil. In order to consider the effects of material nonlinearity on the strengthened beam response. slip between FRP plate and concrete. USA Previous researches have shown that the failure mechanism of traditional RC members changes when strengthened with Externally Bonded FRP (EBFFW) reinforcement. Boulder. with great potential for a wide variety of applications to aging structures.FRPRCS6. This change depends on several . and the need to reduce the maintenance costs of new structures encourage engineers to consider Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRPs) as alternative construction materials. INTRODUCTION Advanced composites materials. deteriorated constructions. geometry of the RC beams. this paper investigates the brittle failure modes using a Finite Element Program based on Non Linear Fracture Mechanics. CAMATA . A parametric study is presented to elucidate the influence of the shearkpan ratio on the failure mechanisms. initially developed by the military and aerospace industries and more recently introduced in the repair and construction of the civil infrastructure.
Various researchers are currently trying to explain the premature debonding (failure modes 6 and 7) of FRP plates in flexural strengthening (among others. Malek et al. effectively forming a plastic hinge at the plate ends. Shear failure. FRP tensile rupture after yielding of the tensile steel reinforcement when the FRP strain exceeds its maximum value. Moreover. Spacone and Limkatanyu.268 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure mechanical and geometric parameters. concrete cracking. There are however no guidelines available for a simple and rational design of end anchorages. ACI (2000) suggests design details and procedures to avoid sudden failure due to debonding of the strengthening plate while fib (2001) describes the debonding and failure modes due to the loss of composite action and offers some useful guidance for proper detailing. Because the debonding failures always start around cracks. End peeling. 2. 3. The shear demand exceeds the shear capacity (Seim et a1 200 1). 1998). 2001). 2000. a localized damage approach is used in this study. Shear failure at the plate end with full composite action. which . imperfection of bond between adhesive and concrete. For beams strengthened with very short plates. slip between FRP plate and concrete. 6. steel yielding can progress to a point along the beam where there is no FRP and a crack has formed in the concrete. Type 2 failures (less ductile): 4. A crack initiates in the vicinity of one of the plate ends and propagates horizontally at the level of the reinforcing steel. the influence on the failure mechanisms of various parameters such as adhesive behavior. Mid span debonding. Concrete crushing when the concrete compressive strain exceeds its ultimate value. 7. 5. geometry of the RC beams. A simply supported beam can exhibit various possible failure mechanisms. which can be classified into two types: Type 1failures (which occur after large deformations): 1. Plate debonding in the concrete cover initiated by the development of a flexural crack in the maximum bending moment region. (Seim et al. Concrete crushing when the concrete compressive strain exceeds its ultimate value and the reinforcing steel has yielded. needs further investigation. while the reinforcing steel has not yet yielded.
Boulder. A combination of smeared and discrete crack approach was used. Dimensions of the specimens Width (b) Length Reinforcement Ratio mm (L) (c)) mm AJbd 200 3250 0. combining a smeared and a discrete crack approach. and the tensile strength is 2400 MPa. ANALYSES Description of the models The analyses were carried out using Merlin (MERLIN User’s Manual. The failure mechanisms reported by the authors were midspan debonding for both tests. The reinforcing steel has a yield strength of 400 MPa. The dimensions of the elements is presented in Table 1. The Young’s Modulus of the unidirectional composite is ECFRP=150 GPa. One beam and one slab were not strengthened to serve as reference specimen. 1994) couples the Rankine smeared crack model in tension with the three invariant plasticity model of Menetrey and Willam (1995) in compression.2 mm thick and 50 mm wide. 2001). In compression. This paper presents the results of a Finite Element (FE) study on different fracture and mechanical parameters that affect the failure modes involving loss of composite actions and focuses on two tests performed by Zarnic et al. The epoxy resin used to glue the plates to the RC members was 2 mm thick. the model uses nonlinear hardening up to the peak strength and linear softening in the postpeak regime. a FEA program developed at the University of Colorado. modified to account for the .56% 800 3250 0. Type Deptht (h) Beam Slab 300 120 mm Table 1. The discrete crack model used is a generalization of the classical Hillerborg et al. (1976) Fictious Crack Model. The plates were 1. The two flexural specimens were designed to represent a beam and a slab and they were tested in four points bending. The smeared crack model implemented in the program (Cervenka.Debonding Failure of RC Structural Members 269 uses nonlinear fracture mechanics. (1999).40% The specimens were cast using a 25 MPa compressive strength concrete. The specimens were strengthened with Carbon FRP (CFRP) pultruded plates. The beam was strengthened with one plate and the slab with two plates.
) .8 GIIaF/ c. @is the angle of friction. which is a relative measure of the fractured surface.0 . GilaF is not the pure mode I1 fracture energy. ANALYSES The investigations are performed through a twodimensional analysis and using plane stress elements.4 c. linetoline 4 .2cTan(bf)(o. The specimen is discretized using 3node elements for the concrete continuum.clc = 0.270 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure shear effects along both the fracture process zone and the true crack. is the interface tensile strength. The critical opening and sliding corresponding to zero cohesion and tensile strength are denoted by w. The interface strength is described by the following failure function (Cervenka. a.Tan2( 4 f ) ( 0 2.4 oto. zj and z2 are the two tangential components of the interface traction vector and o i s the normal traction component. but is the energy dissipated during a shear test with high confining normal stress. Bruhwiler and Wittman (1990) used experimental data to determine the shape of the softening diagram for structural concrete and found that the optimal values for concrete with 25 mm maximum size aggregate are: c10 = 0.w = 0. and wc. Bilinear softening law Bilinear softening laws describe the cohesive stresses in the FPZ. In this model the crack is decomposed into a true crack and a Fracture Process Zone (FPZ) along which cohesive stresses are present but a strain discontinuity exists. Figure 1 . The stiffness degradation is modeled through a damage parameter.o). and they are determined from the condition that the area under the linear or bilinear softening law must be equal to mode I fracture energy GIF and mode I1 fracture energy GilaF as shown in Figure 1. ) = 0 (1) where: c is the cohesion.8 GIF / otO. respectively. wlc = 0. the FRP and the resin. 1994): F = (r: + ~ f .
The material parameters used in the FE analyses are presented in Table 2. . FRP and epoxy glue are characterized by a linear elastic model and for steel J2 Plasticity is used. The material parameters used in the anlyses were those given by Zarnic et al. Mesh discretization (Beam A. Boundary conditions and cracks configuration (Beam A. which are the points where the strains present large discontinuities. 1999) The mesh is refined close to the plate end and under the load. The symmetry of the problem is exploited by modeling only half of the beam. Steel relnforcemcnr Figure 2. The shape of the softening curve of the discrete crack intererface is defined following BruhwiIer and Wittman (1990). (1999) or were induced from the experimental LoadDisplacement curves. Figure 3. Zamic et al. Zarnic et al. Other nonspecified paramenters were computed based on ACI 31895 and CEN (1995). Figure 2 illustrates the boundary conditions and crack configurations used to model the specimen. Concrete is modeled using non linear fracture mechanics.2 mm increments at the top of the specimen after application of the specimen selfweight. One vertical crack is inserted under the load and one along the interface concrete/epoxy glue.Debonding Failure of RC Structural Members 271 node interface element for the interface elements and 2node truss elements for the steel reinforcement. 1999) The analyses are performed by increasing the displacement by 0.
. Finally..00040 m EXPERIMENTAL PREDICTION Beam The numerical prediction follows very closely the experimental results as shown in Figure 4.75 MPa (ACI 3 1895) 2.0008 Interface parameters Shear Stifhess Kt Normal Stifmess K. At point c. Three loading stages are highlighted in Figure 4.55 15 MPa 0. the beam starts cracking. At pointy. The FE model does not consider the slip between the steel reinforcement and the concrete and this probably explains why. the experimental and numerical responses differ.700 MPa 0.880 MPa 0..000050 m Wl. Compressive critical displacement wd Return direction in HaigWestergaard space p Factor for shape of MCnetreyWillam surface e Onset of nonlinearity in compression f. Tensile Strength otO Cohesion c Friction Angle 4t Dilatancy Angle Specific mode 1 fracture energy GIF Specific mode I1 fracture energy GilaF Ratio of irreversible displacement y Maximum dilatant displacement urn. leading to a drop in the response stiffness.01 m 0.75 MPa (ACI 3 1895) 70 N/m (loaddisplacement) 25 MPa (Zarnic et al.. 30 Gpa (CEN 1995) 0. Plastic strain at compressive strength E.2 1. (1999) soecimens Material Parameter Values Concrete [Smeared Crack Model] Modulus of elasticity E Poisson's ratio v Tensile Strength f Specific mode I fracture energy GIF Compressive strength f.2 MPa (loaddisplacement) 53 degrees 45 degrees 70 N/m (loaddisplacement) 700 N/m (loaddisplacement) 0.005 m 0 0. Material properties used for the analyses of Zarnic et al. the bottom reinforcing steel yields. after cracking.3 0.3 Cohesion at break point of bilinear softening law clc Crack sliding at break point of bilinear softening law wlc 0. 1999) 0.. at point d the CFRP strip debonds at mid span.272 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure Table 2. Stress at break point of bilinear softening law ol0 Crack opening at break point of bilinear softening law 1250 GPa/m (assumed) 1250 GPa/m (assumed) 1. This is due to the slip.
The plate debonds under the load (Figure 5.Debonding Failure of RC Structural Members 273 120 1 s 80  k d e U 0 10 20 Midspan Deflection. (1999)... Slab The failure analysis shows that. . Figure 5 . Mid span debonding failure mode (deformation amplification = 40) Figure 5 also clearly shows that at failure the plate end is still glued to the beam (Figure 5. The numerical loaddisplacement response closely traces the experimental curve.. similarly to experimental results reported by Zarnic et al. the slab fails because of mid span debonding. Comparison of experimental and numerical results Figure 5 shows the amplified deformed shape at failure (loading stage d in Figure 4). Detail A). . A [mm] 30 Figure 4... Detail B) and traces accurately the experimental behavior reported by Zarnic et al..... .** 0. as shown in Figure 6 . (1999).
....274 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure ... Comparison of experimental and numerical results As for the strengthened RC beam.. Deformed mesh....... .. boundary conditions and details on the debonding failure 1 '  1 0 ' Strenshtened Slab 30 60 Midrpan Deflection. . = LFR& is defined.... a normalized plate length L. the difference between experimental and numerical results in the loaddisplacement curve is probably due to slip between the steel reinforcement and the concrete that the FE model does not represent..... where L is the beam span and L F R p is the plate length...: Figure 6.. PARAMETRIC STUDIES Using the geometric configuration and the material properties of the beam discussed in the previous sections... ... a series of parametric studies are performed to elucidate the influence of the plate length on the peak load and on the failure mode. A [mm] Figure 7. as shown in Figure 8. To differentiate between different plate lengths.
The analyses focus on the change from ductile to brittle failure modes that occur because of the externally bonded FRPs. (b) A series of parametric studies point out that there is a certain plate length that marks the limit between debonding under the point load and plateend peeling.79 (the plate ends 300 mm from the support) the failure is plate end peeling. The following conclusions can be drawn from the studies performed: (a) the model applied accurately describes the failure modes analyzed (shear failure at the end of the plate. = 0. Figure 5 illustrates that the original experiment by Zamic et al. = 0. A[mml 30 Figure 8. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS This study applies nonlinear fracture mechanics to the analysis of the failure mechanisms of RC beams strengthened in flexure with externally bonded FRPs. These results indicate that there exists a certain anchorage length. The graph shows that decreasing the plate length decreases the load carrying capacity of the strengthened beam.83 (the plate ends 250 mm from the support) correspond to the length at which the failure changes from mid span debonding to end peeling. are investigated. With decreasing L.. plate end peeling and mid span debonding). The influence of various parameters on the failure mechanisms. For L. Parametric study Figure 8 reveals the influence of the plate length on the failure load. the location of debonding changes from mid span to the plate end. For the geometric configuration and material .93 (the plate ends 100 mm from the support) failed because of mid span debonding. The value of L. beyond which an increase in plate length does not lead to an increase in failure load. (1999) in which L.Debonding Failure of RC Structural Members 275 120 F :: 80 g 40 9 0 0 10 20 Midopan Deflection. = 0.
. Bulletin n. July. Spacone. E. October. F. Malek. R. 773782. 433442.E. “Triaxial failure criterion for concrete and its generalization. 3. Dhir and N. M. Zarnic. and Wittmann. fib (2001). K. 92(3). Res. Design of concrete structures”. American Concrete Institute ACI 3 1895. and Limkatanyu. M R. Bruxelles. 8. (1999). NovemberDecember. Bosiljkov. 83 1839. J.” ACI Structural Journal. 3 11318. “External FRP Poststrengthening of Scaled Concrete Slabs. 13.” American Concrete Institute. (1998). beyond which any increase in the plate length does not increase the beam strength. V. V. (1996). CO 803090428.edu/saoumdmerlin 11. 14.. Creating with Concrete. 5. Gostic. (2000). Peterson.” ASCE Journal of Composites f o r Construction. very small difference in load capacity is noted in beams that fail by plateend peeling. “Building Code Requirement for Structural Concrete (ACI 3 1895) and Commentary (ACI 3 18R95)” American Concrete Institute. Thomas Telford. (1990). R. University of Colorado. 6775. E. 95(1). Hillerborg. (1995). P. Boulder. 10. “Improvement of Bending LoadBearing Capacity by Externally Bonded Plates. 97(6).. CEN/TC 250. and Willam. London.K. American Concrete Institute ACI 440. Henderson. (2001). htt~://civil. “Response of Reinforced Concrete Members Including Bond Slip Effect. M. Conc. 5(2). 6(6).. Hormann. S. A. (1976). 6. “Externally Bonded FRP Reinforcement for RC Structures ”. 12. Bokan Bosiljkov.” Proc. 4.. (1994). Seim. W.” Cem.” ACI Structural Journal. “Discrete Crack Modeling in Concrete Structures” PhD thesis. “Analysis of crack formation and crack growth in concrete by means of fracture mechanics and finite element. MarchApril. University of Colorado. eds. . Boulder. P. fkdkration interantionale du bkton... CEN. 7. “Guide for The Design and Construction of Externally Bonded FRP Systems For Strengthening Concrete Structures. February 13. 142151. (2000)..276 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcementfor Flexure properties considered in these studies. V. “Prediction of Failure Load of R/C Beams Strengthened with FRP Plate Due to Stress Concentration at the Plate End” ACI Structural Journal. F.colorado. M. “Failure of Dam Concrete Subjected to Seismic Loading Conditions” Engineering Fracture Mechanics. MenCtrey. Cervenka.. (1995). Saadatmanesh H. 2. 9. MERLIN User’s Manual (2001). REFERENCES 1. “Eurocode 2. Bruhwiler. and Ehsani. ENV 199211. and Seible. Karbhari. Third printing. indicating the existence of a plate effective bond length. ModCer. Prepared by: Department of Civil Engineering. S.A..
that is. When the principal tensile stress reaches the tensile strength of concrete. the FRP strengthened beams showed little strength improvement over the unstrengthened beam but the original ductility was eliminated. In the experiment. 810 July 2003 Edited by Gang Hwee Tan @WorldScientific Publishing Company EFFECT OF END WRAPPING ON PEELING BEHAVIOR OF FRPSTRENGTHENED BEAMS P. For Land Xwrapped beams. no sign of detrimental peeling was observed and the beam failed in flexural concrete crushing mode. This paper reports an experimental program conducted to examine the effect of end wrapping on peeling character of FRPstrengthened beams. Without wrapping. Three different wrapping schemes. For Uwrapped strengthened beam. ripping off the concrete cover. INTRODUCTION Strengthening of existing reinforced concrete members using fiberreinforced composites has been shown to significantly increase the loading capacity of the member’”. end peeling could be prevented but shearflexural peeling took place instead. end peeling and shearflexural peeling as shown in Figure 1. peeling of FRP from the beam may occur before the beam can achieve its ultimate enhanced capacity. the efficiency of F W can be greatly reduced due to this premature failure. namely. Singapore. However. Thus. However. The end peeling results from the combination of shear and normal tensile stress localized in the vicinity of the plate end. Thailand Reinforced concrete beams strengthened with externally bonded fiberreinforced polymer (FRP) are reported to have larger ultimate capacity compared with the original beam. The shearflexural . U.FRPRCS6. the full flexural capacity of a strengthened member is not always achieved due to the premature peeling (separation) of FRP from the concrete member. Arduini and Nanni4 described two common types of peeling failure. carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) was applied to strengthen reinforced concrete beam and carbon fiber reinforced sheet was used as end wrapping material to provide restraint conditions. PIMANMAS Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology Thammasat University. Land Xwrappings were examined. Pathumthani 12121. a crack initiates and propagates horizontally at the level of tension steel. PORNPONGSAROJ AND A.
some researchers reported the successful prevention of end peeling by providing Uwrapping around the plate end. A large amount of stirrups was provided to prevent premature shear failure. In this paper. the authors examined the effect of end wrapping on peeling behavior of FRPstrengthened beams. The clear concrete covering was 30 mm.278 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure peeling initiates at the base of flexural or shearflexural crack. In the past. Three types of wrappings were considered: U. peeling failure should be correctly predicted.and Xwrappings. and propagates towards the support. otherwise prevented so that concrete crushing or FRP rupture would occur instead. L. . The ~ . EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM Cross Section and Reinforcing Detail of Control Beam The dimension of the beam cross section and reinforcement detailing are shown in Figure 2. research on shearflexural peeling has been relatively few6. On the other hand. Shear.Flexural Crack Rippedoff Concrete cDirection of Peeling Propagation Direction of Peeling Propagation (b) Shearflexural peeling (a) End peeling Figure 1. The longitudinal compression bar consisted of 4DB 16. In order to guarantee the safety of FRP strengthening. The beam was designed to be underreinforced in flexure. The transverse stirrups consisted of RJ36 (6mm diameter plain bar) spaced at 50 mm center to center. The longitudinal tension bar consisted of 2DB16 (16mm diameter deformed bar) and 2DB12 (12mm diameter deformed bar). some mechanical anchoring methods using bolts'x6have been used but the result was not very successful. Two common types of peeling failure Most of the previous researches concerning the peeling failure have primarily focused on end peeling f a i l ~ r e ' .
the beams were tested under threepoint bending (Figure 3(a)) with shear spantoeffective depth ratio (dd) of 6. DB12 and DB16 were 512. The width of the plate was 100 mm. The nominal tensile modulus of the plate and sheet was 150000 and 230535 MPa. The tested tensile strength of RB6. respectively. respectively.28. In seriesR. Loading method Test Series: Loading Method and Wrapping Schemes A total of eight beams were cast. according to the loading method. The FRP used in the experiment was carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP). Each series consisted of four beams.7 and 553.7 MPa. The thickness of the plate and sheet was 1. respectively. respectively.8. The beams were divided into two series.Effect of End Wrapping on Peeling Behaviour 279 Figure 2. In seriesA.2 and 0.3.8 MPa. The nominal tensile strength of the plate and sheet was 2200 and 3482 MPa.1 1 1 mm. The tested yield strength of RB6. 479. respectively.9 and 630. the beams were tested under fourpoint bending (Figure 3(b)) with shear spantoeffective depth ratio (dd) of 4. Figure 3. . DB12 and DB16 were 398. namely series A and B.40. 639. Cross section and reinforcement detailing of the beam specimen Material Properties The average tested compressive strength of concrete at 28 days was 44 MPa.
U FRPplate + Uwrapping L FRP plate + Lwrapping.280 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure Figure 4 shows details of all tested beams together with specimen designation.and Xwrappings is shown in Figure 5. L.dimensional view of the U.and Xwrappings . Three dimensional view of U. B SeriesB. P FRPplate only. LA se x Note ( I ) A SeriesA. Detail of each tested beam Bottom View Top View Uwrap Xwrap Figure 5. L. X FRP plate + Xwrapping (2) Number indicates the distance (mm)from center ofsupport to the end of FRP plate Figure 4. The three.
The unbonded length measured from the center of support to the plate end was 200 mm for beams A. For beams in seriesB. The load was measured with a load cell. The stirrup shear capacity was calculated using equilibrium equation assuming yielding in all transverse stirrups cut by an inclined crack. A200P and all beams in seriesB and 420 mm for beams A420P and A420U.and Xwrappings were assumed to provide both vertical and horizontal restraints since they were capable of counteracting both tensile and shear stresses at the plate end (see Figure 6). a transferred steel girder was used to transfer the applied load to the two designated points on the beam. The ratio of unbonded length over halfspan length was 0. The FRP sheet was used as wrapping material since it is sufficiently flexible to be wrapped around the corner of the members.This relatively high ratio was selected in order to create a very severe stress concentration around the plate end.42. All beams were tested to failure.and Xwrappings .2 and 0. respectively while the common range of this ratio was 0. Table 1 summarizes the shear and flexural capacities of the control beam. the flexural capacity was calculated using sectional analysis. Force in fiber . The initiation and propagation of cracks were observed and marked with a waterproof pen. The concrete shear capacity was calculated by the Modified OkamuraHigai equation'. Displacements were measured at midspan and supports with LVDTs.0130.155.EfSect of End Wrapping on Peeling Behaviour 281 The Uwrapping was assumed to provide the vertical restraint against peeling while L. Capacities of Control Beam Based on the material properties and dimension of the beam specimen. Resistance to normal and shear stresses by L.) Normal and shear stress transferred from FRP to concrete y ' Figure 6.
74 A (Control beam) A200P A420P A420U B200P cc cc 176. Table 1. percentage of load increase compared with the control beam and failure characteristics of all beams.79 52.40 Shear capacity of concrete (VJ.41 117.0 CC after yielding 105. moment capacity at failure.03 7.13 6.44 61.79 58.5 103.66 95.13 SFP EP CCfollowing EP EP Premature CC and SFP B200L 165.82 B200U 147.03 29. kN 103.rn) Percentage of load increasea Failure mode cze (kn.2’ 33.76 38. The cracking patterns for all beams at the end of test are shown in Figure 9.). m 44. SFP: Shearflexuralpeeling.83 74. respectively.45 44.49 15.5 Yielding moment capacity (M. kN.72 0.55 Table 2 Summary of test results Specimen Loading Loading capacity Ultimate moment ( niv.12 5 1.96 67.282 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcementfor Flexure RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 2 summarizes the loading capacity.08 B200X Note: aThe percentage of load increase is computed relative to the control beam.m) PA) 89. EP: Endpeeling . kN 70.15 Yielding load (P.).28 4. CC: Concrete crushing.23 18. The loaddeflection relations for beams in seriesA and B are shown in Figure 7 and 8.70 41.15 44.3 70.2’ Shear capacity of tie (VJ.83 47.29 126. kN 88.3 Total shear capacity. The negative value indicates the reduction in loading capaciv. kN 33.68 149. Shear and flexural capacities of control beam Properties SeriesA SeriesB Shear spadefective depth (d4 6.
It failed by concrete crushing after yielding of main steels. Load versus midspan deflection of beams in seriesB SeriesA Beams Beam A was the control beam with neither FRP plates nor sheets attached. the peeling character was different. Load versus midspan deflection of beams in seriesA 200 1 0 I 5 10 15 20 Midspan deflection (mm) Figure 8. FRP plate of A200P peeled at the base of a shearflexural crack formed at the section 400 mm from the support (see Figure 9(b) and Figure l(b)).Effect of End Wrapping on Peeling Behaviour 283 160 I 1 Midspan deflection (mm) Figure 7. Both beams failed in a brittle manner due to FRP peeling. . On the other hand. However. FRP plate of A420P peeled at the end of the plate (see Figure 9(c)and Figure l(a)). The load versus midspan deflection curves of these two beams are compared in Figure 7. The number 200 and 420 indicates the distance in mm from the plate end to the support. These beams were tested to examine the effect of bonded length on the peeling behavior. Beams A200P and A420P were strengthened with a ply of FRP plate without sheet wrapping at the ends.
284 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcementfor Flexure As shown in Table 2. the beam may not be safe against shearflexural peeling. Even though the loading capacity associated with the shearflexural peeling is larger than that associated with the end peeling. (4 (h) Figure 9. As the FRP plate was terminated nearer the support. The beam was provided with Uwrapping at the FRP plate end. and therefore more difficult to prevent than the end peeling. This should be particularly taken into account when designing the end wrapping for wide structural members. The end peeling may thus be avoided by running the FRP close to the support. that is. Crack pattern observed at the end of test Beam A420U was tested to study the end peeling behavior under vertical restraint. the ultimate load of A200P is higher than that of A420P. . It is seen that the distance between the plate end and the support affected the peeling behavior and the loading capacity. A close observation around the wrapping (Figure 1O(b)) revealed that the restraint condition varied along the FRP width. However. the shearflexural peeling is equally undesirable. probably because of vertical restraint from the support reaction. the normal tensile and shear stresses in the vicinity of the plate end were smaller. The loading capacity was 68. the fiber plate was most strongly restrained vertically near the side faces of the beam and less strongly restrained near the central zone. The end peeling took place but the growth was restrained by the Uwrapping as shown in Figure lO(a). This is so because the location and the load at which shearflexural peeling occurs are harder to predict.5% higher than the control beam and 56% higher than A420P (see Figure 7).
The graph also shows a horizontal line indicating the loading capacity of the control beam under fourpoint bending. since all beams have identical cross sectional dimension and reinforcing details. the control beam was tested under threepoint bending (seriesA) only. respectively. a diagonal shear crack appeared at the inner edge of the fiber sheet. Zone Restraint zone (b) Nonuniform restraint condition along the width of the beam Figure 10. propagated toward the compression zone and caused concrete crushing suddenly.Effect of End Wrapping on Peeling Behaviour 285 SeriesB Beams All beams in seriesB were tested under fourpoint bending. motivated shearflexural peeling followed by premature concrete crushing. Both failed by concrete crushing without any sign of end peeling or shearflexural peeling. the Uwrapping had the tendency to block the end peeling by providing vertical restraint. Beam B200L and B200X were provided with a ply of FRP plate for each beam with end wrapping in L and X patterns. . Beam B200U was provided with a ply of FRP plate and Uwrapping. The comparison of load versus midspan deflection is shown in Figure 8. but on the other hand. Similar to the effect of terminating the FRP end close to the support. However. Peeling character under nonuniform vertical restraint condition Beam B200P was provided with a ply of FRP plate without end wrapping (Figure 4). The loaddisplacement relations of these beams are compared with other beams of Bseries in Figure 8. Instead of the end peeling failure. The fiber plate peeled off at the end (Figure 9(e)) at the load lower than that of the control beam (Figure 8). In the experiment. the loading capacity under fourpoint bending could be calculated from the tested bending capacity of the beam under threepoint bending.
there was no sign of end peeling or shearflexural peeling.C.. Okamura. Hollaway. L. The L. Ritchie. 2. 160168.and Xwrappings were used to provide both horizontal and vertical restraints. Thomas. 1991. pp.. 5 .B. for providing the FRP materials for the experimental works.A.M. the shearflexural peeling might result instead. P. “Parametric Study of Beams with Externally Bonded FRP Reinforcement”.T. T..131141. REFERENCES 1. M. With these wrappings. Thammachat Kulprapa. ACI Structural Journal. “Proposed Design Equation for Shear 7. and Leeming. M. D. ElMihilmy. The shearflexural peeling is very undesirable because it is hard to predict not only the load when it occurs but also the location. 91(2). et al. 657 1. pp. 1980. 1990. “Prediction of Anchorage Failure for Reinforced Concrete Beams Strengthened with FiberReinforced Polymer plates”. “External Reinforcement of Concrete Beams Using Fiber Reinforced Plastics”. 3. Proceeding of JSCE. G. ACI Structural Journal.) Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Structures.. 6. 98(3). pp. ACI Structural Journal. L. 1994.. and Higai.286 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcementfor Flexure CONCLUSIONS This paper presented an experimental program to investigate the effect of end wrapping on peeling behavior of FRP strengthened beams under different bonded lengths and end restraint conditions. 200 1. 300. A.. “Strengthening of Initially Loaded Reinforced Concrete Beams Using FRP Plates”.490500. pp.R. J. pp. 1997. “Fiber Composite Plates Can Strengthen Beams”. Concrete International. and Nanni. 94(5). H. Arduini. It was found that the peeling character of FRP depended on the bonded length and the end restraint condition. CRC press. and Connelly. Sharif. H. A. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors would like to thank Mr. (Eds. 12(3). Nontri Ltd. ACI Structural Journal.A. 88(4). Co. . Saadatmanesh. and Tedesco.. When trying to prevent endpeeling failure by using vertical wrapping or running the FRP plate close to the support. pp. and Ehsani. Strength of Reinforced Concrete Beams Without Web Reinforcement..493501.30 13 13. M. M.. The beams could fail in flexural concrete crushing failure mode.W. Lu.W. 4.
Nagareyama 2700132. which fail by debonding. 810 July 2003 Edited by Gang Hwee Tan QWorld Scientific Publishing Company AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON DEBONDCONTROL OF AFRP FOR FLEXURALLY STRENGTHENED RC BEAMS S. However. the RC beams can be strengthened to the desired point of analytical flexural ultimate state. in the case of DFtype RC beams. Japan H. of Mitsui Const. KURIHASHI Material Division. Results obtained from this study were as follows: (1) by jacketing with AFRPs over half the lower height to the neutral axis and over rebar yield area in the shear span. Toyohira. Muroran Institute of Technoloa. Muroran 0508585. Therefore.FRPRCS6. Japan Y. of Hokkaido. with jacketing area (height x width) and volume of AFRPs as variables. in order to establish a rational sheet debondcontroling method for RC beams. Singapore. Ltd. many experimental and analytical studies on RC beams strengthened with FRPs have been conducted all over the world. debonding of flexural strengthening FRPs can be also controlled. Japan In this paper.. Sapporo 0628602. From the experimental results of flexurally strengthened RC beams with FRPs. and (2) without jacketing in Ushape but bonding FRPs only on the sidesurface in the rebar yield area in the shear span. it has been clarified that two types of failure mode can be expected: one is Flexural Compression Failure (FCF) which is the case where RC beams failed due to sheet debonding after reaching the analytical ultimate flexural limit state. Co. Civil Engineering Research Inst. practically. SAWADA AND N. MIKAMI Technical Research Inst. FCFtype RC beams can be designed and applied in practice without any need to control FRPs debonding. INTRODUCTION In recent years. KISHI Civil Engineering. a rational method . and another type is Debonding Failure (DF) which is the case where RC beams failed due to sheet debonding before reaching the analytical ultimate state”*. Hiragishi. static fourpoint loading tests were conducted on RC beams with strengthened Aramid FRPs (AFRPs) using the ushaped jacketing method.
anchor plate 9mm n 2600 3000 Figure 1. in this study. These were arranged at intervals of 100 mm over the whole span. However. (3)rational jacketing area (height x width). Dimensions of RC beams Flexural strengthening for RC beams was performed by bonding two plies of AFRPs with a mass of 830 g/m2 and width of 130 mm onto the tension surface of the RC beams of the DF type. Bonding length in the shear . EXPERIMENTAL OVERVIEW Dimensions of Strengthened RC Beams Figure 1 shows the dimensions of the RC beams used in this study. debonding can be controlled without any anchoring requirements3.0.288 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure to control FRPs debonding up to the desired analytical ultimate state must be established. Dimensions of the cross section were 150 x 250 mm and clear span was 2. in order to establish a rational debondcontroling method for flexural FRP reinforcement of DFtype RC beams. respectively. It has been shown that by jacketing with FRPs in a Ushape on flexural FRP reinforcement. All RC beams were of rectangular cross section with double reinforcement. the following were investigated: ( 1)debondcontrol effects of the proposed method. The longitudinal rebars were welded to 9 mm thick steel plate set at both ends of the RC beam to save the length for anchoring. a method to specify the jacketing area and volume of the required FRP reinforcement has not been established. In these experiments. The shearspan ratio ald was taken as 5. From this point of view. (2)debonding mechanism of flexural FRP reinforcement after jacketing with Ushape FRPs. SD345 D13 and D19 rebars were used as the lower and upper reinforcement. RC beams were designed to be reached the ultimate state with flexural failure mode. and (4)rational sheet volume for Ushape jacketing.6 m. Many methods for controlling FRPs debonding have been proposed. and SD295 D10 rebars were used as stirrups. static fourpoint loading tests were conducted on flexurally strengthened and Ushape jacketed RC beams.
Ushape jacketing area in the longitudinal direction was decided on the analytical rebar yield area.OD) (= 80 cm) based on experimental results2. + 1. in this paper. To investigate the rational jacketing area in height from the lower edge.. (= 55 cm) is a length of analytical rebar yield area and D (= 25 cm) is height of the cross section.DebondControl of AFRP 289 span was taken as (L. For comparison. it may be controlled by confining the sidesurface of rebar yield area in the shear span.. RC beams Flex. FRPs Ushape FRPs mass mass length g/m2 g/m’ mm UG UIL UI M height mm 95 140 415 x 550 2 190 250 280 550 800 95 550 190 250 . Thus. Ushape Jacketing of FRPs It is clear from experimental results4 for flexurally strengthened RC beams without Ushape jacketing that FRPs debonded due to being peeledoff at the tip of diagonal cracks that occurred in the area of lower cover concrete near loading points in the shear span. Lyu (= 55 cm) in the shear span.. The analytical results were estimated by means of multisection method which is formulated assuming AFRPs being perfectly bonded up to the ultimate state and plane section remains plane.+l. and (3)to the upper edge (= 250 mm) of cross section of RC beam. St. in which L. Since the peeloff of FRPs developed by progressing of axial rebar yielding in the shear span. Specimen Table 1. the case of area of (L.OD) was also included. the following three cases were considered: (1)to half height (= 95 mm) of analytical neutral axis at ultimate state. (2) to height (= 190 mm) of analytical neutral axis at ultimate state.
The beams were designated using three variables: mass of Ushape jacketing FRPs. and H of the second variable stand for the jacketing height of FRPs: half height (= 95 mm) of neutral axis at analytical ultimate state.286 2. L. and expanding jacketing area in the shear span upto the region of (Lyu+ D). Material properties of AFRPs (nominal value) Thickness Tensile strength Emodulus Strain limit mm GPa GPa % 0. SD and EX of the third variable stand for the cases: not jacketing FRPs and only bonding FRPs on the sidesurface.193 0. Strengthened area with AFRPs and location of strain gauge Mass g/m2 140 280 415 Table 2 . height (= 190 mm) of the neutral axis. UO. and 280 g/m2. The Ushape jacketed side. a total of nine flexurally strengthened and Ushape jacketed RC beams as listed in Table 1 were examined. respectively. respectively. M.o hottom face Figure 2.0965 0. The lower surface of RC beams was heavily chipped to improve bond performance of the flexural FRP reinforcement. The material properties of AFRPs used in this study are listed in Table 2.290 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcementfor Flexure Test Specimens and Material Properties In this paper. U1.  location of strain gauge  R location of strain gauge side face . and special treatment for Ushape jacketing. jacketing FRPs with mass of 140 g/m'. and U2 of the first variable stand for the cases: non jacketing FRPs. height of Ushape jacketing FRPs from the lower edge of RC beam.19 .surface area was ground using a disc sander.52 115 2. and beam height (= 250 mm). The bonding area of flexural strengthening sheets and Ushape jacketing FRPs and the location of each strain gauge glued on FRPs are shown in Figure 2.^ e side face bottom face hottom face side face i flexural strengthening sheet c .
in which the experimental results for Beam UO and numerical analysis results were also included.0035 based on the specifications of Japan Concrete Standard'. The analytical results were obtained by means of multisection method mentioned previously. The ultimate compressive strain of concrete was assumed to be 0.0. Surcharged load (hereinafter. Tensile strength of rebar was 412 MPa.7 MPa.4) at rebar yielding to investigate the flexural strengthening effects of FRPs after rebar yielding. and strain distributions of FRPs were measured and were continuously recorded by using digital datarecorders to precisely investigate the debonding process of FWs.  2.DebondControl of AFRP 291 Bending and shear capacities of the strengthened RC beams were estimated by the multisection method and modified truss theory5. Strain gauges were glued on to measure the strain distributions of flexural and Ushape jacketing FRP reinforcement. respectively.5 0 UlH L ' " ' ' 1 2 3 4 5 s/sy 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 s/sy 5 6 7 U1type (b) U2type Figure 3. displacement). load). The shear span ratio was 5. Each load and displacement were normalized by these values (Py. midspan displacement (hereinafter. Average compressive strength of concrete at the commencement of experiment was 29. to confirm that the bending capacity is less than the shear capacity even after strengthening.0  Analytical Analytical 1. Comparisons of loaddisplacement curves among Ul/U2type RC bepms (a) . EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS Relationship between Load and Displacement Figure 3 compares the nondimensional loaddisplacement curves among the beams with the same jacketing volume of FRPs. Fourpoint loading test with a pure bending region of 500 mm was applied.
all Ushape jacketed beams reached an ultimate load greater than the analytical load carrying capacity regardless of the amount of sheet volume and a height of Ushape jacketing. .292 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure It is observed that Beam UO reaches the ultimate state with DF mode because the stiffness was decreased after rebar yielding. these are above the analytical values.0 1.5 1.5  2. From the results of Figure 4(a).5 1. 2. and of Ltype beams with varying Ushape jacketing area in longitudinal direction (Figure 4b).. it is observed that by extending the Ushape jacketing area to the height of cross section of beam. From these results. Comparisons of loaddisplacementcurves between experimental and analytical results (a) U1MSD From the results of Figure 4(b)..0 0. On the other hand.. This implies that by bonding only the sidesurface of the rebar yield area in the shear span. the flexural FRP reinforcement was broken at the pure bending region.0 0 1 2 3 4 6/Sy 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 6/6Y 5 6 7 (b) U2LEX Figure 4. it is made clear that bonding of flexural FRP reinforcement will be sufficiently ensured by Ushape jacketing with 140 g/m’ mass FRPs up to half height of the neutral axis at analytical ultimate state. However. Figure 4 compares the nondimensional loaddisplacement curves of Mtype beams with Ushape jacketing and with bonding sidesurface (Figure 4a).. U1MSD 0.5 I  . both load carrying capacity and displacement were slightly increased. Even though the load and displacement at ultimate state for U1MSD beam are smaller than those for U1M beam. it is . peeloff of flexural FRP reinforcement can be controlled up to the analytical ultimate state. Analytical Analytical . Then.5 0.5 .0 1... thus demonstrating anchoring performance of Ushape jacketing. 2.. it is observed that Ushape jacketing (UlM beam) results in the largest load carrying capacity..0 Q? 0..0 I I I 1 2.
From the results at 274 = 3. debonding of flexural FRP reinforcement may be rationally controlled.DebondControl of AFRP 293 suggested that by Ushape jacketing in the rebar yield area LYuin the shear span. in the shear span. it is seen that by Ushape jacketing and/or sidesurface bonding. in the cases of Ushape jacketed and/or sidesurface bonded RC beams. peeledoff of flexural FRP sheets can be controlled.beams (b) U2. However.19.  Analytical uo ____ UlIU2H at sheet debonding of UO beam 3 20000 5 10000 2 5000 Hrebar yield area at analytical ultimate point U1MSD. From these results.19 15000 0 ' 38 ' I 38 ' L1 at analytical ultimate point (a) U1. Strain Distribution of Flexural FRP Reinforcement Figure 5 compares the strain distribution of flexural FRP reinforcement at two nondimensional displacement points among U 1/U2 type beams including UO beam. . larger strains over 2% were locally distributed in Beam UO.UlIU2L S/Sy = 3.19 .19) and the analytical ultimate point (a4= 4.beams Figure 5.UlIUZM SfSy= 3. it is observed that the strains in the pure bending region of both types of beams were around 1% and were similar to those from analytical results. the strains were distributed similarly to those from analytical results except near the loading points. Strain distributions of flexural strengthening FRPs On the other hand. UZLEX . These points correspond to sheet debonding in UO beam ($4 = 3. This may be due to FRPs being peeledoff at the tip of diagonal cracks.17).
and (6) it is good enough to jacket the beam using Ujackets in the rebar yield area Lyu in the shear span to control debonding of flexural FRP reinforcement. On the other hand. it is seen that experimental strains in the pure bending region were close to the analytical values except for large strains at the flexural crack opening. (2) at the same nondimensional displacement corresponding to sheet debonding in Beam UO.3%. but the beams may reach the ultimate state with flexural FRP reinforcement breaking. even though the rebar yield area in shear span was jacketed in a Ushape. . and (4) at the point of maximum surcharged load. (4) bonding the sidesurface results in ultimate state being reached earlier than Ushape jacketing. However. ( 3 ) at the point of analytical ultimate state. This means that Ushape jaketing FRPs has restrained the peeloff action of flexural FRP reinforcement. These may be due to the following reasons: (1) diagonal cracks occurred in the area of lower cover concrete near loading points in the shear span corresponding to an increase in load. it is seen that: (1) strains at rebar yielding were small for all beams. but it can achieve the analytical load carrying capacity. Vertical Strain Distribution of Ushape Jacketing A FRPs Figure 6 shows the fiber strain distributions in the vertical direction in the Ushape jacketing FRPs for U1type beams. it is clear that: (1) by Ushape jacketing in the rebar yield area of the shear span. flexural FRP reinforcement was not debonded in the whole area and the applied load remained almost the same level as the analytical load carrying capacity. From this figure. and (2) flexural FRP reinforcement was peeled off at the tip of the diagonal cracks and was locally broken. Thus. These were considered at four loading stages: (1) at rebar yield point. and at the point corresponding to debonding in Beam UO the strains in the area from the lower edge to 10 cm high were in the region of 0. From these results. despite the size of Ushape jacketing area.294 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure From the results at analytical ultimate state (a/& = 4. in the jacketing area of the shear span. (2) progressing of sheet debonding from the local area can be controlled. extremely large strains were occurred and some strains were over 2%. development of diagonal cracks in the area of lower cover concrete near loading points in equishear span can be restrained. the Ushape jacketing FRP sheet shared the tensile force in vertical direction of the beam. ( 5 ) load carrying capacity can be increased by enlarging jacketing area. ( 3 ) the strain distributions in flexural FRP reinforcement may not be significantly affected by the amount of mass and area of Ushape jacketing FRPs.17).
0 0.6 0.6 0. the strains kept increasing. Vertical fiberstrain distributions in Ushape jacketing AFRPs of U 1type beams It is thus clear that: (1) Ushape jacketing FRPs may control debonding of flexural FRP reinforcement due to peeloff action of the lower cover concrete.0 0. and (2) the peeloff action of the FRP reinforcement can be sufficiently controlled by Ushape jacketing with 140 g/m' mass FRPs. After that.at analytical yield point debonding of UO beam ultimate point 25 t at maximum loading point to supporting point to loading point 20 15 UlL 10 5 0 25 20 15 UlM zE 10 3 25 E M 5 0 20 15 U1H 10 5 n " 0.0 0.0 0.DebondControl of AFRP 295 which would occur due to the concrete blocks generated in the lower cover concrete being pushed down.6 0. CONCLUSIONS In order to establish a rational sheet debondcontrolling method for flexural strengthening FRPs of DF type RC beams. the strain was over 0. the Ushaped jacketing method was proposed.6%.0 0.0 Strain (YO) 0. and at the maximum loading point.6 0.6 Figure 6.6 0. A at rebar +at sheet 0. Static fourpoint loading tests were conducted on flexurally strengthened and Ushape jacketed RC beams with Aramid FRPs (AFRPs) .
G. Kishi N. “Experimental Study on Estimation of Required Bonding Length of Sheet for Flexural Strengthened RC Beams with AFRPs Sheet”.. “Experimental Study on Flexural Bonding Property of AFRPs Sheet Glued on RC Beams”. Proceedings of FRPRCS5. 2.. Journal of Japan Society of Civil Engineers.. Kishi N. pp. Sawada S. Journal of Structural Engineering. 3) Debonding of the FRPs can be rationally controlled by Ushape jacketing up to the half height of neutral axis at analytical ultimate state using FRPs with 15 % mass of the flexural FRP reinforcement. G.683IV52.200 1 (in Japanese) 3.. Sat0 M.296 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure with jacketing area and volume of AFRPs as variables. Vol. Mikami H. pp. pp. Kurihashi Y. Kishi N. 4) By bonding the FRPs on only sidesurface of the Ushape jacketed area. The results obtained from this study were as follows: 1) By Ushape jacketing in the rebar yield area of shear span. and Matsuoka K. 2002.2000 (in Japanese) 4. the loadcarrying capacity of debonding failure type of flexural strengthened RC beams can be strengthened to the desired analytical ultimate state. Kurihashi Y. Mikami H. 5 . 2) It is experimentally confirmed that debonding of flexural strengthening FRPs due to peeloff action can be controlled by Ushape jacketing in the rebar yield area of shear span with FRPs. JSCE.987997. Proceedings of the 7th EASEC.. and Kurihashi Y.. “Failure Behavior of Flexural Strengthened RC Beams with AFRP Sheet”.. Mikami H.48A... “An Experimental Study on LoadCarrying Behavior of Flexural Strengthened RC Beams with AFRPs Sheet”. Mikami H. REFERENCES 1. Matsuoka K...2001. debonding of flexural FRP reinforcement can be controlled upto the analytical ultimate state.12711276. Kurihashi Y. No. Kishi N. (in Japanese) ..8795. 4764.. 1999.. pp.. JSCE: Standard Specifications for Concrete Structures.
Newly developed FRP laminates. TAERWE AND M. peeling. due to activation of premature debonding mechanisms such as concrete ripoff. Tests on RC Tbeams performed at the Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research demonstrate that the use of bolts in the most critical zones can prevent or postpone premature debonding failure and significantly increase the strengthening factor. B2610 Wilrijk.* It is therefore of interest to improve the anchorage capacity of the external FRP reinforcement. S. MATTHYS. B9052 Ghent (Zwijnaarde). Especially its use as Externally Bonded Reinforcement (EBR) has been developed worldwide as a very efficient technique for structural strengthening and rehabilitation. the resisting moment of the strengthened element is normally evaluated assuming perfect bond between FRP and concrete (“full composite action”) followed by verifying debonding mechanisms’. INTRODUCTION In recent years the interest in Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) reinforcement in construction has considerably increased. Ghent University TechnologieparkZwunaarde 904. etc. Often it appears that failure may occur at limited FRP strain levels.Singapore.g. NURCHI. 81 0 July 2003 Edited by Kiang Hwee Tan BWorld Scientific Publishing Company TESTS ON RC TBEAMS STRENGTHENED IN FLEXURE WITH A GLUED AND BOLTED CFRF’ LAMINATE A. Belgium J. are suitable to be used in combination with extra mechanical anchorage (e. . L. Furthermore an appropriate design of the anchorage can improve the “postpeak” behaviour of the beam with high residual strength after debonding of the laminate and with less brittle failure modes. SCARPA Magnel Laboratoryfor Concrete Research. bolts). with fibres in different directions. JANSSENS ETEC / TRADECC / ECC NV Terbekhofdreef 5052. Often it appears in the design that the full capacity of the FRP can not be achieved: premature failure due to debonding mechanisms may occur at fairly limited stress levels. When using FRP laminates to provide flexural strengthening to RC members.FRPRCS6. Belgium The use of externally bonded FRP reinforcement for strengthening or rehabilitation purposes is becoming a well documented technique worldwide.
6 and M16. since they are very weak in transferring forces to the bolt anchorage. To prove the effectiveness of the use of bolts and hence the advantages of the new type of laminate. with or without the use of additional mechanical fixings by means of bolts (type M12. class 4. Fibres (typically +45") in addition to the longitudinal ones provide sufficient stress transfer capacity and allow for the use of bolt anchorages3. In total. see Table 1 and Figure 2). including one reference (unstrengthened) beam. Figure 1. The dimensions and details of the reinforcement of the Tbeams and the test setup are given in Figure 1. However. Dimensions and reinforcement of test specimens Beam 1 2 3 4 5 Table 1. class 8. and 4 beams strengthened with multidirectional CFRP laminate. TEST SETUP AND SPECIMENS Fourpoint bending tests have been executed on RC Tbeams with a span of 4 m.8. Configuration of the beams Description unstrengthened CFRP CFRP + 2 x 2 bolts CFRP + 2 x 6 bolts CFRP + 2 x 6 bolts (stronger anchorage) .298 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure A possible solution is the use of bolts to provide extra anchorage strength and hence to prevent or postpone debonding. Newly developed multidirectional FRP laminates offer a good solution in this case. a test programme was set up at the Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research. the unidirectional laminates generally used can not be bolted. 5 beams have been tested.
with fibres over the full length in the longitudinal as well as in the plus and minus 45" directions. one layer of multidirectional PC CarboComp Plus was used. Strain gauges mounted on some of the bolts were used to control the prestressing level. Layout of the bolts For all the strengthened beams.66 m. Prior to testing the bolts were pretensioned with a force of about 10 kN in order to activate them soon (see also for a comparison between prestressed and unprestressed bolts). No extra FRP layer was used for the inner bolts. The strips are about 1. The concrete surface was roughened by sand blasting. The bond length equalled 180 mm. In the concrete cover (20 mm) the bolts were unbonded. In Beams 3 and 4. an additional multidirectional CFRP was glued at each end of the laminate. They are glued with epoxy adhesive PC 5800 BL.RC TBeams with Glued and Bolted CFRP Laminate 299 Beam 3 FRP plate 230 x 100 mm' 'L steel bolls M12 (d 4. and two bolts (threaded bars) were installed with epoxy adhesive (PC 5800). with a length of 3. also four bolts with the same characteristics as those of the anchorage zone were placed along the shear span at each end (Figure 2).6) 1 wo Beam 4 _ 160 160 160 135 p 2 3 5 1 FRP plate 230 x 100 mm' \K steel Dolls M12 (a 4 6) Beam 5 strengthened FRP end steel plate 230x 1OOx 1 5 steel bolts M i 2 (cI 4 6 ) M I 6 (d 6 8) Figure 2. In Beam 4. above the internal reinforcement. Prestressing up to 10 kN was also provided in this case.8 mm thick and 100 mm wide. .
These bolts were pretensioned prior to testing with a force of approximately 20 kN.5 kN/min).7 5.76 3.4 59. for Beam 2 it was 50 kN). are given in Table 3.91 141 44. Furthermore.47 4. Mean tensile properties of the reinforcement 0 or tn fy JI GI Material rmm1 [MPaJ [MPa] [%oJ 14 590 680 100 Steel S.9 6. Concrete mechanical properties Age oftest fc fc cube fcr.i [days] [MPaJ [MPa] [MPa] [MPa] 34 35.9 52.35 Table 3. at a speed of about 1.7 52.3 Plus *) Based on nominal thickness t.500 PC CarboCornp 1 .59 4. with the same properties as for the previous beams along the span.7 59.3 4.hend fo. but with improved strength (thickness of 2.300 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure In Beam 5 a special laminate was used. In case of the strengthened beams several strain gauges were used to record the strain distribution along the EBR and to measure the increase of the force in the bolts. Emodulus [MPa] 38850 45970 43110 38530 39010 E WPaI 210000 190000' During testing deflection and strain measurements were made at different locations. The load was then gradually increased until failure.94 94 46. The beams were loaded stepwise up to 30 kN (corresponding to the service load of the reference beam).75 mm and higher amount of carbon fibres) on a length of about 350 mm at both ends. 4 and 5 are given in Figure 2. The mean tensile properties of the internal and external reinforcement determined by testing.9 5. . steel end plates and bolts with increased diameter and strength were used to realise the end anchorage. then unloaded and reloaded up to 60 kN (for Beam 1 the last step was 40 kN.1 63 4. The mechanical properties of the concrete were determined by testing (at the same age of testing the Tbeams) and are reported in Table 2.4 58.59 38.40 4.oo 2700' 15.65 3. The concrete used for the beams had a mean cylinder strength of 38 MPa at 28 days.18 204 46.spi. More details on the layout of the bolts for Beams 3. The configuration and prestressing force of the 4 bolts along the shear span was the same as for Beam 4. Beam 1 2 3 4 5 Table 2.
yielding of the internal steel occurs at a much higher . are significantly stiffer than the reference beam after cracking.50 YS/PV AF 5 46. maximum load. AF: anchorage failure 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 Deflection [mm] Figure 3. 15 kN). strengthening ratio and failure aspect of the tested beams is given in Table 4.4 10 75 3 92 1.9 10 53 68 1. leading to a large increase of the deformation (that is.35 YS/PV AF 4 44. The strengthened beams. deflection). Load vs. where the reinforcement has negligible influence.74 15 75 YS:yielding of steel. Cracking occurred at about 10 kN per point load (in case of Beam 5 the cracking load was somewhat higher.00 YS/CC 38. The load vs. Failure occurred by concrete crushing at 68 kN. yielding load. Furthermore. At about 53 kN the steel reinforcement in the reference beam yields. CR: concrete ripoft PV: peeling due to vertical crack displacement. due to the presence of the external reinforcement. deflection curves (Beams 1 to 5) All the tested beams show the same behaviour in the uncracked state. midspan deflection curves are given in Figure 3.4 10 79 102 1.7 YS/PV AF/CC 118 1.7 2 10 72 85 YS/CR 1. CC: concrete crushing. Table 4: Main test results Beam test [days] 34 63 94 141 204 fc [MPa] Qcr [kN] Qy [kN] Qmax [kN] Qmax /Qref At Qmax At ultimate 1 35.25 46.RC TBeams with Glued and Bolted CFRP Laminate 301 TEST RESULTS An overview of the cracking load.
After debonding. the load on Beam 3 dropped (due to pressure release in the jack following the sudden decrease in beam stiffness). This is clearly demonstrated by the strain gauge measurements. 79 kN for Beam 4 and 75 kN for Beam 5. indicating the activation of the bolt anchorage. the external reinforcement could further act as an unbonded tension member. when debonding occurred away from the anchorage zone due to vertical crack displacement. and failure occurred at 85 kN (corresponding to a strenghtening factor of 1. As the laminate is lost and the only reinforcement is the internal steel. the load bearing capacity of the beam drops considerably. Concrete ripoff (Beam 2) In Beam 3 concrete ripoff could be prevented. Indeed. The load could be increased up to 92 kN (strengthening factor 1.35). The maximum attainable load is limited. Even after yielding of the steel reinforcement the load considerably increases. At low loads the strain in the laminate is the same as in the concrete at the bottom fibre (perfect adhesion). develop along the internal reinforcement. In Beam 2 the socalled concrete ripoff mechanism was activated. This failure mode initiates when shear cracks. The discontinuity in the diagram at 400 mm from the support is due to the change in the thickness of the laminate (extra end plate). Figure 5 represents the profile of the strain along the laminate (half of the span) at different load levels. After the maximum load (after . and the diagram has a shape similar to the moment line (linear from the support till the point load and horizontal between the point loads). Figure 4. 75 kN for Beam 3. when the first shear cracks were observed at the end of the laminate. the tensile force in the bolts started to increase (as revealed by strain gauge measurements). but increased again. as the bolts started working in shear providing anchorage of the laminate. by debonding of the laminate. At about 70 kN. starting at the end of the external reinforcement.302 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement for Flexure (about 40%) load level: 72 kN for Beam 2. resulting in the detachment of the concrete cover (Figure 4).25).
RC TBeams with Glued and Bolted CFRP Laminate 303
debonding) the distribution of the strain changes significantly (dotted lines
in Figure 5). An almost constant strain distribution along the whole length
of the laminate is obtained between the end anchorages.
BEAM3
6,5
50
kN
8OkN
I 4
3.5
E
‘E
92
3
3 2.5
kN
.o  5 9 K N  u
2
1.5
8OkNu
1
~
0.5
0
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000
Distancefrom the support [mm]
Figure 5 . Strain along the laminate (Beam 3)
With the FRP laminate acting as an external unbonded tension member,
it was possible to attain a load of about 80 kN. Since bond is missing and
the bolted anchorage deforms (bolts are bent, slip of the laminate at the
bolts), the stiffness of the beam is low, resulting in large deflections (Figure
3). At 80 kN the bolted anchorage failed: the laminate was pulled through
the bolts (Figure 6 ) . At this point the external reinforcement is no longer
effective and the beam tends to behave like the unstrengthened one.
Figure 6. Anchorage failure (Beam 3)
The test results of Beam 4 indicate a similar behaviour as Beam 3 at the
first stage. At 72 kN the first shear cracks were observed and the outer bolts
304 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement for Flexure
started working in tension, preventing the ripoff mechanism. At 95 kN
initiation of peeling due to vertical crack displacement was detected, but for
Beam 4 this did not lead immediately to complete debonding. Only at 98 kN
the debonding extended to the bolted zone, and a maximum load of 102 kN
(strengthening factor 1.5) could be reached. At this point the load dropped
to 71 kN, but the bolts could further provide anchorage to the laminate, and
the load increased again up to 90 kN, when failure of the bolted anchorage
initiated in the same way as for Beam 3 (slip, damage at bolt location,
laminate pulled through the bolts).
65
BEAM4
,
4
/cLix'.""
2
55
I
E
4.5
e
kN
80
kN
90
kN
4
L 3.5
B
50
5
3
2.5
102 kN
2
1.5
90.6kNu
I
0.5
0
0
200
400
6W
8w
IWO
12W
1400
1600
1800
20W
Distance from the support [mml
Figure 7. Strain along the laminate (Beam 4)
By comparing the load vs. deflection curves (Figure 3) some differences
may be noted between Beam 3 and Beam 4. After the first peak load (higher
for Beam 4) and the decrease in the load due to the loss of bond, the load
could pickup in a faster way in Beam 4, and the beam with the unbonded
laminate behaved slightly stiffer. This can be explained by considering that
the series of bolts along the shear span reduces the free length of the
laminate, leading to a higher efficiency of the unbonded tension element.
The diagram of the strain along the laminate (Figure 7) shows that even
after the first peak load the strain increases almost linearly along the bolted
zone. This proves how the inner bolts still allow some force transfer
between the concrete and the unbonded laminate, due essentially to friction
and mechanical interlock.
The behaviour of Beam 5 is similar to the other strengthened beams at
the first stage (Figure 3 ) . At about 72 kN the first shear cracks appeared at
the end of the laminate, and the outer bolts started working, preventing the
RC TBeams with Glued and Bolted CFRP Laminate 305
concrete ripoff mechanism. A higher load than Beam 4 could be reached
before debonding started. At 116 kN debonding due to vertical crack
displacement initiated and the load dropped to 112 kN. Nevertheless, the
load could increase again, up to 1 18 kN (strengthening factor 1.74), when
debonding propagated to the whole length. After this the external
reinforcement started working as an unbonded tendon. Anchorage was
provided essentially by the outer bolts. Furthermore, a certain load transfer
between the laminate and the concrete was still taking place along the shear
span, due to friction and mechanical interlock (inner bolts were keeping the
laminate in contact with the concrete). In this situation it was possible to
attain again a load of 1 18 kN.
At this point significant damage of the laminate was observed
(detachment of part of the surface layer in the flexural zone, deformation of
the holes due to the action of the bolts), as well as at the end anchorage
(bending of the bolts). This damage resulted in increased deformation
followed by load drop to 80 kN (likely related to sudden slip at the
anchorage), after which the load increased again until failure of the
anchorage. This occurred at 107 kN, when significant deformation of the
steel anchorage plate caused loss of bond between steel and CFRP, with
subsequent slip of the laminate which was pulled through the bolts.
Furthermore, crushing of the concrete at the point loads was observed
(Figure 8).
Figure 8. Beam 5 at ultimate: anchorage failure and concrete crushing
306 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcemen?for Flexure
CONCLUSIONS
Based on this test programme, the following may be observed:
(a) By means of bolts at the laminate ends, anchorage failure such as
concrete ripoff can be prevented.
(b) The use of bolts over the shear span significantly postponed debonding
of the laminate due to vertical crack displacement.
(c) Due to the bolt anchorage, after debonding the laminate acts as an
external tension member. This results in increased deflections at
ultimate and less brittle failure modes.
(d) If the end anchorage is designed sufficiently strong, the bearing
capacity of the strengthened beam after debonding (external
reinforcement acting as an unbonded tension member) equals at least
the initial bearing capacity of the beam with bonded external
reinforcement. In this way a pseudoductile behaviour is obtained with
large deformation capacity of the beam at ultimate load.
REFERENCES
fib Task Group 9.3, Externally bonded FRP reinforcement for RC
structures, Federation Internationale du Beton, 200 1.
2. Matthys S., Structural behaviour and design of concrete members
strengthened with externally bonded FRP reinforcement, Doctoral
thesis, Ghent University, Belgium, 2000.
3. Matthys, S., Taerwe, L., Blontrock, H., Janssens, J. and De Neef, D.,
“Tripling the bearing capacity of a concrete floor at the zoological
garden of Antwerp: research and application”, Composites in
Constructions (CCC 2001), Porto, October 1012,2001, pp. 695700.
4. Matthys, S., Taerwe, L., Nurchi, A., Scarpa, M. and Janssens, J., “Tests
on multidirectional CFRP reinforcement for strengthening of concrete
beams”, International Conference on Performance of Construction
Materials in the New Millennium, Cairo, February 1820,2003.
1.
FRPRCS6, Singapore, 810 July 2003
Edited by Kiang Hwee Tan
QWorld Scientific Publishing Company
PARAMETRIC STUDIES OF RC BEAMS STRENGTHENED
IN FLEXURE WITH EXTERNALLY BONDED FRP
S. LIMKATANYU
Dept. of Civil Eng., Faculty of Engineering, Prince of Songkla University
Hadyai, Songkhla, , 901 10, Thailand
H. THOMSEN
U.S. Army, United States Military Academy
West Point, New York, 10996, USA
E. SPACONE
PRICOS Department, Faculty of Architecture, University of Chieti
Viale Pindaro 42, 6512 7 Pescara, Italy
G. CAMATA
Dept. of CEAE, University of Colorado
Boulder, Colorado, 803090428, USA
Demands on infrastructures, poststrengthening and retrofitting are
unavoidable when existing structures age or are necessary to meet changes.
A recent methodology to enhance the flexural strength of RC beams uses
FRP strips or sheets glued to the tension side of the beam. A number of
researchers have shown that the failure mode of an FRPstrengthened RC
beam can switch from the ductile mode of an underreinforced beam to the
brittle one. This paper investigates the influences of this strengthening
methodology on the response and failure modes of a reference RC beam. A
nonlinear fiber frame element with bondinterface between the concrete and
the FRP plate serves as the numerical tool to investigate the effects of the
plate length and plate width on the responses of simply supported
strengthened RC beams. In this paper, the geometry of the beam is kept
constant. The parametric studies agree with the experimentally observed
results according to which the most commonly encountered failure modes
due to loss of composite actions are affected by the plate geometric
properties.
308 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure
INTRODUCTION
In the use of FRP sheets or strips to enhance the flexural strength of RC
beams, it is crucial to understand the effects of the FRP reinforcement on
the beam failure mode, particularly for the development of the rational
design criteria under ultimate loads. The literature review of test results of
RC beams strengthened with externally bonded FRP indicates that several
failure modes, from ductile to brittle, were observed. The list of failure
modes is categorized here into two types. Type 1 encompasses modes
maintaining composite action up to failure of strengthened beams and Type
2 includes failure modes due to the loss of composite action. The failure
modes due to loss of composite action, however, are the most commonly
encountered. Consequently, this paper focuses only on the results of
analytical studies affecting the failure modes due to loss of composite
action. The parametric investigations presented hereafter emphasize on the
effects of plate length and of plate width on the failure mechanism of a
reference underreinforced RC beam.
PARAMETRIC INVESTIGATIONS ON FRPSTRENGTHENED
RC BEAMS LOADED IN FOUR POINT BENDING
All the parametric investigations presented in this study use the same
reference underreinforced beam shown in Figure 1. A similar beam was
tested up to failure under fourpoint bending condition by Zarnic et all. The
analytical model uses a 2node displacementbased beam element with
bondinterface between the concrete and the strengthening plate (
Figure 2). The element formulation is presented in Limkatanyu and
Spacone2 and the element is implemented in the generalpurpose finite
element program FEAP3. The material properties used in this study are
summarized in Table 1. For the bondinterface between the concrete and the
reinforcing plate, a linear elastic bond law up to failure is used. A bond
elastic stiffness of 2.38 GPa is used in the numerical simulations, while a
value of 3.1 MPa is used for the bond strength. This value of bond elastic
stiffness is computed based on shear deformation of epoxy layer using the
material properties reported in Table 1. The bond strength, which is similar
to the shear strength of concrete, correlates well with test results of Zarnic
et all. Plate debonding is not due to epoxy failure, but to concrete shear
failure at the concreteepoxy interface, where a state of almost pure shear
exists4.
Parametric Studies of RC Beams with FRP 309
960 mrn
~,.
980 rnm
960mm
_I_
7
,
r
A
LFRP
H
Y
L = 2900 mm
k
L*=LFR&L
4
0.879
0.914
0.948
0.966
L'=0.5*(L  LFRp)
175
125
75
50
Beam FE schematic mesh
CROSS SECTION
4 = 384 rnm2
r.
800 rnm
. . .
I
:
4' = 256 mm2
/
4
m
11120rnrn
.
strengthening plates
Figure 1 Geometry and cross section of simulated RC beams
Figure 2 Twonode displacementbased beam element with bondslip and
layered section
310 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement for Flexure
Material
Concrete
Steel Bars
Epoxy Resin
CFRP
Elastic Modulus
(GPa)
27
210
12.8
140
Compressive
Strength (GPa)
25
460
Tensile
Strength (GPa)
1
460
4
1800
Effect of CFRP Plate Length
The CFRP plate length is the first parameter to be studied. To distinguish
between different plate lengths, a nondimensional parameter L* = LFwI L,
is introduced as shown in Figure 1. The plates have a constant width of 100
mm and thickness of 1.2 mm.
The responses of beam of Figure 1 for increasing values of L* are shown
in Figure 3 . All of the beam responses are in the same equilibrium path,
varying only in the point of failure, where plate debonding occurs. Figure 4
shows the relationship between the increase in ultimate load and the plate
length. A number of observations can be drawn from Figure 4. First, the
ultimate load capacity of the beam increases with an increase in plate
length. Second, the location of debonding shifts from plate end (end
peeling) to midspan (midspan debonding) as the plate length increases.
Finally, these results show that a certain effective length exists. In other
words, if the plate is adequately anchored, the beam fails due to
delamination under the load and no increase in strength is further gained.
To analyze the observations drawn from Figure 3 and Figure 4, the
distributions of concreteFRP interface bondforces at the loadstep before
failure are shown in Figure 5. The plate end and the loaded point show
discontinuities in bondforce distributions. The bondforce discontinuity at
the plate end is due to the change in beam crosssection. Under the loaded
point, the plate force increases rapidly due to the fact that the plate carries
much more of tensile forces after the steel reinforcement yielded in the
maximum moment region.
Figure 5 also shows that the location along the beam where the bond
failure takes place changes from under the applied load to the plate end.
Shorter plates mean that large bondstress jumps only at the plate end
because the steel does not yield under the load, while longer plates allow
the beam to resist a larger load and the steel reinforcement can reach the
yielding state under the loading point, hence inducing large bond forces,
Parametric Studies of RC Beams with FRP 31 I
which finally cause bond failure. It should be mentioned that these
observations are peculiar to the RC beam geometry used in this study. More
refined parametric studies are needed to investigate the effects of plate
lengths onresponses of RC beam with different geometries and
reinforcement.
30

I
Failure, L
' = 0.914
/\
Failure, L' = 0.879
25
Failure, L" = 0.948
Ha 20 1 Failure, L' = 0.823
\
15
1  Control RCBeam I
LI
10
5
0
'I/ A
0

10
20
30
CFWRCBeams
50
40
60
Midspan Displacement, A [mm]
Figure 3 Response of beams strengthened with CFRP plates of different length
1.8
@ Concrete Cover Delamination at Plate End
1.6
+
Concrete Cover Delamination under Load
P
z
>8
1.4
ci
1.2
1
0.80
0.85
0.90
L*
0.95
1.oo
Figure 4 Ultimateload increase for beams with CFRP plates of different length
312 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure
350
300
E
250
2
200
9
150
I
t
0
2
100
50
0
400
0
800
Distance along beam [mm]
1200
1
Figure 5 Bond force distribution at failure for beams strengthened with CFRP
plates of different lengths
A wellknown issue in the use of FRP plates to enhance the flexural
strengths of RC beams is the loss in ductility of the strengthened beams.
The responses of a strengthened RC beam are schematically presented in
Figure 6. Point A corresponds to first concrete cracking, point B to first
steel yielding, and point C to failure. Two definitions of ductility are used
by Thornsen’; one is based on displacement, and the other is based on
energy. Only the energybased ductility is used in this study because both
definitions result in the same conclusions. The energy ductility DE is
defined as the ratio between the energy of the system at failure E, and the
energy of the system at first steel yielding E,.
Force
Displacement (A)
I
b
AY
AU
Force
A
EU
Displacement (A)
Energy Ductility D, = EJE,
Figure 6 Definition of energy ductility
Parametric Studies of RC Beams with FRP 313
The influence of the plate lengths on the energy ductility of the
strengthened beam is shown in Figure 7. As expected, the overall ductility
of the strengthened beam is lower than that of the nonstrengthened beam.
Longer plates also result in higher ductility. For very short plates, the
ductility is lower than 1, implying that delamination occurs prior to yielding
of steel reinforcement as was already noted in Figure 5 .
_.""
~ ._ . _ ._ _
. _ . . _ .Control
. _Beam
_ .~ u_m t_y2 .2 _
2.00 
D.
::::://0.50
0.00
7
Figure 7 Energy ducility for beams strengthened with CFRP plates of different
Effect of CFRP Plate Width
As shown in the preceding section, bond stresses at the FRPconcrete
interface play a crucial role in the failure of RC beams strengthened with
externally bonded FRP. The bond stresses are directly related to the
interface contactarea. The bond stress should decrease with the increase of
contact area. The simplest way to change the contact area is to introduce
FRP plates with varying plate width w. The area AFRPof CFRP plate of
Figure 1 is kept constant while the width and thickness are adjusted. The
plate length is kept constant at L* = 0.966. This length provides the full
anchorage.
Figure 8 demonstrates the responses of the RC beam with CFRP plates
of different widths but constant sectional area, while Figure 9 shows the
increase in the ultimate load capacity of the strengthened RC beam. As
expected, the ultimate load capacity increases with the plate width. No
increase in loadcapacity is gained for plates wider than 250 mm due to the
fact that for wider plates, the failure mode changes from concretecover
delamination to FRP rupture. As the FRPconcrete contact area increases,
314 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement for Flexure
the bond forces are distributed over a larger area, thus allowing a higher
bond stress to take place prior to failure as shown in Figure 10.
0
120
40
80
Midspan Displacement.A [mml
0
Figure 8 Response of beams strengthened with CFRP plates of different width
50
100
150
200
Plate wdth [mm]
250
300
Figure 9 Increase in ultimate load for beams reinforced with CFRP plates
of different width
600
E
2
400
7
200
g
s
0
0
400
1200
800
Distance along beam [mm]
1
W
Figure 10 Bond force distribution at failure for beams strengthened with CFRP
plates of different width
Parametric Studies of RC Beams with FRP 315
Figure 11 shows the energy ductility for different plate widths.
Increasing the plate width also results in an increase in the beam ductility
and for large widths the ductility of the strengthened beam is much higher
than that of the control beam. It can be concluded that larger widths lead to
more costeffective strengthening6. However, it is important to note that
larger plates prevent concrete “breathing” and this issue needs to be further
studied.
7,
6~
5 
4 DE
J
3 
._.1
Control Beam O w i l d y = 2 21
04
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
Plate width [mm]
Figure 11 Energy ductility of beam strengthened with CFRP plates of different
width
CONCLUSIONS
This study uses a recently developed RC beam element with bondinterface
between the concrete and the strengthening plate to investigate the failure
mechanism of RC beams strengthened in flexure with externally bonded
FRPs. Only the failure modes due to the loss of composite action between
the concrete and the FRP reinforcement are focused in this study. The
following conclusions can be drawn from these parametric studies.
(a) As seen in the parametric studies, the FRP plate length has significant
effects on the failure mode of strengthened beams. For beams subjected
to point loads, there is a certain plate length marking the border
between debonding under loading point (for longer plate) and plateend
peeling (for shorter plate). The change in failure mode is caused by the
large bondstress values at the plate end and under the loading point.
For shorter FRP plates, the peak bond stress is at the plate end, while
for longer plates, the peak bond stress is under the loading point due to
the fact that longer plates allow steel yielding penetration, hence
31 6 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure
inducing larger bond stresses under the loading point. The energy
ductility increases with the plate length until the failure mode shifts to
midspan debonding, with no increase in ductility for longer plates.
(b) The FRP plate width has important effects on the failure mode of
strengthened beams. Wider plates of equal crosssection seem to reduce
the bondstress at the interface between the concrete and the FRP plate,
hence allowing a more effective use of the FRP strength and resulting in
larger beam flexural capacity. For the plate length studied in this paper,
very wide plates show a shift in failure mode from midspan debonding
to FRP rupture because the wider plate causes higher stresses in FRP
plates. The energy ductility increases with wider plates and can be
higher than that of the nonstrengthened beam.
REFERENCES
1. Zarnic, R., Gostic, S., Bosiljkov, V., and Bosiljkov, V.B.,
“Improvement of Bending LoadBearing Capacity by Externally
Bonded Plates”, Proc. Creating with Concrete, London, 1990, pp.433442.
2. Limkatanyu, S. and Spacone, E., “WC Frame Element with BondInterfaces. Part 1: DisplacementBased, ForceBased, and Mixed
Formulations”, ASCE Journal of Structural Engineering, 128(3), 2002,
pp. 346355.
3. Taylor, R.L., FEAP 7.4: A Finite Element Analysis Program,
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of
California at Berkeley, 2002.
4. Aprile, A., Spacone, E., and Limkatanyu, S., “Role of Bond in Beams
Strengthened with Steel and FRP Plates”, ASCE Journal of Structural
Engineering, 127(12), 2001, pp. 14451452.
5. Thomsen, H.H., Failure Mode Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Beams
Strengthened in Flexure with Externally Bonded Fiber Reinforced
Polymers; Master Thesis, Department of Civil, Environmental, and
Architectural Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder, 2002.
6. Arduini, M. and Nanni, A.E., “Parametric Study of Beams with
Externally Bonded FRP Reinforcement”, ACI Structural Journal,
94(5), 1997, pp. 493501.
FRPRCS6, Singapore, 810 July 2003
Edited by Gang Hwee Tan
QWorld Scientific Publishing Company
CONCRETE COVER FAILURE OR TOOTH TYPE FAILURE
IN RC BEAMS STRENGTHENED WITH FRF' LAMINATES
M. M. LOPEZ
Department of Civil and Env. Engineering, Penn State University
212 Sackett building, University Park, PA 168021408, USA
A. E. NAAMAN
Department of Civil and Env. Engineering, University of Michigan
2340 G.G. Brown building, Ann Arbor, MI 481092125, USA
Among the different types of failure modes observed in RC beams
strengthened in flexure using externally bonded FRP laminates, failure of
the concrete cover has not being fully understood. This is however an
important failure mode since it can compromise the integrity of the
strengthened element. This paper presents the analysis of the experimental
data available from an experimental program as well as the formulation of
an analytical model of the concrete cover or "tooth type" failure. From the
testing of simply supported beams strengthened with different levels of FRP
reinforcement it was found that debonding of the FRP laminate at the
epoxyconcrete level generally precedes the failure of the concrete cover.
An analytical model of this type of failure was developed based on an
energy approach; it shows that the impact of the energy released from the
stretched FRP plate is' large enough to break the concrete cover at the level
of the first layer of longitudinal reinforcement. Because of the existence of
flexural cracks, the concrete breaks in the form of several "teeth" mostly in
the constant moment region. The methodology proposed in the paper is
shown to accurately predict the occurrence of the concrete cover failure.
INTRODUCTION
Fiber Reinforced Polymeric (FRP) laminates, which have been used in the
aerospace industry for several decades, are becoming increasingly popular
in the construction industry for strengthening purposes. These laminates,
particularly carbon fiber reinforced (CFRP), offer the advantages of
composite materials such as immunity to corrosion, a low volume to weight
ratio, a high strength to weight ratio, and unlimited delivery length (in sheet
form), thus eliminating the need for joints'.
Among the different types of failure modes observed in RC beams
strengthened in flexure using externally bonded FRP laminates, failure of
the concrete cover has not being fully understood. This is however an
318 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure
important failure mode since it can compromise the integrity of the
strengthened element.
BACKGROUND INVESTIGATIONS
A research project was developed at the University of Michigan on repair
and strengthening of reinforced concrete beams using externally glued
CFRP plates2. Its main objective was to provide experimental verification
and recommendations for implementation of a repair technology in which
thin fiber reinforced plastic laminates are glued on the surface of concrete
beams to strengthen them in bending, shear, or both. Relevant experimental
data obtained from this project was used to corroborate the analytical model
presented in this paper.
The experimental program for bending comprised fourteen reinforced
concrete Tbeams. The test parameters included two levels of steel
reinforcement ratio before strengthening, and up to four strengthening levels
(number of CFRP layers). Two commercially available strengthening
systems were tested, a sheet system (system A) and a plate system (system
B). Other selective parameters investigated included two different concrete
covers, two conditions of cover preparation, three different end anchorage
systems of the gluedon sheets, and the preloading of the beam.
From the bending tests performed it was found that for a given steel
reinforcement ratio, the ultimate load capacity increased with the
strengthening level, or the number of CFRP sheets. It was also found that
the majority of specimens failed by debonding of the interface between the
epoxy and concrete, originating a delamination of the CFRP plate. Only
one beam (beam 2) failed by tensile rupture of the CFRP laminate. The
interfacial failure was present for both types of strengthening systems and
for different numbers of CFRP layers. Naaman et a12present a more detailed
analysis of the effect of each parameter on the flexural response of these
beams.
In the case of the beams strengthened with system A, it was observed
that for all the beams that failed by debonding at the epoxyconcrete level, a
secondary type of failure was present immediately after. The impact energy
released from the tensioned CFRP, prior to full debonding, tore out the
concrete cover, which was already cracked vertically by flexure, along the
longitudinal reinforcing bars in the constant bending moment region (tooth
failure), see Figure 1.
Concrete Cover Failure or Tooth Type Failure 319
Figure 1. Concrete cover (tooth) failure  beam 3
CONCRETE COVER (TOOTH) FAILURE MODEL
As it was mentioned previously, when the FRP debonds, the entire beam
loses the strengthening level it gained and the impact of the energy released
from the stretched FRP plate can tear out the concrete cover up to the level
of the longitudinal steel at the beam portion where the FRP has not yet
debonded, as was observed in eight beams out of fourteen tested in bending.
If the concrete that surrounds the longitudinal rebars cannot withstand this
impact energy originated by the release of the stretched FRP, the concrete
will break at the rebar level. From observation of the experimental tests, this
type of failure occurs mostly in the region of constant moment or close to it.
As stated before, even if this is a secondary type of failure, it is an important
one for the stability of the system and should therefore be addressed.
Debonding Process
During the monotonic loading of the strengthened beam, the FRP laminate
deforms, following the shape of the RC beam. The elongation of the
laminate at every load step is used to calculate the strain energy available.
Two methodologies are presented:
First, assuming no debonding of the FRP has occurred yet, the FRP
laminate is fully bonded to the concrete surface, except at the crack tips.
Following the methodology described by Lopez3 in her doctoral
dissertation, section analysis is performed at every cracked section along the
320 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement for Flexure
span. The deformation of the FRP laminate between two crack tips can be
calculated using Eq. (1):
where Q I I
=
1  v12v21
for a laminate and N2 (x) is the variation of the axial
force in the FRP between two crack tips as defined by Lopez3. El
correspond to the elastic modulus in the fiber direction, vI2is the poisson's
ratio, and hf and Bf correspond to the width and thickness of the laminate.
Eq. (1) is evaluated between x = 0 and x = S. x = 0 is the origin of the local
x coordinate of an element of beam between two cracks of spacing S.
To find the total elongation of the FRP laminate a summation of the
axial deformation values given by Eq. (1) is done along the bonded length
of the FRP up to the point of interest (Xi), which corresponds to the location
where debonding occurred (Figure 2a):
where X, is the point along the span where the elongation of the FRP is
calculated, j = i corresponds to the section (i) located at X, j = n corresponds
to the location of a section at the edge of the FRP laminate, and x = 0 and x
= S are the local limits of the integration of an element of beam between
two cracks spaced a distance S.
A simplified methodology to calculate the elongation (6) of the FRP
laminate is to assume that it deforms as an elastic spring with an equivalent
stiffness (Ke). By using the material constitutive relations of the laminate
( Q I I )and assuming that the change of deformation of the FRP laminate is
proportional to its bonded length, the following relationship can be defined:
(3)
where
Ke =
QllX
h/X B/
Lbonded
(4)
and
where N 2 (X) is the force on the FRP from a section analysis at the location
X, (Figure 2b) and Lbonded is the bonded length of the FRP laminate prior to
interfacial failure.
Concrete Cover Failure or Tooth Type Failure 321
Once the elongation of the FRF’ laminate is known at every load step,
the strain energy Ubonded can be evaluated as fol~ows:
s
Ubondrd =
IN2(x)dd
(6)
0
For the simplified method,
Ubonded =
1 N2(X)‘
2
Ke
 ___
(7)
which corresponds to the area under the curve of the loaddisplacement
diagram, as shown in Figure 2. Ubonded is the strain energy available before
debonding of the FRP laminate. Once debonding occurs, the stretched FRP
is released. The accumulated energy is transformed into an impact energy
that will break the “tooth” of concrete cover located in the region where the
FRP still remained bonded. Note that some of this impact energy is
dissipated during the debonding process.
T1
U
yb
Bf
X
Load. FRP
U strain
U deb0 ding process
nergy 1,oad FRP
f
a) Method 1:
+
N~(x) from ~ o p e z j
Elongation, 6
/
Elongation, 6
U unbonded FRP
c) Strain Energy
remaining
after debonding
process
section analysis
Figure 2 . Strain energy of stretched FRP
The evaluation of the amount of energy dissipated during the debonding
process is done by calculating the strain energy Uunbon&d for an equivalent
beam with an unbonded FRP laminate. The energy dissipated during the
debonding process (interfacial failure) corresponds to,
uprocess = Uunbonded  Ubonded
(8)
322 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure
The remaining energy Uunbonded is released as impact energy. Naaman
and Alkhairi4 presented a methodology for the analysis of concrete beams
prestressed with unbonded tendons. This methodology was followed and
modified in order to predict the behavior of the analyzed beam. The use of a
bond reduction coefficient (Qr) allowed to modify the strain in the bonded
FRP to find the average strain in the unbonded FRP.
From the calculation of the average strain in the unbonded FFW, stresses
and forces can be derived from the constitutive relations for the FRP
laminate. Furthermore, the strain energy for the unbonded FRP can be
evaluated as:
6
Uunbonded =
JN2(x)aa
(9)
0
which corresponds to the area under the curve of the loaddisplacement
diagram (Figure 2c). Since the FRP material remains linear elastic during
the unbonded process, it can be inferred that Uunbonded= R,, Ubonded.
Concrete Cover Failure
To evaluate the amount of energy necessary to break the concrete (tooth) at
the level of longitudinal reinforcement, the following analysis is considered:
Assume the element of concrete (tooth) between two cracks to act at the
constant moment region acting as a cantilever beam (Figure 3a). Before
debonding, the FRP laminate glued at the bottom is in equilibrium.
However, when interfacial failure occurs the FRP at one side of the tooth
(left side in Figure 3b) debonds, resulting in a major misbalance in the stress
carried by the FRP of the tooth.
1 1
I
I
n
1I I
a) Concrete tooth before debonding
TFRP=
t
FRP
released
W
Impact
Energy
b) Release of the laminate after fully debonding
S, crack
Bf,width
FRP laminate
c) Fracture surface tooth
Figure 3 .Concrete cover (tooth) failure mechanism
Concrete Cover Failure or Tooth Type Failure 323
Due to the sudden nature of the crack propagation, this misbalance
translates into a net impact force F that hits the concrete tooth (an easy
analogy is to assume the FRP laminate as a rubber band that is suddenly
release in one end). The direction of the impact energy can be clearly seen
in the photographs of experimental bending tests. Figures 4 and 5 (a and b)
show the different aspects of the tooth failure mode.
Figure 4. Debonding of the FRF' laminate (system A, beam 3)
Figure 5. Detail of the concrete cover (tooth) failure
Figure 4 shows the location where the FRP was initially glued to the
bottom of the concrete (left side of the beam). The interfacial failure not
only pulls the longitudinal FRP, but it also tears the Ushaped anchorage
sheet wrapped around the vertical sides of the beam. Figure 5a. shows the
324 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement for Flexure
region of the concrete cover to the left of the first concrete “tooth” that
failed. Observe the large vertical displacement on the left side of each
remaining “tooth” and the direction of the splitting crack that runs at the
rebar level. Figure 5b. shows a detail of the constant moment region. Note
that the only remaining concrete “tooth” at the cover level has rotated
toward the right side of the beam (where the FRP was still bonded).
Assuming that the concrete remains elastic during the impact load (F),
the strain energy per tooth u l o o l h is calculated using a fracture mechanics
approach. Consider G,, the critical strain energy release rate, as the energy
necessary per unit width to open a crack one unit of length. The energy
necessary to break the concrete tooth at the upper base will be G, multiplied
by the cracked surface (Acrack,Figure 3c).
uooihrap = Gc
XAcmck
(10)
A value of Gc = 10 J/m2 is considered a reasonable value for concrete.
Fukuzawa et al’ evaluated the critical mode I1 strain energy release rate
(G,) for the interface between concrete and the FRP strengthening system.
It was found that the values of Gllc increased with an increase of crack
length. Values found ranged from 5 to 9 J/m2, which is very close to the
value considered for concrete only.
Another surface of failure can also be considered: the interface between
the concrete and the epoxy (bottom base of the concrete tooth, Figure 3c).
The energy necessary to fail this interface can be calculated using GI,, and
the bonded area of the FRP in one tooth.
Uloorhboriorn =
Gllc X Abonded
(1 1)
This approach assumes that when & , b o n d e d is larger than Uioolh,
the tooth
is broken. Numerical evaluation of the Eqs. (10) and (1 1) is presented in the
next section.
Numerical Examples
Three beams (from a total of 14) were selected from the experimental
program: beam 3, beam 4 and beam 8. Only beam 8 (system B) did not
exhibit concrete cover failure. Failure at beam 3 was particularly clear of
the path followed by the released energy (see Figure 1). A summary of the
experimental test parameters is presented in Table 1.
In the case of beam 8 strengthened with the plate system, the bonded
width of the CFRP plate (40 mm) was smaller than the width of the concrete
beam (1 00 mm). From the experimental test of this beam, it was observed
that debonding of the plate occurred almost simultaneously at both sides of
Concrete Cover Failure or Tooth Type Failure 325
point loads, therefore the CFRP plate was released at both ends, resulting in
no failure at the level of the concrete cover. When beam 8 was tested again
with a CFRP plate of the same width as the concrete beam, the failure of the
concrete cover was at the level of the reinforcement and it was very
extensive.
Table 1. Summary of the test parameters of selected bending specimens
Beam
Steel reinj
No. CFRP
Initial failure
ratio
layers
mode
3
0 . 2 7 ~ ~ ~ ~
2
Interfacea
4
0 . 2 7 ~ ~ ~ ~
4
Interface
0.54~max
40mm (system B)
Interface
0.54pmax
lOOmm (system B)
Concrete cover
8
81
For each beam numerical calculations were carried out following the
methodology proposed. Results are presented in Table 2.
Table 2. Results from numerical analysis of bending tests
Beam
3
4
8
8I
Uunbonded
(Nm)
62.7
100.79
13.21
13.21
Uloolh lop
Uloorhbottom
(Nm)
(Nm)
6.07E02
6.07E02
6.07E02
7.38E02
7.38E02
2.95E02
6.07E02
7.38E02
The numerical analysis of the proposed model show that the energy
supplied by the release of the FRP laminate is much larger (by three orders
of magnitude) than the energy necessary to break a concrete tooth at the top
base, therefore several concrete teeth can be broken, as was observed in the
experimental tests (Figures 5 a & b). The energy released also leads to
debonding between the concrete tooth and the FRP sheet and dissipates in
several forms including noise, microcracking, permanent deformation,
crushing of concrete, as experienced in the experimental tests.
a Failure at the interface between the concrete surface and the adhesive epoxy
resulting in debonding of the CFRP laminate
326 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure
For the case of a beam with an FRP of width smaller than the concrete
beam (beam S), the energy necessary to peel the bottom was smaller (by
half) than the energy necessary to break the top of the tooth. When the
width of the FRP was increased, the situation reversed (beam 81).
CONCLUSIONS
This paper analyzes the tearing of the concrete cover due to the release of
energy of the stretched FRP laminate. A failure criteria is developed based
on the calculation of the energy available and the energy necessary to break
an element of concrete between two cracks at the level of the longitudinal
reinforcement. The following conclusions were drawn:
(a) The methodology proposed can accurately predict the occurrence of the
concrete cover failure. The energy accumulated by the stretching of the
FRP laminate was up to 3 orders of magnitude higher than the energy
necessary to break the concrete cover at the level of the steel
reinforcement.
(b) Fracture energy and bonded area of the FRP laminate determine the
likelihood of the concrete cover failure. The fracture energy approach
used in this methodology shows that the layer with the smallest fracture
energy determines the plane of the crack propagation.
REFERENCES
1. ACI Committee 440, Guide for the Design and Construction of
Externally Bonded FRP Systems for Strengthening Concrete Structures,
(ACI 440.2R302),American Concrete Institute, 2002.
2. Naaman, A., Park, S., Lopez, M., “Parameters Influencing the Flexural
Response of RC Beams Strengthened using C F W Sheets”, Fifth
International Conference (FRPRCS5), Cambridge, UK, July 200 1.
3. Lopez, M.M., Study of the Flexural Behavior of Reinforced Concrete
Beams Strengthened by Externally Bonded Fiber Reinforced Polymeric
(FRF) Laminates, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Michigan, 2000.
4. Naaman, A.E. and Alkhairi, F.M., “Stress at Ultimate in Unbonded
PostTensioning Tendons: Part 2  Proposed Methodology”, ACI
Structural Journal, 88(6), 1991, pp. 683692.
5. Fukuzawa, K., Numao, T., et. al., “Critical Strain Energy Release Rate
of Interface Debonding Between Carbon Fiber Sheet and Mortar”,
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium: NonMetallic (FRF)
Reinforcement for Concrete Structures, Oct. 1997, Vol. 1, pp. 295302.
FRPRCS6, Singapore, 810 July 2003
Edited by Gang Hwee Tan
QWorld Scientific Publishing Company
INFLUENCE OF MATERIAL PROPERTIES OF FRPS ON
STRENGTH OF FLEXURAL STRENGTHENED RC BEAMS
G. F. ZHANG AND N. KISHI
Dept. of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Muroran Institute of Tech.,
Muroran, 0508585, Japan
H. MIKAMI
Technical Research Inst. of Mitsui Const., Co. Ltd.,
Nagareyama, 27001 32, Japan
In this study, an investigation on the influence of material properties of
Fiber Reinforced Plastic sheet (FRPs) on loadcarrying capacity and failure
behavior of flexural strengthened Reinforced Concrete (RC) beams is
reported. Fourpoint loading tests on seven RC beams with two types of
cross section were conducted. Four kinds of FRPs were investigated and
axial stiffness (Emodulus x thickness) was similar among the beams with
the same section type. From this study, it can be observed that when FRPs
with high axial stifhess are used, the FRPs will be peeledoff rapidly due
to diagonal crack occurring at the loadingpoints besides the equishear
span, and midspan deflection tends to be small comparing with cases
where FRPs with low axial stiffness are used.
INTRODUCTION
Fiber Reinforced Plastic sheet (FRPs) is often bonded onto the tension
surface of the existing Reinforced Concrete (RC) members to upgrade the
flexural loadcarrying capacity and to improve their serviceability. Due to
the high strength of FRPs, loadcarrying capacity of RC members can be
increased dramatically. However, strengthened RC members may reach the
ultimate state under the following conditions: (1) FRPs breaking when the
strain exceeds its ultimate point; (2) FRPs being peeledoff near the edges in
its axial direction due to failure of cover concrete; and (3) FRPs being
peeledoff due to diagonal crack occurred in the lower cover concrete at
loadingpoint besides in the equishear span. Therefore, the ultimate loadcarrying capacity and failure behavior of the strengthened RC members may
be dependent on the strengthening conditions.
So far, many experimental and analytical studies on loadcarrying
capacity and failure behavior of the flexural strengthened RC beams with
FRPs have been reported’”. These results have clearly indicated that the
ultimate loadcarrying capacity of the RC beams may be influenced by the
328 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement for Flexure
roughness of bonding surface of concrete and not by bonding length of FRPs
when FRPs are bonded in the region for longer than an effective length.
In this paper, in order to investigate the influence of material properties of
FRPs on loadcanying capacity of the RC beams, fourpoint loading tests of
flexural strengthened RC beams with FRPs were conducted, with four kinds
of FRPs. The ultimate loadcarrying capacity and failure behavior of the RC
beams with almost the same axial stiffness of FRPs and the same section
type are discussed.
EXPEFUMENTAL OVERVIEW
In this paper, a total of seven RC beams as listed in Table l 4 were
considered. These RC beams were grouped into two types according to the
size of cross section: Atype (150 x 250 mm) and Btype (1 50 x 400 mm).
Three kinds and four kinds of FRPs were used for Atype and Btype beams,
respectively. Each beam was designated using two variables: beam type (A:
Atype, B: Btype); and type of FWs (AT, AK: a family of Aramid FRPs,
C1, C2: a family of Carbon FRPs). Based on each material property
described later, axial stiffness (= EJX tf> of FRPs for each type beam was set
to be similar to each other as much as possible. For example, the amount for
Atype beams was distributed in the region from 29.7 through 38.4 kN/mm.
Material properties of each FRPs are listed in Table 2. From this table, it is
seen that the Young'smoduli of C1 and C2 are almost twice and four times
that of AK, but the breaking strain of C2 is less than one third and one fifth
of that of AK and AT, respectively.
Table 1. List of specimens
Specimen
AAT
AAK
ACI
BAT
BAK
BCI
B C2
Section VPe
Width x Height
(mm)
Fiber
Type
Ply of
Sheet
AT
AK
1
150 X 250
c1
B type
150 x 400
AT
AK
c1
c2
1
2
2
2
1
A type
1
Width of
sheet
br (mm)
130
130
E~x
9
(kN/mm)
29.7
33.7
38.4
59.3
67.5
76.8
81.4
Influence of Material Properties of FRPs on Strength 329
Table 2. Material properties of FRP sheet
Fiber type
Mass per Thickness Tensile Emodulus Ultimate
Unit area
strength
elongation
(dd)
AT (AramidAT90)
AK (Aramid AK60)
CI (Carbon UT7030)
C2 (Carbon FTSEA822)
Anchor plate 9mm
200 100
525
415
300
340
i)(mm)
0.378
0.286
0.167
0.1 85
of(Gpa) Ef (GPa)
2.35
78.5
118.0
2.06
3.40
230.0
2.40
440.0
&ji
PA)
2.99
1.75
1.48
0.55
E
2400
3000
100 200
(mm)
Figure 1. Details of specimens
Figure 1 shows the dimensions of RC beams used in the study. All RC
beams had rectangular cross sections with double reinforcement. Dimensions of
the cross section were 150 x 250 mm and 150 x 400 mm for Atype and Btype beams, respectively. Clear span was 2600 mm and SD345 D16 and
SD295 D10 rebars were used as axial rebar and stirrup for both types of
beams, respectively.
Stirrups were arranged at intervals of 100 mm. Each FRP sheet, 130 mm
wide, was bonded on the tension surface from the center to the location 100
mm inside the supports. Here, the concrete surface to be bonded with FRPs
was chipped heavily to improve the bonding performance.
Bending and shear capacities of strengthened RC beams were estimated
by using multisection analysis method and modified truss theory5,
respectively. It was confirmed for all RC beams that bending capacity is less
than shear capacity even after strengthening. Analytical results were
obtained assuming FRPs to be bonded perfectly on the concrete surface up
to ultimate state. As for the material properties, average compressive
strength of concrete was 3 1.5 MPa and average yield strength of axial rebar
was 407.0 MPa. Ultimate compressive strain of concrete for numerical
330 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure
analysis was assumed to be 0.0035 based on the specification of Japan
Concrete Standard’.
Fourpoint loading test method with a equibending span of 500 mm
long was applied in this study. The experimental setup is shown in Photo 1.
Shear span ratios of Atype and Btype beams were 2.9 and 5.0 respectively.
Strain gauges were glued on the FRPs at intervals of 100 mm to measure
the strain distribution of FRPs. Surcharged load (hereinafter, load), midspan
deflection (hereinafter, deflection), and axial strain distribution of FRPs
were recorded continuously by using digital datarecorders to precisely
investigate the debonding process of FRPs.
Photo 1. Experimental setup
EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
LoadDeflection Curves
Figure 2 compares the loaddeflection curves obtained experimentally with
analytical results. In this figure, numerical analyses for BC1/C2 beams
were terminated due to sheet breaking. From this figure, it can be seen that:
(1)load carrying capacities of Atype and Btype strengthened RC beams
estimated by numerical analysis were increased more than 25 % and twice
the values before strengthening, respectively, except for the case of BC2
beam; (2) analytical maximum load and deflection were almost the same
among same type RC beams and they were 80 kN and 32 mm for Atype
beams and 210 kN and 28 mm for Btype ones except BC2 beam,
respectively. In the case of BC2 beam, analytical maximum load and
deflection were smaller than those of the other beams because this beam
Influence of Material Properties of FRPs on Strength 331
100 I
I
250
I
AT sheet
Sheet debonded
P
AAT
'0
E p f/ = 29.7 k N / m
40
60
Deflection 6 (mm)
20
80
"0
20
30
Deflection 6 (mm)
10
40
v
AK sheet
2
3
50
debonded
Sheet
debonded
AAK E p t f = 33.7k N / m
25
0
20
40
60
Deflection 6 (mm)
BAK
80
0
10
20
30
Deflection 6 (mm)
debonded
C1 sheet
Q
E,xr/= 67.5k N / m
40
,Sheet
50
debonded
P
3
25
'0
ACI
BCI E p y = 76.8k N I m
E f x ' f = 38.4k N l m
20
40
60
Deflection 6 (mm)
80
0
10
20
30
Deflection 6 (mm)
250 r
C2 sheet
40
I
 Ana.
0
20
30
Deflection6 (mm)
10
40
(b) Btype
Figure 2. Loadmidspan deflection curves
reached the ultimate state due to sheet breaking. These suggest that
analytical results for RC beams strengthened with a similar axial stiffness of
FRPs will be almost the same except for the case of sheet breaking at an
early loading stage.
On the other hand, from the experimental result, the characteristics of
FRPs debonding were remarkably different depending upon the material
332 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure
property of FRPs. That is to say, in case of Atype beams, the beams
reached ultimate state under the Flexural Compressive Failure (FCF) mode
because sheet was debonded after reaching the analytical ultimate limit state.
For Btype beams, the ultimate state was reached due to sheet debonding
before the analytical ultimate limit state and this is called the Debonding
Failure (DF) mode. Observing the experimental results in detail, the it is
seen that the higher the axial stiffness E f x tj of FRPs, the smaller are the
maximum load and deflection. This tendency is more pronounced for Atype
beams than for Btype ones. Beam BC2 reached the ultimate state due to
sheet breaking.
Axial Strain Distributions of FRPs
Figure 3 compares the experimental and analytical strain distributions of
FRPs at deflections S= 32.5 mm and 6= 18.2 mm for Atype and Btype
beams excluding BC2 beam, respectively. These are near the analytical or
experimental ultimate state. In the case of BC2 beam, the results at a
deflection 6= 9.35 mm which is near the point of sheet breaking are shown
in this figure.
From Figure 3(a), it is observed that for AAT/AK beams, each
experimental strain distribution in the pure bending region was similar to
that of the analytical one. In the rebar yield area obtained by numerical
analysis, the experimental strain distribution formed a small plateau near
loading points. This means that: (1) debonding of FRPs was initiated at the
tip of diagonal cracks occurring in the lower cover concrete near the loading
points and propagating toward the supports; and (2) strain plateaus were
formed in the region were FRPs are peeledoff.
On the other hand, in the case of ACl beam, measured strain
distributions in both pure bending region and shear spans were remarkably
higher than the analytical values. In particular, strains in the pure bending
region exceeded 2%. This is because the sheet in the pure bending region
was broken locally near the locations of strain gauge. Furthermore, the sheet
debonding progressed quickly toward the supports in the shear span of the
lefthand side because the strains in this region were higher than the
analytical values.
Figure 3(b) shows that the plateau of measured strain distribution in
Beam BCl was the longest among the three beams. This implies that the
FRPs in Beam BC1 were peeled off widely at the same deflection
compared with the other beams. This can be interpreted as that shear stress
occurred widely at the bond interface between concrete and FRPs due to a
higher axial stiffness Efx +of BC1, as discussed in the next section.
This is because that sheet has broken locally across cracks at this location.5 mm * Over the measuring limit of strain gauge I Rebar yield area  A (b) at deflection 6 = 18.55% which is the nominal breaking strain of C2 fiber. a schematic diagram is illustrated in Figure 4 by referring to the experimental results shown in Photo 2. (a) at deflection 6 = 32.35 mm Figure 3. and the strains near the loading points exceeded 0. A * 10000 5000 0. u and v are increased . Debonding Behavior of FRPs To investigate the debonding mechanism of FRP flexural strengthening for RC beam. Axial strain distributionsof FRPs Measured strain distribution in Beam BC2 in Figure 3(c) were higher than the analytical strains in the pure bending region.2 mm 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 (c) at deflection 6 = 9. From this figure. the following mechanism of FRPs can be proposed: (1) relative displacement at the tip of diagonal crack in the horizontal and vertical directions.Influence of Material Properties of FRPs on Strength 333 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 15000 10000 5000 0 AAK 20000r ' ' ' ' 15000 10000 5000 0 AC1 'I ' ' I' ' ' BAT 0AK ' ' I 10000 5000  0.
... it is seen that debonding of FRPs depends on the magnitude of normal stresses o... .. it can be considered that. (2) as a result.. n L .. Schematic diagram for FRPs debonding with increasing surcharged load 6.. . normal and shear stresses. and z. occurred in the bonding interface between FRPs and concrete will be increased.. Following the debonding mechanism of FRPs mentioned above. This phenomenon is well known as peeledoff of FRPs.. . Peeling off of FRPs (BAK beam) Loading point e...5 mm Photo 2... 4 Concreie Rebar FRPs I . and shear stress 5 occurred in the interface. at the same deflection of the RC beam.... the higher the axial stiffness Efx t.' Suppoifing point :. Furthermore.xi " Debondinrof FRPs ' I v 7 Figure 4.of FRPs. o... This is because the value z. the larger will be the interfacial shear stress z.. increases correspondingly with the increment of the ....... and (3) FRPs may be debonded due to the resultant of interfacial normal and shear stresses reaching an ultimate value.334 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure A Loading point (a) At deflection 6 = 18.65 mm &Loading point (b) At deflection 6 = 21.. / ..
The effectiveness factor Re for AKtype beam was the largest one among all RC beams considered here.6 1 0.2 88. Comparing Re of ATtype beams with that of AKtype beams. it can be seen that the effectiveness factor Re of BC1 beam was smaller than that of BAK beam. and ratio of measured tensile force to tensile capacity of FRPs (hereinafter.1 156. in the case of Btype beam. which is obtained by multiplying the Young’s modulus with incremental axial strain of FRPs. The results of Beam BC2 were also excluded because it reached the ultimate state with sheet breaking. measured tensile force) at sheet debonding point. width bf and measured average strain of FRPs 9 in the purebending region.58 84.6 76. it suggests that flexurally strengthened RC beams with higher axial stiffness E f x q o f FRPs tend to reach the ultimate state earlier due to peeledoff of FRPs at smaller deflections than RC beams strengthened with FRPs having a smaller axial stiffness. Therefore.35 160. thickness tr. Here.9 94.3 231. the measured tensile force was estimated by multiplying Young’s modulus El.6 115.6 81.Influence of Material Properties of FRPs on Strength 335 tensile stress dqthat occurred in FRPs.60 From Table 3. Effectiveness Factor Re of FRPs The experimental loadcarrying capacity.0 0.9 153. measured maximum tensile force in FRPs (hereinafter. Effective ratio Re of FRPs Specimen AAT AAK BAT BAK BCI Ultimate load Measured tensile Tensile capacity Effectiveness of FRPs factor Re force of FRPs fkN) (1) (kN) (2) FN) (r)/(2) 87. tensile capacity of FRPs. respectively. and the value was 0. This implies that ATtype beams reach the ultimate state with sheet debonding before FRPs effectively reach its tensile strength. effectiveness factor Re) are listed in Table 3. On the other hand.2 147.5 0.6 0. Table 3. . The results for Beam AC 1 were excluded because the FRPs were broken locally in the pure bending region. it is seen that the value of AKtypes beams tended to be larger.79 164.6 0.61 for FCF type (Atype) beam and DF type (Btype) beam.2 66.79 and 0. it is seen that the effectiveness factor Re for ATtype beam was the smallest among the beams with the same cross section.6 60.
. 3.2012 11. No. 1999. Vol.. . 256264. “Bond Length of CFRP Composites Attached to Precast Concrete Walls”. 4. De Lorenzis. No. AFRPs and CFRPs.61 for beams failing by flexural compression type and debonding. “Strengthening of RC Beams with Epoxybonded Fibrecomposite Materials”.. pp. Chajes.3. Januszka T. Structural Performance VerlJication.. C. 2.3. L. Kurihashi.JSCE. and Pantelides. N. FRPs will be peeledoff more rapidly due to diagonal crack occurring near the loadingpoints in the pure shear region. and Nanni. Effectiveness factor Re of the FRPs with low Young’s modulus is smaller than that with high Young’s modulus. pp. 1996. Triantafillou. No. Standard Specijications for Concrete Structures2002. and deflection tends to be smaller. 24.4... B. ACI Structural Journal.. CONCLUSIONS In order to investigate the influence of material properties of FRP sheet on the loadcarrying capacity and failure behavior of flexurally strengthened RC beams. pp. fourpoint loading tests were conducted on seven RC beams strengthened with FRPs. REFERENCES 1. G.79 and 0.. J.2001. pp. W.. 14291434 (in Japanese). W.2002. Volnyy. A. and Zhang. Two kinds of FRPs. and Plevris. . Miller. Materials and Structures.ACI Materials Journal. 2. 6. Journal of Composites for Construction. were used for this investigation by setting the axial stiffness of FRPs to be almost the same for the beams with same cross section type. NO. A. 168176. pp. respectively. T.. Kishi. F. Proceedings of the Japan Concrete Institute. 25. and Thomson T. H. P. C.336 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcementfor Flexure This result may be interpreted by considering the debonding mechanism mentioned previously. “Bond and Force Transfer of Composite Material Plates Bonded to Concrete”. The AKtype Aramid FRPs gives the highest value of the Re among the four kinds of FRPs. Finch. Vol. 1992. Y . 5.F. 2082 17. V01. M.98. V... Vo1. “Effects of Emodulus of Sheet on Load Carrying Capacity of RC Beam Flexural Strengthened with FRF’s’’. JCI. “Bond of FRP Laminates to Concrete”. V.93. and the value is 0. (1) (2) In the case where FRPs with higher axial stiffness are used. A. Mikami. N. 2002 (in Japanese).2.
This is due to several reasons: advantageous mechanical properties (better relationships between strengtwweight and stiffnesdweight). Two of them were control beams. Hence. Calle Doctor Fleming s/n. As a result. Singapore. when the anchorage conditions are improved by using fiber fabric. and in the other 2. these two beams showed a ductile behaviour. Polythenic Univ. on the other case. such as bonded steel plate. generally obtaining important strength improvements when fiber carbon materials are employed to strengthen concrete structures. after bonding the strips on the beam tensile face. good behaviour against corrosion. improving load capacity. similar on one case and improved. and easiness and rate of placing. Spain C.numerous researches''6 have been performed concerning these new materials. BENLLOCH Department of Architectonic Constructions. both the failure load and the deflections during the first phase of the load process were similar in the two strengthened patterns. Spain This experimental research has studied the flexural behaviour of carbon fiber strengthened beams. The experimental work consisted of testing to failure 8 simply supported beams of rectangular cross section. PARRA Department of Structures and Constructions. VALCUENDE AND J. Nevertheless. the two beams strengthened with strip and fabric showed a substantially different behaviour to that of the beams just strengthened with strips. Polythenic University of Valencia Camino de Vera s/n.J. Cartagena 30202. of Cartagena. 4 were strengthened by using strips. the ends of the strips were wrapped with carbon fiber fabrics. 810 July 2003 Edited by Kiang Hwee Tan QWorld Scientific Publishing Company DUCTILITY OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS STRENGTHENED WITH CFRP STRIPS AND FABRIC M. modifying structural behaviour (stiffness and ductility) and changing failure mode. INTRODUCTION The use of composite materials to strengthen concrete reinforced structures (specially polymers reinforced with carbon fibers) tend to replace other traditional methods for repairing. The test results showed that the two strengthened patterns had a notably influence on the specimens structural performance. Since the late ~ O ' S . to that of the control beams. Valencia 46022. .FRPRCS6.
On the other hand. without plastic regime. Finally. ~the . Eight simply supported beams with two types of flexural reinforcement (types A and B) with a yield strength of 500 MPa were cast for the program. the failure occurs suddenly and in a brittle manner. one hand. All the beams were tested to failure (Figure 1). it is important to remember that the collapse of the strengthened beam is not generally a flexural failure but a bond failure (peelingoff) due to a complete loss of composite action between the concrete and the FRP reinforcement. and. therefore. it is important to bear in mind that an increase in the quantity of tensile reinforcement without increase in the load capacity of the compression zone. EXPERIMENTAL WORK The aim in this research work is to study the structural behaviour of the reinforced concrete beams strengthened with carbon fiber reinforced polymer strips when the anchorage end is improved by means of carbon fiber fabric.000 1.338 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure The specimens strengthened with this system show a loss of d u ~ t i l i t y ~ On . a lesser strain of the most tensile fibers at the failure load. carbon fibers show an elastic behaviour to failure. leads to a bigger depth of neutral axis. As a result.  Beam Type A T + 100 Beam Type B + 100 1 150 150 +300+ Fabric 7 x x  +200+ PI24 4P/2 1. ~ .200 300Fabric  Figure 1. Details of test beams & .
600 Tensile strength MPa) Young's modulus (MPa) 165. Mechanical properties of these materials are given in Table 1. Finally.24 39.800 12. the ends were wrapped with carbon fiber fabric. An adhesive based on epoxy resins was used to bond strips and fabrics. which show an elastic behaviour to the failure. Mechanical properties of both materials are shown in Table 1.24 37.56 41.56 37.Ductility of RC Beams Strengthened with CFRP 339 A standard mix concrete was used.4. Later on.2 Fabric 3. The compressive strength of the concrete at testing day is shown in Table 2. BS 1 and BS2 had a carbon fibers strip bonded on the tensile face. the beams were cleaned with a dissolving agent to remove dirt.000 Epoxy (strip) Epoxy fabric) 30 3. a cement content of 375 kg/m3 and a W/C of 0. Beams AS 1.500 230. beams ASF and BSF.3 1 41. in addition to the strip. Table 1.000 Failure strain (96) 127 Dimensions (mm) 50 x 1. The beams were strengthened with a carbon fiber strip.45 39. just until the aggregate was visible.800 195 305 x 0. Table 2. with a maximum aggregate size of 12 mm.3 1 Strengthening material No Strip Strip Strip and fabric No Strip Strip Strip and fabric . Summary of tested beams Beam type Beam designation A R Y  AC AS1 AS2 ASF BC BSl BS2 BSF Compressive strength of concrete (MPa) 38. were provided with external anchorages at the ends of the beam.13   To guarantee an adequate bond between concrete and strengthening materials the surface laitance was removed. After bonding the strip on the beam tensile face. Beams AC and BC were control beams without any external reinforcement. The beams were designated according to the strengthening system used (Table 2). The end external anchorage was made up of carbon fiber fabric and was wrapped around the beam (side and bottom faces) after bonding the strip.45 38. AS2. Mechanical properties of strengthening materials Strip 2.
All the beams showed similar load capacity and no difference was found between the beams strengthened with strips and the beams strengthened with strips and fabrics (Table 3). On the other hand.Test setup with external instrumentation TEST RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The unstrengthened control beams (beams AC and BC) failed in flexure. All the sensors were connected to a data acquisition system to scan and record the readings. as expected. AS2.56 % in type B beams (BSI.41 % in type A beams (AS1. BSF). ASF) and between 16. in the strengthened beams. and to measure the load a compression load cell was used (Figure 2).55 % and 45. the strengthening pattern had a great influence on the pieces: improving load capacity. These increases in load capacity ranged between 35.340 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure The midspan deflection was measured using two linear potentiometers with a travel of 100 mm.93 % and 26. Load Capacity The failure load in all the beams tested was higher than the failure load of the control beams. modifying structural behavior and changing failure mode (Figures 3 and 4). Figure 2. . BS2. with crushing of the concrete in the compression zone and excess of cracking in the tension zone.
Nevertheless. other research works showed different results. probably with the aim of increasing the contact surface between the concrete and the strengthening material and. In the above studies. in the works carried out by Grace3 or Bencardino4. For example. Loaddeflection curves of type A beams 10 8 t 6 3 4 h a 2 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Deflection (mm) Figure 4. the strengthened beams improved their load capacity324and decreased in ductility4 when the anchorage of the strip was strengthened with fabric. Loaddeflection curves oftype B beams Even though all patterns of strengthened beams showed similar strength increments. the fabric was bonded prior to the strips.Ductiliq of RC Beams Strengthened with CFRP 341 10 8 h b v 6 V 2 4 2 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 16 18 20 Deflection (mm) Figure 3 . . therefore. decreasing bond stresses. it is necessary to indicate that the order of placement of the strengthening materials was not the same.
Figure 5.03 BSF 7.oo ASI 8.37 ASF 8.68 1 .003 Peelingoff 1.oo BS1 7.oo 1.710 Peelingof 1.oo 0.09 0.97 2.753 Peelingoff and fabric rupture 2.585 Peelingoff 1.36 1.904 Flexure 1.41 1. All these beams showed shear cracks due to an insufficient quantity of stirrups (Figure 5).54 0.5 1 0.78 1.303 Peelingoff and fabric rupture 2.Ol 1.78 BC 6. BS1.44 0.36 Structural Behaviour and Modes of Failure The same structural performance has been observed in the tests for all beams strengthened with carbon fiber strips (AS1.94 4.02 0. Summary of tests results Beams Failure Failure mode load fig) Ductility indexes Defection Energy Ductility ratios Defection Energy AC 5.41 AS2 8.32 3. AS2.49 1.30 1. Almost a linear behaviour until rupture with a sudden brittle failure by debonding of the strip at the end anchorage was observed.Ol 0.126 Flexure 2. BS2).163 Peelingoff 1. BS1 and BS2 .05 1.43 0.3 1 3.oo 1. Failure modes of beams AS1.98 BS2 7.00 1.342 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcementfor Flexure Table 3.05 0. AS2.
and on the other. since the strip still remains bonded to the fabric and the fabric to the concrete. almost all the flexural load capacity should have been reached. Nevertheless. A sudden collapse of the concretestrip bond was produced at the same load levels. the failure mode in the two beams tested is produced by debonding of the strip at the anchorage end. as shear reinforcement. the behaviour was different. the behaviour was linear and similar to that of the four previous beams.Ductility of RC Beams Strengthened with CFRP 343 In the case of Beams ASF and BSF. in spite of the fabric. the carbon fiber fabric has improved the structural performance in two ways: on the one hand. by improving the anchorage conditions of the strip. the latter continued to be partially bonded to the fabric (Figure 7). The observed crack pattern was not produced by shear stresses but by flexure (Figure 6). Once the bond strength between concrete and strip is destroyed. because clear signs of flexural failure are observed: crushing of concrete in the compression zone and excess of cracking in the tension zone. although with big deflection. and it is possible to keep apart several phases. where anchorage conditions of the strips were improved. Failure modes of beams ASF and BSF Therefore. During the first phase. the beams experienced a momentary loss of load capacity and a sudden increase in deflection. . Figure 6 . But. acting as a tie and allowing the beam to reach higher loads and additional ductility (Figures 3 and 4). Thus. reaching the definitive failure after fabric rupture. the beam is able to continue absorbing the load. Even though there is a premature collapse of the beams due to anchorage failure. In both cases.
344 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement for Flexure the definitive collapse of the beams did not take place until the fabric ruptured. This value is close to 36%. of an average of 30%. for higher load levels all the strengthened beams showed less deflection. Ductility There is no experimental data available to evaluate the curvature of the beam at the maximum moment section. although it is difficult to estimate experimentally due to the lack of accuracy of the load cell during the initial phase of load. shown in Figures 3 and 4. Figure 7. Studying the slope of the loaddeflection curves. Nevertheless. which is the theoretical value obtained by considering the relationship between the moment of inertia of the transformed uncracked section and the moment of inertia of the cracked section of the strengthened and unstrengthened beams. These indexes are defined as: . Rupture of fabric Another important aspect illustrated by all the strengthened beams with respect to the control beams is the improvement in stiffness. it is concluded that for moderate levels of load (below cracking moment) the structural performance of all the beams is very similar.5 % (increment of moment of inertia due to the strip). Thus. some ductility indexes have been defined in terms of structural characteristics such as midspan deflection and area under the loaddeflection diagram (as a measure of energy absorption). due to the stiffness increment over the control beams. as carried out by some authors in other research works4. to analyse the ductility. Theoretically these differences should be about 5. although slightly better for the strengthened beams.
(2) where A. = Midspan deflection at ultimate load. With regard to these last results. or higher in the other case. agreeing fully with those obtained by other researchers4. that all beams strengthened with carbon fiber strip have experienced a significant loss of ductility. due to the quasielastic behaviour of carbon fiber until rupture. The calculated ductility indexes and the ductility ratios of the strengthened beams to those of the control beams without external strengthening are shown in Table 3. pE = EUI E. As a result. Ay = Midspan deflection at tension steel yielding. Energy ductility. the values that are obtained are of the range of a third or half of the values obtained in the control beams. more tests need to be carried out so that the influence of these factors could be quantified more accurately. This is probably due to the difference in the quality of concrete. Thus. It can be concluded from data summarized in Table 3. and this must be kept in mind when the strengthening is designed. E. with similar values of the ductility index in one case. = Area under the loaddeflection diagram at ultimate load. CONCLUSIONS The major conclusions derived from this experimental study are given as follows: . Depending on how it is quantified (deflection or energy).Ductility of RC Beams Strengthened with CFRP 345 Deflection ductility. p A= Au / A. the available surface of contact among fabric and concrete or the order in which the two strengthening materials (strip and fabric) are applied on the beam. certain discrepancies can be found in the literature. a much more ductile behaviour is obtained. since some works show an increment of ductility when the anchorage conditions of the strips are improved. However. the behaviour of the beams with additional anchorage (ASF and BSF) has been very different. The calculation of steel yielding moment is quite simple in the beams without carbon fiber strengthening. and just approximate in the strengthened beams. although the modification of the anchorage conditions failed to increase the beam strength. the quantity of external strengthening. compared to that of the control beams. and others do not. and Ey = Area under the loaddeflection diagram up to yielding of tension steel (elastic energy).
4905 0 0. 2002..F. 99(2). pp. 6. and Parra. . “Strength and Ductility of Reinforced Concrete Beams Externally Reinforced with Carbon Fiber Fabric”.. “External Reinforcement of Concrete Beams Using Fiber Reinforced Plastics”. FIB. pp. Cadiz.. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors gratefully acknowledge and would like express their appreciation to Sika Valencia (Spain) and to Dominguis s.346 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement for Flexure (a) The beams strengthened with carbon fiber strip and the beams strengthened with carbon fiber strip and fabric show a similar increment in stiffness and load capacity. The contributions of M. Spadea G. while the beams strengthened with strips only. and Connelly G.A. 1999. N. 4.. Soliman A. pp.2002.1 7 1. 15Ih Congreso Nacional de Ingenieria M e c h i c a . 163. 96(5). ACI Structural Journal.M. Federation Internationalle du BCton. D. R. 5 . ACZStructural Journal.A. K. Ritchie. Tecnical Report.F. “Strengtening of Negative Moment Region of Reinforced Concrete Beams Using carbon FiberReinforced Polymer Strips”. Grace. C. for providing the composite materials and wrapping them around the specimens. REFERENCES 1. ACZ Structural Journal. In fact.1.K. M. Calabuig and J. Thomas. and Saleh. Calabuig. 3. 2001... (c) The order of placement of the two strengthening materials. L. Valcuende. 88(4). 3473 5 8. Martinez are greatly appreciated. the beams strengthened with strip and fabric show a ductile behaviour. December 1013.R. Lu. (b) The improvement of the strip end anchorage notably influence beam ductility. Grace.N. strips and fabric. and Swamy. higher strength could be reached with lower ductility. 130 pp. 2. 865874. Bencardino. Externally Bonded FRP Reinforcement for RC Structures.. “Strengthening Reinforced Concrete Beams Using Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Laminates”.. F. P. depending on the adopted solution. Benlloch J.. 2001... 98(3). Bulletin 14. “Estudio Experimental de Piezas de Hormigon Reforzadas con Fibra de Carbono”. ACZ Structural Journal. 1991. similar or possibly better than unstrengthened beams. Thus. Sayed G.J.A. exhibited reduced ductility. pp. N. can influence the structural behaviour of the beams. R.
by attaching steel plates to the tension surface. Historically. there are ample cases where it may become necessary to strengthen a reinforced concrete member.95u). United Kingdom A comparative study has been undertaken in order to determine the suitability of existing ductility evaluation methods when applied to RC elements strengthened with Fibre Reinforced Polymers. P. B. It is therefore proposed that a revised deformability method is examined. 810 July 2003 Edited by Kiang Hwee Tan OWorld Scientific Publishing Company A REVIEW OF DUCTILITY DETERMINATION OF FRF' STRENGTHENED FLEXURAL RC ELEMENTS D. During many experiments in RC beam strengthening by steel plate bonding. CF37 IDL. FRPs have increasingly been used in place of steel plates but engineers have been hesitant in deploying this method of strengthening. INTRODUCTION General Comments The consideration of structural ductility is of predominant importance to all structural designers.FRPRCS6. The concept is particularly applicable to RC beams and slabs and to prestressed concrete elements. under ultimate loads. It is also seen that there is a discernible reduction in deformation based indices in comparison to energy based ones. TANN. From a practical and commercial viewpoint. ease of application in practical cases and accuracy of prediction. Over the past decade. University of Glamorgan Pontypridd. This unpredictable characteristic has many similarities with RC beam strengthening using other materials such as Fibre Reinforced Polymers (FRPs). The comparison will involve considering a number of criteria such as consistency of prediction. utilising the deformations at serviceability load (Ps)and 95% of ultimate load (Po. it became apparent that sudden peeling of the plates was one of the main causes of failure. volatility of data. as all appropriately designed structures must attain sufficient ductility. DAVIES AND R. Singapore. DELPAK School of Technology. mainly due to the uncertainty of sudden failure. to provide adequate warning of failure and prevent sudden and brittle collapse. It is recognised that FRP . more recently. this has been achieved using section enlargement or. It is shown that the indices calculated for brittle members can have variations when using the existing methods.
it is intended to develop a semiautomatic method of analysing experimental and theoretical Load/Deflection or MomentlCurvature data to determine indices. a ‘ductility index’.e. Ultimately. All methods gave markedly different sets of results for each particular beam. Aims The overall aim of the study is to develop a method of determining the ductility or deformability index of any structural element strengthened with FRP. Firstly. which are listed in Table 1. It has generally been accepted that ductility can be measured by a dimensionless factor. a review will be carried out of the current methods of calculating the ductility index of structural elements. the ductility or deformability indices from 55 beams (from published experimental data). which can be calculated in several different forms from two broader categories: Deformation Based Methods ble 1 Properties o Ta where A” is the ultimate maximum deflection of a member and Ay is the value where the steel reinforcement reaches its yield strength. Also. ii) Curvature ductility: . have been calculated and studied using selected methods. REVIEW OF CURRENT LITERATURE The question of ductility for FRP reinforced concrete elements has been a topic of considerable debate among researchers 1’2’3 4’5 . i.348 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure strengthened. .u0= @tl (2) @Y where Qu is the curvature in the constant moment region at ultimate load and Qy is the curvature in the constant moment region at the steel reinforcement yield point. each method gave a wide range of indices for beams that failed in a brittle manner. In this paper. due to the primarily linear elastic stressstrain characteristics of composites up to failure. reinforced concrete elements behave differently from their steel reinforced counterparts.
2): EVALUATION OF EXISTING METHODS Experimental results from a number of published sources were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the various methods of determining ductility indices. is the area under the LoadDeflection curve at failure and Ey is the area under the Load/Deflection curve at the steel reinforcement yield point. The element data is presented in Table 1.. Naaman and Jeong suggested that the elastic energy could be estimated using an equivalent triangle area under the loaddeflection curve. calculated as the area under the loaddeflection curve up to the failure load and E. it is apparent that the above conventional methods of calculating ductility indices may not be considered as appropriate for FRP strengthened elements. . ii) Another set of energy calculations are given by: where E. This method was first published by Naaman and Jeong (1 995) but there are .. is the elastic energy. with the slope of the estimated unloading line determined using the following equation (see also Fig. an important deformation point to ascertain is the steel reinforcement yield point. Energy Based Methods i) For energy based calculations: Eu pE. =  (3) EY where E. Due to the nature of FRP strengthened elements to perform in a primarily elastic manner. this cannot easily be identified. with the calculated indices and failure modes listed in Table 2. Consequently. as illustrated in Fig 1 . practical difficulties in identifying the elastic stored energy. is the total energy.. Consequently.Ductility Determination of FRP Strengthened Elements 349 As can be seen for both methods.
Diagram illustrating difficulty of ascertaining steel yield point for FRP strengthened elemend 0 5 10 15 20 Deflection (mm) Figure 2. Example of calculation of equivalent elastic stored energy' .0 5 10 Ay? 15 A" 20 Deflection (mm) Figure 1.
_ _103.0 N 121. . GGlass. .80 24.0 N 1C q 016mm C. P C. . P 0. ._ _ .. F 0. P C.70 1. .35 153. . Element Data E lnt'l . P 0. F. F C. 2 .23 29.71 51. .70 195.07 2C _x 0lOmm G.00 61. 0 $2 FRP m E flexural 6.71 51. . P 1.61 _ _ _ _ _ _ 47. .71 N Y Y N N N N N N N N 171.8 Y 75.46 0.78 154. C.90 9D * 37.80 C.F 0.09 42. .34.06 0.71 N 146. ..Fabric b 3 24 31 2 *. S $ 'E.10 29.60 42. P 0.54 35. . s 0. C. .70 21.03 11B 8A 88 8C  C. C.71 51. . .23 29. 126.70 0.Table 1.P 1.80 5' 10B 2 xNo. P 0.05 0. .g rejnft I Concrete Strength End Type* I % Of xsect. . .0 N 47.52 9c 8 C.79 0.7 Y 1B 2x C.03 0. .. . C.5 C.70 81.23 33. .41 0 1A 08mm 3 x c. P 0. .49 11c 11D 11E 11F 11G 11H 111 11J 11K 11L 11M UI a { 4 x No. .0 N G.23 9A 1D_ _ . .0 Y 96.00 70.5 N C.41 . . . .90 37.09 36.60 58..23 170.26 C.71 51.16 0. .9 Y 21. . .5 N 90.70 42. .71 N 169.R6 3C 0 loA Icw 41.05 42.28 195.74 74.3 C. P C.71 51.70 133.76 3 x _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ g g 3B C. .16 0.5 _ _ _ _ _ _ N.71 51. . . C.61 27. 2T10 C.70 0.03 3x 2X C. P 0.23 35. .00 68.52 37.06 0. End Failure load (N/mm2) fkW E Q Int'l .00 N 105. P 0.70 0. _ _ _ __ ________________. ..P 9E 016mm C.6_Y..40 _ 1_ oc _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ .03 0.3 N 86.29 143.71 51.0 Y 98.AAramid.0 N 121.56 No.10 ih" 9G C. . .79 0. .03 .30 36. P 0. . C.71 51. .05 0. F C.0 N G. (N/mm2) Failure load IkN) . 9B C.05 51.80 9F _37. .18 14. P 0.80 70.29 . .40 2A G.76 61.20 9H C. C.14 38.4 N 101. .2 Y 77.. .5 6.6 Y 98. 3 $ 9 2  8 ________________ 6B 6C 6D 6E 6F 7c 8 2  .8 N N N N N Y 90. . S 0.00 70. .5 N 28 G. . .18 40. P 2. m 0 $2 FRP I m E flexural GE rejnf't Type* % Of Concrete Strength XS&.99 81. .6 N 74. C.72 211. P 0. P 0.82 C.71 51.11 2 51. 34. P P P P P P P P P P c.23 29.40 37. .71 51.10 35. P C. .35 11A c.5 N 21.23 37.5 Y 98. . . .82 102. . C. ._ F __ 0.11 51.23 30. . . .92 42.F 0..70 82. P 0. ~~ 0.91 * FRP Type: CCarbon. .80 0.PPlate. . F 0.C.30 76. _ _ _ _ C.P 3. ._ _ _ _ _ . P 0.
48 7B 2.78 2.88 cc 1.39 1.14 1.40) FD 2.82 (7.56 1..83 3.84 6B 1.69 2.9) 1.07 1.9) 10.19 (4.80) FDICC (16.50 TO 2. i2) PAZ Mode Po (2) PEZ (1) PA I PEI 8A 2.00) 9E (5.24 TO 3.48 2C 2.75 3.90 2.1) 2.81 2.43 (3.47 2.59 1.87) (3.80 2.17 2.5) 3.10) (2.3 1 1B 2.74 2.63 1.30 2.64 2.67 4.33 2.83 (2.42) 1. PA] Po pEi ( 2 ) ~ .22 3B 1.13 3.99 (2.13 6G 2.26 1.61 llJ 2.30) (4.50) 9G (I 0.44 3A 2.96 (2.20 11D 2.74 (1.75 2.4) 4.15 5.35 7. .79 6E 2.00) 9F (3. Failure Mode SYICC FR SYICC CCED SYICC SYICC SYICC SYICC SYICC FD TO TO TO TO TO TO cc CCIFD TO TO SF cc cc FD cc FRICC FR FR *rl Beam Deflection Curvature Energv (I) Energv Deflection Failure No.0) 8.00) (4.80 0. ~ i2)pA2 1A 2.94 (2.c*.43 1.74 (3.90 11L 2.38 6A 2.89) 5.97 FR 1oc 6.01 TO 11G 3.09 2A 3.1 1 (1.43 6.10 3.49 1. FDFibre delamination.17 1.86 TO 2.47 1.02 1.66 (3.3) 2.16 SF 2.02 (1. 2 Table 2.89 ir.35 1.81 1.00 3.85 3.28 cc 2.26 2.42 1.02 3.92 (6.96 2.72 1C 2.41 11A 3.90 4C 2.90) 9H (3.79 2.20 11E 2.52 2.30 2.22 5.2) 2.5) 1.13 4.17 3.89 11M 1. SFConcrete shearfailure Note thatfigures in parentheses and italics are@om the associatedpublishedpaper.02) 2.48 3.71 2.95 FD 4.92 FD 9c 1.51 2. Enerpv Deflection NO.56) 5.04 TO KEY: SYSteel yiel4 FRFibre rupture. CCConcrete crushing.36 2.08 2.90 4.38 2.6) 2.3i) 3.5) 3.22 2.56 TO 4.44 7A 2.83 1.42 2.94 2.83 2.88 11F 2.11) .73 3D 2.04 1.78 (5.19 2.86 1.06 (1.42) 1.78 3.11 3.80 2.90 2E 2.13) 5.48 2.12 (1.70 3.11 1.10 5B 4.75 (2.78 8C 2.15 4.20) FD (3.10 1.09 11K 1.77 2.86 TO 2.31 2.39 1.24 5.14 (9.940 2B 2.02 6C 2.24 4A 2.12 11c 2.40 2.01 2.29 2D 2.72 2.66 FD 3.46 2.63 5A 2.99 2.04 1.77 2.39 FR 1OB 4..48 SYIFR 8B 2. Calculated Indices and Modes of Failure Beam Defleciion Curvature Enerpv .10 6F 2. all other values are calculated ~~ z .89 11H 2.9) 2.97 1.91 (6.12 2.27 1.45 3C 2.00) 1.5) 2.80) 9D FD (13.48 TO 3.76 2.27 3.68 4B 1.39 2.54 1.93) (5.51 3.70 7C 2.79 3.28 1.24 11B 2.6) 2 46 TO 2.46 5.00 FD 9A 2.33 5.86 (2.17 2.69 2.28 FR 1.78 2.25 5.03 3.15 1OA 3.34 2.97 1.43 1.20) (4.10 3.56 3.10 5.32 2.94 4.00 TO 4.99 (3.68 2.14 5.45 9B 3.84) 1.34 (4.19 2.99) (2.20) (2.90) FD (4.54 6D 1.91 (3.50 TO 111 1.80) (8.83 4. TOTearingoff of concrete cover.37 2.52 1.10 1D 2.74 (2.72 4.so 1.
the deformation at 95% of the ultimate load. high and low values. However.e. with A0. where the indices vary from 2. e. Serviceability based deformability : A u PA2 = As where A. 3). ‘deformability index’. and provide a more representative value for the deformability index. a more appropriate description. / 5)produced a larger variance in the values for ductility index. .g5”.81. the first (E. the various methods produced widely differing results for the ductility index relating to any given member. Further analysis shows that Deflection method 2 (using serviceability limit) has a significantly lower standard deviation. This would remove the misleading values of deformation at 100% of ultimate load. therefore demonstrating a more consistent set of calculated results. The serviceability method could be further improved by the replacement of A. element 2A. as FRP strengthened elements.14.45 to 10. Energy 1 and Energy 2 methods. Both deformation methods resulted in good correlation between data (see Fig. together with an index based on the serviceability load. produce what appear to be acceptable ductility indices. as suggested by Tann’. Consequently.Ductility Determination of FRP Strengthened Elements 353 The values of indices from Deflection 1. This index was proposed by Tann’. This method is particularly sensitive to sections that are overreinforced with FRP. which can be up to 4 times that at 95%.g.75 to 7. where the indices vary from 2. was proposed and is defined in Eq. with slightly better congruence between the deformation methods (87. The mean. were analysed to determine whether there was an apparent trend in the calculated values. as the energy at yield can be relatively small compared to the total energy and give a large (and possibly misleading) value for the ductility index. the elements normally fail in a ‘brittle’ manner because the relatively large deformation is not inelastic and a large amount of elastic strain energy is stored in the strengthened beams at failure. is the ultimate midspan deflection and As is the midspan deflection at the serviceability load (taken to be 67% of the ultimate load). i. when anaIysed using conventional methods. As can be seen in Table 2.5% correlation) than the energy methods (8 1% correlation). Of the two energy based methods. (6). for members that had exhibited a ‘brittle’ failure mode. and element 9B. together with the standard deviation are detailed in Table 3.
dev. Figure 3 . Comparison of various methods of calculating ductility index PA 1 Method AU 1 A y Mean High Low Std.52 PEl Eu/q 4.24 1.45 4.83 1.55 4.354 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcementfor Flexure 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Beam No.Correlation of results between methods Table 3.84 0.42 0.56 1. IS 2.28 .65 PA2 All 1 As 2.32 1.22 6.
REFERENCES 1. and Regan.117124.. Transaction of Japan Concrete Institute. Proceedings of the International Conference on Advanced Composite Materials in Bridges and Structures. 96(5). “Ductility requirements for redistribution of moments in reinforced concrete elements and a possible size effect”. 865874. Proceedings of the International Conference on FRP . M. Montreal. Soliman.M. (6).p.. Canadian Society for Civil Engineers.. Burgoyne.530535.5. 4. The authors recommend that further analysis be carried out on the deformability index. Materials and Structures. that the serviceabilitybased method produced the most consistent results as judged by the index PA2 in Table 3 . Canada. 1999. i. and Saleh. 1998. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors wish to acknowledge the University of Glamorgan and the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council for the funding which enabled this work and further research to be carried out. Razaqpur. T. GA.J.R.95” in place of A”. 5.Ductility Determination of FRP Strengthened Elements 3.K.A. 1998. Eq. The method is focussed in having ductility indices in order to assign numerical values to various states of failure. p. Grace. Y.. Aridome. It is found that. K. and Ali. 3 1. P.e. A. G..5 CONCLUSIONS A study has been conducted in order to evaluate the failure characteristics of FRP strengthened RC elements. Furuta. A.. N. for practical design purposes it would be easier to use this method with a clear reference point. T. “Ductility and Deformability in Beams Prestressed with FRP Tendons”. 20. “Ductility and strength of concrete beams externally reinforced with CFRP sheets”. deformation at serviceability load. 2. C. ACZ Structural Journal. Of the published methods. Pisanty.. 3.F. and Matsui. Kanakubo. “Ductility of Tshape RC beams strengthened by CFRP sheet”. “Strengthening Reinforced Concrete Beams Using Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Laminates”. M. those that are exposed to maximum citation and potential engineering use were considered. Sayed. p. 1996.. It can be seen from the data discussed earlier.. and the introduction of A0.E. to determine the validity of this method.
R.M. L. 99(2). Journal of Bridge Engineering.2002. “Static and dynamic behaviour of RC beam model strengthened by CFRPsheets”. August 2325. Chajes. A.. 1995.C. M. 2001. G and Swamy N. “Strength and Ductility of Reinforced Concrete Beams Externally Reinforced with Carbon Fibre Fabric”. R.356 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure 6.. 6(5). Construction and Building Materials. A. and Parke. 1998. PhD Thesis. and Bencardino. Proceedings of the Znd International RILEM Symposium (FRPRCS2). 10. M. August 2325.. 1525. “Improved model for plateend shear of CFRP strengthened RC beams”. P. Nanni. “Ultimate strength prediction for RC beams externally strengthened by composite materials”. Tann. Spadea.. 12. T. Capozucca. “Preliminary Research on the Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Beams using GFRP”. Serra. T. Thorne.. and Belarbi. T. ACI Structural Journal. 2000.H. O.N.F..B. “Retrofitting of Mechanically Degraded Concrete Structures Using Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites”. p. “Concrete cover delamination in RC beams strengthened with CFRP sheets”. 32(7). 2002. ACI Proceedings of the 4‘h International Symposium on FRP Reinforcement for Concrete Structures (FRPRCS4). R. University of Glamorgan. 7. Januszka. Swamy. p. and NildeCerri. M. L. Composites in Civil Engineering. Spadea. Ghent. Cement and Concrete Composites. Proceedings of the 2”d International RILEM Symposium (FRPRCS2). A.... Ghent. Y. Composites Part B: Engineering. . and Tarantino. 23(319). B. 13. “Reinforcement of concrete structures using externally bonded composite materials”. Thomson.J. Quantrill. UK. Holloway. Baltimore. 1995. 11.J.. 1215 December 200 1. Construction and Building Materials. p. Tumialan. Chajes.541550. 2001. 9. D. “Strength and ductility of RC beams repaired with bonded CFRP laminates”. T. Ahmed. G.A. R. F. 725735..A. 14. Hong Kong.. 1999. Bencardino. G. and AlSalloum.. Nov. Van Gemert. D.. MD..J. School of Technology. W.501508.A. 8(3). and Vendewalle. Almusallam. Thomson. “Flexural strengthening of concrete beams using externally bonded composite materials”. 15. and Finch.. 2001. p. 8. G. A.. 16.. F.
These EI values were then substituted into the standard flexural differential equations to derive an expression of slab deflection. INTRODUCTION The deflections of conventional reinforced concrete (RC) flexural members under shortterm and longterm service loads can be predicted with reasonable accuracy. the prediction of deflections in concrete slabs becomes more difficult as the flexural rigidity EI varies with the increase of loading. is taken into account. The experimental component of this work started by casting four CFRF' strengthened concrete slabs. A brittle failure mode. This paper proposes a semiempirical method for the determination of deflections of FRP strengthened RC slabs. were found to closely match the experimental results.Part 2. When dealing with flexural members strengthened by F W composites. B. 810 July 2003 Edited by Gang Hwee Tan @World Scientific Publishing Company A SEMIEMPIRICAL APPROACH FOR THE PREDICTION OF DEFLECTIONS OF FRP STRENGTHENED RC SLABS D. Deformability is a measure of the member's ability to deform. For fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) strengthened members. The deflection profile of each slab was recorded for every load increment. due to the presence of FRP composites.FRPRCS6. The predicted deflections. causes considerable concern among structural .School of Technology University of Glamorgan. an important issue for the designers is the structural deformability and ductility characteristics. the curvature under service load can be determined using similar principles once the increase in the second moment of area. Wales CF37 ID. BSI. Pontypridd. I. TANN Civil Engineering Mechanics Research Unit. The current study established a method of quantifying the flexural rigidity from the experimentally obtained momentcurvature and loadstrain relationships.UK It is well known that once the concrete material develops into its nonlinear phase. Singapore. 1985). often seen in FRP strengthened members. which were then loaded to ultimate failure. this is well documented in many national design standards such as the British codes of practice' (BS 81 10 . at any point along the slab for any given load case. which is not necessarily an indication of ductile behaviour as the deformation could result in substantial amount of stored elastic energy in the strengthened structure.
The salient results are shown in Table 2. This paper therefore. 2001)2. Tensile tests were performed on 15 number of single layer CFRP strips (250 mm length by 15 mm width).402%) and T6 secondary distribution bars at 200 mm centres. most FRP strengthened flexural members reported in literature are considered to be “over strengthened” or at best in a “balanced” state. Ultimate failure of such members tends to exhibit more brittle characteristics. = 0. . the element’s deformability and ductility indices can then be conveniently determined (Tann. due to the stored elastic energy. 200 1)2. In such cases. EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMME Four reinforced concrete solid oneway spanning slabs were cast at the University of Glamorgan Concrete Laboratory. All were identically reinforced with four highyield T8 main bars (A. and develop a semiempirical approach to determine the flexural rigidity. The material properties of concrete and reinforcement were evaluated in the laboratory and are listed in Table 1. and hence facilitate the determination of element deflections up to ultimate load. but reasonable prediction of deflections at ultimate limit state which also becomes essential in the design process. thus enable the designer to optimise the design for a ductile failure mode. to evaluate the salient elastic properties. One slab (SC) was used as a control sample and tested to ultimate failure. It is thus necessary to know not only the member deformation under service load. which is often indicated by the relatively “steep” loaddeflection curves. From a conventional RC design viewpoint. The average thickness of the CFRP sheets were evaluated to be 0. An experimental study was therefore carried out to provide database for the semiempirical model. a pseudolinear elastic behaviour becomes evident (Tann. Such behaviour makes it viable to establish a numerical model of flexural rigidity.16 mm. The other three slabs were strengthened with carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) fabric sheets. than the conventional RC counterparts. The dimensions of the slabs are 3000 mm total length. which were also prepared at the time of lamination. EI. aims to start the optimisation process. 500 mm width and 100 mm overall depth. of FRP strengthened flexural elements for the full loading duration up to ultimate failure.358 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure engineers. Once the deflections at ultimate and serviceability conditions are known.
2 11.16%.5 mm of maximum span deflection for the first 5 m m and then at 1.48%. Load configuration 950mm I.0 mm per minute.dl).84 All CFRP sheets were cut to be 2800 mm long (100 mm shorter of the slab effective span). (kN/mm2) 49. The section strains. thus given a cross sectional area ratio of 0.2 71.04 0.5 0.4).096%.5 31.. b I I indicates LVDT position . Main elastic properties of CFRP sheets Ultimate tensile strength ff(N/mm2) Elastic modulus (kN/mm2) Ultimate strain capacity (%) Standard deviation Mean value 1991. Table 2. covering the full width. giving a cross sectional area of 0. All slabs were load tested to ultimate failure through displacement control and using a four point loading configuration as shown in Figure 1. while slab 3 (S3) was strengthened with three 100 mm wide CFRP strips. Properties of concrete and steel reinforcement I Concrete’ fy(N/mm’) E. equivalent to an area ratio of 0. 2. The average strength is given above &andard deviation 0. Slab 2 (S2) was bonded with 3 layers of the same CFRP sheets. I 4 I F 950 mm I I 2900 mm Figure 1. The loading speed was kept at a constant rate of 3. (kN/mm2) Steel Reinforcement’ 599.Deflections of FRP Strengthened RC Slabs 359 Table 1. Compression tests were performed on twent four 100 mm cubes 28 days after the slabs were cast.2 f.O mm interval thereafter.6 236.0 198.Average strength based on tensile tests were carried out on four samples (standard deviation 3.5 1. (N/mm2) E. The first slab (SI) was strengthened with a single layer of CFRP sheet. and vertical deflections along the slab were recorded at every 0.
4 kN. The graphs of load versus maximum span deflection for all four slabs are shown in Figure 2.80 77.3 458. and partial CFRP debonding at slab edge. Full rupture of all three CFRP strips.10 99. This was a typically under reinforced slab. although concrete in compression not yet crushed. Concrete failed in compression.0 77.8 Table 4.7 16.3 119.360 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS A large quantity of data on surface strains of concrete and CFRP sheets. crack propagation and loaddeflection behaviour were recorded at every load increment.05 nla 35.20 80.0 mm. At an ultimate load of 14. concrete in compression approaching failure. Failure mode of slabs Slab reference sc s1 s2 s3 Failure mode (all failure occurred in the constant moment zone) Typical underreinforced section ductile failure.40 38. Summary of main test results Slab reference sc s1 s2 s3 Failure load % change Deflection at failure YOchange (W (+I (mm) (1 14. while the concrete in compression remained relatively lightly stressed. Table 3. CFRP partial rupture. the internal steel reinforcement had yielded before failure.8 35.4 120.60 nla 165. . followed rapidly by concrete lateral shear failure. the control slab was deemed to have failed as the mid span deflection reached 120 mm and the maximum cracks widths were noted to have exceed 3. while Table 4 lists the failure mode of each slab. The summary of ultimate load and maximum deflections at failure for all slabs are shown in Table 3 .40 3 1.
The deflection profiles of all slabs have been recorded up to a maximum value of around 50 mm due to the effective range of the displacement transducers. with a significant increase in ultimate load carrying capacity of 458% over the control slab. the ultimate failure occurred at a load of 3 1. which was in fact more dramatically reduced.6 kN. Slab S1 failed in a similar manner at 38. Based on these deflection profiles. Each line represents a deflection profile under a given load.2 kN. Loaddeflection of all four slabs For the lightly strengthened slab S3. Lateral shear failure of concrete also took place rapidly in the pure bending zone after the CFRP rupture. this small reduction in deflection relative to the control slab should not be interpreted as the slab having a similar decrease in ductility. although only part of the carbon fibres were seen to have ruptured. the momentcurvature relationship of the slab can be determined. . The overstrengthened slab S2 appeared to be most effective.Deflections of FRP Strengthened RC Slabs 361 90 80 70 60 50 U 40 I 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 Maximumspan deflection (mm) Figure 2. Shown in Figure 3 are the typical deflection curves along the span of slab S2 for up to a load of 52. However. from which a semiempirical expression of slab deflection can then be derived as illustrated in the next section.5 kN. when the CFRP strips within the constant moment zone ruptured. and only a small reduction in its final deflection.
25 k N) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 Curvature (XIO" l/m) Figure 4. Recorded deflection profiles of slab S2 for each load increment (values shown on the graph are at a load of 52. Typical experimentally evaluated momentcurvature (Slab S2) 60 .362 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure Distance from lefthand support (mm) 500 0 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 0 10 20 E v c 0 30 a % 40 50 60 Figure 3.
This can usually be conveniently obtained using conventional elastic theory if the concrete tensile strength is determined first. the deflection along the slab can be determined using . For current load and material configuration. defines the relationship between the applied load.2 kN/mm2. is taken as 3.9 kN/mm2. Ec. is the second moment of area of the transformed uncracked section. and P is the applied load in kN.& + )Io 2P where I. The second moment of area of the CFRP strengthened slabs were then derived from the experimental momentcurvature relationship of slab S2.2 kN. 0.Deflections of FRP Strengthened RC Slabs 363 SEMIEMPIRICAL DEFLECTION EQUATION The experimental momentcurvature for each slab was constructed. therefore. the minimum applicable value for P should be taken as Pmimor the load at which concrete reaches its tensile strength.2do) before the concrete cracks. However.28is therefore calculated to be 29. this minimum Pmi. The slab deflections can now be derived. The mean value of elasticity modulus for normalweight concrete may be derived from the following equation as suggested by BS8110 (BSI. Shown in Figure 4 is a typical momentcurvature relationship for slab 2. since the flexural rigidity is a constant value (Ec. which is close to the experimentally evaluated figure of 3 1. Af is the cross section area of CFRP in mm’. and based on the deflection data at each load increment. and is taken as 20 kN/mm2 for normalweight concrete.01A.. Cross section strain measurements were also used to verify the resulting curvature. The following semiempirical expression. EI. For the load configuration shown in Figure 1. For the current programme. where KO is a constant closely related to the modulus of elasticity of the aggregate used. I =( Jp P. From the experimentally obtained momentcurvature relationship. it is thus possible to establish a numerical expression for the flexural rigidity. using the simple bending theory. and the second moment of area of the CFRP strengthened section. P. 1997)3. I.
364 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure standard differential equations. This is an indication that the enhanced second moment of area in these slabs has been properly taken into account by Equation (2). the designers can estimate deflections at any given load level. NUMERlCAL EXAMPLES Equation (4) is used to determine the deflections for all four slabs which shows good match with the experimental results. the predicted deflections match the actual values very well for the three CFRP strengthened slabs. This is due to the characteristic behaviour of under reinforced conventional RC members which is usually very ductile after the steel reinforcement yielded. The comparison of the predicted and actual deflection for all slabs are as illustrated by the four pairs of graphs in Figure 5. The successful modelling in the current study suggests that the flexural rigidity of FRP strengthened elements can be predicted reasonably well. For the control slab however. especially when approaching the final failure. The maximum deflection at the mid span can be written as follows: 6max Pa (31' . the predicted deflection values are generally greater than the experimental readings. The influence of CFRP sheets on the slab deflection behaviour is taken into account by considering the increase in the second moment of area. and I is the effective span (2. while CFRP strengthened slabs still exhibit a pseudo linearbehaviour.9 m in current case). the final expression of the deflections at mid span is therefore: This is a generic expression for all four slabs in the current study.4a2) 24EI 1  (3) where a is the distance from the support to the nearest point load (950 mm in current case). . As can be seen. Substitute equations (1) and (2) into equation (3).
. b 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 0 Maximum span deflection (mm) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Maximum gin delleftion (mm) 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Maximum span deflection (mm) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 60 Maximum !pan deieefon (mm) Figure 5.. ..Deflections of FRP Strengthened RC Slabs 365 *S .. Comparison of actual and predicted deflections .
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors wish to acknowledge the contribution of MSc students Alex Tasoulas. with the intention of establishing a definitive method for predicting deflections of FW strengthened flexural members. code of practice for special circumstances. below which the concrete cracks. The current model is based on a small number of experiments.366 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcementfor Flexure CONCLUSIONS It has been shown that the flexural rigidity of FRP strengthened RC slabs can be reasonably well modelled. British Standard Institution. This then enables the engineer to determine the deformability/ductility characteristics of the element at the design stage. Part 2. This is largely due to the fact that FRP strengthened elements often exhibit an overall pseudolinear behaviour even though the concrete material and internal steel reach the nonlinear stage. “Retrofitting of Mechanically Degraded Reinforced Concrete Structures Using Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites”. is influenced by the applied load. 3. the load affects the second moment of area of the section. Structural use of concrete. the full loaddeflection curve can be established for a given element up to ultimate limit state. and optimise the design if necessary to achieve desired structural behaviour. Tann. PhD thesis. 1985. Consequently. The approach is fully valid and can be conveniently implemented into the design process. . Structural use of concrete. 200 1. D. The neutral axis depth. It is logical to link the flexural rigidity of FRP strengthened RC members with the applied load. Further analytical and experimental work are being undertaken at the University of Glamorgan. BS8110. 2. REFERENCES 1. 1997. Richard Wang and Ray Lee for carrying out part of the experimental work. University of Glamorgan. 386. code of practice for design and construction. Part 1. pp. B. BS8110. and hence the deflection at any loading stage can be predicted. British Standard Institution. Exchem Mining and Construction (UK) Ltd provided CFRP materials and epoxy resins for this project. Using the current approach.
An analytical method for predicting crack width at different flexural loading levels was developed. two of them were control beams and six were strengthened with carbon fiber reinforced polymer sheets. In the case of traditional steel reinforced concrete beams.FRPRCS6. INTRODUCTION Crack width is one of main parameters that determine the serviceability of structures. such as surface deterioration and corrosion of steel reinforcement. Piscataway.' Reliable and effective models are universally adopted for evaluating crack widths and deflections under serviceability conditions. A total of eight beams was tested and analyzed. AL 35899.^ In contrast. USA Externally bonding fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets with epoxy matrix is an effective technique for strengthening and repairing reinforced concrete (RC) beams under flexure. The variables in this study were the reinforcement ratios. TOUTANJI Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering University of Alabama in Huntsville. Huntsville. and the concreteFRP interface conditions. Both experimental and theoretical results are presented and compared.2 Some recent studies. the type of epoxy matrices. have given various approaches or formulation to investigate the postcracking serviceability of RC beams reinforced with FRP re bar^. The strengthened beams were bonded with two types of epoxy matrices: organic and inorganic. The application of proper crackwidthcontrol criteria to the design can minimize and in most cases eliminate problems. Singapore. 810 July 2003 Edited by Kiang Hwee Tan QWorld Scientific Publishing Company CRACK WIDTHS IN RC BEAMS EXTERNALLY BONDED WITH CFRP SHEETS Y ZHANG AND H. All beams were subjected to fourpointbending test under load control while the crack widths. both theoretical and experimental. it is clear that the cracking behavior depends on the stressstrain relationship of the concrete as a significant factor. BALAGURU Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Rutgers University. the cases of RC beams reinforced with FRP sheets are much more complicated than those of concrete beams reinforced with only steel or F W rebars for following reasons: . USA P. Results showed that there is a good agreement between the experimental and analytical results. NJ. deflections and midspan strains at both compression and tension faces were measured.
the flexural mechanism is transferred from concretesteel models to concretesteelFRP sheet models.5% and 2. and the maximum strain 1.9 MPa to 53.1% for the two batches. b. with coefficients of variation of 2. thus.7%. c. Wetlaidup method was used for bonding the FRP sheets. respectively. The CFRP sheets used in this study are commercially available with unidirectional plain weave. The objective of this study was to develop an analytical method for predicting the crack width of externally bonded FRP reinforced concrete beams at different flexural loading levels. extra shear strengthening was necessary to prevent shear failure of .368 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement for Flexure a. To verify the compatibility of the theoretical method.8 MPa. while the other beams were bonded without a primer. Three and four layers of CFRP sheets were applied to the roughened tension surface of each concrete beam. and temperatures of surrounding. the stressstrain behavior and cracking behavior need to be remodeled for practical design and analysis purpose.838 MPa. the shear reinforcement was not enough to insure flexural failure. EXPERIMENT PROCEDURES Two batches of normalweight concrete were used to cast eight beams. Currently. In summary. the surfaces of some beams were primed with MABRAN primer and cured for 24 hours.g. roughness of the concrete surfaces. New uncertain factors are imported to affect cracking behaviors of FRP sheet reinforced concrete beams. FRP sheet reinforcements are geometrically different from either steel or FRP rebars in both shapes and locations in the layout of the cross sections. for externally FRP sheet reinforced concrete beams. The external bonding of FRP sheets does not replace the embedded steel rebars. The 28day compressive strength of the concrete ranged from 46. Due to FRP strengthening and increasing strength capacity of the beams. a tensile strength of 3. They include dimensions and mechanical characters of adhesive layer. wetlay up or precured approaches). the discussion of this topic has not been fully developed yet. To create diverse interface conditions. a comparison between the analytical and experimental results of different types of specimens using different epoxy matrices was made. due to lack of insufficient information and effective analysis on the interwoven bondslip relationships of concretesteel and concreteFRP. therefore. each with dimensions of 160mmx 108mmx 1800mm. bonding method (e.
4 Consequently. From the experimental results. the following phenomena were observed for all tested CFRP RC beams: 1) The first flexural crack initiated at 10% to 20% ultimate moment Mu. The characteristics of the CFRP reinforcement with epoxy matrices are shown in Table 1. Adhesive and Steel Rebars 1 Properties bleble 1 Properties o o bleble 1 Properties 1 Properties o o bleble 1 Properties o o 1 Properties Ta Ta Ta Ta Ta Ta RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS The experimental momentcrack width curves of all tested CFRP RC beams are shown in Figure 2.Crack Widths in RC Beams with CFRP Sheets 369 concrete beams. the trend of momentcrack width behavior was unstable within a range of 10% to . using 50 mm wide CFRP stripes bonded at 45 degree at both sides of the beam. Characteristics of CFRP reinforcement. Test Beam Details and Four. The term "crack width" represents average crack width within the constant bending zone. each CFRP reinforced beam was externally shear reinforced. Extra Shear D P 2#2 bars (or 2#5 bars) 26pE+j 26 Figure 1 . 2) With the continuous formation of new flexural cracks. as shown in Figure 1.point Bending Setup Table 1.
Beams with primer at concrete/CFRP interface exhibited bigger crack width than those using organic or inorganic adhesive matrix as adhesive layers.370 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement for Flexure 40%Mu..4 .25 Crack Width (mm) I I 0.1 I I I 0. It also can be concluded that the momentcrack width relationship is composed of three regions: stabilizing stage.3 0.IN4L +OR4L 5 1 O I 0 I I 0. under the same applied moment M.35 Figure 2. and the development of crack width was accelerated afterward. The momentcrack width curves showed a similar shape to those momentstrain curves.15 0.2 0. 24 515 8 3 10 It IN3LA +OR3LA .3 3 a 2 U IN3LB t OR3LB x.05 0. 25 20 n E L.. which indicates that the crack width was potentially proportional to the CFRP strain E. the momentcrack width behavior was stabilized in an essentially linear trend. After 40%Mu. MomentCrack Width Relationships of All Specimens 0. Steel yield between 70% to 80%M. preyielding stage and postyielding stage.
E. ~are strains of CFRP and concrete (at the extreme tension fiber of concrete). so the average crack width of CFRP RC beam was defined as total slip along a distance between two adjacent cracks. AT. respectively.or say z ( x ) = t. Based on an element selected from the critical section between two adjacent cracks of a CFRP RC beam.h. bp and tp are the width and thickness of the CFRP. = A C h.. (x)& (1) where L is half of the crack spacing. +. respectively. and they are assumed as functions depending on geometry argument (x) due to strain distribution among all materials. +AT. The critical section .A C (31 Shear stress acts on the adhesive layer can be expressed by the following equation Gyp(x) z(x)b. E . In this study. AT. the deformation of concrete under tension was not neglected.is shown as in Figure 3 . (x) . and E . Integrating Equation (4). (2) = C.Crack Widths in RC Beams with CFRP Sheets 371 Prediction of Crack Width The crack width can be calculated by different approaches with various approximation levels. The definition of crack width is expressed as following equation: Crack Width = 2 [ E. the tension stress in CFRP at the crack is . d. +AT. (4) where z(x) is shear stress.a beam section between two adjacent cracks . the function of tension stress in CFRP can be obtained Applying the boundary conditions.yA T t h.Ax = ATp. equilibrium equations are established as below (refer to detailed illustration and denotation shown in Figure 4): AT.
the simplified result is: ' p max Crack width = 2 w tanh(wL) Validity of the Model To verify this model.E. the method was also applied to a number of CFRP externally strengthened RC beams tested by Toutanji et al'.. (x)& = 2 EP E.372 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure The constant C3 can be solved as: Hence. . As defined in Equation (1) at the beginning of this section: 6' Crack width = 2 E.(x) are substituted in Equation (9). 6' f P (4 f.. In order to further validate the developed analytical model. comparisons between experimental and analytical results of crack width were carried out and presented in Table 2 and Figure 5.. (9) 2 After f p(x) and f. (4. (x) . which showed good matches. The comparison results are shown in Table 3 and show a good agreement between experimental and analytical values.
(x) X Figure 3. Critical Section between Two Adjacent Cracks ‘ . Tensile stress in concrete&. .Compression  / Crack Spacing /’ Bond stress$/’ 0.Crack Widths in RC Beams with CFRP Sheets 373 .
Comparisons between Experimental and Analytical Results of Average Crack Width ble 1 Properties o ble 1 Properties o ble 1 Properties o ble 1 Properties o ble 1 Properties o ble 1 Properties o Ta Ta Ta Ta Ta Ta . Equilibrium Forces Acting on an Element Length of CFRP RC Beams Table 2. adjacent cracks Figure 4.374 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure I I C I hP I Center of the critical section behveen two T.
15 0. Comparisons between Experimental and Analytical Results of MomentCrack Width Relations Table 3.2 0. Comparisons between Experimental' and Analytical Results of Average Crack Width ble 1 Properties o ble 1 Properties o ble 1 Properties o ble 1 Properties o ble 1 Properties o Ta Ta Ta Ta Ta .05 0." 8 g: c __ Experimental (IN3LA) d _ 4 Experimental (IN3LB) Analytical (IN3L) 0 0 0.Crack Widths in UC Beams with CFUP Sheets 375 20 16 h E 2 9 12 8 l B .25 0.1 0.3 Crack Width (mm) Figure 5.
. Arduini. ASCE. one can predict the average flexural crack width. 2000. Hong Kong. E.. Zn$astructure. 11171126. "Shear Failure of Concrete Beams Reinforced with FRP Plates". M. Toutanji H. D'Ambrisi.. 123130.. American Concrete Institute. pp. G. Michigan. A. 2. pp. Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete and Commentary (31895).. "Flexural Behavior of Concrete Beams Reinforced with Glass FiberReinforced Polymer (GFRP) Bars. 1994. Toutanji.. 3. 97. A. The experimental results obtained from this study and by others compared well with the analytical results. Farmington Hills. 31d Edition. (c) Analysis method for prediction of momentcrack width was developed. REFERENCES 1. . CICE. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support of the National Science Foundation Grant CMS990043 1. 712719. pp. 2001. and Saafi. Nawy." Proceedings of FRP Composites in Civil Engineering. Sept. New Materials and Methods of Repair Proceedings of the Material Engineering Conference 804.. V..applied moment. 8. (b) Beams with primer at concrete/CFRP interface exhibited bigger crack width than those using only organic or inorganic adhesive matrix at the interface. A. and Di Tommaso.. No..376 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcementfor Flexure CONCLUSIONS The following conclusions can be drawn from this study: (a) Organic and inorganic epoxy matrices exhibited approximately the same effects on the cracking behavior of CFRP RC beams. Deng Y. and Balaguru P. Zhang Y.5. 5." ACZ Structure Journal.Oct. Through the developed method. 273326. 4. Chapter. given the necessary parameters and any . Reinforced ConcreteA Fundamental Approach. H. ACI Committee 31895. pp. M. "The Use of Inorganic Matrix for Strengthening of RC Beams with Carbon Sheets. 1995.. New York.
INTRODUCTION In the past decades. NIU AND Z. WU Department of Urban & Civil Engineering. unlike the cold worked steel. a macromechanical damage constitutive model is developed to simulate the stress transfer mechanism caused by progressive rupture of higher modulus type in the hybrid fiber sheets. It is then implemented into a generalpurpose finite element program using a userdefined material subroutine to simulate the behaviors of hybrid fiber sheets loaded in tension and the hybrid FRPstrengthened RC beams. some discussion are made on the factors influencing the load drops in the hybrid effect. Moreover. aramid. Correspondingly. which fail at different strains during loading. one idea to incorporate the ductility and the stiffness is to use hybrid composites consisting of different types of glass. Singapore. To improve the performance of strengthened structures and efficiently utilize the strengthening effect of FRPs. Based on the experimental observations from the uniaxial tension test of hybrid fiber sheets. a special emphasis is placed on how to numerically simulate the overall behavior of the structures strengthened by hybrid fiber sheets including progressive rupture and different failure modes. In addition.FRPRCS6. However. Ibaraki University Nakanarusawacho 4. the gains in stiffness and yield load are also limited in the strengthening effect of aramid or glass fiber composites. 81 0 July 2003 Edited by Gang Hwee Tan OWorld Scientific Publishing Company NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS ON STRENGTHENED STRUCTURES WITH HYBRID FIBER SHEETS H. . many efforts have been made to use fiberreinforced plastics (FRPs) as promising reinforcement in new buildings and especially in strengthening damaged concrete structures. FRPs usually consist of glass. high resistance to corrosion and ease in handling as compared to those of steel. high strength. Many attempts have been reported in the ~iteraturel~. Japan In this paper. Hitachi 3 1685]I . which occurs in a noticeably brittle way. aramid. FRPstrengthened concrete structures can fail momentarily without any foreboding. FRPs stay elastic until failure. vinylon and carbon fibers with different strengths and stiffnesses. or carbon fibers in a polymer matrix and possess light weight.121. thereby allowing a gradual failure of the composites. which are compared with the corresponding experimental data.
Details of tension specimens The average values of tensile strength and modulus of elasticity were 4266MPa and 2 . 8 10’MPa ~ for C7 sheet. Both of them were higher than the values from specification of manufacturer (3400MPa and 2. F R P sheets. To provide a basic knowledge of material mechanical behaviors.3~10’MPa for C1 sheet. An effective control over the damage processes cannot be achieved without a good understanding of both the material and structural damage processes.1 1 Imdlayer) and higher strength (C 1 : thickness 0. The expected ductility and limited load drop can be achieved with an increase of the proportion of C1 sheet in the hybrid fiber sheets. 8 10’MPa ~ for C1 sheet. as shown in Figure 1.378 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement for Flexure Many experimental studies have shown that hybrid FRP rods or sheets exhibit load drops due to the progressive rupture of fibers with lower ultimate strains and such damage inside the hybrid FRP reinforcements is very difficult to detect.5mm Figure 1. G l a s s . . The objective of this study is to numerically investigate the hybrid effect of external FRP sheets in tension and bending tests. a series of specimens were tested by Wu et al.143mdlayer) carbon fiber sheets.’ Here the uniaxial tension tests and threepoint bending tests of RC beams were chosen to numerically study the damage processes of high modulus fiber sheets and the overall hybrid effect. f i b e r tab 41t 250mm 12. 4 105MPa ~ for C7 sheet). which can be clearly seen by comparing Figure 2(a) with Figure 2(b) (where CUC7 denotes one layer of C1 with one layer of C7. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY To investigate the strengthening effect of hybrid FRP sheets consisting of higher modulus (C7: thickness 0. 1900MPa and 5 . A macromechanical damage constitutive model is developed to simulate the stress transfer mechanism caused by progressive rupture of higher modulus type in the hybrid fiber sheets and the factors influencing the load drops in the hybrid effect were also discussed. tension specimens of FRP were manufactured through impregnation of epoxy resin. 2585MPa and 5 .
a series of beam specimens shown in Figure 3 were manufactured and tested with onepoint loading at the midspan.8 Seam (%) 1.it can be found that the stiffness.2 1.4 0.8 1.6 0 0. yield and failure load. which yields a pseudoyielding plateau in loadstrain curves. C7 sheet with higher modulus and lower ultimate strain exhibits a progressive rupture with increase of amount of C1 in the hybrid fiber sheets.6 strain (“h) (a) C1K7 hybrid sheets (b) 2 C K 7 hybrid sheets Figure 2. In Figure 4. The slower the damage process.4 0. Details of FRPstrengthened RC beams .Numerical Simulations on Strengthened Structures 379 2CIlC7 two layers of C1 with one layer of C7). The progressive rupture of C7 sheet can lead to stress redistribution in hybrid sheet and avoid the early debonding as shown in the cases with only C1 sheets.2 1. the smoother is the loss in stress transfers to C1 fiber sheets. <FRP sheets (unit: mm) Figure 3. and ductility can be greatly increased in the hybrid fiber sheets with two layers of C1 sheet and one layer of C7 sheet. As shown in Figure 2. Loadstrain curves To further investigate the hybrid effect on the strengthened RC beam. 8 g 4 6 s s 2 0 0 0.
Concrete In the present study. where E. interfacial behavior between FRP sheet and concrete and progressive damage process in hybrid FRP sheets. respectively. Loaddeflection curves of RC beams In what follows. MECHANICAL MODELS FOR CONSTITUENT MATERIALS Generally. where a macromechanical damage constitutive model is proposed to model the stress transfer behavior caused by the progressive damage process of C7 fiber sheet in the hybrid sheets.. numerical models are developed to simulate the mechanical behavior of hybrid fiber sheets in tension and bending tests. steel bar. a rotating crack concept based on smeared crack model is used to simulate initiation and propagation of crack in concrete6. To accurately simulate the response of the composite beam. it is necessary to establish appropriate mechanical models to consider the crack propagation behavior in concrete. G/ is the modeI fracture . Linear tension softening and linear elasticperfectly plastic curves are assumed to simulate respectively tensile and compressive behaviors of concrete. tensile and compressive strength of concrete.380 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure 100 1: yield of reinforcing bar 2:partial rupture of c 7 3:debonding initiation 4: 111 FRP rupture 5:debonding hilure 80 v 0 40 +l 20 +2c1 2CllC7 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Deflection (mm) Figure 4. J. fc are elastic modulus. adhesive and FRP sheets. a FRPstrengthened RC beam shown in Figure 3 consists of concrete. as shown in Figure 5. bondslip behavior between reinforcing bar and concrete..
c' 0 (a) Linear tension softening model \ Compressive stress. After cracking a reduced constant shear stiffness is considered to model the shear behavior of concrete. E (b) Perfectly plastic compressive model Figure 5."' fc Unloadheloading path Crack strain. u p7* __ _ _ _ _ _ 0 Compressive strain. the bond function between FRP sheet and concrete is very essential to the . (T.6 Local slip (mm) 0. E/ h &. In the analysis.4 0. However.2 0.Numerical Simulations on Strengthened Structures 381 energy of concrete. A 3 a 8 Local bond stress. von Mises yield criterion is adopted to model this behavior.8 1 0 80 Local shear displacement. t Crack stress. the contribution of adhesive to carrying tensile force is very small as compared with that of FW sheet and so can be ignored. 7 Microdebonding (initiation) Unloadingheloading Macrodebonding 0 0. which was used by Niu and Wu7.Models for concrete tensile and compressive behaviors Reinforcing Bar Reinforcing bar is assumed as a linear elasticperfectly plastic material discretely connected to concrete. 6 (a) Reinforcing barconcrete bond behavior (b) FWconcrete interfacial behavior Figure 6. h is the crack band width related to the area of element. The bondslip behavior between reinforcing bar and concrete is shown in Figure 6a. Local bond behaviors for reinforcing bar and FRP sheet Interfacial Behavior Generally.
a simplified linear softening curve from experiments is used to model the interfacial behavior of FRP sheet and concrete. However. So the role of the adhesive is regarded to mainly transfer stresses from concrete substrate to FRP sheet. Stressstrain relations for C7 and C1 sheet . Herein. debonding propagation is very similar to modeI1 facture behavior. a damage mechanical behavior shown in Figure 7(a) is used for simulating the stress transfer from C7 to C1 sheet during progressive rupture of C7 sheet. as shown in Figure 6(b). E 0 Tensile strain. As for C1 sheet. Considering that the shocks from such damages may rupture a portion of unimpaired fibers. fiberrupture and delamination may lead to a different mechanical behavior. According to Niu and Wu’. as shown in the experimental observation. ‘Tensile stress. FRP sheets are anisotropic and cannot resist compression and bending but only tension stress along their longitudinal direction. some progressive damages such as matrix cracking. In view of the fact that FRP sheet is mainly loaded in tension and the adhesive is mainly in shear. where whether debonding occurs within the adhesive or the interfacial concrete only depends on the choice of parameters. where C7 and C1 sheets are expected to achieve initial high modulus and final high strength respectively. 0 Initial ruoture f. fibermatrix debonding.c7 (a) High modulus C7 sheet in hybrid sheets 0 &Cl (b) High strength C 1 sheet Figure 7. it is regarded to follow a linear elastic behavior till brittle rupture [Figure 7(b)]. it is very important to evaluate the stress transfer capacity upon the partial rupture of some fibers. from a macroscopic point of view. FRP Sheets Unlike steel. when hybrid fiber sheets are subjected to loading. E ‘u. CJ  Unloadingheloading c7 Full rupture Tensile strain.382 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement for Flexure strengthening effect. FRP sheets of single type generally behave in linear elastic fashion until rupture.c7 Tensile stress.
J. not to its individual mechanical behavior. for the case of C1/C7 hybrid sheets this model may result in an impractical behavior.6 0.8 1 1. the output of C1 and C7 sheets at one integration point confirms the correctness of implemented model. . Tension Test of FRP Sheets 20 5000 4500 4000 9 g 16 h g 12 3500 3000 P : 2500 * 3 8 2000 1500 I000 500 0 4 0 0 0. r 0 . the proposed model to simulate the stress transfer due to progressive rupture of C7 sheet is implemented into a generalpurpose finite element program DIANA6 and then used to investigate the hybrid behavior of prementioned tension and flexural tests..4 0. there always exhibits a significant load drop till the load taken by C 1 sheet is reached at the rupture of C7 sheet and then follows the loading behavior of C1 sheet.20.~=O.lin(%) (b) Numerical simulation results Figure 8.21.60.cI=4.496MPa. In the analysis. which is due to the fact that the stress transfer is very quick between two fiber sheets upon rupture of C7. &=2. displacement control is used to locate the load drop and the material parameters are as follows: Ec. .800MPa.2 1. ~ ~ .6 1. where the stressstrain relation for C7 sheet is only applicable to simulating its stress transfer behavior upon progressive rupture.Numerical Simulations on Strengthened Structures 383 FINITE ELEMENT SIMULATIONS In this section.8 Strain (%) (a) Output at one integration point 0 0.O15. Tension test of different FRF’ sheets As shown in Figure 8(a). A good agreement can .2x1O’MPa. So this model is very essential to interpret the experimental results and make an optimization design of hybrid fiber sheets.8 Sh. It should be noted that in Figure S(b).40. Here FRP sheet is modeled by truss element whose behavior is coded into a userdefined material subroutine and perfect bond condition is assumed between fiber sheets.6 1. Without considering the stress transfer behavior. 0 0 9E.E~.4 1.4 1.=5.1=3 4 .2x 1O’MPa.2 0.8 1 1.
From Figure 9(a). The material parameters used in the present study are as follows: Ec=3.4 0. 1 3for concrete.6 0. With increasing amount of C1.2 0. Flexural Test of RC Beams Due to the symmetry of the tested RC beams shown in Figure 3. z8. it is easy to conclude that load drop can be significantly reduced with an increase of the volume of C1 sheet.4 0.4 1. Es=2.5 to 2.8 1 1.8 Strain(%) (a) Hybrid ratios of C1 to C7 0 0.1x105MPa and f.2 1. Hybrid effects for different proportions and rupture strains of C7 To further investigate the effect of mixture ratios and the stress transfer behavior (softening behavior governed by rupture strain of C7) on hybrid behavior.2 1.6 1. The finite element meshes are shown in Figure 10.4 1. only half of the structure is used to investigate the hybrid effect of the strengthened RC beams.51x 104MPa and ~ 0 . Figure 9(b) demonstrates that the amount of load drop or the expected hybrid effect also depends on the stress transfer behavior caused by progressive rupture of C7.6 0.384 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure be achieved by using a linear rupture behavior for C7.6 1. the area ratios of C1 to C7 sheet are varied from 0. ks=160MPa/mrn and Gfb=l. 0 0.3 who mixed a small amount of carbon fibers which is first to rupture in the hybrid design with aramid or glass fibers.8 1 1.8 Stram (%) (b) Rupture strain for C7 (2ClK7) Figure 9. The slower rupture process or the better effect can be achieved. progressive rupture of C7 can be found and this model can be used to predict the hybrid behavior for this case [see Figure 8(b)].0 by fixing one layer of C7 sheet. but there is no doubt a certain limit in the hybrid design over which no expected or efficient hybrid effect can be achieved.=358MPa for steel bar. and different rupture strains of C7 are used.2 0. This is also in agreement with the experimental observations of Apinis et al.2N/mm for the FRPconcrete .0MPa.
First.=4.l2N/mm. So for this case the concrete property may affect the strengthening effect of FRP sheets. It should be noted that the proposed model is based on a macroscopic behavior. Figure 10. the expected hybrid effect is not achieved. numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental ones on the whole. J. 15N/mm. But due to the failure mode of 2Cl/C7 being different from that of the experiment (rupture of FRP sheets). f.C beams As shown in Figure 1 I. which makes it unable to capture load fluctuations in the experiment of hybrid specimen.0MPa. which is calibrated from the experimental results of the most dominant debonding mode occurring from the concrete substrate.3MPa (denoted by “N”) are used to investigate the hybrid effect.=55.0MPa. The predicted final failure modes for all three strengthened beams are debonding within the concrete substrate. f. strengthening effect can be improved by increasing the concrete strength and its fracture energy. Gf=O. Gf’=O. Finite element discretization model for FRPstrengthened R. experimental results Figure 1 1 . Comparison of numerical and experimental results for RC beams .Numerical Simulations on Strengthened Structures 385 interface. Due to debonding within concrete substrate being directly related to the concrete cracking behavior. To clarify this.=49.OMPa (denoted by “H’) are then adopted to simulate the corresponding structural behavior. J=3. 5i 71 90 90 75 75 60 60 0 45 v 0 45 a 30 15 15 0 0 lo l5 2o Deflection (mm) 25 30 0 5 10 15 20 Deflection (mm) 25 30 (b) Effect of concrete property (a) Numerical vs.
1998.. “Ductility of Hybrid Fiber Composite Reinforcement FRP for Concrete”. . Tucson. Shimada.S.v. 5. F.. R. USA. H. 2. Proceedings of The Seventh Japan International SAMPE Symposium. 6679. Sakamoto. pp. Sakamoto.G.S. 4.D. 6.. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Composites in Infiastructure (ICCI ’98). 1996. Wu. “Strengthening Effects of Concrete Flexural Members Retrofitted with Hybrid FRP Composites”. “Retrofitting RC Beams with Innovative Hybrid Fiber Sheets”. Somboonsong. and Wu. 200 1. “A Second Generation Ductile Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) for Concrete Structures”. and Murakami. Z. Publication No 98:2. R. W.D. M.. November 1316. Lakerveld b. Z.G.. January 57. Japan. J. T. Goteborg. K. and Huesgen.383386. 1998.. However. K. Apinis. V. January 1517. 7. Z. The Hague. H. Tokyo.. Razaqpur. Tucson. and Ali. R. 2. Division of Building Technology.S. a macroscopic damage constitutive model is proposed for modeling the stress transfer behavior upon progressive rupture of higher modulus fiber sheets in the hybrid sheets. USA. 3. Harris..K... Japan Society of Civil Engineers. California. Modniks.887898.2002.. REFERENCES 1. pp. TNO Building and Construction Research. Proceedings of the First International Conference on Composites in Infiastructure (ICCI’96). 1998. Vol. “A New Concept for Achieving Ductility in FRPReinforced Concrete”. 8 pp. and Kurokawa.. “Strengthening Effects of RC Flexural Members with FRP Sheets Affected by Adhesive Layers”.. Niu.2002. KO. Arizona. Wu. The application of this model to tension and RC beam tests is also demonstrated. H. Chalmers University of Technology. Mir Mazher. 401413.D. and Tepfers. It is found that hybrid ratio and stress transfer behavior may be used to control the load drop due to rupture of higher modulus sheets. Journal of Applied Mechanics. pp. S. Proceedings of The Third International Conference on Composites in Infrastructure (lCCl’O2). Arizona. San Francisco.386 FRPRCS6: Extemlly Bonded Reinforcement for Flexure CONCLUSIONS Based on the experimental observation. DIANA7 User’s Manual. Niu. This model can be used to interpret the experimental phenomena and investigate the hybrid behavior in the structural design. some further work is still needed to calibrate the parameters of the model from the experiments. June 1012. Work No 21. Niu. Tamuzs. 5 . A. Vol. H. USA... pp. CDROM.
as a function of the adhesion properties of the platekheet to the concrete surface.FRPRCS6. The acting shear is computed through equilibrium of the nodal generalized forces after convergence in every load step. USA A fibersection Finite Element (FE) for Reinforced Concrete (RC) beamcolumns is developed that includes three types of FRPstrengthening: 1) in flexure. The FRP contribution to the element strength and stiffness is accounted for under the hypothesis of plane sections. 53 . Italy M. SHEAR AND CONFINEMENT G. . the transverse steel contribution (Vy) and the FRP contribution (5). UCSD. BARBATO Structural Engineering Department. Flexural strengthening is modeled by adding layers of the material FRP to the RC section. The sectional shear strength is given by three additive terms: the concrete mechanisms’ resistance ( Vc). 9500 Gilman Dr. Via A.920950085 La Jolla. Such a model has been validated against purposely performed experimental cyclic tests on concrete cylinders. The FRP constitutive law is elastic in tension with the failure stress accounting for possible debonding. 2 ) in shear and 3) in confinement for ductility increase. on the basis of an existing monotonic model12. Comparisons between experimental tests and numerical simulations are presented. Cramsci. CA. which decreases as the section curvature demand increases. This renders the FE suitable for use in nonlinear dynamic analyses of FRPstrengthened RC frames. The sodeveloped FE is fully cyclic and forcebased. The confinement exerted by FRP wraps on RC elements is accounted for through a cyclic model of FRPconfined concrete. 810 July 2003 Edited by Gang Hwee Tan QWorld Scientific Publishing Company FIBERSECTION FE FOR FRPSTRENGTHENED RC BEAM IN FLEXURE.00197 Roma. MONTI Dipartimento di Ingegneria Strutturale e Geotecnica. This latter property allows the modelling of each structural member with a single FE and thus reducing the computational effort in case of large frame analyses. . Singapore.A new equation is proposed to evaluate the contribution of the FRP sheet crossing the crack. Shear strengthening is computed by adding the FRP contribution to the ultimate sectional shear resistance. Universitri La Sapienza di Roma.
such a model is presented. The shear resistance is evaluated as a sectional property. an additional feature is implemented in the FE: the stepwise check of possible shear failure. In fact.have been incorporated in the FE. there is a strong need of reliable and robust formulations of finite elements (FE) that could help researchers model FRPstrengthened RC elements and predict their response under different strengthening configurations. either static or dynamic.388 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure INTRODUCTION In the research fields that study the response and the performance of FRPstrengthened RC elements. Filippou at UC Berkeley.in flexure.g. thus drastically reducing the degrees of freedoms (dofs) of the structural model' . shear and confinement . The proposed FE serves as a valuable tool for performing nonlinear. It consists of a forcebased frame FE that allows an affordable modelization of FRPstrengthened RC frames. and is updated at each load step after convergence in order to account for the degradation of the concrete contribution when the section curvature demand increases'. In the present work. The FE response is obtained through fiberbased sections. The accuracy of the developed FE is validated through correlations to experimental tests for both flexural and shear strengthening. through a considerable reduction of the computational effort for large systems.. The developed FE has been implemented under the framework of the general purpose FE program FedeasLab developed by F. In this work. depending on geometry and material properties. coarse meshes can be obtained with only one finite element per column or beam. Currently. New equations for debonding and shear are here proposed. ' . The sectional response is obtained through the wellknown fiber discretization. The model is nonlinear in concrete and steel and is able to represent possible debonding phenomena occurring at the interface between FRP and concrete. analyses of RC frames before and after FRPstrengthening. even under dynamic conditions. Typical FRPstrengthening techniques . many experimental results are nowadays available in large number in the literature. e. which automatically couples axial and flexural response. in parametric studies for design. The applied sectional shear is computed through equilibrium of the nodal generalized forces after convergence at every load step.C. with a procedure that is a natural extension of the formulation and without any additional computational cost.
and p=1 for L 2 Le and 7C. . and rmaX is the peak bond stress. fctm with: kb = 1 +bf/lOOmm where fctm = concrete mean tensile strength. Modeling of FRP debonding Debonding is a possible failure mode in FRP plateshheets strengthening RC elements in flexure.3. bf = = accounts for scale width of FRP platehheet. that are FRPstrengthened for flexure requires the consideration of three aspects: (a) the representation of FRP debonding. In the literature. equal L * L.8. In Eq. and the corresponding ‘effective’ bonded length L. zmaX= kb . The adopted formulae are: where L is the actual FRP anchorage length. the suggested value for the yfd factor is 1. In this work. (c) the FRP contribution to both strength and stiffness. . there are many semiempirical models that describe and evaluate debonding stresses of FRP platedsheets externally bonded to a concrete surface.L p = s i n r for L < L. The term ‘effective’ refers to the widely adopted definition: “the anchorage length beyond which no increase in the carried FRP stress is obtained”. kb effects. and bc= width of concrete surface. (b) the FRP constitutive law including debonding. two predictive equations are adopted6 which yield the maximum stress ffdd that the FRP sheet can carry on uncracked concrete (anchorage zones) before debonding. .( l).FibreSection FE of FRPStrengthened RC Beam 389 TREATMENT OF FRPSTRENGTHENING FOR FLEXURE Modeling of Reinforcement The effective modeling of RC frames.1.
Table 1 shows the correlation between the experimental values and those obtained through the finite element../(tf . while Figure 1 graphically depicts the same correlation. FRP contribution to strength and stiffness The FRP contribution to the element strength and stiffness is accounted for through the usual hypothesis of plane sections. b f are the FRP platekheet thickness and width. E f = FW elastic modulus. whose contribution is automatically accounted for within the fibersection state determination. Stiffness in compression is neglected. and t f . Two (independent) parameters are needed: & fdd = f f d d / E f = FRP ultimate strain at debonding. From both. This allows one to consider FRP platedsheets in analogy with a reinforcement positioned at the tension side of the section. Possible prestressing can be included in the model by introducing an initial deformation given as: E j o = F. respectively.390 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement for Flexure FRP constitutive law including debonding The FRP constitutive law in tension is elastic up to delamination. where Fpr is the prestressing force. All the experimental tests considered (and listed in Table 1) are four points loading tests on simply supported beams. b f . it can be observed that the FRPstrengthening feature of the finite element shows an extremely satisfactory overall prediction capacity. E j ) . The adopted constitutive law is: where ffdd is given in (1) and corresponds to debonding. Correlation Studies with Experimental Tests An extensive study consisting of numerical simulations of experimental tests reported in literature has been performed to validate the proposed FE for FEU’ flexural strengthening. .
. (1999) Ta lmusallam and AlSalloum Ta Ta Al Soulaimani et al. (1991) Ta Ta 0.107 I I variance standard dev.FibreSection FE of FRPStrengthened RC Beam 391 Table 1 .011 0. (1994) Ta Ta Ritchie et al. Comparison between experimental and FEpredicted ultimate loads Failure mode ble 1 Properties ble 1 Properties ble 1 Properties ble 1 Properties ble 1 Properties ble 1 Properties ble 1 Properties ble 1 Properties ble 1 Properties Ta Triantafillou and Plevris Ta Van Gemert et al.
As for the FRP contribution. The following equation is thus obtained: . The first two terms have been evaluated according to reference 3 . (d) the resisting mechanism is obtained from the Moersch truss analogy. a new equation is presented that also considers for the case of side plating. the transverse steel contribution (5)and the FRP contribution (q). (c) FRP has only axial stiffness and fibers are inclined at an angle p . Comparison between experimental and FEpredicted ultimate loads for flexural FRPstrengthening TREATMENT OF FRPSTRENGTHENING FOR SHEAR Modeling of Reinforcement The sectional shear strength is given by three additive terms: the “concrete” contribution (VJ. inclined at a constant angle 8 and with a linearly increasing width from the upper edge to the bottom one. (b) the shear cracks are straight.392 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement for Flexure flexure FRP failure debonding shear 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Experimental values (kN) Figure 1. side bonding or ujacketing or complete wrapping) and it is practically always due to debonding phenomena. The following simplifying hypotheses are formulated: (a) uniform distribution of shear cracks. Experimental t e d 4 show that this contribution is mainly dependent on the strengthening geometry (strips or continuous plates.
Note that the crack angle is obtained asI6. is given as’*: ffdd. respectively. tf wf = = beam width.[ 1. e = = = shear strengthening ratio (with effective strength of FRP sheet along crack. u1 = I. . FRP thickness). (I). (2)) = debonding slip. derived from the MCFTI7: where psi. for the case of side bonding. (I). width of FRP strips. ( (3) Zrid. respectively. and: where Le from Eq. p f = 2 t f / b . More extensive analyses are currently under way. and &fdd = f f d d / E f = debonding strain. pst = and pfr. however. k = 1. The effective strength f f d d .. Correlation Studies with Experimental Tests Some numerical simulations of experimental tests are reported to validate the ability of the finite element to capture the contribution of FRP to the shear strength. p p flexural and shear.. e of the FRP sheet along the crack.3 mm and kb from Eq. a satisfactory accuracy can already be appreciated even with so few tests.kb‘c4 (with c4 = 0.k  . 8 = crack angle. r = distance between two consecutive FRP strips (for continuous sheet r = 0 ). f f d d . p = FRP sheet (strips) angle.eq Z 3 where f f d d is given in Eq. strengthening FRP ratios.FibreSection FE of FRPStrengthened RC Beam 393 with b.l. = flexural and shear.e = f f d d /Tr . reinforcing steel ratios.
I I 1 1. Comparison between experimental and FEpredicted ultimate loads ble 1 Properties ble 1 Properties ble 1 Properties ble 1 Properties Ta Ta Ta I Ta mean variance standarddev.394 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement for Flexure Table 2 . I .238 250 g 200 v ! 150 3 cp > *B 100 1 50 . Comparison between experimental and FEpredicted ultimate loads for shear FRPstrengthening.08 ~~ 0.M bl 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 Experimental values (kN) Figure 2 .057 0.
and Ghaleb B. The latter is based on an iterative procedure through which the stressstrain relation is pointwise computed.H. (2001). eqierimental model 0 5 10 Axial strain 15 20 25 %o Figure 3. Baluch M. “Shear Repair for Reinforced Concrete by Fiberglass Plate Bonding”. from which the stiffness variation of unloading and reloading branches has been determined. 3. 124(12).N.609619. “Ultimate strength prediction for RC beams externally strengthened by composite materials”. 91(3). Composites: Part B. ASCE.J. which shows the simulation of a cyclic test on a FRPwrapped concrete cylinder. (1994). A new equation for FRPstrengthening in shear has also been proposed. The model accuracy can be seen in Figure 3. 458464. Basunbul LA. “Recent Approaches to Shear Design of Structural Concrete”... FRPstrengthened for flexure.FibreSection FE of FRPStrengthened RC Beam 395 TREATMENT OF FRPCONFINEMENT FOR DUCTILITY A cyclic model of FRPconfined concrete has been developed.. T. 2. AlSoulaimani G. Engrg. . shear and confinement (see also reference 19). The cyclic model is based on a set of experimental tests purposely carried out. Cyclic stressstrain relationship for FRPconfined concrete: model vs. on the basis of an existing monotonic model’*. Structural Journal. Sharif A. 32.A. J of Struct. ACI. and AlSalloum.. test CONCLUSIONS The FE presented in this paper has shown remarkable features of simplicity of use and accuracy in modeling the mechanical behaviour of RC structures. Y.H. Almusallam... ASCEACI Committee 445 on Shear and Torsion (1998). REFERENCES 1.
“External Reinforcement of Concrete Beams Using Fiber Reinforced Plastics”. ACI. Renzelli. Structural Journal. J.. Composites: Part B. Spacone. F.C... 25.R. “A mechanical model for FRPstrengthening in shear”.A. R. 3(3). Brosens. of Struct. pp. “Improving shear capacity of existing RC Tsection beams using CFRP composites”. 165174. 22. Lu L. Aprile. ASCE Proc. Berkeley. Proc. 11. (2003).. 13. (1992).. ASCE J.396 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcementfor Flexure 4.W. M.. “ Strengthening concrete beams for shear using CFRPmaterials: evaluation of different application methods”. F. 15. 271278.. 490500.. (1991).C. Engrg. 12.. K.4. (1994). and Nanni.P. M. and Taucer. and Ghaleb B. 91(4). Richmond. (submitted). Singapore. Seible.M.C. 9. 394405. “Fiber beamcolumn element for seismic response analysis of reinforced concrete structures”. of California. Y. ASCE. Triantafillou T. Athens. . “FRPconfined concrete model”.. and Verma.N. A. California. M. Materials and Structures. ACI. 91/17. ACI. Personal communication. Spoelstra. and Van Gemert. and Ehsani M. Baluch M. (2003). 16. Monti.. “ RC Beams Strengthened with GFRP Plates. 143150.F. 10. F. B. Sharif A. Xiao. and Connelly G.. (2003).. Basunbul I. 5. Structural Journal. Div. UCWEERC Rep. and Elfgren. (1991). I: Experimental Study”..J. G. 160168. G. Jib Symposium Concrete Structures in Seismic Regions. (1994). “Fibersection FE of FRPstrengthened RC beam for seismic analysis”. ACI. Structural Journal. (1991b). of Composites in Construction. Third Int. 649666. Proc.H. Symposium on Non Metallic (FRP) Reinforcement for concrete structures. (1978). and Luciani P. 3 1..A. 19. Santinelli. “Towards a rational theory for R/C Members in Shear”. Journal of Composite for Construction.. Proc. M. 117(11). (2000). 14. Cement & Concr.... “Steel jacket retrofitting of reinforced concrete bridge columns for enhanced shear strength”. Ritchie A. 7. “Shear Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Beams Using EpoxyBonded FRP Composites”. G. Monti.Barbat0. 95(2). A. 8. Structural Journal. Collins M.. 1. Saadatmanesh H.. no. 17.. Thomas D.. 18. “FRP Adhesion to Uncracked and Cracked Concrete Zones”.. Monti. 69 May. 6th International Symposium on FRP Reinforcement for Concrete Structures (FRPRCS6). Vol. G. D. JCI. Comp. ASCE. (1997). 6.. (1998). (2000). Priestley. of the Struct. AlSulaimani G.. Triantafillou T. “Anchoring stresses between concrete and carbon fibre reinforced laminates”. Univ. 91(2). Benedetti. “Strengthening of Initially Loaded Reinforced Concrete Beams Using FRF’ Plates”. and Monti. (2003). Taljsten. Khalifa. 8796.. L. E. A. 88(4)..N. A. Filippou. 104. (1999). and Plevris N.. “Strengthening of RC Beams with Epoxy Bonded Fiber Composite Materials”. F. R.J.
Test results revealed significant effects of the different bond characteristics on the distribution of tensile forces in the cracked section. present stateoftheart design guidelines neglect the effects of the different bond behavior. Notably. two types of reinforcement with totally different bond characteristics are combined. In contrast to the fibregulations. The fibguidelines' suggest a distribution according to the Bernoulliconstraint (cross sections remain plane) (Figure la) for SLS and ULS. Steel plates or carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) bonded with epoxyadhesives to the external surface of concrete structures provide both an effective and an economical alternative to other strengthening methods. the performed tests are summarized and approaches to quantify the influences of the bond behavior are described. other technical literature2 suggests that only the difference (Ff = Ftotal. Germany In an experimental program.FSy)acts on the externally bonded reinforcement (Figure 1b). the interactions between embedded and externally bonded reinforcement in strengthened RC members were examined. two different approaches concerning the distribution of sectional forces are shown. 80290 Miinchen. In this article. the brittle bond behavior of the externally bonded CFRP strips compared to the more ductile behavior of embedded reinforcing bars influences the distribution of tensile forces in the cracked section. However. ZEHETMAIER AND K. Results obtained from analytical models referring to single cracks are presented. INTRODUCTION Due to the increasing importance of retrofit of existing RC structures. strengthening with externally bonded reinforcement (EBR) has received growing attention. 810 July 2003 Edited by Gang Hwee Tan QWorId Scientific Publishing Company INTERACTION BETWEEN INTERNAL BARS AND EXTERNAL FRP REINFORCEMENT IN RC MEMBERS G.FRPRCS6. In Figure 1. The interaction of embedded and externally bonded reinforcement has not yet been subject to detailed experimental or analytical . In the case of strengthening existing RC members with externally bonded reinforcement. ZILCH Department of Concrete Structures Technische Universitat Miinchen. Singapore. but in RC design the Bernoullihypothesis is only accurate if the reinforcement layers show identical bond behavior.
slip relationship. I : I : t Fs. formulated by Eligehausen4. Figure 2 displays the bond stress versus slip between concrete and reinforcement at the loaded end.slip relationships. The bond behavior of the CFRP strips was examined by means of double lap specimens. for CFRP strips .=Asfs. the bond behavior is described with a modified local bond stress . Fsy=&fsy: I ' Mh "subscript "f' refers to externally bonded reinforcement. Based on an assumed bilinear bond stress .398 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement for Flexure research.(b)technical approvals' BOND BEHAVIOR In the preliminary experimental investigations. To investigate these interactions between embedded and externally bonded CRFP reinforcement. However. a significant influence of the bond characteristics is evident. "s" refers to the embedded reinforcement Figure 1. Figure 2 shows the resulting bilinear bond stress . modified pullouttests (Figure 2) were used to determine the bond stress . a considerable experimental program accompanied by theoretical research was performed3. For the embedded reinforcement. (a) fibguidelines Bernoulliconstraint). Only few results from tests related to different objectives are available.slip relationship. . The specimens provided realistic boundary conditions regarding the state of stress or possible splitting failure and represented the cracked region of flexural members. For calculations purposes.slip relationship the parameters describing the bond behavior were derived from a regression analysis of the bond test results5. Distribution of tensile forces in flexural members (grey: tensile forces acting on the externally bonded reinforcement). the bond behavior of the reinforcing materials used in further tests was examined from specific bond tests.
The second series consisted of 12 strengthened flexural members. bzw.Interaction between Internal Bars and FRP 399 epoxybonded to concrete.. . sL [mm] Figure 2 . ratio of the axial stiffness of the embedded and externally bonded reinforcement and initial stage of cracking (single crack. All bond test specimens had the same properties such as concrete cover. With regard to the wide range of applications of externally bonded in combination with embedded reinforcement. Bond stress vs. concrete mix design or thickness of the adhesive.bond model ribbed bars bond model smooth bars. CYl 1 TL/fcmcyl[l 0 35 0 30 bond test on EBR + + * t experimental results CFRP EBR . that were identical to the main tests described in the next section. 28 reinforced concrete prisms strengthened with prefabricated CFRP strips were loaded with an axial tensile force. In the first series. test setup for bond tests (concrete C20/25. stabilized cracking). slip between reinforcement and concrete at the loaded end.slip relationship for CFRPstrips. 27 tests with steel plate strengthened RC prisms were carried out to compare the performance of CFRP strengthened members with conventional steel plate . bond modell t 0 25 0 20 0 15 0 10 0 05 0 00 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 1F slips. bilinear bond stress . the following parameters were varied: type and diameter of the embedded reinforcement. In addition.bonded RC structures. Tr 1 f. concrete grade. embedded reinforcement: poor bond conditions) EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION The interactions between embedded reinforcing bars and externally bonded reinforcement were examined in two test series.
Tests d s = 16 mm CFRP 747 8 ribbed steel plate (8015 mm7 0 93 7 d. outline of experimental program Figure 4 displays a representative example of measured strains compared to the expected strains assuming plane cross sections. the results of a numerical simulation with an incremental integration algorithm and realistic bond models (see Figure 2) are displayed. In contrast to CFWstrips. the steel plates showed considerably longer transfer lengths. Due to the short transfer lengths of CFRPAEBRprior to debonding.A. test setup. To evaluate the effects of different bond characteristics the measured reinforcement strains in predefined cracks were compared to the calculated strain assuming plane cross sections (E. Axially loades RC prisms (senes 1).= 12 mm CFRP (5011 2mm7 431 8 smooth steel plate (8015 mm') 0 54 8 (50/1 2mm3 (5011 2 mm') d. Additionally.=8mm CFRP 187 8 nbbed steel plate (80/5 mm7 0 24 8 initial stage of cracking single crack Figure 3. the measured CFRP strains exceeded the calculated values. This was a result of the greater . The CFRP strains displayed in Figure 4 exceed the calculated values based on the Bernoulliconstraint (plane cross sections) by 50% at maximum. the calculated strains along the free length of the specimen are added.+ E'J)./(EsA.400 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement for Flexure Tests on Axially Loaded RC Prisms . All tests with axially loaded RC prisms strengthened with externally bonded CFRP strips show similar results. As a result. t F 2.Test Setup and Results In Figure 3 . = q = Ftoto. the test setup for the first test series is presented. For three different load levels. debonding is initiated at a load level equivalent to 80% of the calculated bond failure load.:: c L B Ed {j " i 30 loo zoo loo c e% ?E 5 m  gE! 5 Embedded EBR Reinforcement V1 v2 v3 E&No of E.
. the Bernoulliconstraint implies &= 1. For axially loaded concrete prisms. characterized by the bond coefficient 51may be summarized as follows: (a) ratio of width bf to thickness + of the externally bonded reinforcement: with increasing thickness &decreases bond behavior of embedded bars: with increasing bond strength the (b) bond coefficient 5 decreases (c) concrete compressive strength: with increasing compressive strength 4 decreases (d) initial stage of cracking: the biggest values of & were observed for single cracks. additional cracks reduced the bond coefficient 8 . .Interaction between Internal Bars and FRP 401 thickness of the plates. The main influences on the distribution of sectional forces. Test results: Combination of ribbed reinforcing bars d. reinforcement strains in the predefined crack. mean strain and results of numerical simulations versus axial tensile force The interaction between internal and external reinforcement may be expressed by means of a bond coefficient tr=E ~ / E . = 8 mm and externally bonded CFRPstrips (series V3)._ 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2300 3000 3500 strain Iro9 Figure 4. As a consequence. The bond coefficients based on measured strains are discussed together with coefficients derived from simplified models in the next section. the measured strains in case of steel platebonding were significantly lower than the expected strains (plane cross sections assumed).
.50 1.. 12 flexural members representing slabs with low shear forces were tested (Figure 5).b. outline of experimental program Figure 6(a) exemplarily displays measured and calculated reinforcement strains at midspan. As in the first test series. ~ ~ t ~ CFRPEBR 2. The calculated strains are based on the Bernoullihypothesis._.. test setup..TOCtC CFRP (5C"' steel plate (BUD mm. b) mean ratios of measured and expected (Bernoulli constraint) CFRP strains at midspan ..* . The crack spacing was predefined by means of small metal sheets. CFRP (5C'" ^* u.50 I o mean valuer crack spacing 300 mm b mean values crack spacing 150 mm 0. for comparison reasons._ ?acing E.of cmrk _.Reinforcement .. strains at midspan... Flexural members (series 2).. ~ ~ [ 1~ l ~ r ..  = b) Bernoullihypothesis  ~ ~ . 6 flexural members were conventionally strengthened with steel plates cross section d.oo 0. it becomes obvious that the reduced spacing of predefined cracks in series B2 (crack spacing 150 mm) compared to series B1 (crack spacing 300 mm) results in less significant differences between measured and expected CFRP strains.Test Setup and Results In the second series.402 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure Tests on Flexural Members . .= 12 m m &?.7 6000 8000 5 10 15 20 25 bending moment at midDpan M F WNm] Figure 6..__... a) Test results: flexural member with a predefined crack spacing of 150 mm (series B2).00 0 2000 4000 strain 10.. '150 ~~ ds=12mm smooth ds12mm NO.34 CI J '"' " EBR L i t I 150 mm 2000 mm L L 1 1 250mm 250mm 2000mm L . EBR Embedded x. From Figure 6(b).00 1. 150mm Figure 5..
only the approach for single cracks corresponding to the end anchorage of EBR at flexural members is introduced. The reinforcement layers are coupled with compatibility conditions (axial load: s . Results of the numerical simulation using the bond models displayed in Figure 2 are shown in Figure 4. Therefore. The analytical model is therefore based on the relationship between strain (E. In contrast to PC structures. a simplified analytical model was developed... (s.. @ The bond coefficient . The boundary value problem has to be transformed into an initial value problem by implementing an iterative solution procedure.Single Cracks (End Anchorage) The presented model refers to a load level dependent bond coefficient 6. The resulting system of differential equations represents a second order boundary value problem. In this article. and .) is not yet known. the ratio of mean bond stresses zjdz.Interaction between Internal Bars and FRP 403 ANALYTICAL MODELLING OF INTERACTIONS A description of the interactions between two reinforcement layers with different bond characteristics can be derived by applying equilibrium and compatibility conditions to a differential element. for strengthened RC members is strongly dependent on the load level. a numerical simulation may not be appropriate for practical use. ~= sf) considering the influence of concrete deformations to be negligible. Simplified Analytical Model . used to calculate the reinforcement stresses and strains in PC structures is based on the ratio of the mean bond stresses of the different reinforcement layers and may be considered approximately constant. Two basic approaches may be appropriate to calculate strains and stresses of the reinforcement layers with respect to the effects of the different bond behavior: (a) Numerical simulation based on a realistic description of the bond behavior: either by means of incremental integration along the reinforcement axis or with Finite Element Methods (b) Simplified approach based on energy considerations A numerical solution on the basis of realistic bond models can be achieved using incremental integration algorithms.q respectively) and slip (s. Due to the timeintensive iterative procedure.slip relationships zjcsd and z. An analytical solution of the system of differential equations based on realistic bond stress . and sf> at the cracked section.
5 0..195 mm 5/r = 3. [ L ] 3. 7). [mm] 0. bond parameters according to Niedermeier' 4 b) f ~ Tn bond model k for I..6 steel plate 0. only a piecewise definition of the relationship between ?and sf depending on the existing bond length 1. Due to the assumed bilinear relationship between zf and sf [(bond model in Figure 8 b)]. can be achieved.:.5 0.50  3. Relationships between slip and reinforcement strain at the crack a) embedded ribbed reinforcing bars.w 3. = 495 mm E/ / 0. d.2 M a 1501 0.1 0.000 MPa bond length: I.4 0..50  bondparameter: sfI = 0.4 0.1 slip 6.3 0. b) bond model and equations to calculate the minimum value of tf . . = 8mm.2 0.. examples for &+relations taking into account the specified boundary conditions are displayed.00.!82.0 '/=5mm = 200. = I.2 0.035 mm sP = 0.404 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure The correlation between E~ and ss for embedded reinforcement can be derived on the basis of the ascending branch of the bond model formulated by Eligehausen (Figure 7). [mm] Figure 7. : 0 1W 200 S 511 =m f 3w bond length It [mm] Figure 8. strain and slip of the externally bonded CFWstrip along the bonded length (parameters acc. 4 b) c20/25 strain 6 %[ L ] strain E.' &v = 2.3 0. to Fig. 2 I. Minimum Value of ( 6 a) bond stresses.0 0. In Figure 7. b) externally bonded reinforcement.6 slips.5% 2.
00  t.Interaction between Internal Bars and FRP 405 Based on the &+relations. it becomes obvious that the assumption of plane cross sections (Bernoulliconstraint. bond coefficients trfor single cracks can be derived. experimental bond coefficients &and calculated values versus the slip at the single crack.00 0 0.a 0 0.00 .15 i l l p [mml 0.C40150 caIculnted 2. .1 0.2 0.. From the test results and the calculated values.13 slip [mml Figure 9.00 1.50 1.05 0.00 o 0.03 0. b) steel plates .23 0.30  2.CFRP 0.50 j 1. 2.30 series V3 . .1 0 0.13 sllp Imm] 0.CFRP 0.3 Figure 10..2 0. __ 1.c40150 calculated .00 c40150 tert . = 8 mm).00 x 2. a) CFRP strips.1 0. experimental bond coefficients &and calculated values versus the slip at the single crack. The value of 4 that represents the maximum redistribution of tensile forces from externally bonded to internal reinforcement at single cracks can be calculated using the equations given in Figure 8. Results of series V1 (d.00 0. b) steel plates 0  3. 0.30 series V1 ..13 0.30 x C20125 test results CZOl23 CalCUlated 0. C20125 ~ a l ~ u l a t e d 1.esYlb C40150 calculated CZOlZ5 test results CZOlZ5 calculated 0 C40150 test r e i ~ l t s . In Figures 9 and 10. = 16 mm). axial load: 4 = 1) in the case of strengthening with CFRP leads to an underestimation of CFRP stresses and strains.oo x .30 C20125 test results CZOI25 calculated 0.00 OZI 0. Results of series V3 (d. a) CFRP strips.06 0.00 0.1 0. the calculated values of 4 are compared to the results from test series V1 and V3.30 2.30  0 c40150 test results x cm1251ert results .03 slip [mml 0.
and Zilch. Berlin. 200 1 2. and Bertero. These differences’may lead in some cases to a critical overestimation of the load carrying capacity of RC members strengthened with externally bonded CFRP reinforcement. Technical approval No. Berkeley. Miinchen. “Zugkraftdeckung bei klebearmierten Biegetragern” (Verification of the Envelope Line of Tensile Forces for Flexural Members Strengthened with Externally Bonded Reinforcement). 14. pp.770 . Report No.16 “Schubfeste Klebeverbindung zwischen Stahlplatten und Stahlbetonbauteilen oder Spannbetonbauteilen” (“Strengthening of RC and PC structures with epoxy bonded steel plates”). Eligehausen. simplified mechanical models are presented.und Stahlbetonbau. and Popov. fib bulletin No. Lausanne. To quantify the effects of the different bond behavior of internal and external reinforcement. V. University of California. and Zehetmaier G. R. 236.. “Externally bonded FRP reinforcement for RC structures”. Earthquake Engineering Research Center. Z11349/1. R. Zilch K. and Niedermeier R. federation internationale du beton. Beton. 759 . Among the future tasks are the extension of the modeling to different stages of cracking and the quantification of the possible redistribution of tensile forces from the externally bonded to the embedded reinforcement. “Local Bond StressSlip Relationships of Deformed Bars under Generalized Excitations”. E. Deutsches Insititut fur Bautechnik. UCB/EERC83/23. REFERENCES 1. 12. Technische Universitat Munchen.. 96 (2001).. July 2002 4. October 1983 5.406 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement for Flexure CONCLUSIONS AND PERSPECTIVES Test results revealed significant differences between the assumed distribution of sectional forces according to present design guidelines and the measured distribution. Report No. Niedermeier. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors gratefully acknowledge the support for the experimental research from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG). “Zusammenwirken von einbetonierter Bewehrung mit Klebearmierung bei verstarkten Betonbauteilen” (“Interactions between embedded and externally bonded Reinforcement in strengthened members”). K. 1990 3.
Failure of multilayered structures often occurs by delamination.FRPRCS6. In the second case. the composite plate is left exposed with no concrete bonded to it. INTRODUCTION The use of externally bonded FRP (Fibre Reinforced Plastics) for strengthening bridges and other reinforced concrete structures has received considerable attention in recent years’. The first part deals with an experimental study on reinforced concrete (RC) two way slabs with carbon fibrereinforced polymer (CFRP) bands as external reinforcement and internal steel reinforcement. Singapore. When applied to multilayered plates. et al. The FRPstrengthened slab test presents a failure mode with debonding of the external FRP bands from the slab. The strengthened slab is designed as a threelayered plate. Several analytical and numerical methods are available to describe and predict the behaviour of externally bonded CFRP beams2. after failure. A highorder theory for plates has been proposed to describe RC slabs strengthened with composite patches4. EHRLACHER Laboratoire Analyse des Mate‘riawr et Identijkation Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chausse‘es. LIMAM. The upper bound theorem of limit analysis is used to approximate the ultimate load capacity and identify the different collapse mechanisms. The second part deals with limit analysis modelling. Experimental investigation conducted by Garden. the middle layer is the steel and the top layer is the concrete. As a consequence. where the bottom layer is the composite material. classical Kirchhoff model fails to take into account the shear stress at the interfaces. analysis of separation between layers becomes essential for . A simplified laminated plate model is used to describe the behaviour of threelayered plate supported in four sides. G. the first called “peelingoff failure” where the whole thickness of the cover concrete is removed. &lo July 2003 Edited by Kiang Hwee Tan @WorldScientific Publishing Company STRENGTHENING OF RC TWOWAY SLABS WITH COMPOSITE MATERIALS 0.3 on RC beams strengthened with composite material shows that two cases can take place. FORET AND A. 77455 Marne La Valle‘e This paper deals with the strengthening of reinforced concrete twoway slabs by means of composite material thin plates. Failure can thus occur in two interfaces. This failure mode leaves the internal steel exposed and the cover thickness still bonded to the plate. which is subjected to a load at the centre.
One slab is strengthened with external carbon fibrereinforced polymer (CFRP) bands.408 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure these structures. Deflection is captured at the centre. The CFRP strips are spaced at 150 mm. . 1. The steel tensile yield stress strength is about 540 MPa and its modulus of elasticity is about 200 GPa.4 mm in thickness. The average 28day concrete compressive strength is about 30 MPa and its modulus of elasticity is about 25 GPa. and limit analysis approach has been applied to RC beams strengthened with composite material6. Before bonding the strips. the strengthened RC slab with composite materialis treated as a three layer plate. remains a robust and powerful tool for the analysis of RC slab problem?. The upper bound theorem of limit analysis is applied with a simplified plate model for multilayered plate (M4)7. were bonded on the tension face of the slab in the ydirection and similar CFRP strips. 1000 mm in length. However. The concrete cover thickness is about 17 mm. the concrete surface was roughened using an electrical wire brush and cleaned. 50 mm in width and 1500 mm in length. When tested. The tensile strength of the CFRP is about 2800 MPa and its modulus of elasticity is about 160 GPa. the slab is supported on four sides and subjected to a load in the centre. complete debonding of CFRP strips with some concrete still bonded to it was observed for FRP strengthened slab (Fig. were bonded on the tension face of the slab in the xdirection. An estimation of the ultimate load then follows from the upper bound theorem of limit analysis by equating the rate of internal energy dissipation in the velocity discontinuities sets to the rate of work done by the applied loading as the slab deforms in this mechanism. two RC twoway slabs (70 mm x 1300 mm x 1700 mm) were tested. EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM AND TEST RESULTS In this program. The ultimate load capacity is about 120 kN. The ultimate loading capacity of the control (nonstrengthened) specimen slab is about 48 kN. The plastic method of limit analysis based on the yield line theory. It is used to describe the different collapse mechanisms with failure modes in layers and interfaces. The data is collected automatically. The internal steel grid reinforcement comprised 6 mm diameter bars spaced at 20 mm in the x and y directions. In this paper. 1). CFRP strips. The control specimen slab was not strengthened. The control specimen slab presents a failure mode with diagonal yield lines.
RC Twoway Slabs with Composite Materials 409 Figure 2 presents its loaddeflection curve. Debonding failure of FRP strengthened slab enon strengthed s l a b ) strengthed slab b 0 2 4 Interface shear stress: 2 MPa Interface shear stress: 2. The non strengthened slab presents more ductility than the strengthened one. 2: The loaddeflection curves and comparison with theoretical results . Figure 1.5 MPa 6 Deflction (cm) Figure.
with a base w E R and three layers. and width 2L (Fig.. and (e. The multilayered plate is described as an open cylindrical domain R of R 3 . where the bottom layer is the composite material.e. I 3 2 1 I Figure 3.) E w (Fig.e 2and e3 . length 21. 3).) is an orthogonal base vector of R with (e.410 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement for Flexure MECHANICAL MODEL Consider a rectangular RC slab strengthened with composite material membrane with a thickness h. . A load Q is applied at the centre of the plate in the zdirection.e. the middle layer is the steel and the top layer is the compressive concrete zone. 4). The slab is designed as a threelayered plate. Threelayered plate \ Steel .e. The respective ply thicknesses are e’ . ! I Concrete Composite / \ I I I I Ql L i eY . .
direction.2}) is the membrane stress tensor in layer i. y ) with a E {1. y ) with a.RC Twoway Slabs with Composite Materials 411 Yo Ql Ak Ql' Y b X Velocity and Stress Fields of MultiLayered Plate Model The multilayered plate model (M4) gives 2n+ 1 generalised velocity fields'.P E (1. .i+l). Y )= (>+A) with a. is the overall average displacement rate in e. and z:+l ( x . and ey where u' directions.2}) being 2 h p h a given the by insurface deformation velocity tensor associated to the membrane stress tensor at velocity tensor associated to the interlaminar shear stress at the interface (i.2}) is the average displacement rate in e.2}) is the interlaminar shear stress at the interface ij+l . =I N ( N & ( x . W.P E {1. (Uh with a E {1. The =I E generalised strain velocities are 1 au au ( E & ( x .
the slab decomposes. ( N ' I z<~Nl12~ (3) Collapse Mechanisms Consider collapse mechanisms which result in a velocity discontinuity in layers and interfaces. 2 1=I energy dissipation is (2) by: given InN(.y)=O for x=L. and the work done by the applied r.I and W . The dissipation functions are defined as follows: 1 N EGY K' where Pd = 2 the EG:I+I = {QlVU KA.y) and q ( y ) = sup. y ) = o for (x.y) in d o .n. . Velocity fields are kinematically admissible (KA) when they occur with boundary limits.1+1 interface (i. APPLICATION TO A THREE LAYERED PLATE Boundary Conditions and Collapse Criteria The boundary conditions are given by: U:(x. in which q(U) is the generalised velocity associated withQ and r. the field o is divided into 4 .y) (1) (N ." loading as the slab deforms is given by Q...'+'.y)=O  N ' I I C< N ' I I < N'iit .412 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcementfor Flexure Upper Bound Theorem of Limit Analysis The upperbound theorem of involves collapse kinematic fields with ..i+l). for x = .q(U). denoted y' in layer i and D in the 1. The next criteria on generalised stress fields are considered as fo 1lows : u:(x. T ) d s .. As indicated in Figure 4.=I (i'. boundary of 0. discontinuities in velocity fields.+I nN(y)= sup=.N ' Z Z C< "22 < N'zzt. When Q @ K ."c o is the set of velocity discontinuities.q(U) I Pd(U)} internal J[7rT(6"+')]dw+ . ( x .Q.
RC Twoway Slabs with Composite Materials 413 open sets: ol. The KA velocity fields are given by: 3 U = O in ol. with i E {1.* L L + N z t c o s w +>I. Layers Mechanisms In the case of layers mechanisms. The shearing strain rates in interfaces are null: .The velocity q(u)= W. In the case of layer mechanisms.cosa L ]Yo e1+e2 I el+e2 L cosa(1 + ) + N Usina(1 + ) e +e e2+e3 Iyo +2Yo":. suppose that the velocity generalised = 0.wl' and 02'. which is thus given by: (e2+e3> 2~ lQ12L sin. 2 +2N12 cosa + NU sina IYO cosa e'+e2 + N{I f sina( 1+)+NU I e2+e3 el+.e2+e3 Iyo + Ni2.y) = w. An infinity of collapse mechanisms are considered by varying the angle a . (5) el +e2 +Nfl. they are rigid regions intersections.(O) is related to the load Q.w1'andw2'.q(U) 2 Pd(U) . we get the other two sufficient conditions for collapse.y) with yo I y I y o . Velocity strain rate is q(6)= w3(0.(l +>I> e +e By considering the velocity discontinuities with the layer mechanisms. It is noted that A and B respectively in layer 1 and layer 2 represent the velocity discontinuities between w1 and wl' in the xdirection. . 02. A sufficient condition for collapse is Q.. and A' and B' respectively in layer 1 and 2 represent the velocity discontinuities between o2and w2' in the ydirection.(O.2}.'+' collapse mechanism concerning layer 1 and layer 2 is explored. 02.
3 U = 0 .3) are explored. A sufficient condition for collapse is: +2L2. the velocity discontinuities are considered in one layer and one interface. t 2 = 0 and c l = O i n a . The mixed mechanism case concerning layer 1 and interface (2. layer 2 (steel) or layer 3 (CFRP strips)..' e' +e2 e Z f e 3 2 2. MODELLING AND COMPARISON WITH TEST RESULTS The tension zone in concrete below the neutral axis is neglected. An approximated method is used to calculate the depth of the neutral axis. Failure can occur with . e ' + e 2 2~ IQI'Tcosa + 2Yo"I It 1+ e2 +e3 I I s i n a + N 1 2cosa+N12sina L + N:2t cosa 1 *yo IYo e2 +e3 (2LI (I yo) L) T y + el +e2 2 L 2. three other similar conditions sufficient for collapse are obtained.rk: +e2+e3 (41L)~:: e' +e2 IQI 2 ?[41Lr. velocity discontinuities is considered in interfaces.3 72c L (7) 1 When considering velocity discontinuity with a mixed mechanism. Failure can occur with kinematic field discontinuity in layer 1 (compressive concrete ).414 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement for Flexure Interface Mechanism In the case of interface mechanism.3 +2 L 72c 1 (6) e' +e2 Mixed Mechanisms In the case of mixed mechanisms. It is assumed that the rate of generalised shearing strain between layers 1 and 2 is null.
For the present RC strengthened slabs. Limit analysis approach can predict correctly the ultimate load capacity of CFRP bonded RC slabs. ble 1 Properties Ta Layer mechanisms Mixed mechanisms Interface mechanism Mechanisms Ultimate loads (KN) I and 2 2 and 3 I and3 I and (2. where the whole thickness of cover concrete is removed.2).c = zZc is the concrete shear stress strength.3) (1.5 MPa.3) called “peeling off failure”. By considering a = 45”. and is about 2.5 MPa. The present model predicts failure with a mixed mechanism with CFRP strips debonding and steel yielding.2 in the ydirection. The calculated results of maximum capacity at each mechanism are given in table 1. eight possible collapse mechanisms and eight sufficient condition for failure are obtained.2) and (2.2) 2 and (1. Also.RC Twoway Slabs with Composite Materials 415 kinematic field discontinuity in interface (1.zmis the shear stress strength at the 1. 2.3 It was noted that z. 1. .2) 2 and (2.3 2. with separation of the external strengthening membrane (CFRP strips) from the concrete. and gives ultimate load capacity as equal to about 123 kN.2 interface 1.3) 3 and (1. and zZc = r2z. and z. CONCLUSION Results of the experimental study indicate that externally bonded CFRP plates can be efficiently used to strengthen twoway RC slabs.3) 538 255 344 439 I86 123 341 3 74 According to the tests. Failure can occur also with kinematic field discontinuity in interface (2. 5 = r2 = 25%. failure occurs with strips debonding and the ultimate load capacity is about 120 kN. The value r. is the section strength rate with CFRP strips in the xdirection and r2is the section strength rate with CFRP strips in the ydirection.2 T . ~ = r. is the shear stress strength at the bonding interface between concrete and CFRP strips. This analysis is validated by comparison with test results. is the shear stress strength at the interface 1. and is about 2. A good agreement between theoretical and experimental results is therefore found.2 in the xdirection.
“RC beams strengthened with composite material: a limit analysis Approach and Experimental Study”. Johansen. 59 (2003) 467472. Forstig. 4(2): p. Construction and building materials. 2 0 0 2 5.. “An experimental study of the anchorage length of carbon fibre composite plate used to strengthen reinforced concrete beams ”. Ehrlacher A. 2.A. 1999.. Hossain K. Comp....A. Salengon J.. Constr. Garden H. Hollaway L. Wang J. Limam O. 7584 3. O. pp 203219.. Cement and concrete Association.4: 1258. 2001.. Rabinovitch O. 8. 4. J.. (( Strengtheneing of RC slabs with circular composite patches a highorder approach D.. “A triparticle model of sandwich panels”.” Mater Technique..W. Ehrlacher A.H. Lam L.N. Philippe M. “Yield Line Theory”... 7.O.M. Famiyesin..A.J. four layer mechanism and one interface mechanism. It also gives simple sufficient conditions and the ultimate load capacity for each collapse mechanism.416 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure The model presents eight possible collapse mechanisms including three layer mechanism... (( Numerical and analytical predictions of the limit load of rectangular two way slabs D.. Teng J... Chan W. Chia Y.. Computes and Structures 6. 1962 9. Parke G. “Bridge repair with high performance composite material. Thorne A.. K. 12(1998). p..R. For&t G. L 2000. composite structures. composite structures. p225238. Quantrill R. Presses de 1’E. Y. 1987. 1 1951206. REFERENCES 1. Composite Science and Technology. . Naciri T.. Slade P. ~ 0 1 5 5 .G. “Retrofitting of deficient RC cantilever slabs using GFRP strips.M.P.N. C. (( Calcul a la rupture et analyse limite D. Meir U.C.R.”. London.
various types of FRP systems and EBR techniques have been developed and extended the possibilities of FRP EBR. . which include pultruded laminate plates. were used to strengthen the RC slabs by four installation techniques. The development of high strengthtoweight ratio. 810 July 2003 Edited by Kiang Hwee Tan QWorld Scientific Publishing Company EVALUATION OF EXTERNALLY BONDED CFRP SYSTEMS FOR THE STRENGTHENING OF RC SLABS K.FRPRCS6. USA Rolla. The techniques used were cold cured adhesive bonding. ease of fabrication and bonding and excellent resistance to electrochemical corrosion of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites has given this technique even more acceptance worldwide. Rolla. Continuous efforts in material development and research activities. Over the last years. delamination and rupture of the CFRP reinforcement were observed INTRODUCTION The wide acceptance and attractiveness of the externally bonded reinforcement (EBR) technique using epoxybonded plates can be attributed to the development of strong structural adhesives. prestressing. Y. All the slabs were tested to failure under simply supported conditions. TAN. subjected to a 6point concentrated static loading system. CFRP EBR increased the flexural strength and reduced the deflections and crack widths of the strengthened slabs. NANNI Department of Civil Engineering University of Missouri. MO654090710 The use of carbon fiberreinforced polymer (CFRP) composites as externally bonded reinforcement (EBR) for the repair and strengthening of deficient structures has been taking place since the late 1980’s. with strong links to engineering practice. wet layup and near surface mounted (NSM). All the strengthened slabs were tested to failure under simply supported conditions. In this experimental program. Singapore. fiber laminate sheets and pultruded laminate bars. Two modes of failure. This paper presents an experimental study on flexural strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC) slabs with different CFRP systems. TUMIALAN AND A. using different EBR techniques. three different commercial products. A control slab was used as a baseline to compare the strengthened slabs. G. give this application more and more interest worldwide.
under normal laboratory conditions.9 in.7MPa(60ksi) Lenght = 6.03 022 CROSS SECTION AA Figure 1 .) ' ' L m / I 6. Table 1 summarizes the test matrix.30 0.) were fabricated and cured under normal laboratory conditions.nj 0. 1. All the strengthened slabs were tested after a curing period.LD. of 7 days after applying the adhesive.). The minimum clear cover for the slabs was 30 mm (1.4 x 8.8ft) Dimensions in meters T.22 LONGITUDINAL STEEL DISTRIBUTION 1 ''0° 1 f c = 27.418 FRPRCS6: Exfernally Bonded Reinforcementfor Flexure EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM Slab Details A total of five slabs (1000 x 220 x 6300 mm) (39.3m(20. The procedures for the installation of each system are described in the following section. spaced at 200 mm (7. Table 1: Test Matrix ~ Slab EBR Techniaues CFRP Systems Control N/A N/A A Cold cured adhesive bonding 2 strips of laminate plates B C D Prestressing Zstrips of laminate plates Manual wet layup I ply of Fiber laminate sheets 8 strips of laminate bars Near surface mounted . All the slabs were reinforced in the longitudinal direction with two $10 mm (#3) and four $13 mm (#4) deformed steel bars. (See Fig. Typical Cross Section of Slab Three different CFRP systems and four different EBR techniques were used for the strengthening of the RC slabs.2 in. and in the transverse direction with $10 mm (#3) steel bars.I2m.6 MPa (4000psi) fy=413..) centertocenter.6 x 248 in.
d) Adhesive. N/mm2 (Ksi) Ultimate strain. The epoxy gel adhesive and saturant were both twopart systems. Table 4 shows the adhesive properties provided by the manufacturer.8 (12) 4.4 (6140) Table 3: Material Properties of the CFRP Systems CFRP System Cross section.6 3800 (550) 1.7 MPa (60 ksi) and are presented in Table 2.8 & Table 4: Adhesive Properties ble 1 Properties ble 1 Properties Ta Ta Epoxy gel Saturant 69 (10 ) 69 (10) 96. B 33. Table 2: Compressive Strength of Concrete at 28 days Slab Compressive Strengths.186) 164 (23) plate Fiber laminate 240 (34. The compressive strengths of concrete for the test specimens b) Steel reinforcement.181) sheet* Pultruded laminate 112 (0.8) 117 (0.174) 164 (23) bar * Based on dryfiber crosssectional area.5 (14) 82. D 42. Tensile strength.CFRP Systemsfor the Strengthening of RC Slabs 419 Material Properties a) Concrete.4 (500) 2 2 . Emodulus of 200 GPa (29000 ksi) were obtained from tensile tests.8 (4900) C. No independent tests were performed to characterize the material. MPa (psi) Control 30. After mixing. Af mm2 (in’) Ef kN/mm2 (Mi) Pultruted laminate 120 (0. c) CFRP systems. % 2500 (360) 1. the epoxy gel adhesive had a pastelike consistency while the saturant had a liquid form.1 (600) 3.55 2900 (420) 1.2 (4380) A. An average yield stress of 413. Table 3 shows the lower boundary mechanical properties of the CFRP systems provided by the manufacturer.
During the prestressing process. Trapped air was released by rolling. The steel plate was fastened to the concrete surface by means of an insert. 2a. The thickness of the epoxy gel was approximately 1. to the concrete surface by means of an insert.06 in.) . Air trapped between layers was rolled out before the epoxy gel sets. (See Fig. A single ply of CFRP laminate sheet was cut to design lengths and pressed down with a “bubble roller”. The thickness of the epoxy gel was approximately 1. 2b. the moveable anchor was removed while the fixed anchors remained in place. on the other end of the slab. The adhesive was mixed in the specified ratio until a uniform and complete mixture was observed. the system was ready for stressing with a hydraulic jack. While waiting for the fixed anchorage to cure. another fixed anchorage was attached. Once the two fixed anchors were installed. held in place by means of screws.420 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure INSTALLATION PROCEDURES All the concrete surfaces were sandblasted and cleaned to ensure good bonding before strengthening. an epoxy gel was spread uniformly on all areas where the CFRP plate has contact. A second layer of saturant was reapplied to complete impregnation prior to cure. This consisted of gluing one end of the CFRP plate between two steel plates.5 mm (0.06 in.).) Slab B: Prestressed Laminate Plate The installation of prestressing CFRP system started with the preparation of the moveable anchorage. The CFRP plates were cut into the designed length and pressed into the wet epoxy gel using a hard roller. a fixed anchorage was installed and the CFRP plate was glued between the steel plate and the concrete surface. which represented 33% of the ultimate strain.5 mm (0. Slab A: Cold cured adhesive bonding Laminate Plate The epoxy gel was uniformly spread on the areas where the CFRP plates were to be placed. After the epoxy gel cured. After the moveable anchorage was cured for 24 hours. Each laminate plate was stressed to an initial elongation of OS%. (See Fig. The fixed anchorage was cured for another 24 hours before the CFRP plate could be stressed. 2c.) Slab C:Manual Wet Layup Laminate Sheet An adequate layer of saturant was spread uniformly on all areas where the CFRP laminate sheet was to be placed.). (See Fig.
12. The laminate bars were cut to design lengths and lightly pressed into the grooves.0 m (20 ft.) from each other. The grooves were refilled after part of the saturant was absorbed by the microcavities of the concrete.) deep.6 cm (5. 3). A total of 5 linear variable differential transducers (LVDT' s) were placed at 1.5 m (5 ft.). (See Fig. The distance between each point load was 1.0 ft. 2d) (a) CFRF' Plates (c) CFRP Sheet (b) Prestressed CFRP Plates (d) NSM CFRP Tapes Figure 2: Test Specimens TEST SETUP AND TEST PROCEDURE Two heavyduty pin rollers were used to support the slab on a span of 6.) wide and 15 mm (5/8 in. starting from the supporting edge.CFRP Systemsfor the Strengthening of RC Slabs 421 Slab D: Near Surface Mounted Laminate Tapes Eight grooves approximately 3 mm (1/8 in.) centertocenter.0 in.).2 m (4. . were cut into the substrate of slab. The grooves were vacuum cleaned and then filled with saturant. (See Fig.
7 kN (3. The failure load for Slab B was close to the theoretical ultimate load.56 kips). sudden slippage took place at the fixed anchorage. The experiment failure .08 kips). The cracks that developed in Slab B were fewer and finer as compared to Slab A. The test was discontinued after the steel yielded before the concrete crushed at a load of 5.7 kN (5. All the data from the electronic devices were recorded by a data acquisition system at a frequency of 1Hz.67 kips). No sign of debonding was observed at both ends of the slab. which is 48% larger than the experimental load.78 kips). a portion of the CFRP laminate sheet ruptured at a load of 21. the theoretical failure load based on laminate rupture for Slab A was computed as 20. 4 illustrates the failure modes of the strengthened slabs and Table 5 summarizes the experimental results.422 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement for Flexure for displacement monitoring. The Control Slab exhibited a typical underreinforced flexural failure. After a brief time. An 89kN (20 kip) capacity load cell was used to measure the applied loads.10 kips). At a load of 20. In Slab C.3 kN (4. This slab was used as a baseline to compare the remaining slabs.60 kN (1. The introduction of initial prestressing provided Slab B with the ability to resist high loads prior to cracking. As a reference.3 kN (4. Fig.7 kN (4. the slab failed completely.26 kips) due to excessively large cracks at the tension zone. Strain gages were used to measure strains on the CFRP systems and concrete. Slab A had a failure caused by delamination at a load of 13. PI ll 150 120 PI PI + ++ 1 50 I 50 I I 1 50 41 2 0 4120 &120 +120 Figure 3: Test Setup (dimensions in meter) TESTRESULTS Mode of Failure A measure of the efficiency of the different CFRP EBR can be obtained by considering the modes of failure and the failure loads of the slabs. 22.
43 kips). Slab A failed suddenly and exhibited low ductility. Slab D reached the expected flexural capacity. This difference led to the conclusion that FRP rupture may have been caused by stresses concentration at the crack edges.7 kN (3. 29.O kips) and continued to deform thereafter.2 kN (6. deflection curves for all the slabs are shown in Fig.1 kN (5.0 kips) was interpreted as the beginning of delamination and slippage at the fixed anchorages. At a load of 13. lower deflections were observed at the same level of loads as compared to Slab A. The Control Slab started to yield after a load of 4. (a) Slab A (b) Slab B (c) Slab C (d) Slab D Figure 4: Failure modes of the strengthened slabs. Due to the prestressing in Slab B. The test results positively proved that a good and uniform bond existed between the NSM laminate bars and the concrete.5.08 kips).8 kN (4. The NSM laminate bars at the constant moment region ruptured at a load of 24.4 kN (1 . The load vs. The plateau formation after 17.57 kips).CFRP Systems for the Strengthening of RC Slabs 423 load was 37% lower that the theoretical ultimate load. All strengthened slabs responsed approximately linear before the concrete crack and with stiffnesses of about 84% greater than the Control Slab. .
2 24.7  C 21. Slab C had a stiffness similar to Slab B before the steel yielded.78) 104.1 7. Table 5: Test Result Slab Max. Slab D and Slab A had a similar stiffness and behavior after initial cracking.1 (5.65) 76. The CFRP laminate bar have a similar Eflfwith CFRP laminate plate. The influence of the Efifin the stiffness of the strengthened slab was clearly observed in Slab C.26) (4) 46. E& of approximately 1.8 21.6 10.3 (56.6 (1.424 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement for Flexure The CFRP laminate sheet had an axial stiffness. Deflection Curves ~looo 30 .0 (76. (%) kNm (lcji) Normalized Increment * * (1) Control (2) (3) 5.4) 63 118 4.3) 102.5) (5) __ (6)  A B 15.7 (3.3 13.8 (34.o  ii 25 Figure 5: Load vs.5 times larger than the other CFRP systems.& 0 10 l5 20 Midspan Deflection (crn) 7 o.3 15. 25 I // 5. applied load. ** Column 5 divided by column 2 0 Midspan Deflection (in) 6 8 1 0 2 4 I 1 .8 (4.43) 114. hence.6 (84. (%) Failure Increment.2 (75.08) 20.5) 145 *Include slab selfweight. P kN (Kip) E//EJ.3 (4. moment *.2 2 !I finnn  15000 4000 10 e) Control Slab SlabA SlabB SIabC 2000 + 5 .6) 122 D 14.
5 kN (4. strain curves of Slab A.56%. c) The strains along the prestressed CFRP plate at Slab B started with an initial elongation of 0. . indicating that delamination had reached the edge of the fixed anchorages.6) (d) Slab D Figure 6 : Load vs. Strain Curves CONCLUSIONS The following conclusions can be drawn from this experimental program: a) Significant increases in flexural capacity ranging from 63% to 145% were registered in all strengthened slabs as compared to the Control Slab.5%. C and D are presented in Fig.15 kips). c) The CFRP bars in Slab D were uniformly stressed along the slab until they reached the ultimate strain. which was 35 % of the ultimate strain.CFRP Systemsfor the Strengthening of RC Slabs 425 The load vs. Strain gages close to the anchorage showed a dramatic increase at 18.003. b) The CFRP laminate plate at Slab A delaminated when the strain at the mid span reached 0. 6. d) Slab C had strains patterns similar to Slab A. Smm(l0. B. The following is observed: a) The concrete strains for all the specimens were less than 0. .
1. REFERENCES ..2001. c) The slab strengthened with CFRP plates failed due to delamination starting from the constant moment region and propagated towards the cutoff points.. pp. 1. f ) The slab strengthened with NSM bars exhibited a behavior such that CFRP reinforcement was fully utilized. UK. Switzerland. and Guadagnini M. Triantafillou T. UK.ACI440.. Matthys S.426 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure b) During the test. e) Premature failure at fiber laminate sheet was due to high stresses concentration at crack locations . “Guide Line for S&P FRP Systems”. . Cambridge. Taerwe L. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors would like to acknowledge the support of the S&P Clever Reinforcement Company. July 1618.. Pilakoutas K. 1.3 and ConFibreCrete Network”. 5Ih International Conference on FRP Reinforced Concrete Structures (FRPRCS5). “Guide for The Design and Construction of Externally Bonded FRP Systems for Strengthening Concrete Structures ”. 31 5 . “Design of Concrete Members Strengthened with Externally Bonded FRP Reinforcement” 5Ih International Conference on FRP Reinforced Concrete Structures (FRPRCS5). “European Activities on the Use of FRP Reinforcement. Cambridge. Vol. 157166. July 1618. Farmington Hill. pp. S&P Clever Reinforcement Company. fib Task Group 9. 2001. it was observed that the CFRP EBR delayed the presence of the first visible cracks and reduced the deflection. Matthys S. d) Prestressing of the CFRP laminate plate had a positive influence on the behavior of strengthened RC slab. Michigan. Vol. Brunnen. American Concrete Institute International.2R02. 2. June 2000. 4.. 3. and Taerwe L. The load capacity was substantially increased and the deflection and crack formations were substantially reduced.
The flexural capacity of concrete beams can be increased by bonding FRP sheets. Canada. EBEAD AND K. INTRODUCTION Increasing attention has been placed to the applications of advanced composite materials especially glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) laminates and carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) strips in the structural engineering field. an apparent decrease in the overall ductility was evident.A.’. A I B 3x5 U. QuCbec. 810 July 2003 Edited by Gang Hwee Tan @World Scientific Publishing Company FLEXURAL STRENGTHENING OF TWOWAY SLABS USING FRPs H. current. NEALE Department of Civil Engineering. strips or laminates to the tension side. The comparison between the finite element analysis results and the experimental results shows a good agreement. J1K 2R1 Strengthening of twoway slabs using Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) materials is presented. The behaviour of twoway slabs strengthened in flexure is discussed. Canada. Sherbrooke. An increase of the initial stiffness was achieved for flexural specimens. Carbon FRP strips and glass FRP laminates can be used to increase the flexural capacity of twoway slabs to an average of 36% over that of the reference (unstrengthened) specimen. A full bond is assumed between concrete and the steel and FRP materials. MARZOUK Faculty of Engineering.. St. There is a wide range of recent. An incremental elasticplastic concrete model is implemented. Memorial University of Newfoundland 300 Prince Philip Dr.* In addition.W. John’s. however. In compression. the concrete model is elastic until a yield point is reached after which irrecoverable plastic strain exists. Singapore.FRPRCS6. and potential applications of these materials that cover both new and existing structures. Newfoundland. Precracking and postcracking behaviours of concrete are considered in the study with special emphasis on the impact of the FRP materials on the concrete fracture energy and hence on the concrete tension stiffening. University of Sherbrooke 2500 boulevard de I’UniversitC. shear resistance of beams can be increased by using GFRP laminates . A finite element analysis of the flexuralstrengthened twoway slabs is also discussed.
5% of reinforcement ratios of 0. The central loads .13 GPa. 350 kg of cement.35% and RefP0. Some research works dealt with the strengthening of oneway slabs using FRP materials in which slabs were treated in a very similar way to beams. and 175 liters of water. A hydraulic actuator of 700 kN capacity facing the specimen was used to apply a uniform central load through the column stub. and elastic modulus of 170 GPa. Column stubs were square of 250mm side dimension and were located at the slab center. respectively. The compressive strengths of concrete at the day of the test ranged from 30 MPa to 35 MPa. Linear Variable Displacement Transformers (LVDT’s) were built in the actuator to measure the central deflection of the slabs.5x6Limited research work has been conducted on the strengthening of reinforced concrete slabs especially twoway slabs using FRP materials. In addition. respectively. Test slabs and setup The tested simply supported specimens were square with 1900mm side length and 150mm thickness as shown in Figure 1. 690 kg of sand.7 EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM Materials One m3 of concrete contains 1160 kg of gravel.5% were strengthened using GFRP laminates and CFRP strips. As per the manufacturer specifications. and elastic modulus of 26. RefP0. The steel reinforcement bars were CSA grade 400 deformed bars.35% and CFRPF0. tensile strength of 600 MPa. A load cell was used to measure the load using four calibrated electrical resistance strain gages fixed to the inner cylinder of the load cell. Two unstrengthened specimens were used as reference specimens. GFRP laminates have a thickness of 1 mdlayer.5%.2 mdlayer.35% and GFRPF0. CFRP strips and GFRP laminates use different twocomponent epoxy adhesive resins.35% and 0.~ large number of research works have dealt with the debonding of FRP sheets to concrete beams. tensile strength of 2800 MPa. Specimens CFRPF0. Unidirectional GFRP laminates and CFRP strips were used as strengthening materials.5% and Specimens GFRPF0. CFRP strips have a thickness equal to 1.4 Some mechanical and finite element models have been developed to provide design guidelines and to investigate theoretically possible modes of failure of FRP strengthened beams based on experimental data.428 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement for Flexure wrapped over three sides of beams at locations of high shear s t r e ~ s e s A .
Flexural Strengthening of Twoway Slabs 429 were applied using displacement control through a computerized function generator with a rate of 0. Dust and bond inhibiting materials were removed carefully from the concrete and FRP surfaces. K 'x . The applied loads were completely removed to represent a state of shoring twoway slabs in the field prior to strengthening.35% showed an increase of 44. Fifty percent of the ultimate load carrying capacity of the reference specimens was used as an initial loading for the specimens prior to strengthening. RefP . FRP materials were located at the tension side of the slab according to the configuration shown in Figure 1.25 m d m i n .4% and 38%. respectively in the load capacity over that of the reference specimen. Strengthening and Loading Procedure The concrete surface to be strengthened was roughened carefully using a vibrating hammer. Specimens CFRPF0.35% and GFRPF0. The epoxy resin was applied on the concrete and FRP surfaces before bonding. the specimens were relocated in the loading frame and were subjected to the central load until failure.mAddinanal FRF'stnps layer Figure 1: Layout of the flexuralstrengthening scheme TEST RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Ultimate Load Carrying Capacity Strengthening increases the load capacity of the slabs. the specimens were removed from the loading frame for strengthening.. Afterwards. After one week of curing.
5% CFRPF0.5% GFRPF0.08 27.0 1 35.5% as shown in Table 1. Figure 3 shows a typical failure mode for a specimen strengthened using CFRP for flexural .5% showed an increase of 36.00 6.4% and 25.35YO CFRPF0. Specimens CFRPF0. Table 1 summarizes the deflection values at first crack load (at the unstrengthened stage) and at the ultimate load for the tested specimens.63 that of the corresponding reference specimens.03 6.35%.430 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure 0. Figure 2 shows the loaddeflection relationship for the tested specimens. at cracking load.35% GFRPF0.8 %. KN 73 84 70 68 80 83 Ref0. KN 250 330 361 345 450 415 ~ ~~ Defl.69 6. mm 7.71 Deformational Characteristics The average deflection at the ultimate load of the strengthened specimens was about 0. respectively in the load capacity over that of the reference specimen. mm 42. the strengthened specimens experienced smaller deformation compared to the corresponding reference specimens due to the impact of the brittleness of FRP materials on the overall behaviour of the slabs. Flexural reinforcement yielded and the specimens showed relatively large deflection values before reaching the ultimate load.5% Defl. Table 1: Experimental test results Title Cracking load.03 26.72 21. Moreover.5% and GFRPF0.35 Ultimate load.57 18.35% Ref0.25 7. In general. f"oO C 0 5 10 15 25 30 Deflectionh r n l 20 YI CFRP F 05% 10 45 I Figure 2: Load deflection relationship for some of the tested slabs Failure characteristics The failure mode of the reference specimens was classified as flexuralductile. at ultimate load.25 7. Ref0.
The concrete model in compression is elastic until the initial yield surface limit is reached as shown in Figure 4.. Cracking is considered the most significant factor of the concrete tensile behaviour. In the case of plain concrete. fracture energy. The constitutive concrete model addresses the tensile behaviour of concrete by considering several aspects. Debonding cracks appeared at a late stage of the loading causing a separation of the FRP materials as shown in Figure 3. shear modulus degradation. the fracture energy. and tension stiffening. Further stresses of concrete cause an expansion of the initial yield surface so that new yield surfaces are developed. The specimens failed due to accelerated flexural failure following the FRP debonding. These aspects are cracking. FRP materials contributed to increasing the capacity until the bond between the FRP material and concrete had failed. flow. yield. A complete representation of the model is defined by considering the following concepts: strain rate decomposition into elastic and inelastic strain rates. The initial yield surface defines the elastic limit at which the linearelastic constitutive relationships are valid.5%) FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Material Modelling A plasticitybased concrete constitutive model was used in this study'. Neither CFRP strips nor GFRP laminates fractured. elasticity. G. is defined as the energy .Flexural Strengthening of Twoway Slabs 431 and shear strengthening. The model utilizes the classical aspects of the theory of plasticity. respectively. and hardening. Figure 3: A tested specimen after failure (CFRPF0. .
Wf. i.E. relationship. is estimated as the numerical integration of the function between the tensile stress. Hence.e. Hence.du Compression frulure envelope (surface) w.lo Concrete behaviour in tension is linear until the cracking stress is reached.G.. . Subsequently. for the postpeak zone.432 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure required to form a unit area of crack surface and is considered a material property based on the brittle fracture concept of Hillerb~rg.. This phenomenon is referred to as tension stwening.and the “crack width” or displacement. concrete bonded to the reinforcement is loaded with tensile stresses causing an increase of the overall stiffness. uI. The FWconcrete interaction is assumed similar to that of steel reinforcementconcrete interaction. The postpeak zone can be defined using broken lines as shown in Figure 5. Cracks exist in reinforced concrete subjected to tensile stresses along with the steel reinforcement. o t . interfacial shear stresses between the concrete and the reinforcement are transmitted to the concrete between cracks as tensile stresses.E . the calculations are made based on the assumption of a smeared crack approach.f: i D z (1) ‘ Btaxial n c6mpresslon Uniaxial  tension ension surface Figure 4: Concrete in compression Figure 5: Concrete in tension In the case of reinforced or strengthened concrete. curve can be referred to as the fracture energy density. F W materials are defined as smeared external reinforcement located at the tension side of the slab.: Gf = Jo. The numerical integration of the o.~ The fracture energy. It has been decided to define the tension stiffening of concrete by considering only two points on the postpeak zone of the of.
Geometric Modelling One quarter of the slab is modelled due to the geometrical and loading symmetry using a 5 x 5 mesh.may 0.E . relationship of strengthened or unstrengthened concrete is assumed linear descending to . is calculated as 26600 MPa. This calibration is conducted with respect to the ultimate load carrying capacity of the slabs. Degenerated 8node quadrilateral shearflexible shell elements with six degrees of freedom at each node are used for modelling the slab. The general layout of the finite element model is shown in Figure 6 . The calibration is based on the agreement of the FEA results and the available experimental results.Flexural Strengthening of Twoway Slabs 433 The concrete crl . 'The steel reinforcement is zero tensile stress at maximum strain assumed to have a yield stress of 440 MPa and a modulus of elasticity of 210 GPa. The assumption of the full bond between FRP materials and concrete is inherited by the definition of these materials as smeared reinforcing layers located at the tension side of the concrete slabs.l 1 The yield stress of concrete is assumed 20 MPa. Nine Simpsontype integration points are used along the thickness of each shell element. Eightnode brick elements are used to ." The postpeak o.. The agreement is achieved after several FEA implementations for different values of the fracture energy density." (3) Material Properties The modulus of elasticity of concrete. E. is assumed 0. This permits the transverse shear deformation to be accounted for. relationship.16 times that of the uniaxial strength of concrete.08 times the uniaxial strength of concrete that is equal to 2. The degrees of freedom are three translations and three rotations. and hence the fracture energy density are calibrated. For each implementation. In addition.E.Y plane of the elements.. the fracture energy density of concrete strengthened with FRP materials is calculated as follows: &l.mSX Wr= (2) 0 For the assumed tension stiffening model. a reduced 2 x 2 Gaussian integration rule is used over the X . the fracture energy density can be calculated as follows: Wf=3El. The equal biaxial strength of concrete is assumed 1.8 MPa. The tensile strength of concrete. or .
The FEA underestimated the values of the deflections for either the strengthened and unstrengthened specimens.” RESULTS OF THE FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Load Carrying Capacity and Deformation The assumptions of the fracture energy density. The discrepancy between the degrees of freedom of the column stub brick element and the panel shell elements is overcome using the Multi Point Constraints (MPC) technique. Y . . led to a good agreement between the FEA and the test results in terms of the load carrying capacity as shown in Table 2. CFRP strips and GFRP laminates are represented in a similar way to the rebars. FRP materials are treated as smeared unidirectional layers located at the tension surface of concrete. The definition of FRP materials as smeared reinforcement inherits the assumption of full bond with the concrete surface. the impact of steel reinforcement and FRP materials on the tensile properties of concrete is modelled through the suggested tension stiffening relationship for the FRP strengthened portions of the slab. The MPC technique allows constraints to be imposed between different degrees of freedom in the model. Nonlinear spring elements define the simply supported with corners freetolift boundary condition as in Figure 6 . The FEA gives a stiffer deformational behaviour compared to the experimental results. and Z directions.434 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure represent the column stub through which the load is applied. For the unstrengthened portions of the slab. the tension stiffening model is used as was recommended by Marzouk and Chen. In addition. The brick element has three translational degrees of freedom per node in the X. Steel Reinforcement and FRP Representation The slab reinforcement is treated as smeared unidirectional layers. These layers are embedded in concrete and located at the centerline of the actual reinforcing bars in the slabs. W. The layers are smeared with a constant thickness that is equal to the area of each reinforcing bar divided by the reinforcing bars spacing.
A finite element model was used to analyze strengthened twoway slabs. The finite element results are calibrated so that a good agreement .5% GFRPO. None of the strengthening material type experienced rupture or failure. the strengthened specimens showed a stiffer behaviour than that of the reference specimens. In addition. However.oo S J MMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The use of strengthening CFRP strips and GFRP laminates with the suggested dimensions were sufficient to achieve positive results for flexuralstrengthening of slabs.Flexural Strengthening of Twoway Slabs 435 Figure 6: Geometric model layout Table 2: FEA results Title CFRP0.P e x d Ptheo 1.S?'o Pexw PtheoAW 450 415 424 416 . debonding between FRP materials and concrete was the main cause of failure. The strengthened specimens using FRP strips or laminates showed an average gain in the load capacity of about 36% over that of the reference (unstrengthened) specimens. a decrease in ductility and energy absorption was recorded due to the brittle nature of the strengthening of the FRP materials.06 1 . Slabs failed soon after debonding occurred due to exceeding flexural capacity. For the suggested strengthening technique.
1998.” ACI Structural Journal. pp. Providence. O. 1993. Triantafillou.. C. Canadian Journal for Civil Engineering. ACI Structural Journal. H. pp.. G. H. C. H. 1998.. In Proceedings. H. R.. Mutoh. Meier.. 5 . 3. and Ehsani. pp.. M. and Tanaka. 1999. “Flexural Reinforcement of Concrete Floor Slabs by Carbon Fiber Textiles”. K. 692704. 88(6). 142152. 4. 90(5). A. “CFRP Bonded Sheets”. pp. K. 9. Saadatmanesh. 1998. pp. K.2. Kalrsson and Sorensen Inc.. and Sorensen. 2001.. D. 95 (2). Z. A. “ABAQUS Users Manual (Version 6. 95 (l). “Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Beams Strengthened in Flexure with Composite Laminates”. L.. G. Thomas. H. Hussein. Y .. M. 1993. Hillerborg.170. U. Meier. Chaallal. “Prediction of Failure Load of R/C Beams Strengthened with FRP Plate Due to Stress Concentration at The Plate End”. pp. Ritchie.)”. and Marzouk. 490500.. 1071 15. and Perraton.. Composite Interfaces. T. 423434. ACI Structural Journal. FiberReinforcedPlastic (FRP) Reinforcement for Concrete Structures: Properties and Applications. 25. Kikukawa. 6. “Shear Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Beams Using EpoxyBonded FRP Composites”.. . 5 (5). 5055 13. “Finite Element Analysis of High Strength Concrete Slabs”.: Hibbitt. Canadian Journal for Civil Engineering.. Deuring. pp. Duebendof. “Numerical Methods to Simulate Softening and Fracture of Concrete”. Ohya. pp. 141. pp. “Behavior of High Strength Concrete under Biaxial Stresses. Marzouk. H. REFERENCES 1. P. The full bond between the steel reinforcement or FRP materials and concrete can be assumed in the analysis and lead to reasonably accurate results with low computational cost. 26. A. Hibbitt. Malek. and Chen. I. Switzerland. and Neale.436 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement for Flexure with the experimental results is achieved. 646654. 2736. M. ACI Structural Journal. ACI Structural Journal. 1991. “Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Beams with Externally Bonded Reinforced Plastic Plates: Design Guidelines for Shear and Flexure”. Nollet. M. K. 1985. pp.. “External Reinforcement of Concrete Beams Using Fiber Reinforced Plastics”. 8.. 7.97( l). and Schwegler.. 469478.. R. 1998. Fracture Mechanics of Concrete. Nitereka. Ohyama. D. 10. and Connelly. 1998.. 2. 11. Lu.
An expression of the fracture energy density is introduced to define the area under the concrete tensile stressstrain relationship. It is shown numerically that the ultimate load capacity of twoway slab specimens is sensitive to the fracture energy density. J I K 2RI Reinforced concrete behaviour in tension can significantly be changed due to strengthening.A.35% and RefP0. This distinction is the focus of this paper.35% and 0. The tensile stressstrain relationship of concrete is referred to as the tensionstiffening model. The experimental results of the strengthened slabs are used to calibrate the finite element model based on the ultimate load carrying capacity as presented in reference 1. NEALE Department of Civil Engineering. 810 July 2003 Edited by Gang Hwee Tan @WorldScientificPublishing Company TENSILE PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE IN FRPSTRENGTHENED TWOWAY SLABS H. Sherbrooke. University of Sherbrooke 2500 boulevard de I'Universite'. Canada. The calibration FEA study simulates six specimens tested experimentally'. Memorial University of Newfoundland 300 Prince Philip Dr.. St. Column stubs are square of 250mm side dimension and are located at the center of the slab. Two unstrengthened specimens are used as reference specimens. a distinction has to be made between the definitions of the tensionstiffening model of FRPstrengthened and unstrengthened concrete. Specimens CFRPF0.35% and GFRPF0. MARZOUK Faculty of Engineering. A l B 3x5 U. The tested simply supported specimens are square with 1900mm side length and 150mm thickness as shown in Figure 1 . EBEAD AND K.35% and CFRPF0. respectively.W. An overall increase in the postpeak stiffness based on the tensile stressstrain relationship is observed. Canada. INTRODUCTION This paper presents a finite element analysis (FEA) aimed at investigating the effect of FRP strengthening on the tensile properties of concrete. John's. Que'bec. RefP0.5% and specimens GFRPF0.5%.5% of steel reinforcement ratios of 0. Singapore. Newfoundland.FRPRCS6.5% are strengthened using GFRP . A simplified bilinear model is introduced to define the behaviour of FRPstrengthened concrete in tension. Hence.
Details of the experimental program are described in reference 1. respectively. The FEA study is carried out using the generalpurpose finite element code ABAQUS. Figure 1 shows the strengthening configuration of the slabs.438 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure laminates and CFRP strips.3 81Omm 12lOmm A I 300 1830 I 1830 I I 4 I Figure 1: A schematic representation of a strengthened specimen .
Some expressions have been developed to correlate the postpeak stress and strain for concrete in tension. an emphasis is placed on the appropriate tensile behaviour of concrete in twoway slabs strengthened with externallybonded FRPs.~ The fracture energy. These aspects are cracking. fracture energy and tensionstiffening.dU In finite element simulations that adopt the smeared crack approach like the one in this study. the distribution of cracks in the concrete is dependent on whether the concrete is plain or reinforcedstrengthened. Details of the concrete constitutive model are described in reference 2... In addition. The constitutive concrete model addresses the tensile behaviour of concrete by considering several aspects. Gr .Gf. shear modulus degradation. and the “crack width” or displacement. ~ where: . is estimated as the numerical integration of the function between the tensile stress. Gr = 10. u. Based on some experimental evidence on high strength concrete4.FRP Strengthened Twoway Slabs 439 CONCRETE CONSTITUTIVE MODEL A plasticitybased concrete constitutive model is used in this study. it was found that the postpeak relationship is referred to may be defined according to the following relationship: For E . for the postpeak zone of the 0 . relationship. Concrete bonded to the reinforcement or FRP materials is loaded with tensile stresses causing an increase of the overall stiffness. the fracture energy. that is. In this study. In the case of plain concrete. the tensile stressstrain relationship rather than stressdisplacement relationship is referred to when describing the concrete tensile behaviour. uI. & . is defined as the energy required to form a unit area of crack surface and is considered a material property based on the brittle fracture concept of Hillerb~rg. The term tensionstiffening is introduced in the finite element analysis to consider the effect of the steel or FRP reinforcement on the concrete tensile behaviour. cr.
X W f =J o .67 for high strength concrete. Also.. is calculated as 26600 MPa. and can be calculated as follows:6 6.08 times the uniaxial strength of concrete. ~ yield stress of concrete is assumed 20 MPa.".and the tensile strain. is ~ the concrete tensile strain at cr = 0..3 1 for normal strength concrete' and modified to 0. . the effect of the reinforcement ratio as well as whether the concrete is strengthened or not is considered..70 for normal strength concrete and 1.E ." where E.IIl.can be calculated as follows: With respect to the properties of the materials.~ A tabulated form for the values of the tensile stress. p is equal to 1. the fractur. ) relationship represents the fracture energy density. (4) 0 where E. can be used to define the tensionstiffening model. . Denoting the maximum tensile stresso: and based on this approach.~. It has been decided to define the tensionstiffening of concrete by considering only two points on the postpeak zone of the 0. W. . . the modulus of elasticity of concrete.E.E. that is equal to 2. ~ E . The numerical integration of the concrete tensile stressstrain ( 0. the value of c3 is 0. is the tensile strain when the tensile stress vanishes. Wr .16 times that of the uniaxial compressive ~ t r e n g t hThe .. . relationship of strengthened or unstrengthened concrete is assumed linear descending to zero tensile stress at the maximum strain E . The postpeak zone can be defined using line segments rather than a continuous relation~hip.28 for high strength concrete4. is assumed 0. E . In addition. ~ . E. is the concrete tensile strain and E (3) . energy density.8 MPa.o. 0: .4 The postpeak 0.. relationship as shown in Figure 2.440 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure a =c30. . The steel reinforcement is assumed to have a yield stress of 440 MPa and a modulus of elasticity of . The equal biaxial strength of concrete in compression is assumed 1. In this analysis. The tensile strength of concrete.
W. W.. and hence the area under the bilinear relationship that is the fracture energy density. and on the FEA. Several attempts are implemented in the finite element code by altering the definition of the tensionstiffening model.. is calculated according to Equation 5 and altered accordingly. .  E. The assumption of the full bond between FRP materials and concrete is implicit by defining these materials as smeared reinforcing layers located at the tension side of the concrete slabs. Details of this stage of the finite element analysis can be found in reference 1 including the geometric modeling and steel and FRP materials representation. This calibration is conducted with respect to the ultimate load carrying capacity of the slabs. E t Figure 2: Tensionstiffening model In this FEA study.. are calibrated. relationship... Altering the definition of the tensionstiffening model is done by changing the values of&. Table 1 shows the FEA calibration implementation of the attempts for different values of E. the 0. This table shows a comparison between the ultimate capacity of the slabs based on the experimental testing. and hence the fracture energy density. W.. I Attempt 1 Attempt 2 Attempt 3 Attempt 4 Attempt 5 Tensile strain.. .. Values of .m are assumed upon which the fracture energy density.FRP Strengthened TwoWay Slabs 441 210 GPa. PFEA. The calibration is based on the agreement of the FEA results and the available experimental results. P.
442 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Flexure Table 1: The FEA calibration runs ble 1 Properties ble 1 Properties ble 1 Properties ble 1 Properties ble 1 Properties ble 1 Properties ble 1 Properties ble 1 Properties Ta Ta Ta Ta Ta Ta Ta Ta .
003 0.5 g 2 1 c I!?! 0. The stiffened postpeak tensile stressstrain relationship leads to higher values of fracture energy density.35% 1.004 0.002 0. It is clear that.FRP Strengthened Twoway Slabs 443 Tensile StressStrain Relationships Figures 3 and 4 show the tensile stressstrain relationships for specimens of the calibration study at the center of the slab based on the FEA.002 0.001 0.005 Tensile strain Figure 4: Tensile behaviour for CFRP strengthened slabs at the slab center .005 Tensile strain Figure 3: Tensile behaviour for GFRP strengthened slabs at the slab center 2.001 0. 2. within a certain range of the strain.004 0. This complies with the initial assumptions of the fracture energy density shown in Table 1.s 1 Lo C I 0. W.5 a 0.5 0 0 0.5  2 a r_ 2 +GFRPF0. The slope of the tensile stresstensile strain is decreased in the postpeak zone indicating the contribution of the FRP strengthening materials in increasing the postpeak stiffness of concrete in tension.5 5 .003 0. the postpeak behaviour of slabs is stiffened. due to the contribution of FRP strengthening materials.5  2 a z3 1.
5.7(2).W. ACI Structural Journal. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering. 278285. 6’ International Symposium on FibreReinforced Polymer Reinforcement for Concrete Structures (FWRCS6). 1987. 2736. 4. and Zhang. The recommended model describes the tensile behaviour of concrete slabs strengthened using FRP materials. K. Z. Z. “Investigation of complete stressdeformation curves for concrete in tension”. pp. 1081 16. The finite element results are calibrated so that a good agreement with the experimental results is achieved.. 1998.. 2003.. “Flexural strengthening of twoway slabs using FRPs”. REFERENCES 1. “Behaviour of high strength concrete under biaxial stresses”. 5055 13. Kalrsson and Sorensen Inc. Hillerborg. pp.444 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcementfor Flexure SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS In this paper. The model takes a form of a bilinear relationship between the tensile stress and tensile strain. Guo. H. Ebead. Hibbitt. H. and Neale. R. It was found that a distinction had to be made between the plain.97( l). and Chen. Providence. Marzouk. 2. 7.: Hibbitt. and Marzouk. pp. pp. 1995. Hussein. and Sorensen. I.. 2. Fracture Mechanics of Concrete. ACI Structural Journal. 141170. A. “Finite element analysis of high strength concrete slabs”. Marzouk. FRPstrengthened concrete exhibits a stiffer postpeak response than conventional reinforced concrete. and Chen.. 84(4). 1993. K. “Fracture energy and tension properties of high strength concrete”. 2001. 1985. H. “Numerical methods to simulate softening and fracture of concrete”. Marzouk. “ABAQUS users manual (Version 6. ACI Materials Journal. U. . 90(5).. H... 6. 3.2)”. reinforced and strengthened concrete tensile behaviour when defining the tensionstiffening model.. M. a finite element analysis is presented. A. An FRP tensionstiffening model is recommended to predict the complete behaviour of concrete in tension. A calibration study is conducted on a finite element model and is used to analyze FRPstrengthened twoway slabs. X.
ExternallyBo Bonded Reinforcement for Shear Externally .
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The straps are closed loops formed from CFRP tape. Singapore. reinforced concrete cantilever beams were tested with or without straps for a particular shear span to depth ratio. KESSE AND J. design codes used in earlier years being less stringent than today’s standards and. External Prestressed Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) straps provide a means of increasing the shear capacity of a concrete beam. loads greater than the design capacity are being applied and thus the structures have been rendered unsafe. INTRODUCTION Throughout the world. Trumpington Street. the stiffness improvement and the change in failure mode due to the presence of the straps. The main parameters that were varied during the experiments were: the number of straps. an increasing number of reinforced concrete (RC) structures are being assessed as having inadequate shear capacity. The straps do not corrode and hence offer a further advantage in aggressive environments. 810 July 2003 Edited by Kiang Hwee Tan @World Scientific Publishing Company SHEAR CRITICAL REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS STRENGTHENED WITH CFRP STRAPS G. M. United Kingdom This paper reports on the strengthening of shear critical reinforced concrete beams with prestressed Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) straps. Experiments by researchers at the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA)’ and the University of Cambridge’ have shown that the shear capacity of RC beams can be enhanced using this system and the mode of failure changed from shear to flexure. CB2 IPZ. However. Such structures must be strengthened in order to serve their intended purpose. Cambridge. The straps are installed at a specified spacing within the shear span and then prestressed.FRPRCS6. In the experimental programme. in some cases deterioration of the internal steel reinforcement. Even for structures designed adequately. the material is brittle and thus all the parameters that govern the behaviour must . The reasons for this include. LEES Cambridge University Engineering Department. the level of prestress and the existing crack state. The experimental results are presented and discussed and conclusions drawn regarding the potential shear capacity enhancement. The straps can be used to enhance the shear capacity of beams and to change the mode of failure from shear to flexure. the strap location.
The cantilever shape was chosen in preference to a conventional simply supported beam because it presented a single shear span that furnishes less voluminous data while enabling the detailed monitoring of cracks and beam behaviour. the straps have been installed before any external loading was applied.448 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Shear be fully understood. In addition. The support block had dimensions of 600 mm x 105 mm x 300 mm as shown in Figure 1. Beam layout with 2 straps c105. The key parameters are the level of prestress. the strap spacing and the number of tape layers in the strap. in previous studies. 100. This is not necessarily representative of existing beams which might have sustained some damage prior to being strengthened or repaired.0 applied load Steel pad General layout Figure 1. An additional factor is that. the number of straps required. This paper reports on experimental work where the strap locations and the number of layers in the straps were varied. EXPERIMENTS Rectangular cantilever beams of dimensions 1200 mm x 105 mm x 280 mm were designed for this series of experiments. The purpose was to determine how these factors influence RC beams failing in shear and the resulting modes of failure. Work on precracked or damaged beams will also be discussed.0 Section . the fabrication and testing procedures were greatly simplified.
Shear Critical RC Beams with CFRP Straps 449 Figure 1 also shows the beam layout and reinforcement details. . Electronic strain gauges were attached to the longitudinal tension steel and the internal shear links.56@. After each load increment. The thickness of the tape is approximately 0.75c/c 395 400 226.16 mm with a width of 12 mm.12 @. When the required prestress has been attained. the jack is released and the steel pad then rests on the shims. the tape is wound around the beam web until the desired number of layers is obtained.Width = 12 mm Area of Steel(mm2) 1 Yield Stress (N/mm2) 25. To form a strap. the crack pattern was marked and photographs taken.16 mm.22 500 402. The prestressing procedure involves an arrangement as shown in Fig 2b. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS The loading was applied vertically upwards in increments of 1. The mix design and the properties of the reinforcement are given in Table 1. The outermost two layers of the strap are welded together but the inner layers remain nonlaminated. Strain gauges were attached to the outer layer of each strap. and then metal shims inserted underneath the space created below the lower steel plate.17 500 1 Concrete Max aggregate size 10 mm Concrete mix: 1:2:2 Forming and prestressing of the CFRP straps The prestressing material comes in the form of a tape consisting of unidirectional carbon fibres in a thermoplastic matrix. Material DroDerties and reinforcement details Reinforcement details I Dia. The strap is jacked upwards. Table 1.5 kN. (mm) Bar 4 6 I Location Shear links: Beams 28 Shear links: Beam 1 Beam tension and 12 compression Beam tension 16 reinforcement Tape for straps Youngs Modulus = 130000 N/mm’ Ultimate strain = 11000 micro strain Thickness = 0. 200c/c 6 1. The beams were installed in the testing frame approximately 7 days after casting (see Figure 2a).
Figure 3 shows the load versus displacement (measured directly on top of the loading point) curves for all the beams tested. In the second stage. For comparison purposes. results and failure modes can be found in Table 2. A summary of the experimental programme. strengthened beams were tested. Summary of test results ble 1 Properties ble 1 Properties ble 1 Properties ble 1 Properties Ta Ta Ta Ta Beam number B 1NSNL B2NSNL B32s10L B41S5L B51s5LP B62s10LF B71 S1 OL B82S5L ieam numberno. Beam 1 was tested at d d = 4. P denotes a precracked beam. The key parameters under investigation were the number of layers of tape. Table 2. Beam in testing frame Figure 2b. Fflexural failure. The final stage considered damaged beams where the beams were cracked before the straps were installed. S strap failul e.450 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Shear Figure 2a. the strap strengthening increment predicted using the 45" truss analogy* is also shown (*the approach assumes the use of passive ductile materials and may be inappropriate for prestressed CFRP straps). strapsnolayers.5 and . DT diagonal tension failure. the number of straps and the strap spacing. Arrangement for prestressing The experiments were arranged in three major stages. Beams 1 and 2 were used to establish the maximum and the minimum beam capacities in terms of flexural failure and shear failure. The first stage involved testing unstrengthened beams to establish the minimum and maximum beam capacities and failure modes.
The outermost shear crack developed and propagated resulting in the failure of the beam by the splitting of the compression zone (Figure 4a). the strap was located in the middle of the shear span (345 mm from support block) whilst for beams with 2 straps. the straps were equally spaced within the shear span (230 mm apart). The beams were then loaded until failure. 3. Beam 7 also failed in shear but the strap did not break since the shear crack formed between the strap and the support block leading to failure in the concrete. 70% of unstrengthened beam’s shear ultimate capacity) and then unloaded before the straps were installed. Beam 3 attained its full flexural capacity and crushing of concrete occurred at the corner between the beam and support. In the case of the precracked beams (B5 and B6). the beams were initially loaded to about 34 kN (i. For the beams with 1 strap. Snapping of the first strap followed flexural failure. Beams 4 and 8 both failed in shear with the shear crack crossing the strap followed by the snapping of the strap.e.0 with the shear reinforcement as shown in Figure 1 (4 mm links at 200 mm centers). the initial beam behaviour was similar to that of the unstrengthened beams in terms of the stiffness and crack pattern. 120 100 5 m 80 60 0 J 40 20 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 Displacement (m m) Figure. The load displacement curve has been omitted from Figure 3 for ease of comparison. Beam 2 failed in shear. Load versus displacement curves . For the strengthened beams.Shear Critical RC Beams with CFRP Straps 451 contained 6 mm shear links at 75 mm centers whilst the rest of the beams were all tested at d d = 3. Beam 1 failed in flexure with the yielding of the tension reinforcement before the crushing of concrete.
Since all the straps were prestressed to 50% of their ultimate capacity. final failure occurred at a load of 81 kN which was higher than the shear capacity of the unstrengthened beam. the stiffness of the 10 layer straps was twice that of the 5 layer straps. Whilst beam 3 failed in flexure. Beams with 2 straps Beam 3 and beam 8 had 2 straps installed from the beginning of the test with 10 and 5 layers respectively. The straps are not bonded to the concrete and act like a tie inducing transverse compression through the web of a beam. It could be observed that the outer shear crack for beam 7 could not develop as far as that of beam 4 and the stiffer 10layer strap managed to reduce the progress of this crack. Up to 50 kN. It could be observed that the cracks in beam 8 had progressed about twice the distance of that of beam 3.452 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement for Shear DISCUSSION The strengthened beams were significantly stronger (55 to 100%) than the unstrengthened beam. In addition. Nevertheless. Influence of the number of layers Beams with 1 strap Beam 4 and beam 7 both had a single strap installed in the middle of the shear span and prestressed to 50% of the strap capacity. The strain in a strap leg is thus uniform but the prestress force and the stiffness of the straps will differ depending on the number of layers of tape used.5 kN whilst the 10 layer straps had an initial prestress of 25 kN. In contrast. But when the crack crossed the straps. The failure mode of beam 7 suggests that the 10layer strap stopped the shear crack between the strap and the loading point from developing. the crack in beam 4 quickly progressed beyond the strap. For beam 4 the strap did not exert as much influence on the outer crack. On the other hand. . the two beams behaved in the same manner and the crack pattern looked very similar. The crack progress can be observed from the traced crack pattern (Figures 4d and 4e). the straps had a strong influence on the crack progress. straps made of 5 layers of tape had an initial prestress of 12. it had a limited influence on the crack between the support and the strap and thus the beam failed due to this crack. Figures 4b and 4c show the crack pattern when the applied load reached 65 kN. beam 8 failed in shear.
Shear Critical RC Beams with CFRP Straps 453 (el I 1 I ' I " Figure 4. Beam crack patterns at specified loads (a) Beam 2 at 48 kN (b) Beam 4 at 65 kN (c) Beam 7 at 65 kN (d) Beam 8 at 65 kN and (e) Beam 3 at 65 kN .
beam 4 had only one. The second strap . the difference in behaviour was not significant due to the nature of the failures. Although the beams had a different number of straps.454 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Shear The prestress force applied to the concrete and the stiffness of the straps thus control the rate of crack growth and also influence the mode of failure. Influence of number of straps /strap spacing The 45" truss analogy would predict that a single strap would be ineffective. However. even beams with a single strap showed a capacity increase. other cracks in unstrengthened regions remain free to grow and can lead to beam failure. However.5d from the support and a crack developed between the support and the strap. The load deformation curves (Figure 5 ) show both beams attaining almost the same load capacity and both failing in shear. Comparison of beams with 5layer straps Beam 4 had a single strap a distance 1. beam 8 had two straps. The influence of the strap spacing will be discussed in the next section. Beams with 5 layer straps Beams 4 and 8 each had 5 layer straps but whereas beam 8 had two straps. 90 7 80 70 z 60 5 50 40 I 30 20 I I I 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Displacement (m m) I I I I I I 1 16 18 20 3 I 10 0 0 Figure 5. As a result. On the other hand. The location of the first strap was such that it stopped the first crack from developing. when a particular strap retards crack progress. these two cracks lead to failure of the beam. The strap was also not able to stop the outer crack from developing and crossing through the strap. As beam 3 failed in flexure it can also be concluded that the straps can effectively enhance the shear capacity and change the mode of failure.
The load deflection curves show beam 3 failing in flexure whilst beam 7 failed in shear (see Figure 6). Pre.cracked beams From the load displacement curves (see Figure 3 ) the peak loads did not change significantly for the precracked beams but the stiffnesses of these . 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 I 0 5 10 15 20 25 Displacement (m m ) 30 35 40 Figure 6. The 2 straps of beam 3 managed to control the crack growth whilst the single strap of beam 7 did not restrain the propagation of the inner shear crack leading to the failure of the beam in shear. For the beams with the lower stiffness 5 layer straps. However. the section in between the straps was unstrengthened and the crack that developed in this region easily then passed through the first strap to fail the beam. provided that the stiffnesses of the straps were adequate. However. failure may develop in adjacent unstrengthened regions in later stages of testing. The result suggests that the importance of the strap spacing is connected to the stiffness of the straps.Shear Critical RC Beams with CFRP Straps 455 also limited the propagation of the outer crack. Beams with I0 layer straps Beams 3 and 7 both had 10layer straps but the number of straps differed. two straps spaced at a distance d apart were more effective. the tests show that although this can be achieved. Hence. Comparison of beams with 10layer straps Since the unstrengthened beam failed by the propagation of the outermost shear crack (see Figure 4a) and it is reasonable to assume that stopping this outer crack might be sufficient to prevent shear failure. the final crack pattern and ultimate shear capacity were similar regardless of the strap spacing.
Tests are continuing where the precrack load will be higher than that used in the earlier tests..456 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement for Shear beams were lower than those of beams with straps applied at the beginning of the test. The crack path does not appear be influenced significantly by the straps however the crack growth and widths are reduced due to the presence of the straps. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors are grateful to EMPA for their support with this project. Dept. UK. The prestressed straps will also help close any existing cracks and thus it could be that the influence of existing damage is mitigated. . Journal of Compositesfor Construction. of Engineering. The precracking of the beams before installing the straps seems to have no significant influence on the shear capacity gain. “External Prestressed CFRP Straps for the Shear Enhancement of Concrete ”. Lees. J. The influence of existing cracks in a passive system may well be different. CONCLUSIONS Based on the experiments carried out to date. Nov 2002. 249256 2. The ability of the precracked beam to attain the same peak load could be a function of the load to which the beam was initially subjected. the strap location and the crack path. whether single or double and irrespective of the number of strap layers. all of the beams tested with straps. Prestressed Nonlaminated Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic Straps. This was expected as the precracking induced some permanent damage before strapping.M.M. K.. ASCE. The mode of failure depends on the strap stiffness. REFERENCES 1.C. 1999/2000. WinistBrfer A. pp. and Meier U. Chan. Fourth Year Project Report. the links were not carrying much load in the preloading stage and thus the beam had not sustained significant damage.U. 6(4). had a shear capacity enhancement at least 55% higher than that of an equivalent unstrengthened beam. Further tests are being carried out to separate the effect of the prestress force and the stiffness of the straps. From strain readings taken from the internal steel links. University of Cambridge.. All of the beams with a single strap failed in shear whilst some of the beams with two straps attained their full flexural capacity.
Anchorage of FRP sheets at the top surface of the beam was provided in order to delay or prevent sheet debonding. Saitama University. Chajes et a1. B.are presented in this paper.*. Bond of FRP sheets to concrete is of critical importance for the effectiveness of externally bonded FRP sheets. when failure is likely to occur due to sheet debonding and when bonded anchorage of FRP sheet is provided to the beams. ADHIKARY Frank Lam &Associates. INTRODUCTION From the past studies conducted by Chaallal et al. Khalifa et aL6. ASHRAF Engineering Associates (EA) Pvt. sheetdebonding failure occurs. 810 July 2003 Edited by Kiang Hwee Tan QWorld Scientific Publishing Company EFFECTIVE SHEAR STRENGTHENING OF CONCRETE BEAMS USING FRP SHEETS WITH BONDED ANCHORAGE B. and Uji 4.’. Three different models to estimate the contribution of FRP to the shear capacity (V’) of RC beams are discussed and two separate equations to calculate V’are presented. . If this interfacial bond is compromised before rupture of the FRP sheets. Ltd. Karachi. Japan M. and Triantafillou and Antonopoulos7 for computing the contribution of FRP sheet to the shear capacity of strengthened beams (5) are presented and compared with the experimental results. Pakistan This paper presents the results of an experimental study for shear strengthening of reinforced concrete beams using externally bonded FRP sheets. Sat0 et aL3. The study focused on effect of bonded anchorage of sheets in delaying or preventing sheet debonding. Saitama.. Two separate equations to calculate V. Singapore. Engineering. This study presents the shear behavior of RC beams strengthened with FRP sheets. USA H. Special focus is given for the prevention of sheet debonding to get effective utilization of FRP’s mechanical properties. Austin. MUTSUYOSHI Department of Civil and Env. it has been shown that externally bonded FRP can be used to enhance the shear capacity of RC beams. Texas.FRPRCS6. Three models available in the literature by the JSCE’.
286 Tensile strength WPa) 3400 2000 Elastic modulus (GPa) 230 120 Ultimate elongation (%) 1. Figure 1 shows the typical dimensions and reinforcement layout for RC beams. Mechanical properties of FRP sheets are shown in Table 1. Eight beams were categorized into two series as CFRP series and AFRP series. where principal fibers were kept perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the beams. Mechanical properties of FRP sheets Sheet CFRP AFRP Thickness (mm) 0. Figure 2 shows the different wrapping schemes used. wrapping layout and anchorage length. Longitudinal bars had an average yield strength of 395 MPa and elastic modulus of 196 GPa. The beams were strengthened with epoxy bonded unidirectional FRP sheets applied only to the shear spans. No stirrups were provided in the potential shear failure zone. and the chamfered edges were further smoothened in round shape at 100mm diameter for CFRP strengthened beams.167 0.5 1. Anchorage was provided by bonding a length of sheet at top of the beam.8 . Test variables were FRP type. Beam B1 was kept as a control beam. The cross sections of beams were chamfered at 30mm for AFRP strengthened beams.458 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement for Shear EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM a. Cross section b. Table 1. Longitudinal section (Dimensions are in mm) Figure 1 Details of test beams A total of nine beams were tested.
!F( Figure 2 Experimental test scheme (Dimensions in mm) TEST RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Figure 3 Sheet debonding in beam C1 Figure 4 Concrete splitting in beam C2 Control beam B1 failed in shear at a load of 224 kN. contribution of FRP .Shear Strengthening with Bonded Anchorage 459 AFRPSERIES 1 A .I (AFRP1 (U. The ultimate failure loads.W r a p ) €7 A 2 (80 AFRP &ixdgs) rl 0 A3 (AFRP) ( I 1 0 mm anchorage) 100 H % % i% . All other beams. except C4 and A4 failed also in shear at considerably higher loads than that of control beam B1.
6 3 10 43 38.9 490 133 118. Experimental results Beam fc 'Shear b ~ f Increase Failure mode (MPa) strength (kN) (kN) (%) B1 38.1 475 125.5 488 132 117.0 shear + splitting C3 41. bVfisFRP contribution to the shear capacity of RC beam. respectively.4 500 138 123.3 shear + debonding C2 41. f Figure 5 Load displacement (CFRP) Figure 6 Load displacement (AFRP) Figure 5 and Figure 6 show the load displacement relationships for CFRP and AFRP strengthened beams. Beams C2 and A2 failed by concrete splitting (Figure 4).2' flexure AI 39.0 457 116.460 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcementfor Shear sheet to the shear capacity of RC beam (Q). but also change the deflection characteristics of beams. It is also found that the bonded anchorage of FRP sheet not only increases the shear capacity.5 112.4 shear + debonding A2 41.8 400 88 78. which were strengthened using Uwrap of CFRP and AFRP sheets.6 shear + splitting A3 43.9' flexure ' Shear strength of beam is equal to half the failure load.and increase in shear capacity are shown in Table 2. Beams C1 and A1 . but also changes the ultimate failure mode from sheet debonding to concrete splitting or flexure. It is confirmed that the FRP sheets applied on shear spans not only increase the shear capacity. Table 2. Beams C4 and A4 strengthened by full wrapping of CFRP and AFRP sheets failed in flexural mode.2 330 53 47.5 104.8 shear + splitting A4 43.0 shear f splitting C4 42.0 224 diagonal shear C1 37. Each superior strengthening scheme showed better loaddisplacement characteristics than the previous . respectively failed in shear followed by debonding of sheet (Figure 3). is the percentage increase in failure load.
Table 3 shows FRP strain and percentage increase in FRP strain for beams with provision of bonded anchorage as compared to Uwrapped beams.Shear Strengthening with Bonded Anchorage 461 one. . .>ooo o >om >om 1000 aom I ~ O . which is about 45% of the ultimate strain of the sheets. maximum FRP strain in beam C1 is 3550 microstrain. which is only 23.7% of the ultimate FRP strain. Beams with bonded anchorage did not show sheet debonding at ultimate failure due to reduction in bond stress at the interface.?om . This substantial increase in FRP strain in beam C2 is due to the provision of bonded anchorage. Influence of bonded anchorage on interface bond stresses is shown in Figure 9. Moreover.. Figure 7 and Figure 8 show the relationship of load and vertical strain in FRP sheet for CFRP and AFRP strengthened beams.o( o iooo 2mo iom moo om $om moo moo 9000 FRP sheet Stran (micron) FRPshed strain (mcron) Figure 7 LoadFRP strain (CFRP series) Figure 8 LoadFRP strain (AFRP series) I 600 Trend AFRPSeries line (CFRPseries) .28% increase as compared to the control beam C1 . a strain of 6045 microstrain was attained. Maximum FRP strain parallel to the fibers was measured as 6825 and 8225 microstrain for beams C4 and A4.05 MPa. which is 70.000 4000 I000 6000 line(AFRPseries) 7000 moo '1000 MaximmFRPsIrain (micron) Figure 10 Failure load versus maximum FRP strain For beams C1 and A1 failure was governed by to sheet debonding. This was found to be 4.. bond stress 210 .Trend 100 110 200 B o nd eA anchorage iengI h (m) Figure 9 Anchorage length vs. therefore measured bond stress for beams C1 and A1 may be taken as bond strength. while for beam C2.
It is seen that none of the models is able to predict V. respectively.9. qe. FRP strain c1 0 3550 0. After computing the effective strain. Therefore.0 0. Table 4 shows the comparison of predicted and experimental values of V.5 0. Vf for FRP sheets can be calculated by Eq. The effective strain is computed using the lowest value of R.403 c3 110 6368 79. FRP strain / (mm) strain (p) strain (%) Ult. Japan Society of Civil Engineers (JSCE)5 proposes to use a coefficient called shear reinforcing efficiency of the FRP sheet to evaluate the ultimate mean stress of sheet and to determine the shear contribution of the sheet. FRF' SHEET CONTRIBUTION TO SHEAR CAPACITY The shear strength of RC beams strengthened using externally bonded FRP sheets is computed by Eq. = pf Ef qedfbw(sin p +COS p) (2) Khalifa et a1.455 A1 0 3420 0.3 0. R to ultimate strain to calculate the effective strain in the sheet. They suggested two equations for R to represent two possible failure modes of FRP bonded beams.435 A4 200 8225 140.5 0.425 c4 200 6825 92. namely FRP rupture and FRP debonding.correctly. The FRP reinforcement is treated in analogy to the internal steel if it is assumed that FRP develops an effective strain (qe) that is less than the tensile failure strain (qu).3 0.392 A3 110 7825 129.. (2).the contribution of FRP sheet to the shear capacity can be calculated from Eq. (1).6 proposed to use a reduction factor.277 c2 80 6045 70. (2) with a multiplying factor of 0. Maximum FRP strain Beam Anchorage Maximum FRP ahcrease in FRP Max.462 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcementfor Shear Table 3.457 a Increase compared to C1 and A1 for CFRP and AFRP series. Triantafillou and Antonopoulos7 proposed three different expressions to calculate the effective FRP strain. . V.4 0.19 A2 80 7063 106.
past experiment^^‘^ on shear strengthening using externally bonded FRP sheets and strips are used to calibrate an equation for estimation of effective strain in FRP sheet at debonding failure.5 0. This relation can be obtained from a bestfit powertype curve to the experimental data.3 (0.3 0.2/3)is plotted versus t+‘zfu as shown in Figure 11.Comparison between the calculated and experimental V. given by Eq. PROPOSED DESIGN EQUATION Experiment showed that the Uwrapped beams failed due to sheet debonding.2 0.14) 67.1 0.Shear Strengthening with Bonded Anchorage 463 Table 4.5 1. Shear capacity of RC beams was found to be linearly proportional to the FRP strain measured at failure (Figure lo). .2f:”) Figure 1 1 Model calibration for effective strain In this study.1 (1.36) Experiment 53. Past studies showed that effective strain in FRP sheet depends on the product of elastic modulus and thickness of the FRP sheet.65) 156. CI AI c4 A4 Khalifa et al. 60.2.3 0.4 0. bond strength of FRP to concrete also depends on the tensile strength of concrete.6 (1.3 (1. Besides. Bonded anchorage resulted in more than 100% increase in FRP effective strain and consequently in higher shear capacity. consequently to its compressive strength. (kN) Beam no.2 0.00) 154.56) JSCE Triantafllou and Antonopoulos 72.6 0.O 137.18) 132.0 43 .4 (1.0 (1. 1.12) 138. The value of pf Ef/(0.8 (1.. Only those experimental results are used in which RC beams failed in diagonal shear followed by FRP debonding. (3).0 85.6 P/Ed (0.0 Number in parenthesis is ratio of values from formula to that of experiment.
034f EfU  (for AFRP Sheet) JZ (4) It is seen that the additional bonded anchorage of sheet resulted in substantial increase in FRP strain.O range. Eqs. Effective strain in FRP is equal to the sum of effective strain in FRP in debonding mode ( % I ) and increase in effective strain in FRP ( q k 2 ) due to bonded anchorage.5 For 1.025<pfEf<:1. which is a function of axial rigidity of FRP and tensile strength of concrete. For CFRP sheet: I <. (3) is derived using most of the data for CFRP sheetslstrips. 1 &/el .025 and 1. the same equation is used for AFRP sheetdstrips using a factor of 0.) 0 < lulbwI 0. Proposed equations are based on data for p@f between 0. Proposed equations are verified using the experimental results from the present study.&& I 2 + 0.464 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement for Shear Eq. = 0. I 0.0043 x f'. It is found that the proposed equation could estimate qi in a reasonably good . / b.j <.~) which is given by fitting a best curve to the test results. the compressive strength of concrete (f'. / b w )0 < ldb.O. The increase in effective strain due to is related to a nondimensional parameter ldb.depends on p&> proposed equations are valid only for 0..0.9.5 For AFRP sheet: &fe  O.JX Efr  0'03sf ICJ 2 + 0. Therefore. bonded anchorage (~3. Since four beams tested with bonded anchorage failed due to concrete splitting.) is also considered while estimating q e 2 . Since. (3) and (4) should be used.5 In(l001.O34f'.0046 x flC5ln(lOO1. qdq.
D. S. Nollet. “Shear Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Beams using Externally Applied Composite Fabrics”.Shear Strengthening with Bonded Anchorage 465 agreement with experimentally measured values (Figure 12). Januska. Y. Tanaka.R. (b) FRP sheet with bonded anchorage is much more effective than Uwrap scheme and is an effective way to delay or evade sheet debonding.113. Transactions of the Japan Concrete Institute. 1 1 1. 137142. and Finch. 10000  160 140 8WO 120 00 6000. M. (c) Bonded anchorage of sheet resulted in a decrease of interface bond stress and an increase in effective strain of FRP sheet at failure. 1996. T. 18. T. Jr. ACI Structural. M..W. 295303. pp. Vol. D. and Perraton.J. O. Chaallal. Jr. “Shear Strengthening of RC Beams by Externally Bonded Side CFRP Strips”.. and Ono. REFERENCES 1. (d) The proposed equations can be used to estimate the contribution of FRP sheets (V’j) to the shear capacity of RC beams with satisfactory accuracy.. A maximum of 123% increase for CFRP and 118% increase for AFRP strengthened beams in their shear capacities were observed compared to that of control beam. “Shear Behavior of RC Beams Reinforced with Carbon Fiber Sheets”. T$ could be calculated using the proposed equations satisfactorily (Figure 13).. T. Ueda. pp. 92(3). 1995. Thomson. Sato.J. 1998. Mertz. 2( l).A..F... Chajes. Journal... W. a 4 0 E 4000 2WO 100 Y 80 ’ 0  60 40 20 ’ mm  8 ’ ’ ’  Figure 12 FRP effective strain ( z ~ ) Figure 13 Contribution of FRP shect (6) CONCLUSIONS (a) Effectiveness of externally bonded CFRP and AFRP sheets for shear strengthening of RC beams was confirmed. T. ASCE. 2. 3. Journal of Composites for Construction. Further. . pp.
2(4). 7. Recommendationsfor Upgrading of Concrete Structures with Use of Continuous Fiber Sheet. pp. 8. 144 pp. 6. Japan Society of Civil Engineers. Ashraf. M. Transactions of the Japan Concrete Institute. 2001. “Contribution of Externally Bonded FRP to Shear Capacity of Flexural Members”. CFRP Sheets and Externally Anchored Stirrups. and Abdel Aziz. Shear Strengthening of RC Beams using Epoxy Bonded Steel Plates. Gold. 2000. Shear Upgrading of RC Beams with Externally Bonded CFRP and AFRP Sheets. Tokyo. Concrete Engineering Series 41.195203. “Improving Shear Capacity of Existing Reinforced Concrete Members by Applying Carbon Fiber Sheets”. 2002. Journal of Compositesfor Construction. Minh.C.I.. Japan. 14. Triantafillou. MS Thesis submitted to Saitama University. H. MS Thesis submitted to Saitama University. Vol. K. ASCE. “Design of Concrete Flexural Members Strengthened in Shear with FRP”. and Antonopoulos.466 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcementfor Shear 4.. ASCE. Nanni. 9. pp. 102 pp. APPENDIX I: Notation of FRP shear reinforcement = 2+wf of the beam cross section = effective depth of the FRP reinforcement = elastic modulus of FRP in GPa = compressive strength of concrete in MPa = bonded anchorage length of FRP sheet = reduction factor = thickness of FRP sheet or strip = shear capacity contributed by concrete = contribution of FRP sheet to the shear capacity = nominal shear capacity of the beam = contribution of stirrups to the shear capacity = angle between principal fiber and longitudinal axis of beam = effective FRP strain = ultimate tensile elongation of FRP material = FRP shear reinforcement ratio = area = width . 1992. 253266.. T. Khalifa. M.. C.P. W.J. Journal of Composites for Construction.. pp. 4(4). 1998. Japan. 198205. A. 5.. Japan.. Uji. A.
SE971 87 LuleB. INTRODUCTION All over the world there are structures intended for living and transportation. The topic of this paper is strengthening for increased shear capacity of concrete structures. It is not only deterioration that concerns strengthening. SE971 87 LuleB. Sweden B. The model also addresses issues regarding behaviour in Service Limit State. Sweden and Skanska AB. problems initiated by temporary overload. For instance. With environmental and economical aspects in mind it is untenable to replace all structures. Some of these structures will need to be replaced since they are in such bad condition. The model especially shows limitations and needs when continuous Tbeams are strengthened. 169 83 Soha. Strengthening methods are well developed when it concerns flexural strengthening and they have therefore been used quite widely. most of the laboratory tests have been undertaken on flexural strengthening. and so on. CAROLIN Department of Civil & Mining Engineering. When . shear deficiencies are becoming more and more prevalent. the design load on bridges increases with our increased need for transportation. In recent years the use of CFRP plate bonding has been shown to be a competitive method both regarding structural performance and economical aspects. 810 July 2003 Edited by S a n g Hwee Tan @World Scientific PublishingCompany BEHAVIOUR OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES STRENGTHENED IN SHEAR WITH CFRP A. The structures are of varying quality and function. Singapore. However. since many of the structures are unable to sustain the increased demands placed on them by the development of society. Although not the only problem facing structures today. but they are all ageing and deteriorating with time. TALJSTEN Luled University of Technology. LuleB University of Technology Division of Structural Engineering. Limitations of the widely used truss model are studied and presented. design and construction errors. Instead the structures should be strengthened or retrofitted as much as possible.FRPRCS6. Other reasons for repair or upgrading are: widening of bridges. Sweden The need for concrete strengthening and retrofitting is well known and a lot of research is in progress in this field.
Finite element models can also be utilized to describe the behaviour of strengthened structures. FRP. Due to the cost of performing fullscale tests. and they are not very suitable for application in codes. the derived equations for shear have been compared to results from smallscale beams and the effects from scaling have not been completely understood. In Sweden3. Although not the only problem facing structures today. for predicting the shear capacity of reinforced concrete beams. the allowable shear stress for a typical concrete member has almost been cut to half from 1967 to 1979.plate ~ . One of the chief concerns with shear is that failures often are very brittle with no. ~bonding with fibre reinforced polymers. However they will not be investigated here since they are still rather timeconsuming to use. or only small warnings preceding a collapse. One strengthening method which has gained acceptance all over the ~ o r l d ~is .468 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Shear increasing flexure capacity. shear deficiencies are becoming more and more prevalent. . MCFT. THEORIES The two most well known models. The design equations that were used when the existing structures were built were much less stringent compared to the codes of today. are the truss model and the modified compression field theory. The method implies that a thin layer of fibre composite is bonded externally to a structure's surface so that the fibres will act as an outer reinforcement. wide acceptance and the fact that many researchers are using it for predicting the contribution from externally bonded reinforcement. the results depend largely on the users understanding of finite element theories. The high number of undertaken projects confirms that the method is competitive. both from a practical and economical point of view. It has been found in a fullscale test' that a flexural strengthening can even induce a shear failure. A beam must have a certain safety margin against shear failure since it is more dangerous and less predictable than flexural failure2. The focus in this paper will be on the truss model because of the ease of use. All of the above mentioned reasons provide a need for strengthening in shear. Even though the equations in the codes that design the structure are conservative in most cases they can overestimate the capacity in some cases. Work has been done on many structures to restore or upgrade the flexural capacity while the shear capacity has not been addressed. the structure will be loaded closer to its maximum shear capacity.
When the model is used in many codes an empirical term is added to the shear capacity to consider what has been called the concrete contribution. If shear reinforcement is required then no contribution from the concrete is added. is the concrete contribution. represents other contributions such as inclined compression chords and strengthening systems. V. a bottom longitudinal tension chord. The total shear capacity. where V. vertical steel ties (stirrups) and diagonal concrete struts (Figure 1). Vp is contribution from axial forces. is the contribution from steel calculated by the truss model. which often includes the dowel action. the Eurocode’ divides shear elements into members with and without shear reinforcement. and V. Many researchers considered the truss model to give conservative but good results and the model has therefore become the basis for many codes such as Eurocode’ and the code by AC19. .Concrete Structures Strengthened in Shear 469 Truss Model The truss model is also known as the strut and tie model and was derived in the end of the 19” century by Ritter7. The capacity of the concrete can be calculated for members not requiring shear reinforcement. can be calculated as the sum of all the terms as shown in Equation (1). Figure 1 : The truss model with struts and ties’ The original truss model assumes that only the steel stirrups carry the shear forces. can be added. V. for instance. This model assumes that after cracking of the concrete. This is a traditional “addition model” where other terms to involve axial forces. . However. and is determined by empirically found relationships. the behaviour of a reinforced concrete beam becomes analogous to that of a truss with a top longitudinal compression chord.
In the truss model.470 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement for Shear Equation (2) is one way to calculate the contribution from vertical steel stirrups by using the truss theory. v. The behaviour is further described in the literature". . Actually some legs will be yielding before the others. the most stressed stirrup starts to yield. especially for prestressed concrete. When steel stirrups are used to reinforce a concrete beam the yielding of steel distribute the strains over all stirrups crossed by the crack as the deformations increase. and s is vertical spacing between the stirrups. when designing in ultimate limit state. d is the effective depth of the beam. If the crack continues to widen the "neighbour" stirrups reach their yield limit and start to deform until all stirrups in the crack have started to yield. When a shear crack forms and widens. The strains in each stirrup over a crack are schematically shown in Figure 3. In the truss model it is assumed that all steel stirrups are yielding. this is the reason why yield strain can be used for all stirrups that are crossed by a crack. Equation (2) is derived for 45 degrees crack inclination and is conservative for smaller angles. bending and shear. In Service limit state this can cause problems since the truss model assumes the same stress in all of the stirrups. The oftenassumed crack angle of 45 degrees has been discussed and there exist other assumptions and derivations. The truss model does not consider any interaction among torsion.=.ASdfY S where As is the total area of the crosssection of one stirrup (two shears). Sometimes the conditions in the serviceability limit state indicate a need for more reinforcement than in the ultimate limit state. This is only valid after a certain deformation and is explained by the nonuniform distribution of shear forces that act on a crosssection. f y is the yield stress of the steel. For a rectangular uniform crosssection the shear stresses can be described as Equation (3)5: These stresses can be projected on a shear crack and transformed to maximum principal stresses as shown in Figure 2.
the FRP plate can be bonded to the web of the beam throughout its entire length. the inclination of a crack will be different if it arises before or after the fibres are applied". Since fibre composites are anisotropic the effectiveness of the plate primarily depends on the orientation of the fibres. height of the beam. 1 " 4 * . or it can be bonded to the areas where the highest shear is expected. the fibres will be . when the first (middle) fibre reaches its ultimate capacity and breaks. the composite is linear elastic without any yield plateau or capability to deformation after reaching maximum load.Concrete Structures Strengthened in Shear 471 Figure 2: Shear strains over a rectangular crosssection and projected and converted to maximum principal strains on a crack'. Also. Truss Model and Plate Bonding For shear. The nonuniform strain field then causes a nonuniform stress field in the composites (see Figure 4). depending on the location on the possible crack. and the neighbouring fibres become more stressed and rupture. "t I ~ . When calculating the contribution from fibres. b E Figure 3: Principle of work for steel stirrups5. Further. that is.
The two test setups will cause different strain fields over a crack. Compared to a situation where all fibres are utilized to their maximum. the flange is subjected to high hogging moments together with high shear forces. large hogging moments are prevailing.67.472 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcementfor Shear stressed differently. Shear. I" Figure 4: Stresses and strains over the height of the cro~ssection~. By studying the stresses perpendicular to a possible crack path the effective stress in the fibres can be calculated.Moment Interaction Pure shear over an area is very unusual in structural members. Fibres bonded over this possible crack path will become stressed by the crack opening and then contribute to the shear capacity of the beam. Test of Tbeams can be found in the literature. The amount and direction of flexural moment depends on both location of the structure and on the structural system. Most of the tests have been conducted on simply supported beams with compression in the flange. A simply supported beam is subjected to sagging moments in the span and zero moments at the ends. that is. Most members are simultaneously subjected to both shear and flexural loading. At the mid support of a continuous beam. it seems as though this situation may in fact pose a considerable . This shear crack is assumed to open in the direction perpendicular to the crack plane. the contribution for the nonuniform stress distribution from pure shear corresponds to an average fibre utilization ratio of 0. in Tbeams that are continuous over supports. Considering that the anchorage of the fibres is of utmost importance. By studying the strain field in a concrete member it is possible to predict a possible shear crack. In many structures with Tbeams.
structural system. Strains have been measured in fibre direction at seven heights on a 500 mm high beam strengthened in 45 degrees angle and subjected to fourpoint bending. The factor should be 0. The largest deformation . Note that prior to debonding. The test indicates average fibre utilization compared to the most stressed fibre before debonding of 0. Further description and the derivation can be found in the literature3.Concrete Structures Strengthened in Shear 473 problem due to the anchorage occurring near the slabweb interface where shear strains are high.450.7. the factor needs to account for this too. the top fibres actually compressed in accordance with the theory presented in this paper. and maximum allowed strain for concrete contribution. In the case of insufficient anchorage. THEORY IN COMPARISON WITH TESTS Halfscale tests3’ on simply supported beams reveal the nonuniform strain profile. as shown in Figure 6. This is illustrated in Figure 5 where the dashed line indicates a slabweb interface. The contribution calculated by the truss model can also include all effects from anisotropic behaviour of the composite’. the equation becomes similar to the equation for steel. Figure 5: Schematic strain profile over a crack with shear forces and sagging (left) and hogging (right) moments However. Except for the reduction factor and by the simplification that the fibres only carry stresses in its direction. Local debonding close to the crack can reduce the influence from the nonuniform distribution.67 depending on these parameters. It is necessary to use a reduction factor on the effective fibre strain. This reduction factor must consider fibre alignment. shearmoment relation. the truss model can still be used for describing the contribution from externally bonded fibres which are anisotropic and linear elastic.
A strain limitation due to the shear crack width and loss of aggregate interlocking has also been suggested16. A reduction factor for the strengthening effect of the composites has been suggested".64 times the contribution at debonding. . the model is also based upon FEanalysis and experimental tests and is not applicable for a general case. without debonding. wrapped around corners. However. it is found that the fibre contribution at failure is 1. the load is only 15 % higher and is explained by a decrease in concrete contribution when the strains are increasing. Since the fibres are sufficient anchored.This limitation is also used in other proposal^'^.474 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcementfor Shear occurs in the middle of the beam. midsection of the height. However.e. 2 E P .' ~ has ~ ' ~ ~explained '~ the effective strain by development lengths of the fibres on each side of the crack and different anchorage limitations. the rupture starts in the area of highest strains. i. By integration of the strains in Figure 6. However. that is.g s: 400 300 85 X of debonding load s 200 n 0 I000 2000 3000 4000 5000 j 6000 7000 8000 9000 Strain [prnlrn] Figure 6: Measured strain profile over shear span for fibres in 45 degrees and completely wrapped. the fibres might first debond and this should not be allowed in design. Earlier r e ~ e a r c h ' * ~. With sufficient anchorage. and the bond length for the composite. The reduction is based upon distribution of the strain in the shear span. a more uniform distribution can take place.
(1999): “Structural Tensile Elements made of Advanced Composite Materials” Structural Engineering International. 4. Division of Structural Engineering. 118 6 . Tgljsten. Talj sten. Shear strengthening and fullscale applications ”. LuleA 2002. 5. and Taljsten. C. pp. J. 308 pp. (1994): “Plate bonding Strengthening of existing concrete structures with epoxy bonded plates of steel or fibre reinforced plastics” Doctoral Thesis. V. Design Guidelines Division of Structural Engineering. LuleA University of Technology. Carolin. (2002): “FRP Strengthening of Existing Concrete Structures. A. 3. (200 1): “Strengthening of concrete structures with CFRP. CONCLUSIONS AND FURTHER STUDIES The truss model for predicting contribution from a FRP shear strengthening cannot be used without a reduction factor. B.267273. 9 No. The combinations of shear and bending ought to be treated in a more correct way than is done today. ” . August 1994. 4. Luleg University of Technology. and local debonding close to the crack should be developed. November pp. The behaviour in the Service Limit State should also be further analysed. 9 No. €3. A. 4. Nonsymmetrical strengthening could be an issue in some cases and should be investigated and be considered when writing a code. U. 2nd Edition. Carolin.281285. Licentiate thesis. (2003): “Shear Behavior of Concrete Beams Strengthened with CFW” To be submitted. November pp. Meier. 2. Lule&University of Technology. More tests need to be done on largescale specimens. V. anchorage limitations. Burgoyne. Journal of the IABSE. Journal of the IABSE. 228 pp. REFERENCES 1. ISBN 9189580036.Concrete Structures Strengthened in Shear 475 ISSUES. A model with nonuniform strain profile. (1999): “Advanced Composites in Civil Engineering in Europe” Structural Engineering International. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors would like to acknowledge LE Lundbergs Foundation for economic support for this study. B.
European Committee for Standardisation. Ed. (1 998): ”Shear Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Beams Using EpoxyBonded FRP Composites” ACI Structural Journal. Kakuta.theory and tests” Proceedings of FRP composites in civil engineering.. CEN (Comitd Europeen de Normalisation). Nollet... Transactions of the Japan concrete institute. Schweiserische Bauzeitung”. T. H (1998): “Analytical Study of Reinforced Concrete Beams Strengthened with WebBonded Fiber Reinforced Plastic Plates or Fabrics” ACI Structural Journal. V. Y. V. Brussels. V. pp. pp. (2001): “Strengthening of concrete beams in shear . Sato. (1996) ”Shear Reinforcing Effect of Carbon Fiber Sheet Attached to Side of Reinforced Concrete Beams” Advanced Composite Materials in Bridges and Structures. 95. A. and AbelAziz. EC 21 (2001): ”Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures . T. M. M. Taljsten. 343352. Saadatmanesh.. prEN 19921. 692704 15..J. Farmington Hills. Oct 1995. Y.279286 14. 17. and Tanaka. and Carolin. pp. T. M. 7 pp. V123. 10. 195202. MayJune 1998. Malek. Ueda. American Concrete Institute. No. 18. Hong Kong. (1998): “Study on shear strengthening of RC beams by prestressed fiber sheets”. and Shimura. A. (1 899): ”Die Bauweise Hennebique. K. 107115 16. W. M. Nanni. C. V. A. 11. T. ElBadry. pp. 2. 4 pp. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering.Part I : General rules and rules for buildings”. 33 Switzerland 8. H.. Journal of Composites for Construction. Saeki. ACI 3 1885 (1995): “Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete ”. W. 369 pp. (1997) “Shear and flexural strengthening of R/C Beams with Carbon Fiber Sheets” Journal of structural engineering. Central Secretariat. 12.. (1998): “Contribution of externally Bonded FRP to the Shear Capacity of RC Flexural Members”. 24 January 2000. D. Norris. T. Gold. N. 2.230 pp 9.476 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Shear 7. ACI Committe 440 (2000): ”Guidefor the design and construction of externally bonded FRP systems for strengthening concrete structures”. October 200 1. B. M. Chaallal. R.. No. A. Saadatmanesh. pp 62 1628 . and Ehsani. No. Horiguchi. and Perraton. (1998): ”Strengthening of reinforced concrete beams with externally bonded fiberreinforcedplastic plates: Design guidelines for shear and flexure”. pp 657668. Ritter. M. O... Triantafillou. K. 90391 1 13. 20. Khalifa.. MarchApril.. Izumo.
The remaining beams were used as references. subjected to two top point loads were investigated. Brazil The shear resistance of eight simply supported reinforced concrete Tbeams. S.7% higher than the reference beams. 810 July 2003 Edited by Gang Hwee Tan @WorldScientific Publishing Company STRENGTHENING OF RC T BEAMS IN SHEAR WITH CARBON SHEET LAMINATES (CFRP) G. without being strengthened. specially when enveloping only the web of the beams and anchoring at the bottom of the slab (Group 1 beams). This paper reports the test results on two series of eight “T” beams with different CFRP strengthening details2b4. The main variables investigated were the way in which the CFRP sheets were anchored. University of Brasilia. MEEO. Six of the beams were strengthened in shear with CFRP unidirectional laminates after they were loaded previously up to service load and then unloaded before being strengthened. The strengthened beams reached ultimate loads that were on average 10% lower (Group 1) and 23% higher (Group 2) than the estimated loads by the ACI440’. The beams measured 4400 mm (overall length) x 400 mm (overall height) x 150 mm (web width). NAGATO Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering. 70910900 Brasilia . despite being much more laborious and messy.DF. Ultimate loads of the strengthened beams of Groups 1 and 2 were on average 16. indicating that the expressions of the this code could be revised. Singapore. . S.6% and 83. A. ARAlhO AND Y. the first with the CFRP sheets enveloping only the web of the beams and anchored at the bottom of the slab with horizontal strips (Group l). Wrapping the web and flange of the beams with CFRP laminates strips through drilled holes (Group 2) were much more efficient than enveloping only the web of the beams and anchoring them at the bottom of the flange of the slab with horizontal strips (Group l). and 550 mm in flange width. The beams were divided in two groups. and the second with the CFRP sheets wrapping the web and the flange of the beams through drilled holes at the flange of the slabs (Group 2). INTRODUCTION The use of fiberreinforced plastics in strengthening reinforced concrete structures has grown steadily.FRPRCS6.
= 712 MPa.01. . = 820 MPa. Table 1 Test Programme Beam Group Laminates Anchorage Strengthening 1 2 1 3 Web enveloped plus horizontal strips 4  5 6 7 8 2 Five vertical CFRP (one layer) strips plus a 50 mm (width) horizontal strip Five vertical CFRP (one layer) strips plus a 100 mm (width) horizontal strip Five vertical CFRP (two layers) strips plus a 100 mm horizontal (two layers) strips . For the beams of Group 2.5 mm thick welded steel plates.2 mm diameter positioned at 170 mm spacing. f.= 8 10 MPa.) at the second.478 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcementfor Shear TEST PROGRAMME Tests were made on eight simply supported reinforced concrete Tbeams. Five vertical CFRP (one layer) strips Web and flange wrapped through Five vertical CFRP (two layers) strips holes at the flange Four 45' CFRP (one layer) strips Beams (2 to 4 and 6 to 8) were loaded and unloaded before being strengthened . The anchorage of the longitudinal bars were assured by 12. flange width of 550 mm and flange thickness 100 mm. = 5. = 820 MPa. The shear span was 1070 mm and the shear span / effective depth ratio of 3. = 5. E. The flexural reinforcement of the beams of Group 1 was 3 bars of 20mm diameter (f. Shear reinforcement for all beams was 26 rectangular 120 x 370mm (Figure 2) stirrups (f. E. f. f. = 4. = 765 MPa. = 656 MPa. E. 150 mm. Details of the beams are given in Table 1 and in Figures 1 and 2. = 841 MPa. E. at the first layer and 3 bars of 16mm diameter (f.34 o/oo). overall height of 400 mm.73 "/. positioned outside the beam. = 4. f. clear span of 4000 mm. with an overall length of 4400 mm. of 4. six 22 mm diameter bars (f.32 %). = 77 1 MPa.16 o/oo) in two layers were used as main flexural reinforcement.
Strengthening of RC T Beams in Shear 479 p I H (a/d=3.. The behavior of the beams was analyzed through the strains of the shear and flexural reinforcement and of the concrete. They were subsequently strengthened (3rd step). and by the ultimate load and mechanism of rupture. and then unloaded (2ndstep).Beam 1 (reference) was tested until rupture (1" step). The holes were carefully rounded over the edges.79"/. (b) for Group 2 beams (5. or 150 kN. 6 and 7). The investigation was basically done in four steps: Group 1 . the vertical and horizontal deflections.. through rectangular holes drilled at the flange. the CFRP sheets enveloped only the web of the beams and were anchored at the bottom of the slab with additional horizontal strips 1500 mm long and 50 mm wide for beam 2 (1 layer) or 100 mm wide for beams 3 (1 layer) and 4 (2 layers). . the development and widths of the cracks. the strain in the stressed stirrup of beam 1 was 1. At this stage. . and the central deflection was 7. the CFRP sheets wrapped the web and the flange of the beams. Figure 4 shows beam 3 after strengthening and ready for testing.. The drilled holes at the flanges were 50 mm x 150 mm in beams 6 and 7 and 50 mm x 230 mm in beam 8. Loading was applied in steps. was as defined the service load.01) I 4400 Figure 1. 3 and 4). .44 mm. Experimental setup (dimensions in mm) Beams 2 to 4 (Group 1) and 6 to 8 (Group 2) were strengthened in shear with CFRP unidirectional laminates (Table 2) after the beams were loaded up to service load and then unloaded.73"/. the compressive strain of the concrete at the top of the beam was 0. Beams 2 to 4 were loaded up to this service load. About 58% of the ultimate load. the strain at the main flexural bars was 0. or 150kN. close to the web of the beam. at the end of which readings were taken. The beams were then tested up to failure (4" step). providing an average curvature radius of 10 mm. Figure 3 shows the strengthening details: (a) for Group 1 beams (2.35"/.
Beams 6 to 8 were then tested up to 220 kN. each of the same dimensions with different CFRP strengthening detailing tested p r e v i o ~ s l y ~ ..20°/o.The same procedure was adopted. At this stage.30°/00and the central deflection was 8.1'lawr SECTION AA ESC 1 25 5 F 7 0 26 N605 01280 *A *A 0 370 120 26 N104.92"/. They were then strengthened (31d step)... the strain in the stressed stirrup of beam ~5 was 1. . ~ at the laboratory. Beam 5 (reference) was tested until rupture (1St step). the strain in the main flexural bars was 0.480 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Shear 4 05. to which beams 6 to 8 would be loaded and then unloaded before being strengthened. The service load was taken as 220 kN (about 59% of the ultimate load). These beams were subsequently tested up to failure (4" step). These tests followed two series of eight Tbeams. and then unloaded (2"d step). the cofnpressive strain in the concrete was 0.7 mm.0.21080 Figure 2 Detailing of Group 1 beams (dimensions in mm) Group 2 .
Vertical (2 layers) 8 WB= 150 m m . Beam 7 .Vertical (2 layers). Vertical (2 layers). “Wrapped” (web + flange) . 100 mm (width) horizontal strip (Fh).=~~OIII~. Beam 4 .Vertical (1 layer).S%=~~OIIIIII. = 230 m m . Beam 3 .Strengtheningarrangements Beam Strengthening arrangements 213 I4 200 200 W.SB= 230 mm . = 150 mm .Vertical (1 layer). 50 m m (width) horizontal strip (Fh).Vertical (1 layer) .S.“Wrapped” (web + flange) Beam 6 . Beam 2 . 100 mm (width) horizontal strip (2 layers) W.Strengthening of RC T Beams in Shear 481 Table 2 .
0 kN) with two layers of laminates. and the rupture type obtained. 17% and 22% higher than those according to ACI 440'. the ultimate shear ultimate capacity (Pshear) according to Z ~ u t t yfor ~ . Beams strengthening details .Group 1 (left) and Group 2 (right) TEST RESULTS Table 3 presents. the experimental ultimate load (PJ. beams ~ 1 and 5.0 kN) higher than beam 4 (300. The results of Group 1 beams have shown that the expressions of ACI 440' estimate higher loads (about 10% more) for beams with CFRP strips anchored at the web of the beams. the estimated flexural ultimate load (Pnex). All strengthened beams failed in shear. the strength of the concrete. The beams of Group 2 (6 to 8) failed in shear by rupture of the strengthened strips after an initial debonding of these strips. A shear crack can also be seen at the back under the strips. the ultimate shear capacity (Pshear) according to the ACI 440' design method for the strengthened beams (beams 2 to 4 and 6 to S). for loads respectively 9%.482 FRPRCS4: Externally Bonded Reinforcement for Shear horizontal strip Group 1 Group 2 Figure 3 . . probably due to a more likely debonding of the strips at beam 4 because of the more rigid patch (two layers). Figure 5 shows debonding of the vertical strengthened strips and rupture of the horizontal strip for beam 4 after being tested. Beams of Group 1 (2 to 4) failed in shear by debonding of the vertical strengthening strips and rupture of the horizontal additional strips. Beams 1 and 5 (without strengthening) failed in shear at loads of respectively 11% and 28% higher than those estimated by ZSUtty5X6. for each beam. 3% and 18% below what was expected according to ACI 4401. even with the additional horizontal strips adopted in the tests reported herein. It should be noted that beam 3 with one layer of laminate reached an ultimate load (3 15. for loads which were respectively 30%.
8 3.1 3.22 (Shear) * According to Zsutty estimations ** Debonding of vertical strips and rupture of horizontal strips The results of Group 2 beams showed that the expressions of ACI 440' estimates lower loads (about 23% lower) for beams with CFRP strips wrapped around the web of the beam and the flange of the slab through holes drilled at the slab flanges.10 Shear 2 22.1 946 290.0 610 324.49 0.5 2. The observed ultimate concrete strains showed that concrete crushing was quite far from happening for all beams.0 0.83 1.0 0.5 2.0 788.0 0. . Rupture Pshear Type Group I ~ ~~ 1 23.0 0.30 7 45.97 Debond vertical strips** 4 22. Strains at the main flexural reinforcement for the beams of Group 2 (6 to 8) were higher than those for the beams of Group 1 (2 to 4) but quite far from yielding.0 300.4 612.0 0. The biggest strain recorded at the CFRP strips was 7.91 3 22.0 kN) with 90" CFRP strips.17 Rupture of Strips 8 46.2 623 235.52 0.0* 260.0 0. The rupture of the inclined strips at the ultimate load of beam 8 is shown in figure 6. Test results Beam A' 5 (MPa) (MPa) Pflex Pshear (estim) (estim) (kN) (kN) pu.0 0.0 945 502.0 610 368. Pu (test) (kN) pflex p u .5 2.1 945 672. There is no apparent reason for beam 8 (45" CFRP strips) having reached an ultimate load (6 12.42 1.0 650.65 1.3 2. Wrapping of the web and flange with the CFRP laminates strips resulted in stiffer beams and allowed bigger ultimate displacements for the beams of Group 2 (6 to 8) in comparison of beams of Group 1 (2 to 4).28 Shear 6 45.6 372.0 kN) lower than beam 6 (650.0 315.69 1.6 3.5%0for beam V6 (650 kN).7 4.0 0. Stirrups of Group 2 beams (6 to 8) yielded and broken at ultimate load.6 947 502.0 610 324.82 (Shear) Group 2 5 46.39 1.48 0.Strengthening of RC T Beams in Shear 483 Table 3.0 295.
Beam 3 (strengthened) before being tested Figure 5. Dcbonding and rupturc o i hori7ontal strips in Beam 4 .484 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Shear Figure 4.
Strength. Beams 2 to 4 . Wrapping the web and flange through drilled holes was much more effective but quite laborious and messy (Group 2 beams).beams 6 to 8). or wrapping the web and the flange of the beams through drilled holes at the flange of the slabs (Group 2 .1 MPa) reached ultimate loads that were respectively 10% and 28% higher than estimated.eningof RC T Beams in Shear 485 Figure 6. The two solutions improved the behavior allowing the beams to reach higher ultimate loads that were respectively. 17% and 84% higher than the reference beams. ~. The results of Group 1 beams (2 to 4) with the CFW strips enveloping only the web of the beams and anchored at the bottom of the slab with additional horizontal strips have showed that the expressions of ACI 440’ estimates higher ultimate loads (about 10%) in such cases. on average.beams 2 to 4). Rupture of inclined strips in Beam 8 CONCLUSIONS The ultimate loads of the reference beams (without strengthening) were better estimated by Z s ~ t t yformulations.~ Beams 1 (23. The two solutions for strengthening “T” beams in shear using CFRP strips investigated in this research worked: enveloping only the web of the beams and anchoring the laminates at the bottom of the slab with additional horizontal strips (Group 1 .3 MPa) and 5 (46. A less efficient anchorage is expected anyway by enveloping only the web (Group 1 beams) as the roughening / cleaning of the substrate and gluing the laminates is much more difficult at the web close to the flange.
ACI Committee 440. Feb. "T" beams strengthened in shear with CFRP laminates". REFERENCES 1. Vol. ARAUJO. American Concrete Institute.. Zsutty. 6. The utilization of more than one layer of strips anchoring at the web should be further studied as beam 4 with two layers reached an ultimate load lower than beam 3 with a single layer. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering.. M. T. for loads respectively 9%. ACI Structural Journal. M. "Behaviour of "T" beams strengthened in shear with carbon sheet laminates (CFRP)". 68 No 2. 2 .Sc. Thesis. Silva Filho J. C.. 200 1. 200 1 (in Portuguese) 5. for loads that were respectively 30%. SECOEN and Paula Machado Engineering. M. M. Vol. 2002. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Authors are grateful to CAPES & CNPq.. . 65 No 8. N. C.486 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Shear failed in shear by debonding of the vertical strengthening strips and rupture of the horizontal additional strips. Dept Civil & Environ. A. Thesis. ACI Structural Journal. Thesis. Guide for the Design and Construction of Concrete Reinforced with FRP Bars. 3. 2000 (in Portuguese) 4. 3% and 18% below what was expected according to ACI 4401. 17% and 22% above what were expected according to ACI 440'. to WRJ.. Zsutty. 1971. Department of Civil Environmental Engineering. "Additional tests in "T" beams strengthened in shear with CFRP laminates". "Beam shear strength prediction by analysis of existing data". T..Sc. "Shear strength prediction for separate categories of simple beam tests". November 1968. Eng. S. University of Brasilia. Beams 6 to 8 failed in shear by rupture of the strengthening strips after initial debonding. Results of Group 2 beams (6 to 8) with the CFRP strips wrapping the web and the flange of the beams through rectangular holes drilled at the flange of the slab have showed that the expressions of ACI 440' estimate lower loads (about 23%) in this case. and to Masters Builders Technology for the support. University of Brasilia. University of Brasilia. probably associated to the debonding easiness due to the higher stiffness of the double strengthening strips. Salles Neto.Sc..
FRPRCS6. Whereas. deflection and strain data were collected during testing the beam specimens to failure. more durable and have higher strengthtoweight ratios than traditional reinforcing materials such as steel. The retrofitted beam specimens wrapped with different amounts and types of F W were subjected to fourpoint static loading. Results of the experimental program indicate that there are several parameters that affect the strength of the beams. China and Australia. It is no doubt that the Steel Plates and Fibre Reinforced Polymers (FRP) are the two most commonly used external reinforcement materials. Traditional retrofitting techniques that use steel and cementitious materials do not always offer the most appropriate solutions. and can result in less labourintensive and less equipmentintensive retrofitting work.2 m and crosssectional area of 100 mm by 150 mm were retrofitted by using various types of Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) and then retested. Load. The results also show that the use of Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composites for shear strengthening provides significant static capacity increase. 810 July 2003 Edited by Gang Hwee Tan QWorld Scientific Publishing Company STRENGTH ANALYSIS OF SHEARED BEAMS RETROFITTED WITH STRENGTHENING MATERJALS Z. XIONG AND M. Such strengthening of concrete members is . HAD1 Faculty of Engineering. FRPs are lighter. University of Wollongong. Singapore. H. S. such as the United States. NSW 2522. INTRODUCTION Various retrofitting materials and techniques were carried out around the world in the last two decades. Tremendous amount of studies have been undertaken in the area of structural flexural strengthening. N. which are based on a great need of repair and retrofitting of existing structures that has become a major part of the construction activity in many countries. A total of sixteen sheared beam specimens with a length of 1. Australia This paper considers the strength and load carrying capacity enhancement of reinforced concrete beams that have been tested and failed in shear. retrofitting with fibre reinforced polymers (FRE') may provide a more economical and technically superior alternative to the traditional techniques in many situations.
An experimental program has been undertaken to fulfil these two objectives. studies of the shear strengthening of reinforced concrete beams by the use of composite materials have been limited. the incorporation of the confinement reinforcement into the compressive zone in beams is a relatively new research field. or by external posttensioning. a relatively large amount of studies have been undertaken in this area. EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM A total of sixteen reinforced concrete beam specimens were initially constructed in a previous study3. depending on the reinforcement arrangement. Group 2 consisted of beams reinforced with 2N16 bars and helices within the compressive zone. respectively. Both Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) and Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) have been used in previous studies. by epoxy bonding of steel plates to the tension faces of the members. The helical reinforcement were provided in the test beams with a fixed pitch of 30 mm and an internal diameter of 50 mm. A summary of test beam details3 together with the loading is shown in Table 1. while Groups 3 and 4 consisted of 2N20 and 2N24 longitudinal bars each with helical reinforcement within the compressive region. and the overall length of each helix was 400 mm to allow the helix to encase the compressive region of each beam. Helical confinement reinforcement is commonly used in column axial strength enhancement.488 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement for Shear usually accomplished by construction of external reinforced concrete or shotcrete jackets. The specimens were designed into four distinct groups. The inclusion of confining reinforcement within the compressive region is to evaluate the hypothesis as to whether confinement reinforcement increases the bending capacity of a beam subjected to fourpoint loading. and to a certain degree controversial'. and Figure 1 shows details of the helical reinforcement which are of 250 MPa tensile strength. Group 1 consisted of beams reinforced with 2N16 longitudinal bars. . which has not been significantly studied2. and the second objective is to investigate the increase in strength and ductility of reinforced concrete beams. All the test beams were designed in accordance with AS 36004. where the compressive zone is confined by helical reinforcement. However. therefore. This research has two objectives: the first is to study the effectiveness of two types of wrapping materials in enhancing the shear capacity of reinforced concrete beams. this study basically contributes to the data in the area of shear strengthening. However. diameter of 50 mm and a pitch of 30 mm. Therefore.
the strengthening materials were only applied on the pure shear span. two in the beam centre and two at onethird of its span. the test beams were deficient in shear strength and did not achieve their ultimate flexural strength under loading. which is shown in Figure 2. which is shown in Figure 3. In the FRP material wrapping practices. The four gauges were divided into two groups that were applied on the longitudinal tensile reinforcing bars. To fulfil one of the objectives of the study. . ble 1 Properties ble 1 Properties ble 1 Properties ble 1 Properties Group No. each of the shear retrofitting zone is extended 50 mm from each side of the shear span.Strength Analysis of Sheared Beams 489 Each test beam was incorporated with four strain gauges. Ta One Ta Two Three Ta Four Ta 16 I Overreinforced Overreinforced I I 2N24 2N24 I Yes I Cyclic Cyclic Strengthening Configurations In the tests which were conducted by Murray3. The gauges at each location were set at either side of the bar allowing for the strains on both sides to be well monitored during the course of test. which is to retrofit the beams in shear strength.
. Shear strengthening configuration .. . Reinforcement details of tested beam specimens3 Shear Retrofitting Zone Shear Retrofitting Zone A. .490 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcementfor Shear R6 Shear sdrmps @ 115mm Tensile Reinforcemnt Conpressive Reinforcemnt a  Longitudinalcompressive .reinforcement Helix Longitudinal tensile reinforcement Figure 1. . .A AL Shear Span Shear Span 4 fi  1000 1200 Figure 2 .
The reason for this is to remove the carbonation layer of the hardened primer. the external material application could start. before the application of the second layer of FW. . These processes are repeated for all layers until the last layer of material is applied. Table 2 summarises the testing beams wrapping with FRP materials. a beam is wiped over with acetone just before application. and (d) a slow Hardener. The quantity of the primer used was recorded as 0. (c) Epoxy Resin. The first step is beam surface grinding. then the fibre is cut with a pair of scissors and a layer of resin is applied on the face of the last bandage layer.Strength Analysis of Sheared Beams 491 P/2 Coacr Figure 3 . this step also includes rounding the lower edges of the beams. Flap disks are used in this grinding procedures. Once the coated beams are put in position and the epoxy is ready. Furthermore.22kg/m2. (b) Eglass (120g/m2)50mm wide. Second. FRP material wrapping configurations FRP Material Application Procedure The following materials were used in applying the FRP: (a) Carbon Fibre (320g/m2)50mm wide. another layer of resin coating is painted on the face of the previous layer. The second step is washing the beam with acetone to clean the beam surface before a layer of resin primer is applied on the surface. First. The purpose of this action is to make the fibres bend smoothly around the corners so that they do not break due to stress concentration under loading5 . Then one layer of epoxy is painted on the beam surface followed by a layer of FRP material applied with a 10 mm overlap for every revolution around the beam cross section. which is to remove the outer weak surface of the concrete.
2 Summary of Testing Beams with Wrapping Materials Wrapping Wrapping Reinforcement Helix Material Layers ble 1 Properties ble 1 Properties ble 1 Properties Group Beam No. and the retrofitting materials both in different types and different wrapping layers.492 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcementfor Shear Table. The beam crack pattern and failure modes were compared between various specimens. Figure 4 shows a testing beam set up under fourpoint loading arrangement. Testing machine and specimen set up prior to test EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS Test variables included the helix confinement reinforcement. Figure 4.05 m d s e c . (2 /batch) Ta Ta Three Ta Experimental Procedure All test specimens were subjected to fourpoint loading. The loading rate for this series of tests was 0. Ultimate Load and Flexural Strength Enhancement Table 3 presents the ultimate load carrying capacity achieved by each beam .
This might be explained by the strengthening ability of CFRP materials outperforming the EGlass materials. in which the expected design failure load in bending for each specimen is also included. Ultimate load of each beam specimen. From Table 4.Strength Analysis of Sheared Beams 493 specimen tested. Results of Shear Capacity Enhancement The evaluation of shear capacity enhancement was focused on the EGlass strengthened beams. for which all failed in shear. For the purpose of comparison. it should be noted that almost all the strengthened beams with CFRP failed in bending as opposed to the beams strengthened with EGlass which failed in shear. . Table 6 presents the shear capacity achieved by each beam specimen wrapped with EGlass compared to the results of the previous study3. relative load values herein are computed and presented in a separate column. Table 5 presents the flexural strength increment due to the effect of applying different strengthening materials. originally and after retrofitting ble 1 Properties ble 1 Properties ble 1 Properties ble 1 Properties Ta Ta Ta Ta Table 4 presents the flexural strength of each test beam specimen. Table 3 also presents the ultimate loads of the retrofitted beams. Table 3. These ultimate loads are from reference 3. Thus the comparison of the expected failure moment and the actual failure moment would clearly represent the structural strengthening qualities.
494 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcementfor Shear Beam No. Flexural strength enhancement by applying different retrofitting materials ble 1 Properties ble 1 Properties ble 1 Properties ble 1 Properties Ta Ta Ta Ta . Helix Table 4. Flexural strength of each specimen Actual Expected Design Failure Failure Moment Failure Modes Moment (kNm) &Nm) ble 1 Properties ble 1 Properties ble 1 Properties Ta Ta Ta Ta Table 5.
The more layers of FRP materials applied. Conclusions that emerged from this study may be summarised as: (a) The inclusion of the helical reinforcement was shown to increase the performance of the beam in both load carrying capacity and flexural strength. (c) The evaluation of the shear capacity enhancement focuses on beams retrofitted with EGlass. the higher flexural strength would be achieved.Strength Analysis of Sheared Beams 495 ble 1 Properties ble 1 Properties ble 1 Properties ble 1 Properties Ta Ta Ta Ta CONCLUSIONS The results of testing the sixteen beam specimens proved that all the examined test parameters contribute to the strength of the beams. Furthermore. (b) In consideration of the FRP materials contributing to the load carrying capacity and flexural strength. the beams strengthened with CFRP display an increase in the ultimate flexural strength of up to 31 percent higher compared to that of beams strengthened with EGlass. Obviously. a 3 percent increase in strength was observed for beams that failed in bending. it is indicated that retrofitting with FRP provides a feasible rehabilitation technique for repair as well as strengthening. Comparison between the results of EGlass wrapped beams and that of . helical reinforcement did not have any effect on beams that failed in shear. Effect of varied wrapping layers on beam shear capacity achievement indicates that the increase in the external wrapping layers leads to a proportional increment in the shear capacity. with efficiency that depends on the test variables. and the results confirmed that the strengtheningtechniques using FRP sheets can be used to increase the shear capacity considerably.
The failure was not with the rupture on debonding of the CFRP sheets. REFERENCES 1. B. (1999). University of Wollongong.” Composites Science and Technology.. Aug. S. T. (e) The beams wrapped with EGlass failed in shear with the angle of a critical inclined crack with respect to the horizontal axis of about 45 degree. M. No. V3 1. and failed in bending generally.12851295. L. the beams wrapped with CFRP failed in bending with a much more ductile failure mode. AS3600 . Triantafillou. L. 2. pp. The failure was with the rupture of the EGlass sheets.” Composites Part B: engineering. Hadi. Taljsten. p 8796.” Bachelor of Engineering.. (d) For the beams strengthened with CFRP. pp. Australia.2. “Cyclic Loading of High Strength Reinforced Concrete Beams. 200 1. (200 1). and the flexural cracks propagated from the bottom at midspan towards the compressive zone.2000. No. 1998. it is shown that the CFRP material out performs the EGlass material in terms of external shear reinforcing. “Use of Helixes in Reinforced Concrete Beams.99.8. J.. Australian Standard. No. the CFRP material out performs the EGlass material in structural externally strengthening. (2002). 3. 4. and Schmidt. “Strengthening Concrete Beams for Shear Using CFRP Materials: evaluation of different application methods. Vo1.496 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Shear the original beams from reference 3. The results confirmed that. N.58.” ACI Structural Journal. indicates that the retrofitted beams achieve a shear capacity enhancement up to 17 percent compared to the original ones. 5. under the same amount and configuration. Concrete Structures. which is balanced or overreinforced.. Murray.. Vo1. “Composite: a new possibility for the shear strengthening of concrete. Department of Civil and Mining Engineering. masonry and wood. C.(1994). C.. 191198. In comparison. (1998). . and Elfgren.
BPI 035. France B. stirrup spacing. DELMAS Laboratoly of Mechanics. However.FRPRCS6. strengthening area. BPI3. !ITH E (TERNALLY BONDED CARBON FIBRE FABRICS A. Ibis. The carbon fibre fabrics is a dry bidirectional impregnated (epoxy resin) on site. because the behaviour and ultimate strength of shear upgraded reinforced concrete structures depends on many factors such as: concrete compressive strength. France The present work deals with shear performance of reinforced concrete (RC) beams with rectangular section. Materials and Structure. composite material strength. longitudinal steel bar crosssection in flexural region. rue du Petit Clamart.5. The experimental programme consists of two control beams and eight strengthened RC beams. beams or slabs since their first application in 1960s'. it is more difficult to study the behaviour of shear strengthened reinforced concrete (RC) beams. The RC beams are designed with shear deficiencies and strengthened by externally bonded carbon fibre fabrics. The strengthening techniques have been widely used in recent years in civil infrastructures such as columns.LI. Singapore. INTRODUCTION The studies carried out by researchers on the repair and strengthening of structural reinforced concrete members show that the more strength increase in flexure. A mechanical formula is used to predict the contribution of carbon fibre fabric to shear capacity of strengthened RC beams. GEDALIA Freyssinet lnternational & Cie. internal vertical steel crosssection. the more likely shear failure occurs. 5 I 1 OOReims. Univ. The results obtained by using the formula are compared with these obtained by test. 78148 Vdizy Cedex. steel yield stress. Many studies2" have been conducted to investigate the flexural behaviour of strengthening reinforced concrete structures by bonded externally steel plates or fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets. shear span to effective . The objectives of this study are to investigate the influence of parameters like carbon fibre fabric span and strengthened type on the shear capacity of strengthened RC beams. Rue des Crayeres. The reinforced concrete beams are strengthened with carbon fibre fabric vertical strips and 45" inclined strips in Ushape or wrapped. C. 810 July 2003 Edited by Kiang Hwee Tan QWorld Scientific Publishing Company SHEAR PERFORMANCE 7. DIAGANA AND Y. of Reims Champagne Ardenne.
3 MPa and an elastic modulus 2.498 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement for Shear depth ratio. The load is monotonically increased. The mechanical properties of the epoxy resin are an ultimate tensile strength 29. The beams were designed with a total span of 2200 mm and a rectangular crosssection of 130 mm width and 450 mm depth. MATERIALS In this experimental program. This work deals with also the influence of the longitudinal spacing of carbon fibre fabric strips. The analytical investigation is made in order to estimate the contribution of CFF reinforcement to the shear capacity of strengthening RC beams. . ten reinforced concrete beams with or without shear strengthening are tested. shear failure is the dominant mode of failure.3 GPa. the CFF strip orientation (90" or 45") in comparison with the longitudinal direction and the wrapping manners (Ushape or closed rings).1. as shown in Fig. The epoxy resin used consists of two components : an epoxy resin and a hardener. thus. The yield strengths of the steel bars and internal steel stirrups are 550 MPa and 240 MPa. respectively. The average compressive strength for all beams tested is 3 8 +2 MPa. All specimens are tested as simple span beams subjected to a three point loading as illustrated in Fig. CONFIGURATION OF TEST BEAMS In this experimental program. reinforced concrete beams with shear deficiencies after strengthening. 1. The RC beams are designed to have a much higher flexure capacity. Carbon fibre fabric used consists of carbon fibres set at 90" in the warp and in the weft so as to obtain a flexible weave that can match various shapes of backings. The elastic modulus obtained by the test was 35 GPa. thickness of the composite material and strengthening techniq~e~~. The elastic modulus of steel is 210 GPa. a concrete mix consisting of Portland cement and maximum aggregate size of 15 mm in diameter is used. The objectives of this work are to study the shear strengthening effectiveness with CFF strips and shear behaviour of rectangular section.
1. Two RC beams are not strengthened and acted as control specimens. Group PC consists of four reinforced concrete beams that are strengthened with externally bonded CFF fabrics in the form of a closed ring. The use of 40mm strips and large spacing was imposed by the maximum load capacity of test equipment and to avoid a flexure failure mode of strengthened beams. Configuration and detail of RC beam The details and dimensions of the ten RC beams are illustrated in Fig. m Beam PU2 and PC2 IIW 1 Beam PU3 and PC3 48 Beams PU4 and PC4 Figure 2 Configuration and details of the RC beams strengthened by bonding WF strips . Beam PU1 and PC1.Shear Pe$ormance with Carbon Fibre Fabrics 499 P Figure. Group PU consists of four reinforced concrete beams that are Strengthened with externally bonded CFF fabrics in the form of Ushape. The specimens are grouped into two series designated PU and PC depending on the strengthening schemes. 2. whereas eight beam are strengthened with externally bonded CFF strips in various manners.
This result allows analysing the strengthening effectiveness correctly. PU3 and PU4 are the RC beams strengthened by the composite fabrics in the form of Uwrap. . Beams PU..) compared with a spacing of 250 mm (PU. PC2.. The obtained experimental results show that: a) The contribution of the carbon fibre fabrics to the ultimate load capacity of beam varies with the spacing of CFF strips and the plating pattern.PC3and PC4 are the RC beams strengthened by the composite fabrics in the form of ring. the ultimate load increases by more than 50% for a spacing of 200 mm (PU. b) The gain in ultimate load in strengthening RC beam is considerable in comparison with the control specimen. in the case of vertical strips.500 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcementfor Shear EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Ultimate Load Capacity Table 1 shows the values of ultimate load on the beams and the contribution of the carbon fibre fabrics to the ultimate load. Beams Po and PObis are the control RC beams. PUz. Beams PC. pu2 P U? pu4 PCI pc2 pc3 200 250 300 350 200 250 300 90 90 45 45 90 90 45 285 260 309 300 355 310 29 1 65 40 89 80 135 90 71 ~ ble 1 Properties Ta It can be seen from Table 1 that the ultimate loads for the two control specimens are 220 kN.). Table 1 Test results Spacing of Angle of Applied load Contribution of ble 1 Properties Ta PU. The ultimate capacity gain increases with the reduction of the strips spacing. It is interesting to show that they are identical.
For the beam specimen PC4. For the RC beams strengthened in shear by carbon fibre fabric strips in the form of Uwrap. This kind of debonding does not allow the carbon fibre fabrics to be solicited at its ultimate tensile strength. failure does not occur in CFF strips. . it his thought that the CFF strips of the beams PC3 and PC4 are subjected to a twisting force in the compressive region of the beams. all beam specimens failed in shear but in different manners. 350 mm in the case of the beam PU4 against 200 mm in the case of the beam PUl. However. This twisting force weakens the strengthening effect. The debonding is initiated at the main shear crack and progress to the extremity. Debonding of two or three CFF strips (with a layer of concrete adherent to them) over the main shear crack is observed. even if the spacing of CFF strips is greater. Cracking and Failure Mode At the time of test. The contribution of the carbon fibre fabrics in the form of ring (PCl and PC2) to the ultimate force of beam is two times more than that in the form of Uwrap (PU1 and PU2). These results show that for the beams strengthened with CFF strips inclined at 4 5 O in form of Uwrap. the contribution of the CFF fabrics to the ultimate load of beam is two times less than the beam PU4. the advantage of high tensile strength of CFF is not used. the strips are not subjected to a twisting force in the compressive region of the beams. which is at first sight surprising. In this case. In the case of RC beams strengthened with CFF strips at 45".Shear Pegonnance with Carbon Fibre Fabrics 501 c) d) e) For the RC beams strengthened by vertical CFF strips. the contribution of the carbon fibre fabrics in the form of closed ring (PC3 and PC4) to the ultimate load is less important than that in the form of Ushape (PU3 and PU4). the contribution of the carbon fibre fabric strip inclined at 45" to the ultimate load of beam is more important than that placed vertically. It must be noted that at the moment of debonding of CFF strips. the strengthed RC beam fails immediately by widening of the main shear crack. the plating pattern in the form of ring is more interesting than these in the form of Uwrap. for the RC beams strengthened with the CFF strips in form of Ushape.
502 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement for Shear v I Reinforcement in the form of Uwrap Observed failure 7 R e i n f o r c e m e n t in t h e form o f ring Figure. The break occurred at the passage of main shear crack. these cracks start to develop. After the load of 90 kN. whatever the orientation and the spacing of CFF strips. . 3: Mode of failure For the RC beams strengthened by externally bonded CFF strips in the form of closed ring. Fig. shear cracks begin to occur. the shear cracks develop and propagate quickly. it can be observed that the CFF strips over the main shear crack are broken off in the compressive region. between 130 kN and 200 kN. Then the failure occurs after the load of 200 kN with a wide opening of shear cracks. only flexural cracks start at the centre of the beam. one observes that the CFF strips inclined at 45" have more contribution on ultimate shear strength of the strengthened RC beam. The failure modes of tested beams are illustrated as Figure 3. As the load increases. Before the strip fails in tension. the debonded area cannot progress through the section corners. If one considers strengthening RC beams only by externally bonded CFF strip in the form of Uwrap. the strip debonds progressing from the crack to the extremities.4 shows the development of cracks following the applied load in the control RC beam. widen and propagate. Up to an applied load of 90 kN. As the load increases.
the normal shear strength of a strengthened RC section (V. for the RC beam strengthened with externally bonded composite material. These design guidelines based mainly on the existing codes of practice for steel. following the load.Propagation of the cracks In view of symmetry.) is expressed as follows: .Shear Performance with Carbon Fibre Fabrics 503 Figure 4. but helps to delay occurrence and propagation of cracks. Figure 5. shear cracks begin to occur. According to these design codes. ESTIMATION OF CONTRIBUTION OF CFF REINFORCEMENT TO SHEAR CAPACITY To predict shear performance on an empirical basis. Development of the cracks These results show that the shear strengthening of the RC beam by externally bonded CFF strips do not close the cracks. It can be observed from this figure that the flexural cracks start to occur at an applied load of 100 kN in beam PC2 and 120 kN in beam PU. As the load increases. various theories have been developed and many design codes and guidelines have been established7". Fig.. propagate and widen leading to the shear failure of the beams. 5 shows only the development of cracks of half of the strengthened beam PC2 and PU.
of is the nominal CFF strip strength. p is shear crack inclination corresponding to V. the shear strength of the steel reinforcement.2% calculated value.sf is the spacing of horizontal CFF strips and dfis the effective depth of the CFF reinforcement. vfr (VfiVd /v.5% 4.9% 8. (2). a is strengthening CFF strip inclination with respect to beam axis. The difference between calculated value and tested value is less than 14%. is the shear strength of the concrete. the calculated values for the five beams PUI. is the shear contribution of the composite reinforcement. PCI and PC2 are acceptable.9% 93. PU3. For the CFF strip. . where hf is the lateral length of CFF strip.*I00 * QC: Table 2: Contribution of CFF strip to the shear capacity PU. V. in particular for beams PC3 and PC4. The measured CFF shear contribution to the shear capacity is obtained by subtracting the ultimate shear strength of reference beam from the nonstrengthened one. AJ is the thickness of strip usually tf times the width of the CFF strips br. and V. The results obtained by using Eq. the anchorage value is given by df = hf 120 (mm) to reinforcement in the form of Ushape and df = hf to reinforcement in the form of ring. Specimen v. The expression used to estimate shear contribution of CFF reinforcement is similar to that for shear contribution of steel stirrups. PU2 PU3 PU4 PCI PC2 PC3 PC4 66 53 85 69 123 98 105 85 65 40 89 80 135 90 71 44 1.504 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcementfor Shear where V. V.: test value.5% 32. the calculated values and tested values are distant. . This phenomenon can be explained by the fact that the internal bending of the inclined CFF strips in the compressive region of the RC beam reduces the contribution of carbon fibre fabric strip to the shear capacity. Table 3 shows that in comparison with test values. for the other three beams. The shear contribution of carbon fibre fabric strips is calculated by equation (2) as following: Vf = Af of(sin a+cos a tan p) (d&) (2) In Eq.9% 47. However. the crosssectional area of CFF shear reinforcement. PU4.5% 8. (2) and the comparison between test values and calculated values are shown in Table 2.5% 13.
It must be noted that the expression used in this work is only valuable in the case of the RC beam strengthened by the CFF strips in form of Uwrap or in form of ring. The importance of anchorage length of the reinforcing material is obvious. Among the eight RC beams with different strengthening manners. the used expression should be further developed in order to satisfy the other case of the RC beam strengthened by composite material. The contribution of CFF strips in the form of ring to the shear ultimate capacity of RC beam is two times greater than that in form of Uwrap. This result can be explained by the fact that in the case of the reinforcement with inclined CFF strips in the form of ring. the shear reinforcement in the form of closed ring is more interesting than that in the form of Ushape. However. in the case of reinforcement with CFF strips inclined at 45".). there is a local parasite flexure. For the RC beams strengthened with vertical CFF strips. The results indicate that the difference between calculated value and tested value is less than 14%. The comparison between the experimental results and calculated values indicates that the used expression to estimate the contribution of CFF strip to the shear capacity of RC beam is acceptable.Shear Performance with Carbon Fibre Fabrics 505 CONCLUSIONS The test results indicate that the effectiveness of shear strengthening with carbon fibre fabric strips on the shear capacity of RC beams varies with the spacing of CFF strips. However. The test results confirm that the strengthening technique using external bonding CFF strips can be used to increase significantly the shear capacity of the RC beams with shear deficiencies. This parasite flexure provokes a local overload of border fibres of the CFF strips situated at the compressive region of the beam. . the best effectiveness is in the case of the RC beam strengthened by vertical CFF strips in the form of Uwrap (PC. the strengthening effectiveness in form of ring is less important than that in form of Uwrap. CFF plating pattern and CFF strip orientation.
p2052 14. Italy. 95(2). p. LI A. July 200 1. Baluch MH.127 (4). Guidelines toward the design of RC beams with external plates. Edited by C. 639646. p. and AlSuleimani GJ. p.303309. Azad AK. p. Construction and building materials 2002. Sharif AM. DIAGANA C. Carbon fiberreinforced polymers: modern materials in bridge engineering. Chen J. 9. 2. and Teng J. Edited by E. Basunbul IA. 7.NO12 . BUYLEBODIN F. UK.107115. Triantafillou. Proceeding of FRPRCS5. DELMAS Y .3645.J. Composites in construction. Concrete reinforced with glued plates. ASCE Journal of Structural Engineering 2001.3 . Shear strengthening of RC beam with externally bonded CFRP sheets. Rehabilitation of rectangular simply supported RC beams with shear deficiencies using CFRP composites. 16. p. Concrete Science and Engineering 2001. Cosenza. T. A theorical study on shear strengthening of reinforced concrete beams using composite plates. Shear strengthening of reinforced concrete beams using epoxybonded FRP composites.506 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement for Shear REFERENCES L‘Hermite R. 1. A shear strength model for FRPstrengthened RC beams.. Gendron G. Capri. ASSIH J.C. 374380. Picard A. Nanni 8. proceedings of the international workshop. Structural Engineering International 1992. Khalifa A. 91 (6): p... pp. 175203. Synthetic Resins in Building Construction. “Shear strengthening of reinforced concrete beams”. Combridge. 1967. Composite Structures 1999.2: p. DELMAS Y. GuQin M. LI A. Burgoyne. 5. Ziraba YN... RILEM International Symposium. Meier U. July 200 1.F. qnd Nanni A. 3. MarchApril. 4. p. Paris. Vo1. 10. Vo1. ACI Structural Journal 1994. 1998.C. 6.7. Nanni A.G.250256. Guides and specifications for the use of composites in concrete and masonry construction in north America.. ACI Structural Journal. C. .12.135146.45. Manfredi and A. Bresson J.
The calculated stresses and strains in continuous fibers are related to the reinforcement ratio of the fibers. Singapore. Bando Chemical Industries Ltd. and the strengthening effect has been clarified. including 43 carbon fiber specimens and 22 aramid fiber specimens. strands. . FURUTA Civil Engineering and Construction Products Div. experiments on continuous fiber reinforced RC columns had been done by many organizations. 3058573. Till now. FUKUYAMA Dept. the strengthening methods using continuous fibers (sheets. University of Tsukuba Tennohdai. the relationship between reinforcement ratio of fibers and strain energy of fibers is proposed to predict the shear capacity of column specimens. INTRODUCTION In recent years. In this paper. Building Research Institute Tatehara. Research and development of the strengthening methods to improve the shear capacity and ductility of reinforced concrete members in earthquake resistance has been carried out. 810 July 2003 Edited by Kiang Hwee Tan @World Scientific Publishing Company EVALUATION OF SHEAR CAPACITY OF RC COLUMNS STRENGTHENEDBY CONTINUOUS FIBER T. Hiraokacho. Japan H.. and many experiment data are available. is confirmed. KANAKUBO Institute of Engineering Mechanics and Systems.FRPRCS6. The total number of test data is 65. By the proposed method. Tsukubacity. Kakogawacity. 6750104. failure mode of tested specimens. Japan To propose the evaluation method for shear capacity of RC columns strengthened with continuous fiber. Japan T. and others) for reinforced concrete structures are flourishing. stresses of fibers were calculated using previous test data by reverse calculation using the archtruss method. of StructuralEngineering. The predicted failure types agree with test results in 70% of specimens. tapes. It has been reported that these specimens failed without yielding of main bars. consisting of 5 2 carbon specimens and 21 aramid specimens with yielding of main bars. Tsukubacity. 3050802. Tsuchiyama.
However.. elastic modulus of fiber and fiber reinforcement ratio. shear span ratio. It is reported that all the specimens failed before main bar yielding was observed. based on previous experimental results.4600MPa .30% (g) Fiber reinforcement ratiop. Evaluation of shear capacity based on yield strength is possible for steel reinforcement as steel reinforcements yield with an increasing deformation of a member.280GPa ( f ) Hoop ratio (steel reinforcement) pw2= 0 .508 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement for Shear The strength and deformation capacities of continuous fiber reinforced RC columns are often evaluated using expressions meant for ordinary reinforced concrete members.uj = 0. and were strengthened by continuous fibers.0.2. ANALYSIS METHOD Data for Analysis In order to carry out the analysis.0.O . Structural factors of specimens and the ranges are described below.26% (h) Yield strength of hoop owu= 320 .0.= 80 .38MPa (b) Shear span ratio M/QD = 1. a total of 65 column specimens are selected from References 1 to 1 1. is necessary. Outline of selected specimens The specimens included 43 carbon fiber strengthened specimens and 22 aramid fiber strengthened specimens. because of the perfectly elastic characteristics of continuous fiber. summarized as follows : (a) Concrete compressive strength oB= 16 .588kN (d) Axial force ratio 17 = 0 . = 2200 .5 (c) Axial force N = 0 . In this paper. evaluation of shear capacity on the basis of the failure mechanism. Figure 1 indicates the distributions of concrete strength. a statistical approach is suggested to evaluate the shear capacity and failure mode of RC members reinforced with continuous fibers.01 . in which member deformation (fiber strain) is considered. All specimens have a rectangular section without any attaching walls.22 (e) Elastic modulus of continuous fiber Erm. in the case of continuous fiber reinforced members. The effects of continuous fiber reinforcements are expressed by substituting fiber stress for steel reinforcements (shear reinforcements) currently.430MPa (i) Tensile strength of fiber of.
tape or strand type were used for wrapping the column specimens uniformly over the surfaces as shown in . GPa) 1 BAram kl 4l 10 k 5 n HC arbon F h e r r e n f o r c e m e n t r a t b pwr &) Figure 1. Distributions of structural parameters of selectee. specimens Strengthening method of selected specimens Fiber reinforcements such as sheet.Evaluation of Shear Capaciv of RC Columns 509 $ 15 ly 10 21 k 5 a 3 2 OAram rl C arbon 0 Concrete Compressive stsength 4 4 3 3 A E @Pa) d & Shear span xatb M / Q D 20 15 OAram kl 10 W C ahon 5 0 Ehstis rnoduLs o f f b e r E h .
1 or 2 surfaces in the perpendicular directions to loading as shown in Figure 2. The axial force was kept constant for all specimens. Fiber reinforcement Column section Loading direction 2 splices Sheet type 1 splice Sheet or tape No splice Tape or strand Figure 2. BRI type Ohno type Cantilever type Figure 3. The number of layers of fiber ranged from 1 to 4. Epoxy is used for primer. Strengthening method of fiber reinforcement Loading method of selected specimens Specimens were loaded under the antisymmetrical moment (BRI type or Ohno type) or cantilever type.510 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement for Shear Figure 2. putty and resin for all the specimens. Loading method . either cyclically or monotonically as shown in Figure 3. There were splice regions of continuous fibers on 0.
= fiber reinforcement ratio. In addition. b = column width. and o. is ignored. = distance between tensile and compression main bars. (c) It is considered that the concrete confinement effect formed by fiber reinforcements changes the angle of concrete compression strut of truss mechanism. pw. and influences the effective concrete compressive strength of the arch mechanism. In calculating the fiber stress.truss mechanism. j . This formula is based on the summation of arch . Therefore. the stress in the continuous fibers is calculated backwards from the observed maximum strength of tested specimens. pw2= hoop ratio (steel reinforcement). (b) The tensile force of truss mechanism is the summation of forces in the fiber reinforcements and steel reinforcements. 4 = angle of concrete strut of truss mechanism. Using this formula. However. v.Evaluation of Shear Capacity of RC Columns 511 CaIculation Method for Analysis The evaluation formula of shear capacity proposed for ordinary steel reinforced concrete members by Architectural Institute of Japan (AIJ)I2 is used for analysis. the following assumptions are made : (a) The fiber reinforcements contribute to the truss mechanism in the same manner as shear reinforcements of ordinary steel reinforced concrete members.(6). only fiber reinforcements placed in the perpendicular direction are effective. the tensile stress of both reinforcements is represented as Eq. = effective coeficient of concrete strength. H = length of column. However. = concrete compressive strength. owy= yield strength of hoop.f= stress of fiber. It is assumed that steel reinforcements yield at a maximum strength in the case of shear failure. collection of useful data to consider . The formula is : in which QSu= shear capacity. a limit of oWy I 2508. which is proposed in the original formula. d = effective depth.
given the fiber reinforcement ratio. axial force ratio q. the angle change in concrete compression strut due to fiber reinforcements. There are no clear relationships except for fiber reinforcement ratio. Calculated fiber stress and other factors . In addition. concrete compression without fiber rupture (CC). ANALYTICAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Relationships between calculated fiber stress and structural parameters Figure 4 shows the relation of calculated fiber stress owy. with the concrete compressive strength oB. elastic modulus of fiber Efme. Figure 4. In this study. the fiber stress in the case of carbon fibers is larger than for aramid fibers. and fiber reinforcement ratio pwf The points are distinguished by fiber type (CF or AF) and failure mode of specimen. and the influence on the effective of concrete compressive strength are ignored.512 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Shear these matters is difficult. or not reported (NR).shear span ratio M/QD. steel reinforcement yield stress ratio pw20wy. which is fiber rupture (FR).
( 1) with observed maximum loads are shown in Figure 6. (8) and (lo). with Eq..Evaluation of Shear Capacity of RC Columns 513 Relationships between fiber stress andpwj From the results given in the former section.2 P.Efm. (7) tends to overestimate the calculated value for .3 PW/W) Figure 5.. calculated fiber stress has an inverse proportional correlation with fiber reinforcement ratio. the stress in carbon fibers is higher than that in aramid fiber.(9)./(”/) 0. and fiber strain energy U. (7). Also.1pwf Using the fiber stress calculated by Eqs.5 owfG~) has an inverse proportional relation with the fiber reinforcement ratio pwr are made. (10) as a lower bound value to include 90% of the data considered in Eq. could be correlated with the fiber reinforcement ratio.f (= 0.8x I 03 . In addition. Eq. Furthermore.+ U. fiber strain G~(= ow/I Elme) The assumptions that the fiber stress ow/. and regression analysis by the least square method is carried out. 3 6 h k h s2 3 2 4 v 0 Lu v z 2 1 0 01 0.andp. The following formulas for 4oy.3 0 02 PIV/(”/..1 0. The data for which failure mode is not reported were excluded in the analysis. the relations of the shear strength calculated by Eq. Figure 5 shows these relationships and the results. as fibers with high elastic modulus carry higher stress. fiber strain at the maximum strength of member is inversely proportional to the fiber reinforcement ratio. onVf = ./I 1.) 0. Relationships between ow3&. the product of fiber stress and strain. which has an equal dimension as strain energy.. are obtained.
59 (e) Elastic modulus of continuous fiber Efme= 80 .38MPa (b) Shear span ratio MIQD = 1.520GPa (f) Hoop ratio (steel reinforcement)pw2= 0 . A total of 73 specimens of experimental studies on fiber reinforced column specimens are chosen as evaluation targets from References 1.0. 3. 4. (8) and (lo).27.30% (g) Fiber reinforcement ratiopwf= 0. z c‘500 z c‘500 400 400 Q 300 2 200 aJ 0 Q 300  2 200 .2. The average ratio of experimental to calculated values is 0.2500kN (d) Axial force ratio 17 = 0 .0.$ 100  E ‘g 100 p.514 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement for Shear aramid fibers.16 in the case of Eqs. 0 100 200 300 400 500 Calculated strength (kN) I 400 E 3 300 j 200 . 13 .620MPa (h) Yield strength of hoop ow.. (lo). p. I. 52 specimens were strengthened by carbon fibers and 21 specimens by aramid fibers.92 and 1. 7. respectively. as the coefficient of variation is 11%.= 17 . the possibility of evaluation using the proposed shear capacity evaluation Eqs. Of these.g 100 p. (8) and (lo). Structural parameters of these specimens are listed as follows : (a) Concrete compressive strength 0.01 .3 . there is no significant difference in accuracy of prediction between the types of fibers.8 (c) Axial force N = 0 . 8.0. These formulas consider the elastic modulus of fibers. For Eqs. 5 .4700MPa (i) Tensile strength of fiber qme . A smaller dispersion is found in using Eqs.44% = 300 . Comparison of calculated strength and experiment Adaptation for specimensfailing afterflexural yielding In this section. 2 c 500 s 0 100 200 300 400 500 Calculated strength (kN) t3 0 100 200 300 400 500 Calculated strength (kN) Figure 6. (1) and (10) for specimens which failed after flexural yielding (“failed after yielding” specimens : FAYS) is discussed. = 2400 . rr.
The followings are concluded from the results. (b) Shear capacity of fiber reinforced specimens can be evaluated with a smaller dispersion in case of strain energy. In Figure 7.. Figure 8 shows the Qmm/Qmu . emu. Most of the specimens are evaluated on the safe side. 1. stresses of fibers are calculated backwards using the archtruss method.Qsu/Qmu correlation for all specimens treated in this study.5 2 1 Qn. more than 70% of specimens are plotted in this region.5 0 0. (a) The fiber stress. Specimens failed by concrete compression due to bending (C) and those failed by bond of main reinforcements (B) are added. strain and strain energy have an inverse proportional correlation with fiber reinforcement ratio. It is recognized that the shear capacity evaluation using Eq. (10) shows good adaptability for fiber reinforced specimens. Figure 7.Evaluation of Shear Capacity of RC Columns 515 Figure 7 shows the relationships between the observed maximum strength (Imaxand calculated shear strength Qsu.5 Qsu 1. indicating good adaptation of the formulas for FAYS. (c) The proposed formula also shows a good adaptability for specimens failing after flexural yielding. 2 1.5 G 1 8 0. Adaptation for FAYS 0 1 0.Both values are normalized by the calculated bending strength This means that FAYS should be plotted on the region where the value of QsJQmuis larger than 1. .5 2 1 Qmu Figure 8. Prediction formulas for these values are proposed. Evaluation for all target specimens CONCLUSIONS To propose the evaluation method for shear capacity of RC columns strengthened with continuous fiber..5 1 Q.
. R. Proceedings of FWRCS3. 1996. M.6 3.661664.9 18. AIJ. Yanase et al. Kataoka et al. JCI. Katsumata et al. Y. S. An Experimental Study on Shear Capacity of Existing R/C Columns Strengthened with Continuous Fiber Tape. K. A Study on Seismic Retrofitting Existing RC Columns with Carbon Fiber Sheets. 1996. 84. (JCI : Proceedings of the Japan Concrete Institute. Experimental Study on Aseismic Strengthening of Existing Reinforced Concrete Columns.10611066.. 1997. pp...681682.287288.11 13. 1997. Masuo et al. pp. Obayashi Co. Watanabe et al. 1987 25.. Structural Properties of RC Columns Strengthened by Means of Acrylic Resin / Carbon Fiber Sheets.2330. 159160. Suzuki et al. T. pp. JCI.1.295296. F. pp. pp. Mori et al.675676..6 21.6 References are written in Japanese expect for 4 and 15. A. AIJ : Summaries of Technical Papers of Annual Meeting of Architectural Institute of Japan) . C2.9 4. Katsumata et al. 497. 1997. Katsukura et al. C2. Yanase et al.6 14. pp243244. Vol. 1995.. pp213218.9 12. H. pp. An Experimental Study on Existing Reinforced Concrete Columns Jacketing with Carbon Fiber Sheets. N. C2. Experimental Study on Ductility of RC Pier Models Winded by Aramid Tape.2029. M. Imai et al.225230. T.. pp657660. Shimizu Co. pp.673674. 65. GBRC. 1997..6 2. Retrofit Method of Existing Reinforced Concrete Members by Carbon Fiber Spiral Hoops. Experimental Study on Ductility of Reinforced Concrete Column using Sheet Type Fiber. An Experimental Study on Shear Capacity of Existing Reinforced Concrete Columns strengthened with Continuous Fiber Tapes. 1986 9. 1993. AIJ.. pp. 88.7 10. Shear Strengthening of Existing RC Columns. Cement and Concrete.. pp. Katsumata et al. 1997. AIJ.9 20.3051.9 17. Hayashida et al.. K..9 15.6 11. Seismic Retrofitting of Existing Reinforced Concrete Columns with Carbon Fibers. 1997. AIJ. 161. Atrucural Performance of RC Columns Reinforced with Carbon Fiber Sheet. 1997. 1996. Design Guidelines for Earthquake Resistant Reinforced Concrete Buildings Based on Ultimate Strength Concept. pp. 192. H. Suzuki et al. Experiment about Shear Strength of RC Columns Reinforced with Carbon Fiber Sheet of Steel Jacketing. Structural Performance of RC Columns Reinforced with Carbon Fiber Sheet. Figuero et al. 1997. AIJ. JCI. C2. An Experimental Study on Ductility Capacity Improvement of Existing RC Columns Wrapped with Continuous Fiber Tape.14631468.. pp755760. JCI.. 182.693694.9 22. Shear Strengthening of Existing Concrete Columns by Wrapping Aramid Fibers. H. 192.4 19. Y.9 8. C2. pp. C2. AIJ. AIJ. 1989. pp. Architectural Institute of Japan. Asai et al. Experimental Study on Ductility of Reinforced Concrete Beams using Sheet Type Fiber. AIJ. Jinno et a].104120.10 23. Shear Strengthening of Existing Reinforced Concrete Column by Winding with High Strength Fiber.516 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement for Shear REFERENCES 1. JCI. C2. 1996..9 27. 33. Structural Performance of RC Columns strengthened with Carbon Fiber Sheets. An Experimental Study on Damaged RC Column with Sheet Type Carbon Fiber Reinforcement. 152.223224. 192.207212. Study on Seismic Retrofitting of Existing RC Columns with New Materials.. An Experimental Study on Shear and Flexural Resistance of RC Columns with Continuous Fiber Sheets. Masuo et al.114118. Katsumata et al. pp.9 24. pp. 1997. Asakura et al. 34. pp297298..10 16. T. K. Is0 et al. N.. pp. 111. AIJ. 1997. T. Kataoka et al. pp. pp.6771.. AIJ. 1998. 1994. Seismic Retrofitting Method of Existing RC Columns with Wrapping of Carbon Fiber. C2. 1988. A Study on Seismic Retrofitting of Existing RC Columns with Carbon Fiber. K. 1997. 1990. (22.. Katahira et al. Obayashi Co.8 26. C2. H. pp. 1996. K. C2. AIJ.. GBRC.427434.. C2. Experimental Study on Seismic Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Columns with Wing Walls Retrofitted by Carbon Fiber Sheets..861866.9 5. pp.6 6... Yagishita et al. Oda et al. 1997... JCI. pp. Experimental Study on Shear Strengthening of RC Rectangular Columns with Wing Walls Retrofitted by Carbon Fiber Sheets.9 7. K. pp. Araki et al.. H. 1996. AIJ. K. JCI.
Muppin Street. are proposed for the shear design of FRP RC beams. K. To compensate for this lack of knowledge. The underlying philosophy for RC shear design relies on plasticity theory. INTRODUCTION The way that shear is carried by a RC beam is still not well understood and the exact contribution of the various mechanisms (truss. on the implementation of a strain approach and introduce the cmcepts of an equivalent area of flexural reinforcement and the maximum allowable strain that can be developed in the shear reinforcement6. Less conservative recommendations. The limiting values of strain that are imposed by the strain approach are equivalent to the yielding strain of steel. empirical equations are generally used to determine the shear resistance offered by the concrete whilst the contribution of the shear reinforcement is calculated according to the truss analogy theory. 810 July 2003 Edited by Gang Hwee Tan QWorld Scientific Publishing Company SHEAR DESIGN EQUATIONS FOR FRP RC BEAMS M. WALDRON Centre for Cement and Concrete. The use of FRP reinforcement with its distinctive mechanical properties may affect significantly the way in which the various contributing mechanisms act together. .FRPRCS6. design recommendations. have been are based proposed by various c ~ m m i t t e e s ' All ~ ~ of ~ ~these ~ ~ ~modifications ~. which are based on modifications of equations that were originally derived for steel reinforced concrete. PILAKOUTAS AND P. GUADAGNINI. The main aim of this study was to identify the shear resisting mechanisms for FRP RC so as to assist in the development of design recommendations. To facilitate the use of FRP reinforcement in the construction industry. The University of Shefjeld Sir Frederick Mappin Building. validated by the findings of the experimental work. which allows redistribution of stresses once the capacity of a mechanism is exhausted. The results of the tests confirm the very conservative nature of existing design recommendations which seem to underestimate the contribution made by the concrete and shear reinforcement to the total shear capacity. Singapore. UK This paper reports on an experimental programme investigating the shear behaviour of concrete beams reinforced with FRP reinforcement. strutandtie or arch mechanism) cannot be determined in an appropriate manner. SheffieId SI 3JD.
The work presented here investigated the shear behaviour of FRP RC beams and addressed the above issue. Young's modulus ( E ) and ultimate strength CfJ of the GFRP bars were 45 GPa and 750 MPa. however.3 is reported and commented herein. The different shear span to depth ratios were tested in order to study differences in the development of shear transfer mechanisms. has been presented as of yet. The findings of the two phases of testing are discussed e l s e ~ h e r e ' ~ ~ . ~ .518 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement for Shear The adoption of this approach for FRP. 1" phase . Each of the beams was subjected to a fourpointbending load with the shear span to total depth ratio ranging from 1. The properties of the test specimens are summarized in Table 1. while the flexural reinforcement of the other three beams comprised three GFRP bars with a nominal diameter of 13. Findings of the experimental programme are presented and discussed along with design recommendations on all aspects of shear design. m t u l strupping provided to uvoidJailure on lhk side \ T SB40 '150. while in the second phase.=4500MPa) fibre shear reinforcement was applied externally to the undamaged ends of the same beams to enable failure to occur due to shear.5 mm. fu=1700MPa) and carbon (E=234GPa. EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMME Twelve tests were conducted in two successive phases on six beams.Test set up and arrangement of the external instrumentation . No evidence of this. Half of the beams were reinforced in flexure with four 12mm steel bars. respectively. however. respectively.3. implies that the load carrying mechanisms are the same as for steel RC and that the plasticity theory assumptions remain valid. ' ~ and only the behaviour of the beams with a shear span to depth ratio of 3. No shear reinforcement was provided in the first phase of testing. f. Details of the test arrangement and external instrumentation used for the first and second phase tests are shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2. just enough glass (E=65GPa.1 to 3. 750 800 750 ~ 2300 Figure 1.
~rn.3 G >5.8 0. the beams reinforced with longitudinal FRP reinforcement exhibited much greater deflections than those with steel reinforcement.1 8.8+ G N/A C >10. C = carbon FRF' values shown correspond to failure obtained with the large spacing of shear links as specified in Table 1 smcm . G = GFRP.5 7. E~~~ = max. = max.. Due to the lower stiffness of the reinforcement.000 Shear F. w.Test set up and arrangement of the external instrumentation Table 1: Properties of test specimens Flexural reinforcement Beam fcu (MPa) Shear reinforcement (Ydphase) Area Spacing (mm2) (mm) Type Area d Type (mm') (mm) SB4O(R) 54.3 S yield N/A Shear 54.000 N/A Shear SB4OR 116.4 S yield G >19. measured strain in flexural reinforcement. crack width.) failure SB40 90. measured strain in shear reinforcement. Furthermore. = failure/max deflection.7+ 1. ?ma shear &\mar T Y P ~of Beam Fmax PN) (mm) (mm) rlment (p) r/ment (.4 429. 2"d phase . S = steel.3 17. Table 2 : Experimental results Wma flex.3 452.4 224 S 2. S = steel. shear crack widths. measured at the same load levels. 6. = max.81 100 G GB43(R) 50.. were generally larger for the FRP RC beams than those observed in the equivalent steel RC beams.2' 29. = failure/max load.000 Shear GB43R 114.4 223 G 3.99 100/200+ c spacing was increased by unloading the specimen and cutting alternate links before reloading. C = CFRP ' DISCUSSION OF RESULTS A summary of the results of the two phases of the experiment is reported in Table 2.4 GB43 0.8 2. dffective depth. G = glass FRP.Shear Design Equations for FRP RC Beams 519 /1507 L=L 'I 'I 7 5 'I 'I 1' 0 ~ 3 0 0 I' I' ~ 7 5 0  1800 Figure 2.
ontribution of concrete and shear reinforcement to the total shear resistance of GB43R in this latter stage of loading is represented by the shaded (dark) and unshaded area below the dashed curves.500 p~ assumed by most current recommendations for shear design with FRP reinforcement. as reported in Table 1. Estimate of the shear resisting components for SB40R After initial loading of beam GB43R (see Figure 4) it became clear from strain readings that the desired shear failure might not develop.000 ps for GFRP and from 9. thereby confirming the conservative nature of Maximum strain values.000 ps to around 20. Decomposition of the shear resisting components was also performed on the test beams (Figures 3 and 4) in an attempt to identify the contributions of the basic shear carrying mechanisms. The c.520 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Shear Strain values recorded both in the GFRP flexural reinforcement and in the externally applied shear reinforcement always exceeded the limit of 2. . ranging from these existing 10. 3 50 c v) 40 00 pstrain (shear rlment) 30 00 pstrain (shear rlrnent) 20 10 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Displacement (mm) Figure 3 . The beam was therefore unloaded and alternate shear links were cut to halve the amount of shear reinforcement. The concrete contribution was then determined by subtracting the contribution of the shear links from the total shear capacity. The component of shear resisted by the shear links was determined by considering the number of effective shear links crossing the crack that induced the ultimate failure and assuming a uniform distribution of strain within each link. respectively. equal to the maximum strain recorded in that link at each stage of loading.000 p~ for CFRP. were recorded in the shear reinforcement.000/2.000 ps to 10.
I Estimate of the shear resisting components for GB43R during the lstand 2"d cycles (solid lines) and the 3rd cycle (dashed lines) From the analysis of the results. Iigure 5 .1"'+2"* cycle 20 10 0 Figure 4.1"+2"dcycles) (shear rlment .Shear Design Equations f o r FRP RC Beams 521 The shear loaddeflection curves for the beams unreinforced in shear (SB40 and GB43) are shown alongside those for the reinforced beams to facilitate comparison in terms of concrete shear resistance. In Figures 3 and 4. it appears that the shear carrying mechanisms are mobilised in a comparable manner in GFRP and steel RC beams. and that the failure modes develop in a similar way (Figures 5 and 6).c c/) 40 30 (shear rlrnent . the critical values of strain recorded in both the flexural reinforcement and shear reinforcement are represented with vertical and horizontal dotted lines respectively. Shear tailure in SR40 (leti) and GR43 (right) . e 60 9 50 . Therefore it can be concluded that the additive nature of shear resisting mechanisms can be assumed to be valid.
500 . Figure 6.11 1.98 2.78 1. 0. referred to as the “Sheffield approach”.06 1.41 1.36 values shown correspond to predictions obtained with the large spacing of shear links as specified in Table 1 Beam Current recommendations (allowable strain of 2. unlike for steel reinforced structures.31 1. .85 1.41 0. It is evident that by using the Sheffield approach the total shear capacity can be predicted with much less scatter and a considerably improved level of accuracy.42 1.30 0. has been successfully applied to various code equation^^^^^^^^^'^.37 Mean.40 1.522 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Shear Based on the results of this research project and on previous work by various other the authors have proposed a modified approach for the design of FRP RC beams in which the strain limits are increased to the higher value of 4.50 2.ud A Exp Exu Exp Exu Exu BS8110 EC22001 ACI440 BS8110 EC22001 ACI318 1.49 4. a crack width limit wsL of 0.64 1. This new approach.500 p~ for both the shear and flexural reinforcement.64 1. Table 3: Comparison of predicted shear capacities for FRP RC beams implementing the Strain approach and Sheffield approach Sheffield approach (allowable strain of 4.24 0.13 StdDev.0002.50 GB43RI 1.69 2. 0.14 3.62 1.47 SB4OR 1. Shear failure in SB40R (left) and GB43R (right) Table 3 reports the predicted shear capacity of the tested beams according to design code equations modified by using both the current recommendations and the Sheffield approach.500 p) Although the presence of cracks in FRP RC members does not represent a cause for concern from the point of view of durability.5 mm has been proposed in various design recommendations dealing with FRP RC structures for aesthetic reasons2.
0 Crack width (mm) 0.l"+Zd cycle WSL 0.3" cycle 40 Zd phase . ACI 3 189914. Shear crack width growth for beams SB40 and SB40R (left) andbeams GB43 and GB43R (right) Figure 7 illustrates the shear crack width growth for beams SB40(R) and GB43(R).Sdcycle Y 6C 1 07 0. The service load.0 2.500 p~ (developed both in the shear and flexural FRP reinforcement) as proposed in the Sheffield approach. SA. by a load factor of 1.0 1.0 0. subsequently. Shear crack .0 0 w.0 1. it can be observed that for levels of strain up to 4. SLYwas computed by dividing the previously derived predicted ultimate load.lstphase Shear crack .5 3. DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS Based on the above results. Concrete shear resistance Based on the Sheffield approach.0 Crack width (mm) Figure 7. shear cracks were effectively controlled and the individual shear resistance of concrete and shear reinforcementwere effectivelymobilised. the following recommendations are made for the shear design of FRP RC beams. 140 140 4 120 100 "1 80 60 40 20 SA .5 1.Zd phase SL .5. wmrepresents the crack width measured at a load level equivalent to the service load. Based on the results presented in this figure and Figures 3 and 4.5 2.EC2 (EN 19921:2001)'' are given e l ~ e w h e r e ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . the corresponding service loads were checked against the maximum shear crack widths that were observed at those load levels.Shear Design Equationsfor FRP RC Beams 523 With these considerations in mind. modifications to code equations BS 8 11013.5 1.5 2. the predicted design loads obtained by modifying the BS 811013 shear design equations according to the Sheffield approach were compared to the results of the present study and.
thereby reducing reinforcement costs by up to 30%. will not lead to undesirably large crack widths. A reduction in the required shear reinforcement of up to 3 times is possible when the Sheffield approach is adopted. confirm that a relaxation of the strain limit for shear reinforcement to 4. It can be observed that the reinforcement ratio required by the strain approach is always higher than that required by the Sheffield approach. The design approach for steel RC not only excludes the possibility that higher strains can be developed. vary. Ratio of shear reinforcement calculated according to the strain approach and the Sheffield approach plotted against normalised stifmess of the flexural reinforcement .524 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Shear Contribution of shear reinforcement It was seen from the experimental results (Table 2).o .8 1.0 0. The adoption of the same strain limit for FRP reinforcement as for steel by the current design recommendations is therefore primarily there to control the development of crack widths. however. but relies on it. ECONOMY ACHIEVED BY THE PROPOSALS Figure 8 compares the ratio of shear reinforcement required for a given FRP RC beam according to the BS 81 10 equation modified by using both the strain approach and the Sheffield approach. The results of this study. and increases overall with increasing applied shear stress. plasticity is implicitly expected from both mechanisms.2 Normalized flexural stiffness ( P E/SGPa) Figure 8.6 0. as proposed by the Sheffield approach.2 0. since by adding the contributions from steel and concrete.500 pc. whilst the relative stiffness of the flexural reinforcement and the design applied shear stress. vd. that the strain developed in the shear reinforcement was much larger than the yield strain of steel. Geometrical characteristics and concrete strength are kept constant. c 0 2 1 3 0.4 0.
Proc. 2001.. Manitoba. London. Japan.Intelligent Sensing for Innovative Structures. REFERENCES 1. Reinforced Concrete Structures with Fibre Reinforced Polymers. summing the contributions of the concrete and reinforcement shear resistance mechanisms remains valid. Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code Section 16: Fibre Reinforced Structures.Shear Design Equationsfor FRP RC Beams 525 CONCLUSIONS The following conclusions can be drawn from the reported study: (a) The strain in both the flexural and shear FRP reinforcement can reach values that are much higher than those assumed by the current recommendations for the design of FRP RC. Capri. and Guadagnini M. 3. MI. (b) Shear resisting mechanisms are mobilised in a similar way in both GFRP and steel RC beams and failure modes are characterised by similar behaviour. JSCE. Tokyo. ACI Committee 440. K. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors wish to acknowledge the European Commission for funding the TMR Network "ConFibreCrete". 2001. Italy. the new proposed limit of 4. Canadian Standard Association. ACI 440. Guide for the Design and Construction of Concrete Reinforced with FRP Bars. (c) For concrete shear resistance. 4. 3. 1996. of the International Workshop Composites in Construction: a Reality. Recommendation for Design and Construction of Concrete Structures using Continuous Fiber Reinforcing Materials. 2. Canada. 200 1. Design manual No. SET0 Ltd.500 p~ also seems to lead to more appropriate and cost effective solutions. Hence. Pilakoutas. Interim guidance on the design of reinforced concrete structures using j b r e composite reinforcement. but a new limit of 4. Institution of Structural Engineers. pp. 6. Japan Society of Civil Engineers. 1999. USA. 1996. "Shear of FRP RC: a review of the StateoftheArt". . CHBDC. ASCE. For the design of shear links. 173182. Farmington Hills. the principle of strain control is accepted.1R0 1. ISIS Canada Corporation. American Concrete Institute. Final Draft. ISIS Canada . 5 .500 p is proposed for determining the amount of flexural reinforcement to be used in concrete shear design. IStructE.
11. P. Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete and Commentary ACI 31899/R99. P.Part 1: General Rules and Rules for Buildings. N. 1999. .. and Wakui.. M. 15. Sapporo. M. PhD Thesis. Guadagnini. S. and Waldron. Shear Capacity of RC and PC Beams Using FRP Reinforcement. International Symposium on Fiber Reinforced Plastic Reinforcement for Concrete Structures. Japan.. “Investigation on Shear Carrying Mechanisms in FRP RC Beams”. European Committee for Standardization. P. ACI. 479486. Part 1. Department of Civil and Structural Engineering. BSI. K.. Pilakoutas. American Concrete Institute.200 1. Pilakoutas. 1999. 949958. Guadagnini. Shear Behaviour and Design of FRP RC Beams. 1999. UK. Cambridge. K. pp. 1 1691 176. 2002.. 9. Pilakoutas. “Shear performance of GFRP RC beams. USA. P. ACI Committee 3 18. July 1618..Code of Practice for Design and Construction. V01. M. pp. Hong Kong. Third International Symposium on NonMetallic (FRP) Reinforcement for Concrete Structures. BS 8110 . London. CEN. Guadagnini. Farmington Hills. UK. MI. Fifth International Symposium on Fiber Reinforced Polymer for Reinforced Concrete Structures (FRPRCS5). “Shear Performance of FRP Reinforced Concrete Beams”. Guadagnini. 8. 10. 2002. British Standard Institution... K. pp. H. 6 15632. 12. Pilakoutas. 14. 200 1.” International Conference on FRP Composites in Civil Engineering. prEN 19921 (1st draft). Nanni and Dolan ed. K. pp.2.. 13..526 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement for Shear 7. (1993). Sheffield. (1997) Tests on Concrete Beams Reinforced with Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic Bars. Duranovic.. and Waldron. and Waldron. Tottori. M. Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures . Accepted for publication to the Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites. The University of Sheffield. and Waldron.
In that respect. For these reasons the seismic behaviour of RC members. through appropriate use of FRP. N. University of Patras GR26500. the problem being aggravated by the use of the more corrosionprone tempcore S500 steel. Thus its contribution to the effective confinement and the resulting deformation capacity of the member decreases.and. L. TRIANTAFILLOU. INTRODUCTION Structures in seismic regions often suffer both from deficiencies in member strength and deformation capacity and from the effects of reinforcement corrosion due to aggressive environmental conditions. Moreover. especially of columns. M. Greece Premature deterioration of RC structures due to corrosion of the reinforcement represents a significant problem. T. forcecapacity of members with severe reinforcement corrosion can be considerably enhanced. is more vulnerable to corrosion. In this paper the use of fibrereinforced polymer (FFW) wraps in retrofitting RC columns with corroded reinforcement was experimentally investigated. transverse reinforcement (for shear and confinement). N. is affected by steel corrosion. being of smaller diameter and closer to the concrete surface. as it contributes considerably to the reduction of member strength and deformation capacity. SPATHIS AND B. Test results show that deformation. structures old enough to develop significant corrosion of the reinforcement normally belong also to the class of structures that have not been designed for earthquake resistance. retrofitting against corrosion triggers seismic retrofitting of the structure as well. and makes bars more susceptible to buckling and reduces steel ductility. .FRPRCS6. to a lesser extent. but it also affects adversely bond and anchorage. Moreover. FARDIS. C. Past experience has shown that reinforcement corrosion not only reduces member strength due to steel area loss. Singapore. BOUSIAS. A. O’REGAN Department of Civil Engineering. 810 July 2003 Edited by Gang Hwee Tan @World Scientific Publishing Company STRENGTHENING OF CORROSIONDAMAGED RC COLUMNS WITH FRP S.
As structures old enough to develop significant reinforcement corrosion normally lack sufficient earthquake resistance. To represent nonseismically designed and detailed members.2. the need for measures against the ongoing corrosion. transverse reinforcement was provided by 8mm diameter smooth bars at 200mm centres with 135Ohook at one end and a 90" hook at the other. Readymix C12/15 concrete was used.5 MPa. The longitudinal reinforcement comprised four 18mm bars. Table 1 summarises the characteristics of the materials used for the specimens. employing an electrochemical circuit in which each longitudinal reinforcement bar was the anode and an external galvanized steel mesh was the cathode. activated by lateral expansion of member crosssection. Twelve cantilevertype specimens were constructed representing full scale RC columns of a length approximately equal to half a storey (1. as far as materials used and lack of earthquake resistant detailing. often paves the way for seismic retrofitting as well. in which salt of 3% per weight of water was added at mixing.528 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement for Shear The efficiency of electrochemical remedy measures is not commensurate to their cost. When retrofitting is realized through external (passive) confinement.The performance of this scheme in retrofitting RC columns with corrosionprovoked damage is experimentally investigated in this paper. A 6V fixed potential was applied between anode and cathode and the . In all specimens longitudinal bars had a yield stress of 559. The lower lm of all specimens.6 m) net height and with crosssectional dimensions 250x500 mm (Figure 1). fibrereinforced polymer (FRP) wraps offer a particularly attractive solution.3z4. The corresponding values for the transverse bars are 286 MPa and 350 MPa and 13%. In the past. except two (used as reference for comparison). Corrosion is an expansive process and thus FRP jackets can act as a (passive) confining mechanism. Stirrups were supplied by current through their contact to the main reinforcement. a tensile strength of 682 MPa and uniform elongation at failure of 13% (average of 3 coupons). by upgrading member effective confinement. EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMME The experimental programme focuses on the study of the contribution of FRP wraps in the hoop direction as a means of enhancing the deformation capacity of RC columns with corroded reinforcement. wrapping of members with FRP jackets has been applied successfully to members without corrosion damage'. specimens emulated old construction. was subjected to accelerated corrosion5.
0.17 mm) using 2 layers for the former and 5 for the latter (axial stiffness EA 0 60 kN in both cases). unrepaired seismic damage. As shown in Table 1. six were retrofitted with either 2 or 5 layers of FRP wraps. Two of the other six specimens (CC2Sin and CC2Win) were first subjected to a number of displacement cycles beyond member yielding. The accelerated corrosion conditions were maintained for about 3. tfib is the thickness of a single layer (Le. Alternating wetdry cycles of 60 and 12 hours. tfib=0. Half of these first six specimens were tested along the weak and the other half along the strong column axis. except for any damage of the surface due to concrete cover spalling. Finally. the second and third signify the fibre material (C for carbon. as a measure of different stiffness and strain capacity of the jacket material. as this has been shown in the past6 to produce corrosion products with high volumetric expansion. In the tests performed the same axial stiffness was achieved with CFRP ( E ~ 2 3 0GPa. (c) the level of FRPinduced confinement in columns with crosssectional aspect ratio other than 1. (b) the effect of previous. without any previous damage from cyclic loading. specimens were denoted after the following rules: the first letter denotes whether reinforcement was corroded (C) or not (U). and Ef is the modulus of elasticity). the thickness of the fibre sheet). which was repaired with nonshrinking mortar. respectively. while the last two define the axis of testing (W for weak and S for strong) and whether the specimen was initially damaged before retrofitting (denoted by in). cracking). then they were retrofitted with FRP wraps without restoring previous damage (e. and (d) the effect of FRP wrapping in columns dominated by flexure or shear. at the end of which approximately 1 kg of steel mass in each specimen had been converted to oxides. the remaining four specimens (two with corroded reinforcement and . glass).Strengthening of CorrosionDamaged RC Columns 529 evolution of corrosion was monitored by recording the current passing and applying Faraday’s law to the integrated current. were applied to the specimens using a 3% sodium chloride solution. tfib=0.5 months. The number of FRP layers was determined as follows: the effectiveness of the FRP jacket with respect to the confinement achieved is conditioned by the deformability of the fibres and the extensional stiffness of the jacket. which is proportional to nxtfibxEf(n is the number of FRP layers.g. Of all twelve specimens presented here.13 mm) and GFRP (Ef70 GPa. The basic parameters of the retrofitting scheme studied in this research were: (a) the number of layers of the wrap material and the fibre material (carbon vs. G for glass) and the number of layers employed.
7 17. An axial load of approximately 850 kN (see Table 1 for normalized axial load values) was applied through a jack placed at the top of the column.6 20.5 7.38 0. Specimen crosssection and test setup Horizontal loading was applied at a distance of 1. Specimen geometry and material properties Concrete FRP for retrofitting Normalised Peak Drift at axial load force failure (%) strength.4 18.8 4.35 0.3 18.5 A 0 10 Figure 1.2 7. Table 1 .1 3.2 7.35 0.37 0.f.37 0.9 18. The tests were carried to column failure.38 0.1 18.5 2. Testing was performed by cycling horizontal displacements at increasing amplitudes along the weak or strong section axis.3 18.1 5. A special setup was developed to ensure that the axial load is always applied along the member longitudinal axis.7 18.6 m from the base by a servohydraulic actuator attached to the column head.4 7.1 20.1 4.34 0.34 190 182 167 190 182 182 72 65 67 70 67 69 2.38 0.38 0. f.6 18.1 4. The rotation and axial displacement of . (m) Specimen u0s 18.37 0.7 4. Material Layers v=N/A.37 0.530 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement for Shear two without corrosion) were tested without any retrofit measures as control specimens. determined either by fracture of reinforcing bars or FRP wraps.4 c0s CC2 Sin cc2s cc5s C G5S uow cow CC2Win cc2w cc5w CG5 W ___ __ __ ___ Carbon Carbon Carbon Glass 2 2 5 5 __ ___ Carbon Carbon Carbon Glass ____2 2 5 5 0.3 18. or when resistance dropped by at least 20% of its maximum previous value.
60/0. Figure 3b). some inclined cracking and ultimate disintegration of the concrete core above the base. Although the difference in the sodefined deformation capacity is small. The uncorroded control specimen.8% vs.50=3. was also measured through displacement transducers.possibly due to loss of steel area due to corrosion . for such a shear span ratio and the present low transverse reinforcement ratio column cyclic behaviour may be controlled by shear.but higher ultimate deflection: 45 mm vs. whereas the corroded one exhibits gradual strength degradation with increasing deflection amplitudes (up to 55 mm) and a more flexural failure mode (Figure 2b). the response changed radically: after yielding at a deflection of about 15 mm. with bar buckling. the postultimatedeformation behaviour of the two specimens is very different: the uncorroded specimen suffered a sudden drop in resistance at a peak deflection of 45 mm. see sudden drop in member resistance at 80 mm). was 1. 40 mm (drift ratio 2. peak resistance was maintained constant with increasing displacement amplitude (while it had dropped after 25 mm in C0s). Thus. The corroded control specimen (C0s) exhibits slightly lower flexural capacity than the uncorroded one . when subjected to uniaxial flexure along its strong axis. both determined through the conventional rule of 20%drop in resistance (Figure 2). Then rupture of a longitudinal bar took place before reaching a deflection of 80 mm (Figure 4b). Although (in monotonic loading) the column shear strength exceeds the ratio of the flexural capacity to shear span. UOS. yielded in flexure but then exhibited a mixed flexureshear failure mode. Tests along Strong Axis of Column The shear span ratio of the column.2.5%) of the uncorroded specimen.decreases less due to corrosion than the flexural capacity. After a displacement of 75 mm the cumulative lateral expansion of the compressed concrete inside the CFRP jacket caused jacket rupture when reaching the displacement of 80 mm (drift ratio 5%. and hence the ultimate failure mode and deformation capacity of the corroded specimen is controlled less by shear than in the uncorroded control column. Peak resistance was still controlled by flexure at the base section and was about the same as in the unretrofitted specimen C0s.Strengthening of CorrosionDamaged RC Columns 531 two sections 250mm and 500mm above the base. 2.determined mainly by the contribution of concrete and of the axial load and less by the transverse reinforcement . the gain in deformation capacity amounts to about . After retrofitting the column with two layers of CFRP (CC2S. A possible explanation is that the shear resistance .
Forcedeflection loops for control specimens: (a) U0s (uncorroded). g 50 100 100 150 150 200 260 100 200 50 0 Displacement (mml 50 Iw 250lw 50 0 Dlrplacernsnl (mm) 5o Figure 3. Forcedeflection loops for specimens retrofitted with 2 CFRP layers: CC2Sin (with initial damage).532 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement for Shear 80%. (b) CC2S (without initial damage) Figure 4. (b) C0s (corroded) 250 250 200 200 150 151) 1w  2 e o 9 so 100 50 8 . except that the uncorroded specimen maintained its lateral load carrying capacity to a higher displacement of 90 mm. This modification of response over that of the unretrofitted specimens (corroded or not) is attributed partly to the significant increase of flexural deformation capacity due to the confinement of concrete and also to the increase in shear strength due to the contribution of the FRP jacket (approximately proportional to the total jacket thickness and the FRP modulus of elasticity). Failure of (a) unretrofitted specimen COS. A similar forcedeformation response was exhibited by a companion specimen with uncorroded reinforcement (not presented here) subjected to the same loading history. and (b) retrofitted specimen cc2s . No gradually softening branch was noted in either specimen. Figure 2.
The increased energy dissipation over the unretrofitted specimen demonstrated when retrofitting with CFRP. the 5layer jacket applied has a stiffness equal to that of the 2layer carbon FRP jacket. ! 0 . nor the (unaltered afterpeak) corresponding capacity in the negative direction. may be explained by the fact that in the initially damaged specimen activation of the CFRP starts after the concrete has undergone some damage and lateral expansion. Increasing the number of layers of CFRP to 5 (specimen CC5S) contributes marginally to member strength (Figure 5a).e. 80 mm or 5%). The difference in ultimate deformation. .1%. but at a displacement of 60 mm (drift ratio 3. The test was continued for two more cycles.deflection loops of: (a) CCSS (5 CFRP layers). 4. The initially damaged specimen exhibits faster strength degradation with cycling (Figure 3a) and lower ultimate deformation capacity than the companion initially damaged column (65 mm. i. triggering uncontrolled expansion and CFRP fracture.75%) suffered fracture of one bar and a drop in resistance of 25% of the previous maximum value. Displasomant(mml ! 50 a 100 Figure 5. member deformability did not improve: the specimen sustained cyclic displacements of 55 mm. 2%. which has been consistently found in four pairs of undamaged or initially damaged specimens. ! 50 . (b) CGSS (5 GFRP layers) With glass FRP for the retrofitting (specimen CGSS). until another bar fractured on the positive. although it enhanced concrete confinement. 2% 100 . in which neither the (reduced) lateral load capacity in the positive direction changed.Strengthening of CorrosionDamaged RC Columns 533 In specimen CC2Sin the two layers of FRP were applied to the column after it had gone through cycles of increasing amplitude of up to 25 mm. Fracture of the corroded steel bar preceded fracture of the CFRP and became the limiting factor. was also exhibited by this . Force. . Failure was again by CFRP rupture followed by buckling and failure of a longitudinal bar. so it reaches earlier its (confined) crushing strain. vs. Despite the increased jacket stiffness over that of specimen CC2S.
Strength degradation of the retrofitted column evolved much slower than in the unretrofitted specimen (Figure 7b). due to the marginal contribution of increased concrete confinement to member strength). It is noted here that for this small number of CFRP layers (i.60/0. . for small volumetric ratio of FRP material). while strength was not much affected (as expected. Compared to specimen CC2S.4%) to about 115 mm (7.4) are expected to have a clearly flexural behaviour. permitting the column to retain large proportion of its resistance for many cycles after the peak. which involved extensive inclined cracking.1%. The application of two layers of carbon FRP increased member deformation capacity drastically (Figure 7b. the behaviour was purely flexural due to the contribution of the GFRP to the shear capacity of the member.25%) in the companion uncorroded specimen (not included here). UOW. It seems that there is no benefit in increasing the number of CFRP layers beyond a certain limit. The initially damaged specimen (Figure 7a) has in this case similar behaviour and about the same deformation capacity as the undamaged one (Figure 7b). this specimen had a slightly inferior performance.534 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement for Shear specimen (Figure 5b). Again.2%). as expected. jacket failure by tensile fracture of fibres was observed in both specimens C C 2 W and CC2Win. compared to Figure 6b). vs. 70 mm or 4. as compared to 100 mm (drift ratio 6.25=6. C O W (Figure 6b).4%) and a more rapid postultimate strength degradation (Figure 6a) than its corroded counterpart. is quite low. which had the same jacket stiffness. Failure was by CFRP fracture (Figure 8b). Tests along Weak Axis of Column The specimens subjected to uniaxial flexure along their weak crosssection axis (shear span ratio 1. with 5 layers of CFRP.1%) by fracture of one longitudinal bar. The conventionally defined (through the 20%drop in resistance rule) deformation capacity increases from about 70 mm (drift ratio 4. which. Nonetheless. again the uncorroded control specimen. despite the high shear span ratio (Figure 6b). exhibits lower deformation capacity (65 mm or drift ratio of 4.e. did not perform better than either of these two specimens. are reminiscent of shearcontrolled behaviour. for this particular specimen. Failure occurred at a displacement of 65 mm (drift ratio 4. What is most interesting is that specimen CCSS. This feature of UOW and its failure mode.
2% and as compared to drift of 7. the 2layer CFRP jacketed specimen has a conventionally defined (at 20% drop in resistance) ultimate drift of 7.deflection loops for specimens retrofitted with 2 CFRP layers: (a) CC2Win. does not considerably affect strength (as expected) or the conventionally defined member deformation capacity. (b) CC2W Figure 8.5% in the specimens with 5 . as compared to 2 layers of the same material. Failure of (a) unretrofitted specimen COW.Strengthening of CorrosionDamaged RC Columns 535 Figure 6.deflection loops for specimens (a) UOW (uncorroded). ~ " Deflection (mm) Figure 7 . 9a and 9b. Force. and (b) retrofitted specimen cc2w For the present specimen the application of 5 layers of carbon FRP. Force. (b) C O W (corroded) . Referring to Figures 7b.
(b) In the strong direction of the column. (b) CG5W (5 GFRP layers) CONCLUSIONS The present test results have shown that: (a) FRP wrapping of columns without earthquake resistant detailing and with corroded reinforcement does not improve strength .536 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Shear CFRP or GFRP layers.deflection loops for specimens: (a) CC5W (5 CFRP layers). where the lower drift capacity is due to larger depth and lower shear span ratio.which is controlled by the flexural capacity at the base and affected by the loss in steel area . This had not been observed on companion columns with noncorroded reinforcement. In that respect. XI Z  5 . the addition of 3 more FRP layers did not prove to be very beneficial. respectively.1%. It seems that corrosion reduces the ductility of the rebars. 100 XI 0 I0 1w 150 o. This improvement is due to the increase in strain capacity of the compressed concrete and the restraint of bar buckling by the F W jacket. at a drift ratio of 8. failure of the retrofitted element was associated with fracture of longitudinal reinforcement.on imm.nestlOn imm) Figure 9. without fracture of the FRP or the reinforcement.but increases dramatically deformation (drift) capacity to levels not easily achievable through confinement by conventional jacketing.75% and 8. (c) Application of the FRP jacket to a column which had been carried to yielding of the reinforcement and to moderate damage by previous cycling. setting therefore a limit to the improvement in deformation capacity that can be effected through FRP wraps. whereas the test of specimens CCSW and CGSW stopped at postconventional ultimate drift ratios of 8.45% specimen CC2W suffered CFRP fracture. Force. as well as to the suppression of the effects of shear on deformation capacity. D XI XI 150 Deflort. gives lower deformation capacity in comparison to an initially . which exhibited larger deformation capacity. Nonetheless.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The General Secretariat for Research and Technology (GSRT) of the Greek Ministry of Development provided partial financial support to this research. (d) In the strong direction of the specimen. which retain their axial load capacity after attaining ultimate deformation and losing their lateral load capacity. 2001. 2. and Audenaert. while the confinement effect of the FRP over the wide compression zone of the weak direction is certainly smaller. The difference may be due to the fact that concrete has undergone some lateral expansion in the absence of the FRP jacket and its activation. this advantage is disproportionately small in comparison to the additional material cost.fib Bulletin 14. Failure by bar rupture does not have such severe consequences on axial load capacity. columns retrofitted with FRP wraps lose practically all their axial load capacity when they fail explosively by fracture of the FRP wrap.Strengthening of CorrosionDamaged RC Columns 537 undamaged column. “Tests on axially loaded concrete columns confined by FRP sheet wrapping”. Federation International du Beton. L. Taerwe. Nonetheless. K. increasing the number of the FRP layers from a low value of two to five does not offer any advantage. Nonetheless. Matthys. (e) At first sight FRP wraps are expected to be more effective in the strong direction of the column. in which concrete confinement and FRP action control deformation capacity. in which bar fracture is the limiting factor for deformation capacity.. Some advantage is offered by such an increase in the weak direction. as the more narrow width of the compressed zone lends itself better to confinement by the FRP jacket and improvement in the strain capacity of the compression zone. SIKA provided the FRP materials. S. in the present case premature fracture of the corroded reinforcement has prevented full utilization of the larger confining effect of the FRP in the strong direction of the column.. Lausanne. REFERENCES 1. 4th International . Externally bonded FRP reinforcement for RC structures. (f) Contrary to the unretrofitted specimens.
3 1902. 9(2). “Earthquake retrofit of bridge columns with continuous fiber jackets”. and Innamorato. Advanced composite technology transfer consortium. F. Ontario Joint Transportation Research Report. Priestley.. N. Report No. of California. pp. . and Hearn. Thomas. S. USA. Bousias. and Bradford. 6. 2 17228.538 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcementfor Shear 3. Baltimore.. Symposium on FRP for Reinforced Concrete Structures.. B. In Design guidelines. San Diego. M. 1995. 1997. 115124. Nanni. J. M.. pp. D. Triantafillou. 200 1. S. 1995. Pantazopoulou.. Bonacci. M... T. Research Report to the General Secretariat for Research and Technology..S. J. Fardis. M. ACTT95/08. MTO Reference No. “FRP jacketed concrete under uniaxial compression”. N. 5. Seible. Construction and Building Materials. Univ. 4. Greece. N.. Repair of delaminated circular pier columns by ACM. A. Spathis. L.. 1999. and O’Regan. 2. Use of fibre reinforced polymers in repairhetrofit of reinforced concrete elements... Sheikh.
INTRODUCTION Many concrete bridge elements are deteriorating. University of Bath. leading to a reduction in their flexural and shear strength. 00197. This is problematic in terms of disruption in the use of the bridge and maintenance might also be a problem. one option to strengthen the bridge in shear is to insert threaded vertical steel bars through the deck and bolt on endplates. so stainless steel is often used. IBELL Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering. This paper deals with a new type of shear strengthening for existing concrete bridges. 810 July 2003 Edited by Kiang Hwee Tan QWorld Scientific Publishing Company SHEAR STRENGTHENING OF CONCRETE BRIDGE DECKS USING FRF' BAR P. However. This could allow the bridge to be used during strengthening works. BA2 7AY. Rome. It is proposed that vertical FRP bars be inserted into predrilled holes and fastened in place using epoxy resin. Ten laboratory tests are presented here to demonstrate the system. This deterioration may be due to poor initial design or construction (including poor material selection or poor workmanship). VALERIO Te. increased traffic loads and aggressive environments. co. This adds expense and means that the stainless steel bars must be isolated . Bath.FRPRCS6. Singapore. This method has the advantage that only the soffit of the concrete bridge beam (or slab) is required for access. allowing the top surface to remain undamaged during strengthening. J. United Kingdom The shear capacity of existing concrete bridge beams is often inadequate and unable to meet current code requirements. and comparisons are made against current code predictions for the strength of such concrete beams with and without transverse reinforcement.i. this method requires access to both the soffit and top surface of the bridge. with traffic relatively unhindered by work being carried out below. If a concrete bridge is found to have inadequate shear strength and individual webs are inaccessible (for example in the case of many parallel closelylaid beams). Italy T. The results of this work show that the proposed strengthening scheme is effective and provides significant improvement in the shearcarrying load capacity. via Giangiacomo Porro 18.
are a tensile strength of 1. in accordance with manufacturer's data.5 kN/m3. each of diameter lOmm as before. The FRF' reinforcement used was Arapree' bar whose main properties. Due to its ongoing popularity. TEST PROGRAMME In order to verify the practicality and feasibility of the proposed verticallyembeddedbar shear strengthening scheme. Ten beams were tested under fourpoint loading to provide constant shear within the shear spans. FRP reinforcing bars are then inserted and embedded in place using resin. The first specimen contained no transverse reinforcement. the following test programme was conducted. The tenth specimen contained just a single l0mmdiameter Arapree bar inserted in the centre of each shear span.4% and density of 12. the equivalent steelbar solution is also considered. ultimate strain of 2. The third and fourth specimens contained respectively five similar manuallydrilled vertical holes in each shear span. Table 1 summarises the reinforcement in each specimen. The sixth and seventh specimens contained respectively three vertical Arapree or steel bars spread out over the shear span. Figure 1 shows the typical dimensions and longitudinal reinforcement in the specimens.5mm diameter Arapree bars this time. This research project was concerned with the feasibility of the structural strengthening capabilities. Each beam had a similar crosssection and contained the same quantity of bottom steel reinforcement (2 T12 high yield bars). unfilled 12mmdiameter vertical holes in each shear span (see Figure 2). The ninth specimen was similar to the eighth. The work described in this paper attempts to circumvent these problems. but contained 7.540 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement for Shear from the reinforcing bars in some way.5 GPa. rather than with the onsite practicalities. The second specimen contained five manuallydrilled. It is proposed that vertical holes are drilled into the bridge deck from the soffit level. The fifth specimen contained three Arapree bars angled at 60" to the horizontal. . In this way. The eighth specimen contained two vertical Arapree bars in each shear span. in order to prevent accelerated corrosion of these reinforcing bars. but this time each filled with epoxyresined Arapree (10mm diameter) or steel bars (T10 deformed bar). shear strength enhancement is possible. Young's Modulus of 60GPa. This shearstrengthening technique implies that some pressure would need to be applied to inject highviscosity adhesive into the drilled holes.
Shear Strengthening of Concrete Bridge Decks 541 & PJ2 Il 4 PJ2 1 1 t t (a) Elevation of beams (b) Typical cross section Figure 1. Long. Shear strengthening details for each specimen Spec. reinforcement 1 2 T12 steel none 2 2 T12 steel 5+5 holes only 3 2 T12 steel 5+5 lOmm Arapree bars vertical 4 2 T12 steel 5+5 T 10 steel bars vertical 5 2 TI2 steel 3+3 lOmm Arapree bars angled 60" 6 2 T12 steel 3+3 lOmm Arapree bars vertical 7 2 T12 steel 3+3 T10 steel bars vertical 8 2 TI2 steel 2+2 lOmm Arapree bars vertical 9 2 T12 steel 2+2 7. No.5mm Arapree bars vertical 10 2 T12 steel 1+1 lOmm Arapree bar vertical . Details of the test specimens Table 1 . reinforcement Trans.
8. Figure 3.Those beams strengthened in shear with three or five FRP bars in each shear span (Beams 3 to 7) attained full ductile flexural response.542 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Shear I I I 500 Figure 2. Overall test setup TEST RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 2 shows a summary of the results of all tests. All beams cracked in flexure around 15kN. The beams which were either not strengthened or strengthened with only one or two bars in each shear span (beams 1. 9 and 10) all . 2. Positioning of vertical hole The required concrete cube compressive strength was about 50 MPa and Figure 3 shows the typical test setup for each of the specimens.
W a ) Failure mode Peak failure Maximuim midspan defieccic ' "m load (kN) (mm\ 1 51 Shear 45 12 2 53 Shear 42 9 3 60 Flexural 83 > 40 4 51 Flexural 80 > 40 5 55 Flexural 83 > 40 6 50 Flexural 83 > 40 7 60 Flexural 76 > 40 8 59 Shear 64 13 9 59 Shear 64 13 10 59 Shear 60 12 Figure 4. Average f.Shear Strengthening of Concrete Bridge Decks 543 failed in brittle shear. This increased the shear capacity considerably compared with Beam 1. Test results Beam No. Note how the shear discontinuity was constrained to occur between the single bar and the load point. Figure 4 shows the shear failure for specimen 10. as seen in Table 2.. containing just one bar in each shear span. Shear failure of Beam 10 . Table 2.
= 5OMPa to 60MPa). (I/hx). Therefore. assuming the concrete compressive cube strengthsf. it may easily be shown that the depth to the neutral axis is x = 120 mm and the effective second moment of area I = 116x lo6 mm4. we find that the ultimate moment of resistance of each beam turns out to be in the range of Mu. it may easily be shown that the theoretical total applied load at first flexural cracking is P. is given by M.. The theoretical first cracking moment M. This value matches well with that observed in all tests..9 MPa is the average measured concrete tensile strength and h is the overall depth of the beam (220 mm). Loaddeflection plots for all specimens FLEXURAL ANALYSIS In the uncracked phase..._ _ _ _Beam 5 Beam 6 . clearly demonstrating the flexural ductility that was exhibited by those specimens containing sufficient shear strengthening. so that M.. Applied load against midspan displacement Beam1  Beam 2 Beam 3 Beam 4 .1 kN. = 15.544 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Shear Figure 5 shows the midspan loaddeflection plots for all specimens. the theoretical total applied ultimate load ranges from P. = f c .. wheref. = 3.Beam  7 Beam 8 Beam 9 Beam 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 Displacement (mm) Figure 5.5 kNm. = 24. = 4. At the ultimate limit state. Therefore.. .1 to 24.6 kNm (forfc. = 80 to 82 kN. = 635 MPa. This range too is very close to that observed in the specimens which failed in flexure (tests 3 to 7). for each test and the steel yield strength&.
it is assumed that the equivalent cylinder compressive strengthf'. This translates to an anchorage length. for steel and FRP transversally reinforced beams respectively: V f= 635 ... is P.80f. Thus. With a Young's Modulus of the F W bars of 60GPa. where V. term. becomes. The predicted ultimate load capacity for beams 1 and 2. based on a 45" truss analogy. For purposes of analysis here.004 at the ultimate shear capacity of the beams617.. = 2 V. the design of an adequate shearstrengthening scheme would require closelyspaced vertical bars in reality. For beams 3 to 10.As the bars contain no hooked corners. no further strain checks are made which would relate to bent portions of FRP stirrups. + 5.z sv v/= 240. it is assumed that the verticallyembedded FRP bars will strain to 0. where V. the stress in the FRP bars at shear collapse is 240MPa. For the V .. with transverse reinforcement. The value of z is taken to be the fullyanchored length of each embedded bar. which is the overall length of each bar minus the anchorage length at each end. P. it is assumed that the average bond strength between epoxyresined bar and concrete is of the order of 12MPa'.z sv where Af is the crosssectional area of each bar. the term for V. it is assumed that . Zb... z is the effective lever arm of the truss and sv is the spacing between vertical bars. so that in all cases. the calculations conducted here ignore this limitation. Codesofpractice BS8 1 102. Bridge Assessment Guide BD44/953.= 2V. For the V. ACI3 184 and Eurocode EC25 are used here for comparison purposes.The assumptions made in determining p a r e explained below. of 50mm for the lOmm diameter bars. Note that although the codesofpractice adopted here limit the spacing between stirrups to various fractions of the effective depth. term from ACI3 18.Ar. is the concrete contribution term with all the safety factors put equal to unity. each of which contains no transverse reinforcement. = V. = 0.Af.. d.. Naturally.Shear Strengthening of Concrete Bridge Decks 545 SHEAR PREDICTIONS FROM CODESOFPRACTICE Comparisons between the ultimate load observed and code predictions are now made for all beams.
. This is almost certainly due to the wide spacing of the bars. in particular. This is important. However. If the presence of the vertical bars is ignored entirely in specimens 8. Where the shear capacity prediction is higher than the relevant flexural capacity prediction. such as only access to the soffit being required. the verticallyembedded bars should be spaced sufficiently closely in order for shear predictions to be valid. which is then based solely on the value of V. in these three specimens. for specimens 8 and 10.1. The proposed shearstrengthening approach has been shown to be feasible and successful.75 times the effective depth. the following remarks may be made. it seems that although the bars are spaced too widely to be fully effective. CONCLUSIONS From the test results and comparisons with code and plasticitybased predictions. easier and quicker installation. the codesofpractice overestimate the effectiveness of the vertical bars. . and lower maintenance. So. all codesofpractice substantially underestimate the shear capacity. which is close to one effective depth for specimen 8 and substantially more than one effective depth for specimen 10. Therefore. It is clear that all codesofpractice predict the shear and flexural strengths (as relevant) reasonably accurately. the flexural capacity is used for comparison purposes. 9 and 10 (due to the wide spacing). they do indeed enhance shear capacity by altering the shear discontinuity geometry.5 to 0.546 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement for Shear z = h2. as it implies that this Strengthening scheme could be used with confidence by practising engineers. It seems sensible that this minimum spacing should be in the region of 0. = 2202x 50 = 120mm (3 1 Table 4 shows details of comparisons between the various code predictions and the actual results. clearly it is essential that in order for this strengthening scheme to be used in reality. just as recommended by present codesofpractice for shear design. Such a shearstrengthening technique for concrete bridges offers many advantages over the traditional threadedbarandplate approach.
Shear Strengthening of Concrete Bridge Decks 547 Table 4. ultimate design strain &fwd is chosen. It is suggested that existing requirements for maximum spacing of vertical reinforcement.4% for the reinforcement contribution is Afifi&'~/ssy.5 and 0. The spacing between embedded bars should be close enough so that the shear discontinuity cannot form between bars. Actual Capacity 1 (kN) 45 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 (Shear) 42 (Shear) 83 (Flexure) 80 (FI exure) 83 BS8110 Pred. so that the use of F W is suggested for such strengthening due to its lightness and corrosion resistance. (kN) 48 (Shear) 49 BD44/95 Pred. . (kN) 41 (Shear) 42 (shear) (Shear) (Shear) (Shear) (Shear) 82 82 82 82 (Flexure) (Flexure) (Flexure) (Flexure) 80 80 80 80 (shear) (Shear) (Shear) (Shear) (Flexure)(Shear) (Flexure (Flexure) (FI exure) 81 81 81 81 (shear) (shear) (Shear) (Shear) (Shear) (Shear) (Shear) (Shear) (Shear) (Shear) 83 80 80 77 77 76 (F1exure) 64 (Shear) 64 (Shear) 60 (Shear) 82 (FI exure) 78 (Shear) 66 (Shear) 69 (Shear) 82 (F1exure) 76 (Shear) 64 (Shear) 67 (Shear) 82 (Flexure) 72 (Shear) 60 (Shear) 63 (Shear) 82 (F1exure) 73 (Shear) 61 (Shear) 64 (Shear) (shear)(Shear) (Shear)(Shear) (Shear)(Shear) (Shear) (Shear) (shear) (Shear) No particular differences were noticed between the beams reinforced with steel bars and the ones reinforced with FRP. Existing codesofpractice adequately predict behaviour of this strengthening scheme when closelyspaced vertical bars are used. (kN) 47 (Shear) 47 ACI318 Pred. (kN) 41 (Shear) 42 EC2 Pred. should be adequate for such strengthening. which vary between 0.75 times the effective depth. Correlation between codeofpractice predictions and test results Beam No. It is therefore concluded that it is possible to design a shearstrengthening scheme using embedded FRP bars by assuming that the provided a value of 0.
. 1985. Sireg Geotechnical Division Catalogue. REFERENCES 1. “Shear response of continuous RC beams strengthened with carbon FRP sheets”. “ArapreeCarbopree bars”... K.p. 491498. 2. 3. Sireg S.. October 1997. 4. Detroit. Japan. “Structural use of concrete. Arcore. F. Italy. and Tamaki. ACI Committee 3 18. T. 6.. EC2. 96(6). Proceedings of the 3rdInternational Symposium on NonMetallic (FRP) Reinforcement for Concrete Structures (FRPRCS3). “Shear behaviour of RC beams with aramid fiber sheet”. 5. M. 1995. Sapporo. A.548 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcementfor Shear ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors gratefully acknowledge the help of the laboratory staff and the financial support from the Department of Architecture and Civil engineering at the University of Bath. Part 1: Code of Practice for design and construction”. British Standards Institution. Sapporo. “Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete (ACI 3 1802) and Commentary (ACI 3 18R02)”. Department of transport. ACI Structural Journal. pp. Arduini. .J. “The use of FRPs compared with steel for shear reinforcement of concrete”. K. and Focacci. BD 44/95. “The assessment of concrete highway bridges and structures”. 2002.. H. Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on NonMetallic (FRP) Reinforcement for Concrete Structures (FRPRCS3). Di Tommaso. pp. A.. 1992. and Burgoyne.. who supplied generous discounts on the Arapree materials. 8. M. 200 1. London. 7. Umezu. London. Ibell. BS 8 1 10. Part 1: General rules and rules for buildings”. 459466. and Sireg.A. Nakai. pp. American Concrete Institute.J. C. 1999. 9971003. Japan. October 1997. “Design of concrete structures. Nanni. Fujita.
(shear) (Shear) (Shear) (Shear) (Shear) (shear) (Shear) (Shear) (Shear) (Shear) .
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external confinement of concrete with fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) has emerged as a popular method for the retrofitting of existing concrete columns for enhanced strength and ductility. the effectiveness of the proposed model is verified. LU' AND Z. Numerous tests on FRPconfined concrete cylinders have thus been conducted'''. because parameters affecting the performance of FRPconfined are numerous. INTRODUCTION In recent years. a method for predicting the ultimate strength of FRPconfined concrete is presented. The available experimental results cover a wide range of values for several parameters that affect the mechanism of confinement: . '*. WU'. Southeast lJniversi& China 2 Department of Urban & Civil Engineering.FRPRCS6. WU2 I College of Civil Engineering. Singapore. Then.2. Z. the types of FRP are diversified and the property of FRP is scattered. It is hard to accurately predict the stressstrain response of FRPconfined concrete. the calculation of the Poisson's ratio of concrete confined with a sufficient amount of FRP is suggested. Based on the analysis of a large number of test databases. ". Through comparison with existing experimental data of other researchers. and a number of theoretical stressstrain models have been proposed for FRPconfined concrete'"' '16 . a trilinear model is suggested to predict the stressstrain response of FRPconfined concrete cylinders. in particular. existing experimental results of more than two hundred specimens given in the references are used in this paper. according to strain compatibility. First. Ibaraki Universi& Japan Based on the analysis of more than two hundred specimens of concrete cylinders confined with FRP. Finally. this paper puts forward a new method to predict the ultimate strength and strain of FRPconfined concrete cylinders and suggests a stressstrain model. the ultimate strain of FRPconfined concrete is predicted. AVAILABLE EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS For the assessment of previous models and for the development and calibration of a new model. 810 July 2003 Edited by S a n g Hwee Tan BWorld Scientific Publishing Company STRESSSTRAIN RELATIONSHIP FOR FRPCONFINED CONCRETE CYLINDERS G.
1+2. (2) The majority of results were obtained from tests on the cylinders with a dimension of 0100 mmx200mm or 0 150 mmx305mm. but also to the type of FRP. namely fdco. There are two significant parameters. 1516 have suggested some methods to predict the strength of FRPconfined concrete cylinders with reference to the wellknown equation proposed by Richart et al.>. (3) CFRP. Other researchers". (4) The tensile strength of FRP varied between 330 N/mm2 and 4433 N/mm2 . where the strength of FRP is determined by tensile coupon tests (Fig. GFRP. that will significantly influence the performance of According to previous studies.A Lo L o (2) For FRP sheetconfined concrete cylinders. the expression is: . the expression is: Lc . the effectiveness coefficient is related not only to the ratio of confinement strength to the strength of unconfined concrete. The FRP was applied in the form of a tube or sheet. (1) For FRP sheetconfined concrete cylinders. and the thickness of FRP varied between 0.0 N/mm2 and 75.1 lmm and 3. where the strength of FRP is obtained by the value provided by manufacturers (Fig. 1a). the CFRP includes common CFRP (with a modulus less than 250 GPa) and high modulus CFRP (with a modulus greater than 250 GPa). the modulus of FRP between 19100 N/mm2 and 640000 N/mm2 . all the specimens were without internal longitudinal or transverse reinforcement. where a sufficient confinement from FRP has been provided. ULTIMATE STRENGTH OF CONFINED CONCRETE Many researchers 1. that is. (6) This paper focuses on the test specimens without a descending stressstrain response. 6. and it depends on the method used to determine the strength of FRP. 13* l4 also presented some equations to predict the strength of FRPconfined concrete.552 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement for Confinement (1) Concrete strength between 23. ( 5 ) In order to eliminate the influence of steel.lb).0. The ultimate strength of FRPconfined cylinders can be predicted by following equations.4 N/mm2 were tested. confinement modulus (El) and confinement strength (f. 810. AFRP were used to confine the concrete.Omm..
..1+ 3.. 5 1 0......................J.. 5 fdco fdco (a) FRP sheet..... the expression is: LC... 5 1. A C L O L O (3) For FRP tubeconfined concrete cylinders.. Regression equations for the ultimate strength of confined concrete 1 . and f c c are the strength of unconfined concrete cylinders and FRPconfined concrete cylinders respectively.. strength determined by tests Figure 1....StressStrain Relationsfor FRPConfined Cylinders 553 ..... where the strength of FRP is determined by tensile coupon tests (Fig....... strength obtained from manufacturers 0 ' 0 0....lc).. 4 r . strength determined by tests (b) FRP sheet.......5.........J.. 4 r e 3 2  1 0 ' 0 0 ' 0 I 0.....0........ 5 1 fdco (c) FRP tube. L (3 1 L O O where f c o ..1+ 2...
the FRP tube is often used as the formwork. hence the tube and concrete are in close contact. some conclusions can be drawn: (1) FRP is a linearly elastic material. (2) The ultimate Possion's ratio of FRPconfined concrete is related to the form of FRP. For FRP tubeconfined concrete columns. orfJfco. Based on the analysis of the existing experimental results. the form of FRP. 13" . the ultimate Possion's ratio of high modulus FRPconfined concrete is approximately suggested as: . The ultimate Possion's ratio of concrete confined with normal modulus CFRP sheet.554 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Confinement ULTIMATE STRAIN OF CONFINED CONCRETE The ultimate strain of FRPconfined concrete is related not only to the value E d c . and there are voids between the FRP sheet and the concrete surface ineluctably. with the concrete cast in the tube. and the value offJfco. *". these parameters were not all considered in existing models6. This resulted in a poor comparison between the experimental and the predicted results. and the property of FRP (normal modulus FRP or high modulus FRP). so the Possion's ratio of FRPconfined concrete at ultimate will tend to an asymptotic value if the confinement of FRP is significant. For FRP sheet confined concrete. so the ultimate Possion's ratio of FRP sheetconfined concrete is larger than that of FRP tubeconfined concrete. GFRP sheet and AFRP sheet can be approximated by [Fig 2(a)l: For concrete confined with GFRP or CFRP tubes. but as the number of test databases of cylinders confined with high modulus FRP is small. the ultimate Possion's ratio can be approximated by [Fig 2(b)]: The confinement is more effective for high modulus FRP. FRP is wrapped around the cylinders. and the value is mainly related to the form and property of FRP. but also to the ultimate strain of FRP.
..0 when Ef is less than or equal to 250 GPu. is the ultimate axial strain of FRPconfined concrete. Regression equations for ultimate Possion's ratio COMPARISON OF AVAILABLE MODELS Comparison of existing models and the model proposed in this paper is showed in Table 1. which is taken by 1. and cfiis the ultimate strain of FRP. there is a large scatter associated with strain predictions. 5 0 0 fdco (a) Common FRP sheet confined concrete 0. 3 r 0 ' 0 1 1 I 0. on the contrary. the ultimate strain of FRPconfined concrete can be easily calculated by the following equation: & =E f i (7) CC vu where E. =0. 5 1 1. some conclusions can be drawn: (1) Many existing models seem to accurately predict the ultimate strength of FRPconfined concrete. and d w ( u n i t GPu) when Ef is greater than 250 GPa.56kf  where kf is the influence coefficient of high modulus FRP.. according to strain compatibility. 5 1 fdco (b) FRP tube confined concrete Figure 2. After obtaining the ultimate Possion's ratio of FRPconfined concrete.StressStruin Relationsfor FRPConfined Cylinders 555 r::)""" v.
53 0.11 0. and Xiao and Wu (2001) can favorably estimate the ultimate stress and strain of FRP sheetconfined concrete.96 0. Mean St.36 0.35 0.68 1. but it is not favorable for FRP tubeconfined concrete.22 1.93 0.16 1.20 0.79 0.23 0.56 0.42 191 1. [I1 1.27 181 1.03 1.10 0.29 0.51 [21 1.87 1.22 0.dev.11 0.41 0.09 0.02 0.20 [I41 1.10 0.94 0.dev.93 0. (3) The models proposed by Samaan and Mirmiran (1997).00 0.94 0.51 1. but it is not favorable for FRP sheetconfined concrete.38 1.96 0.88 1.08 1.dev.97 0. Mean St.26 0.17 0.94 0.33 1.57 0.27 1.40 1.38 1.556 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement f o r Confinement (2) The models proposed by Lam and Teng (2001). Mean St.26 0.dev.06 0.71 1. (4) It seems that all the existing models cannot favorably predict the ultimate stress and strain of concrete confined by high modulus FRP.39 0.61 0.88 0.02 0.20 0.34 Thispaper 1.72 0.32 0.16 1.03 0. Mean St. Comparison of available models Confined with high Confined with common FRP sheet Stress modulus FRP sheet Strain Stress Strain Confined with FRP tube Stress Strain ~~~ Mean St.17 1.20 2.83 3.76 1. Researchers Table 1.13 1.09 0.17 0.27 1.50 0.14 1.35 0.08 0.15 0.14 0.63 0.09 0.78 1.37 1.46 [61 1.17 1.76 0.39 0.13 2.86 0.58 0.17 0.48 0.55 0.09 1.32 0.28 1.07 0.31 0.15  [I51 ~ Best This paper Third [I11 7his paper This paper ~ 4 1 ~ 3 1 This paper [6] 2% paper  Thispaper [I11 .39 1.15 2.dev.08 0.05 0.57 0. ( 5 ) The model proposed by this paper can favorably predict the ultimate stress and strain of concrete confined by any type of FRP.29 [I11 1.09 0. Mean St.88 0.99 0.76 1.12 1.55 0.97 0.33 0.21 1.11 1.16 0.dev.98 0.98 0.85 1.34 0.86 ~ ~ ~ ~ [lo] 1.86 0.30 1.10 0. and Spoelstra and Monti (1999) can favorably estimate the ultimate stress and strain of FRP tubeconfined concrete.27 3.06 0.31 0.
0004E.. can be obtained from Eqs.0002E.. and can be approximated by 0. (4)(7) respectively.)~. each point in Fig. is the peak strain of unconfined concrete. ): oc2 =(1+0. and can be approximated by Point 2( E . ~ ocl . ~= (I (10) + 0. Trilinear stressstrain model . E .3 can be determined respectively as following: Point 1( E . (1 1) where E. ): 3 c EC Figure 3. ~ oc2 . . point 3 fco A.StressStrain Relations for FRPConfined Cylinders 557 STRESSSTRAIN RELATIONSHIP Trilinear Stressstrain Model This paper suggests a trilinear model can be used to predict the stressstrain response of cylinders confined with a sufficient amount of FRP (Fig. (1)(3) and Eqs.) E.. ( E.3).002. is the modulus of concrete. ): where E.. E.
l' 0. Comparison between the proposed model to test results 0.02 h 80 80 v v 60 . v I r 100 80 2 80 60 92 60 v1 E40 E + .02 (QXiao et aI.015 0. A satisfactory agreement is observed for the proposed model.04 0.01 Strain 0.05 0.558 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcement for Confinement Comparison with Experimental Results Figure 4 shows the comparison between the experimental data and the proposed model.60 5 40 f: 40 v) 20 20 0 0 2 O.015 Strain 0.005 0. 03 (d) Toutanji 120 100  80  100 h h LC3 80 v .02 0.4 0 m 0 0.03 .01 0.01 Strain 0.O! Strain (b) Hosotani et a1.03 0 0. 02 0.005 0 (a) Mirmiran et al? 120 120 r 100 100 h 0.60 al 2 40 v) 20 0 n " 0 0. 100 h Q.01 0.$ 40 v) 20 20 0 0 0 0.03 Strain 0.02 0.025 0 (c) Miyauchi et a1.02 (e) Saafi et a1.8 O.O1 Strain 0. Figure 4.
“Behavior of Concrete Columns Confined by Fiber Composite”.StressStrain Relationsfor FRPConfined Cylinders 559 CONCLUSIONS (1) The effectiveness coefficient of FRP is related to the value of f#Lo. pp. and Irshaid. No. ASCE. and the method determining the strength of FRP. (3) The stressstrain response of FRP confinedconcrete can be predicted by a trilinear stressstrain model. and compares favorably with many existing test results by other researches. M. M. Journal of Structural Engineering. 1981. Hosotani. Kawashima.. ACI Structural Journal. ASCE. NovemberDecember. A.592.. . No5. 5 . “Stressstrain Characteristics of Confined Concrete with Carbon Fiber Sheet”. 3. V01. The model is simply.. from which the ultimate strain of FRPconfined concrete can be easily calculated.. M. Magazine of Concrete Research. 6. 1991. Ahmad. the form of FRP. Khalili.R. N0. July 1998. pp37pp52. “Model of Concrete Confined Fiber Composite”. and Mirmiran.. 19985. T. The ultimate strength of FRPconfined concrete can be approximated by Eqs. N. K. ~ ~ 1 4 3 . A. Journal of Structural Engineering. AFRP sheet and FRP tube. and Hoshikuma. A. Mirmiran. Samaan. A. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Financial support of partial work of this paper from the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (863 Program) under grant 200 1AA336010 is gratefully acknowledged. and Shahawy. The method is simply and suitable for concrete confined by normal or high modulus CFRP sheet. 1997..9. and Shahawy. pp6578. K. “A StressStrain Model for Concrete Cylinders Concrete by Carbon Fiber Sheets”. “Behavior of Concrete Spirally Confined by Fiberglass Filaments”.156. 2. M.. JSCE. GFRP sheet. J. Komure .5 9 0 . Vo1. 4.. H. Michael. Concrete Structures and Pavements. V39. Khaloo. and Tagaki.. Concrete Research and Technology. ~ ~ 5 8 3 . “Concrete Encased in FiberglassReinforced Plastic”.1 4 8 . (2) Methods to predict the ultimate Possion’s ratio of FRPconfined concrete are proposed.F.123.440446. REFERENCES 1. Nakatsuka. H..( 1) to (3). K.
21. 143150. 13.. 9. 2000. Z. NO. V01. N02. China. 200 1.. September.5 0 9 . J.. Toutanji. H. 12.C. T. FRPRCS5. K.. pp293300. UK. 12. CICE ’2001. 8. pp397404. J. V. “Compressive Behavior of Concrete Confined by Carbon Fiber Composite Jackets”. Proceeding of the International Conference on FRP Composite in Civil Engineering(CICE’2001). T. pp845853.Lam. 1999.. Y.A. K. “Study on Strengthening effect of Compressive Concrete with Hybrid FRP Sheets”.3. China. ASCE.560 FRPRCS6: Externally Bonded Reinforcementfor Confinement V01. Vol.96.3. H. pp14531458. 1999. ACI Materials Journal. A. No. S. Journal of Material in Civil Engineering. E. Miyauchi.G. M. pp3 17325.96. H.Vintzileou. and Pessiki. Proceedings of the Japan Concrete Institute. 1998.A. 1999. “Strengthening Effects with Carbon Fiber Sheet for Concrete Column”. T. ~ ~ 5 0 0 .. “An Empirical Model for Predicting the Properties for Concrete Confined by Means of Composite Materails”.And0.. No9.Xia0.200 1. Kestner.. Y. G.1 0 3 1 .Xia0... Hong Kong. “A Model for the Mechanical Behavior of the FRP Confined Columns”.R. 1999. Toutanji. ACI Materials Journal. 14.A. and Kuroda. 1 1. “Axial Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Columns Retrofit with FRPC Jackets”. and Rousakis. 15.4. Journal of Compositefor Construction. H.Hong Kong. Hong Kong. Proceedings of the 55* Annual Conference of the Japan Society of Civil Engineering.124. “Behavior of Concrete Columns Confined with Fiber Reinforced Polymer Tubes”. pp139146.S. pp283292.2000.. L. lO. pp4 11425. USA. 7. and Li. Harries. S. 16. pp.I.Saafi. CICE’2001. and Wu. “StressStrain Characteristics of Concrete Columns Externally Confined with Advanced Fiber Composite Sheets”.. and Teng. “A New StressStrain Model for FRPConfined Concrete”. and Wu. Cambridge. Vol. 17. Z. Spoelstra.Karabinis.August. No.. “FRPConfined Concrete Model”. M. China. Proceeding of Second International Conference on Composite in Infiastructure (ICCI’98). . ~ ~ 1 0 2 5 . Inoue. “Concrete Stub Columns Confined by Various Types of FRP Jackets”. and Monti. and Wu.
the . 810 July 2003 Edited by Kiang Hwee Tan QWorld Scientific Publishing Company STRESSSTRAIN RELATIONSHIP FOR FRPCONFINED CONCRETE PRISMS G. This paper puts forward a new method to predict the initial peak stress. 1. Southeast University. two stressstrain models are also suggested to predict the stressstrain relation of FRPconfined concrete prisms. WU2 AND Z. l 3 but the stressstrain models of FRPconfined concrete prisms are still not conducted well. ultimate stress and ultimate strain of FRPconfined concrete based on the analysis of results of more than one hundred specimens. several studies of concrete square or rectangular columns confined by FRP were reported in literature.FRPRCS6. In this paper. EXPERIMENTAL OBSERVATIONS More than one hundred experimental results from existing investigations are used in this paper. WU'. The ultimate stress and strain of FRPconfined concrete prisms can be calculatedthrough modifying the corresponding ultimate stress and strain of equivalent cylinder concrete confined with equivalent FRP. an analytical method for predicting the initial peak stress and strain values o