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Electrical installation handbook

Volume 2

1SDC010001D0201

ABB SACE

Electrical devices

Index

Introduction .............................................................................................. 2
1 Standards
1.1 General aspects .............................................................................. 3
1.2 IEC Standards for electrical installation .......................................... 15
2 Protection of feeders
2.1 Introduction ................................................................................... 22
2.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables ......................................... 25
2.2.1 Current carrying capacity and methods of installation ........... 25
2.2.2 Voltage drop ........................................................................ 54
2.2.3 Joule-effect losses ............................................................... 64
2.3 Protection against overload ........................................................... 65
2.4 Protection against short-circuit ...................................................... 68
2.5 Neutral and protective conductors ................................................ 76
2.6 Busbar trunking systems ............................................................... 84
3 Protection of electrical equipment
3.1 Protection and switching of lighting circuits ................................... 99
3.2 Protection and switching of generators ....................................... 108
3.3 Protection and switching of motors ............................................. 113
3.4 Protection and switching of transformers .................................... 131
4 Power factor correction
4.1 General aspects .......................................................................... 146
4.2 Power factor correction method .................................................. 152
4.3 Circuit-breakers for the protection and
swiching of capacitor banks ........................................................ 159
5 Protection of human beings
5.1 General aspects: effects of current on human beings .................. 162
5.2 Distribution systems .................................................................... 165
5.3 Protection against both direct and indirect contact ...................... 168
5.4 TT system ................................................................................... 171
5.5 TN system .................................................................................. 174
5.6 IT system .................................................................................... 177
5.7 Residual current devices ............................................................. 179
5.8 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings ... 182
Annex A: Calculation tools
A.1 Slide rules ............................................................................. 198
A.2 DOCWin ............................................................................... 204
Annex B: Calculation of load current Ib .............................................. 208
Annex C: Calculation of short-circuit current ................................... 212
Annex D: Calculation of the coefficient k for the cables .................. 226

ABB SACE - Electrical devices

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Introduction

1 Standards

Scope and objectives

1.1 General aspects
In each technical field, and in particular in the electrical sector, a condition
sufficient (even if not necessary) for the realization of plants according to the
“status of the art” and a requirement essential to properly meet the demands
of customers and of the community, is the respect of all the relevant laws and
technical standards.
Therefore, a precise knowledge of the standards is the fundamental premise
for a correct approach to the problems of the electrical plants which shall be
designed in order to guarantee that “acceptable safety level” which is never
absolute.

The scope of this electrical installation handbook is to provide the designer and
user of electrical plants with a quick reference, immediate-use working tool.
This is not intended to be a theoretical document, nor a technical catalogue,
but, in addition to the latter, aims to be of help in the correct definition of
equipment, in numerous practical installation situations.
The dimensioning of an electrical plant requires knowledge of different factors
relating to, for example, installation utilities, the electrical conductors and other
components; this knowledge leads the design engineer to consult numerous
documents and technical catalogues. This electrical installation handbook,
however, aims to supply, in a single document, tables for the quick definition of
the main parameters of the components of an electrical plant and for the selection
of the protection devices for a wide range of installations. Some application
examples are included to aid comprehension of the selection tables.

Juridical Standards
These are all the standards from which derive rules of behavior for the juridical
persons who are under the sovereignty of that State.

Electrical installation handbook users
Technical Standards
These standards are the whole of the prescriptions on the basis of which
machines, apparatus, materials and the installations should be designed,
manufactured and tested so that efficiency and function safety are ensured.
The technical standards, published by national and international bodies, are
circumstantially drawn up and can have legal force when this is attributed by a
legislative measure.

The electrical installation handbook is a tool which is suitable for all those who
are interested in electrical plants: useful for installers and maintenance technicians
through brief yet important electrotechnical references, and for sales engineers
through quick reference selection tables.
Validity of the electrical installation handbook
Some tables show approximate values due to the generalization of the selection
process, for example those regarding the constructional characteristics of
electrical machinery. In every case, where possible, correction factors are given
for actual conditions which may differ from the assumed ones. The tables are
always drawn up conservatively, in favour of safety; for more accurate
calculations, the use of DOCWin software is recommended for the dimensioning
of electrical installations.

Application fields
Electrotechnics and
Electronics

International Body
European Body

Telecommunications

Mechanics, Ergonomics
and Safety

IEC

ITU

ISO

CENELEC

ETSI

CEN

This technical collection takes into consideration only the bodies dealing with electrical and electronic
technologies.

IEC International Electrotechnical Commission
The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) was officially founded in
1906, with the aim of securing the international co-operation as regards
standardization and certification in electrical and electronic technologies. This
association is formed by the International Committees of over 40 countries all
over the world.
The IEC publishes international standards, technical guides and reports which
are the bases or, in any case, a reference of utmost importance for any national
and European standardization activity.
IEC Standards are generally issued in two languages: English and French.
In 1991 the IEC has ratified co-operation agreements with CENELEC (European
standardization body), for a common planning of new standardization activities
and for parallel voting on standard drafts.

ABB SACE - Electrical devices

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ABB SACE - Electrical devices

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Lithuania. Estonia. • medical and scientific apparatus.1. Slovenia. Turkey. The Low Voltage Directive refers to any electrical equipment designed for use at a rated voltage from 50 to 1000 V for alternating current and from 75 to 1500 V for direct current. • the applicability of the harmonized standards or of other technical specifications is facultative and manufacturers are free to choose other technical solutions which ensure compliance with the essential requirements. • domestic appliances and household electronic equipment. Czech Republic. Portugal. • mobile radio equipment. Hungary. • plugs and socket outlets for domestic use. CENELEC deals with specific subjects. United Kingdom) and cooperates with 13 affiliates (Albania. • mobile radio and commercial radio telephone equipment. Directives are based on the following principles: • harmonization is limited to essential requirements. the apparatus covered by this Directive are divided into the following categories according to their characteristics: • domestic radio and TV receivers. French and German. Croatia. • radio-electrical interference. such as machines. • electrical equipment for radiology and medical purposes. Netherlands. Poland. it is applicable to any apparatus used for production. Ukraine) which have first maintained the national documents side by side with the CENELEC ones and then replaced them with the Harmonized Documents (HD). transformers. conversion. • electrical parts for goods and passenger lifts. Spain. Switzerland. • specialized electrical equipment.1 General aspects 1 Standards 1 Standards CENELEC European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization “Low Voltage” Directive 73/23/CEE – 93/68/CEE The European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC) was set up in 1973. In particular. • telecommunications networks and apparatus. Finland. are considered in compliance with the essential requirements. Belgium. Italy. b) the apparatus has an adequate level of intrinsic immunity to electromagnetic disturbance to enable it to operate as intended. distribution and use of electrical power. Romania. Germany. Latvia.1 General aspects 1. Bulgaria. Iceland.Electrical devices 4 Directive EMC 89/336/EEC (“Electromagnetic Compatibility”) The Directive on electromagnetic compatibility regards all the electrical and electronic apparatus as well as systems and installations containing electrical and/or electronic components. The apparatus shall be so constructed that: a) the electromagnetic disturbance it generates does not exceed a level allowing radio and telecommunications equipment and other apparatus to operate as intended. Greece.Electrical devices 5 . • educational electronic equipment. which complies with the safety provisions drawn up by international bodies in which the Member States participate. The following categories are outside the scope of this Directive: • electrical equipment for use in an explosive atmosphere. From 1991 CENELEC cooperates with the IEC to accelerate the standards preparation process of International Standards. for use on ships. France. Presently it comprises 22 countries (Austria. Bosnia and Herzegovina. Norway. whose reference numbers are published in the Official Journal of the European Communities and which are transposed into the national standards. • aeronautical and marine radio apparatus. • radio and television broadcast transmitters. whenever necessary. ABB SACE . Sweden. animals and property. protection devices and wiring materials. Ireland. • only the products which comply with the essential requirements specified by the directives can be marketed and put into service. There is a difference between EN Standards and Harmonization Documents (HD): while the first ones have to be accepted at any level and without additions or modifications in the different countries. the European standardization body (CENELEC) can decide to accept or. • electrical energy meters. Denmark. the second ones can be amended to meet particular national requirements. In particular. for which standardization is urgently required. The scope of each directive is to make manufacturers take all the necessary steps and measures so that the product does not affect the safety and health of persons. devices. with the general standards. Malta. aircraft or railways. • industrial manufacturing equipment. • a manufacturer can choose among the different conformity evaluation procedure provided by the applicable directive. • electric fence controllers. Cyprus. • lights and fluorescent lamps. EN Standards are generally issued in three languages: English. • information technology equipment (ITE). in case there aren’t any. to amend the works already approved by the International standardization body. EC DIRECTIVES FOR ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Among its institutional roles. Once adopted. Slovakia. transmission. installers. Luxembourg. When the study of a specific subject has already been started by the IEC. • the harmonized standards. these directives come into juridical force and become a reference for manufacturers. ABB SACE . and dealers who must fulfill the duties prescribed by law. the European Community has the task of promulgating directives which must be adopted by the different member states and then transposed into national law. measuring instruments. An apparatus is declared in conformity to the provisions at points a) and b) when the apparatus complies with the harmonized standards relevant to its product family or.

Mark Standards Association of Australia (S. humidity and dry-heat tests. manufacture and operation of the product The manufacturer guarantees and declares that his products are in conformity to the technical documentation and to the directive requirements The international and national marks of conformity are reported in the following table. This prevents the Member States from limiting the marketing and putting into service of products bearing the CE marking. The manufacturer draw up the technical documentation covering the design. as a matter of fact. for information only: COUNTRY Mark designation Applicability/Organization EUROPE Symbol – Mark of compliance with the harmonized European standards listed in the ENEC Agreement. salt-mist environment).A.1 General aspects 1 Standards 1 Standards CE conformity marking ABB SACE circuit-breakers (Isomax-Tmax-Emax) are approved by the following shipping registers: The CE conformity marking shall indicate conformity to all the obligations imposed on the manufacturer. .Electrical devices 7 . unless this measure is justified by the proved non-conformity of the product.A.environments characterized by high temperature and humidity.1 General aspects 1. In order to ensure the proper function in such environments.A.abb. by virtue of the European Community directives providing for the affixing of the CE marking. including saltmist atmosphere (damp-heat.it. It guarantees compliance with SAA (Standard Association of Australia). Flow diagram for the conformity assessment procedures established by the Directive 73/23/EEC on electrical equipment designed for use within particular voltage range: Technical file RINA DNV BV GL LRs ABS 6 OVE ABB SACE . • • • • • • When the CE marking is affixed on a product. the most significant of which are vibration. such as: . the shipping registers require that the apparatus has to be tested according to specific type approval tests.).com.A. AUSTRALIA S. marine applications can require installation under particular conditions. dynamic inclination.on board environments (engine room) where the apparatus operate in the presence of vibrations characterized by considerable amplitude and duration. AUSTRALIA AS Mark Electrical and non-electrical products.1. it represents a declaration of the manufacturer or of his authorized representative that the product in question conforms to all the applicable provisions including the conformity assessment procedures. ABB SACE .Electrical devices Italian shipping register Norwegian shipping register French shipping register German shipping register British shipping register American shipping register Marks of conformity to the relevant national and international Standards ASDC008045F0201 Manufacturer EC declaration of conformity Registro Italiano Navale Det Norske Veritas Bureau Veritas Germanischer Lloyd Lloyd’s Register of Shipping American Bureau of Shipping It is always advisable to ask ABB SACE as regards the typologies and the performances of the certified circuit-breakers or to consult the section certificates in the website http://bol. The Electricity Authority of New South Wales Sydney Australia AUSTRIA Austrian Test Mark Installation equipment and materials Naval type approval The environmental conditions which characterize the use of circuit breakers for on-board installations can be different from the service conditions in standard industrial environments. as regards his products.

This mark guarantees the compliance of the product with the requirements (safety) of the “Heavy Current Regulations” BELGIUM CEBEC Mark Conduits and ducts.Electrical devices 8 ABB SACE . This mark guarantees compliance with CSA (Canadian Standard Association) FRANCE NF Mark Conductors and cables – Conduits and ducting – Installation materials CCEE Mark Great Wall Mark Commission for Certification of Electrical Equipment FRANCE NF Identification Thread Cables EZU’ Mark Electrotechnical Testing Institute FRANCE NF Mark Portable motor-operated tools Electrotechnical Research and Design Institute FRANCE NF Mark Household appliances EVPU’ Mark CANADA CHINA Symbol Czech Republic Slovakia Republic ABB SACE .Electrical devices 9 . conductors and flexible cords FINLAND Safety Mark of the Elektriska Inspektoratet Low voltage material. This mark guarantees the compliance of the product with the requirements (safety) of the “Heavy Current Regulations” Certification of Conformity Installation material and electrical appliances (in case there are no equivalent national standards or criteria) FRANCE ESC Mark Household appliances BELGIUM CSA Mark Electrical and non-electrical products.1 General aspects 1.1.1 General aspects 1 Standards COUNTRY Symbol 1 Standards Mark designation Applicability/Organization COUNTRY Mark designation Applicability/Organization AUSTRIA ÖVE Identification Thread Cables CROATIA KONKAR Electrical Engineering Institute BELGIUM CEBEC Mark Installation materials and electrical appliances DENMARK DEMKO Approval Mark Low voltage materials.

sockets. E JIS Mark R STA N D AR PP O E JAPAN IRELAND KWE B R O V ED T MEEI Safety mark for technical equipment to be affixed after the product has been tested and certified by the VDE Test Laboratory in Offenbach. (Spanish Standarization and Certification Association) R MA S U N OF SISIR NO C A DE CON Mark which guarantees compliance with the relevant Japanese Industrial Standard(s). ABB SACE . The mark is under the control of the Asociación Electrotécnica Española(Spanish Electrotechnical Association) AENOR Asociación Española de Normalización y Certificación. installation conduits and ducts Symbol Mark designation IMQ Mark NORWAY Norwegian Approval Mark Applicability/Organization Mark to be affixed on electrical material for non-skilled users. earthing systems. wires and cables. it certifies compliance with the European Standard(s). installation accessories such as plugs. lamp holders and electronic devices) ITALY VDE Identification Thread Cables and cords VDE Cable Mark For cables. the conformity mark is the mark VDE. fuses. I. Mandatory safety approval for low voltage material and equipment General for all equipment NETHERLANDS KEMA-KEUR KEUR VDE-GS Mark for technical equipment GERMANY geprüfte Sicherheit HUNGARY POLAND Electrical products SINGAPORE SIN GAPO D A SLOVENIA IRELAND IIRS Mark Electrical equipment SPAIN FO AR M CO N F IIRS Mark O SPAIN Electrical equipment TY MAR MI K R Electrical and non-electrical products SIQ Slovenian Institute of Quality and Metrology R M I DA D A AEE Electrical products.1. insulated cords.1 General aspects 1 Standards COUNTRY Symbol GERMANY GERMANY GERMANY 1 Standards Mark designation Applicability/Organization COUNTRY VDE Mark For appliances and technical equipment.Electrical devices 11 . R . which is granted both to be used alone as well as in combination with the mark GS Hungarian Institute for Testing and Certification of Electrical Equipment I .1 General aspects 1. S . as well as other components (capacitors.Electrical devices 10 ABB SACE .

TO B R IT I S H A ND TES TI N G Mark designation Applicability/Organization BSI Safety Mark Compliance with the “British Standards” BEAB Kitemark Compliance with the relevant “British Standards” regarding safety and performances UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES Mark Electrical and non-electrical products DENT LA B OR EN AN I EP Y Mandatory safety approval for low voltage material and equipment. ET SEMKO Mark AF SWEDEN Symbol RY COUNTRY ATO Applicability/Organization A N D AR ST Mark designation ROVED Symbol PP COUNTRY 1 Standards D 1 Standards FO R P U B L IC S L I S T E D (Product Name) (Control Number) Low voltage material subject to mandatory approval U. UNITED KINGDOM SWITZERLAND – Cables subject to mandatory approval U. CEN CEN Mark Mark issued by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN): it guarantees compliance with the European Standards.1 General aspects 1.Electrical devices C ER TI FI C AT IO N SEV Safety Mark E AD TR SWITZERLAND 12 ABB SACE . UNITED KINGDOM BASEC Identification Thread Cables CENELEC Mark Cables UNITED KINGDOM BEAB Safety Mark Compliance with the “British Standards” for household appliances CENELEC Harmonization Mark Certification mark providing assurance that the harmonized cable complies with the relevant harmonized CENELEC Standards – identification thread K AR M ABB SACE .A. cables and ancillary products.S.S.Electrical devices 13 .S.A. UL Recognition Electrical and non-electrical products UNITED KINGDOM BASEC Mark Mark which guarantees compliance with the “British Standards” for conductors. UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES Mark Electrical and non-electrical products UNITED KINGDOM ASTA Mark Mark which guarantees compliance with the relevant “British Standards” U.1 General aspects UNITED KINGDOM SWITZERLAND Safety Mark Swiss low voltage material subject to mandatory approval (safety).1.A.

Part 3: Insulation levels. A copy of the EC Declaration of Conformity shall be kept by the manufacturer or by his representative together with the technical documentation. STANDARD YEAR TITLE IEC 60027-1 1992 Letter symbols to be used in electrical technology . ABB SACE .Declaration of Conformity The EC Declaration of Conformity is the statement of the manufacturer. tables and lists Preparation of documents used in electrotechnology .Part 4: Location and installation documents IEC standard voltages Insulation coordination for equipment within low-voltage systems . etc).Part 1: General IEC 60034-1 1999 IEC 60617-DB-12M 2001 IEC 61082-1 1991 IEC 61082-2 1993 IEC 61082-3 1993 IEC 61082-4 1996 IEC 60038 IEC 60664-1 1983 2000 IEC 60909-0 2001 IEC 60865-1 1993 IEC 60781 1989 IEC 60076-1 IEC 60076-2 2000 1993 IEC 60076-3 2000 IEC 60076-5 2000 IEC/TR 60616 1978 IEC 60726 IEC 60445 1982 1999 Rotating electrical machines . • identification of the signer.Identification of equipment terminals and of terminations of certain designated conductors.Electrical devices 15 . • the two last digits of the year of affixing of the CE marking. • reference to the harmonized standards and directives involved. systems .Part 0: Calculation of currents Short-circuit currents .Calculation of effects . • description of the product.1 General aspects 1 Standards COUNTRY Symbol 1 Standards Mark designation EC Ex EUROPEA Mark CEEel CEEel Mark 1.Part 1: Rating and performance Graphical symbols for diagrams .Part 2: Temperature rise Power transformers .Part 2: Functionoriented diagrams Preparation of documents used in electrotechnology .Part 1: General Power transformers .1.Part 3: Connection diagrams.c. • any reference to the technical specifications of conformity. including general rules for an alphanumeric system EC .Part 1: General requirements Preparation of documents used in electrotechnology .Part 1: Principles. electric clocks. who declares under his own responsibility that all the equipment. procedures or services refer and comply with specific standards (directives) or other normative documents.Electrical devices 14 ABB SACE . marking and identification .Part 1: Definitions and calculation methods Application guide for calculation of shortcircuit currents in low-voltage radial systems Power transformers .Part 5: Ability to withstand short circuit Terminal and tapping markings for power transformers Dry-type power transformers Basic and safety principles for manmachine interface. dielectric tests and external clearances in air Power transformers . The EC Declaration of Conformity should contain the following information: • name and address of the manufacturer or by its European representative. requirements and tests Short-circuit currents in three-phase a.12month subscription to online database comprising parts 2 to 11 of IEC 60617 Preparation of documents used in electrotechnology .2 IEC Standards for electrical installation Applicability/Organization Mark assuring the compliance with the relevant European Standards of the products to be used in environments with explosion hazards Mark which is applicable to some household appliances (shavers.

2 IEC Standards for electrical installation 1.2 IEC Standards for electrical installation 1 Standards 1 Standards STANDARD YEAR TITLE STANDARD YEAR TITLE IEC 60073 1996 IEC 60947-5-6 1999 IEC 60446 1999 IEC 60947-6-1 1998 Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 5-6: Control circuit devices and switching elements – DC interface for proximity sensors and switching amplifiers (NAMUR) Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 6-1: Multiple function equipment – Automatic transfer switching equipment IEC 60447 1993 IEC 60947-6-2 1999 IEC 60947-1 2001 IEC 60947-2 2001 IEC 60947-7-1 1999 IEC 60947-3 2001 Basic and safety principles for manmachine interface.Part 3: Particular requirements for low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies intended to be installed in places where unskilled persons have access for their use Distribution boards 17 .Section 1: Terminal blocks Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 7: Ancillary equipment .Part 3: Particular requirements for low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies intended to be installed in places where unskilled persons have access for their use Distribution boards Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies . Special tests Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 5-5: Control circuit devices and switching elements .Electromechanical control circuit devices Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 5-2: Control circuit devices and switching elements – Proximity switches Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 5-3: Control circuit devices and switching elements – Requirements for proximity devices with defined behaviour under fault conditions Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 5: Control circuit devices and switching elements – Section 4: Method of assessing the performance of low energy contacts.1.Section 2: Protective conductor terminal blocks for copper conductors Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies .Part 3: Particular requirements for low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies intended to be installed in places where unskilled persons have access for their use Distribution boards Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies .Identification of conductors by colours or numerals Man-machine-interface (MMI) .Electrical devices 1996 1997 16 ABB SACE . marking and identification .Electrical emergency stop device with mechanical latching function IEC 60947-7-2 1995 IEC 60439-1 1999 IEC 60439-2 2000 IEC 60439-3 2001 IEC 60439-4 1999 IEC 60439-5 1999 IEC 61095 2000 IEC 60947-4-1 2000 IEC 60947-4-2 2002 IEC 60947-4-3 1999 IEC 60947-5-1 2000 IEC 60947-5-2 1999 IEC 60947-5-3 1999 IEC 60947-5-4 IEC 60947-5-5 ABB SACE . marking and identification – Coding for indication devices and actuators Basic and safety principles for manmachine interface.Part 1: Type-tested and partially type-tested assemblies Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies .Part 2: Particular requirements for busbar trunking systems (busways) Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies .Electrical devices Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 6-2: Multiple function equipment Control and protective switching devices (or equipment) (CPS) Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 7: Ancillary equipment . switchdisconnectors and fuse-combination units Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 4-1: Contactors and motor-starters – Electromechanical contactors and motorstarters Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 4-2: Contactors and motor-starters – AC semiconductor motor controllers and starters Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 4-3: Contactors and motor-starters – AC semiconductor controllers and contactors for non-motor loads Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 5-1: Control circuit devices and switching elements .Part 3: Particular requirements for low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies intended to be installed in places where unskilled persons have access for their use Distribution boards Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies .Actuating principles Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 1: General rules Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 2: Circuit-breakers Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 3: Switches. disconnectors.

Part 303: Equipment .Part 2-3: Particular requirements – Time-delay switches (TDS) 1998 IEC 60309-2 1999 IEC 61008-1 1996 IEC 61008-2-1 1990 IEC 61008-2-2 1990 IEC 61009-1 1996 IEC 61009-2-1 1991 IEC 61009-2-2 1991 IEC 60670 1989 IEC 60669-2-1 2000 IEC 60669-2-2 2000 IEC 606692-3 1997 ABB SACE .Protection Electrical installations in ships .Part 101: Definitions and general requirements Electrical installations in ships.Part 302: Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies Electrical installations in ships .Part 201: System design . Part 2-2: Applicability of the general rules to RCCB’s functionally dependent on line voltage Residual current operated circuit-breakers with integral overcurrent protection for household and similar uses (RCBOs) Part 1: General rules Residual current operated circuit-breakers with integral overcurrent protection for household and similar uses (RCBO’s) Part 2-1: Applicability of the general rules to RCBO’s functionally independent of line voltage Residual current operated circuit-breakers with integral overcurrent protection for household and similar uses (RCBO’s) Part 2-2: Applicability of the general rules to RCBO’s functionally dependent on line voltage General requirements for enclosures for accessories for household and similar fixed electrical installations Switches for household and similar fixed electrical installations .General construction and test requirements Electrical installations in ships .Electrical devices STANDARD 18 YEAR TITLE 1994 1994 1994 Part 5: Lift cables Part 6: Arc welding electrode cables Part 7: Heat resistant ethylene-vinyl acetate rubber insulated cables Part 8: Cords for applications requiring high flexibility Plugs.Part 2: Dimensional interchangeability requirements for pin and contact-tube accessories Residual current operated circuit-breakers without integral overcurrent protection for household and similar uses (RCCBs) Part 1: General rules Residual current operated circuit-breakers without integral overcurrent protection for household and similar uses (RCCB’s).Part 352: Choice and installation of cables for lowvoltage power systems Electrical installations of buildings .Transformers for power and lighting Electrical installations in ships. Part 301: Equipment .Part 202: System design .Rated voltages up to and including 450/750 V Part 1: General requirements Part 2: Test methods Part 3: Heat resistant silicone insulated cables IEC 60227 1998 1997 1997 1997 1998 2001 1995 IEC 60228 IEC 60245 1978 1998 1998 1994 ABB SACE .Part 350: Shipboard power cables .General Electrical installations in ships .2 IEC Standards for electrical installation 1 Standards 1 Standards STANDARD YEAR TITLE IEC 60890 1987 IEC 61117 1992 IEC 60092-303 1980 IEC 60092-301 1980 IEC 60092-101 1994 IEC 60092-401 1980 IEC 60092-201 1994 IEC 60092-202 1994 IEC 60092-302 1997 IEC 60092-350 2001 IEC 60092-352 1997 IEC 60364-5-52 2001 A method of temperature-rise assessment by extrapolation for partially type-tested assemblies (PTTA) of low-voltage switchgear and controlgear A method for assessing the short-circuit withstand strength of partially type-tested assemblies (PTTA) Electrical installations in ships.Part 2-1: Particular requirements – Electronic switches Switches for household and similar fixed electrical installations . Part 401: Installation and test of completed installation Electrical installations in ships . socket-outlets and couplers for industrial purposes .Electrical devices 19 .1.2 IEC Standards for electrical installation 1.Part 5-52: Selection and erection of electrical equipment – Wiring systems Polyvinyl chloride insulated cables of rated voltages up to and including 450/ 750 V Part 1: General requirements Part 2: Test methods Part 3: Non-sheathed cables for fixed wiring Part 4: Sheathed cables for fixed wiring Part 5: Flexible cables (cords) Part 6: Lift cables and cables for flexible connections Part 7: Flexible cables screened and unscreened with two or more conductors Conductors of insulated cables Rubber insulated cables .Part 2: Particular requirements – Section 2: Remote-control switches (RCS) Switches for household and similar fixed electrical installations .Generators and motors Electrical installations in ships . Part 2-1: Applicability of the general rules to RCCB’s functionally independent of line voltage Residual current operated circuit-breakers without integral overcurrent protection for household and similar uses (RCCB’s).

Part 5: Selection and erection of electrical equipment Electrical installations of buildings .Part 14: Electrical installations in hazardous areas (other than mines) Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres .Part 17: Inspection and maintenance of electrical installations in hazardous areas (other than mines) Low-voltage fuses . Part 7: Requirements for special installations or locations Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP Code) IEC 60127-1/10 1999 1989 1988 1996 1988 1994 IEC 60730-2-7 2001 1990 IEC 60364-1 2001 IEC 60364-4 2001 IEC 60364-5 2001…2002 IEC 60364-6 2001 IEC 60364-7 1983…2002 IEC 60529 2001 ABB SACE .Part 1: Fundamental principles.2 IEC Standards for electrical installation 1 Standards 1 Standards STANDARD YEAR TITLE STANDARD YEAR TITLE IEC 60079-10 1995 IEC 61032 1997 IEC 61000-1-1 1992 IEC 60079-14 1996 IEC 61000-1-2 2001 IEC 60079-17 1996 IEC 60269-1 1998 IEC 61000-1-3 2002 IEC 60269-2 1986 Protection of persons and equipment by enclosures . Part 2: Supplementary requirements for fuses for use by authorized persons (fuses mainly for industrial application) Low-voltage fuses .Electrical devices 20 ABB SACE .Section 1: Application and interpretation of fundamental definitions and terms Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) Part 1-2: General .Part 4: Protection for safety Electrical installations of buildings .1.Part 1: General requirements Low-voltage fuses.Part 3-1: Supplementary requirements for fuses for use by unskilled persons (fuses mainly for household and similar applications) Sections I to IV Miniature fuses Part 1: Definitions for miniature fuses and general requirements for miniature fuse-links Part 2: Cartridge fuse-links Part 3: Sub-miniature fuse-links Part 4: Universal Modular Fuse-Links (UMF) Part 5: Guidelines for quality assessment of miniature fuse-links Part 6: Fuse-holders for miniature cartridge fuse-links Part 10: User guide for miniature fuses Automatic electrical controls for household and similar use.Part 10: Classification of hazardous areas Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres .2 IEC Standards for electrical installation 1.Electrical devices 21 .The effects of highaltitude EMP (HEMP) on civil equipment and systems IEC 60269-3-1 2000 Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres . assessment of general characteristics. definitions Electrical installations of buildings .Methodology for the achievement of the functional safety of electrical and electronic equipment with regard to electromagnetic phenomena Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) Part 1-3: General . Part 2: Particular requirements for timers and time switches Electrical installations of buildings .Probes for verification Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) Part 1: General .Part 6: Verification Electrical installations of buildings.

Note: the actual voltage may differ from the nominal voltage by a quantity within permitted tolerances. Origin of an electrical installation The point at which electrical energy is delivered to an installation. For conductors.1 Introduction 2 Protection of feeders 2.Electrical devices 22 Stationary equipment Either fixed equipment or equipment not provided with a carrying handle and having such a mass that it cannot easily be moved. measuring instruments. control. forms an integral part of the equipment.extraneous conductive parts.2. Short-circuit current An overcurrent resulting from a fault of negligible impedance between live conductors having a difference in potential under normal ABB SACE . heat. Other equipment Voltages Nominal voltage (of an installation) Voltage by which an installation or part of an installation is designated. Overcurrent Any current exceeding the rated value.Electrical devices 23 . ABB SACE . Electrical circuits Electrical Circuit (of an installation) An assembly of electrical equipment of the installation supplied from the same origin and protected against overcurrents by the same protective device(s). the rated value is the current-carrying capacity. Fault current The current flowing at a given point of a network resulting from a fault at another point of this network. if necessary. isolation. switching. Characteristics of installations Electrical installation (of a building) An assembly of associated electrical equipment to fulfil a specific purpose and having coordinated characteristics. Overcurrent detection A function establishing that the value of current in a circuit exceeds a predetermined value for a specified length of time. Fixed equipment Equipment fastened to a support or otherwise secured in a specific location. equipment for wiring systems. . . apparatus. in which the motor. Conventional operating current (of a protective device) A specified value of the current which cause the protective device to operate within a specified time.earthed point of the source or artificial neutral. designated conventional time. Final circuit (of building) A circuit connected directly to current using equipment or to socket-outlets. Leakage current Electrical current in an unwanted conductive path other than a short circuit. . . Electrical equipment Any item used for such purposes as generation. and motive power Currents Design current (of a circuit) The current intended to be carried by a circuit in normal service.main earthing terminal. Wiring system An assembly made up of a cable or cables or busbars and the parts which secure and. Current-using equipment Equipment intended to convert electrical energy into another form of energy. protective devices.exposed conductive parts. Hand-held equipment Portable equipment intended to be held in the hand during normal use.1 Introduction 2 Protection of feeders operating conditions. such as machines. PEN conductor An earthed conductor combining the functions of both protective conductor and neutral conductor Ambient temperature The temperature of the air or other medium where the equipment is to be used.earth electrode. Current-carrying capacity (of a conductor) The maximum current which can be carried continuously by a conductor under specified conditions without its steady-state temperature exceeding a specified value. Switchgear and controlgear Equipment provided to be connected to an electrical circuit for the purpose of carrying out one or more of the following functions: protection. Portable equipment Equipment which is moved while in operation or which can easily be moved from one place to another while connected to the supply. if any. Overload current (of a circuit) An overcurrent occurring in a circuit in the absence of an electrical fault. Wiring systems Protective conductor PE A conductor required by some measures for protection against electric shock for electrically connecting any of the following parts: . The following definitions regarding electrical installations are derived from the Standard IEC 60050. appliances. enclose the cable(s) or busbars. distribution or utilization of electrical energy. Distribution circuit (of buildings) A circuit supplying a distribution board. Neutral conductor (symbol N) A conductor connected to the neutral point of a system and capable of contributing to the transmission of electrical energy. conversion. transformers. for example light. transmission.

definition of the cross section and of the current carrying capacity.. configuration.Support Cable tray ducting Cable brackets sulators wire fixings direct Conduit trunking) + + + + + + + + + + + 0 + 0 + + + + + 0 + + Permitted. . . ..Electrical devices 25 . 2. • choose the cross section according to the load current. 24 Conductors and cables Bare conductors Insulated conductors Sheathed cables Multi-core (including armoured and mineral insulated) Single-core Method of installation Cable trunking (including skirting Cable ladder trunking.Electrical devices 1SDC010001F0901 I2t ≤ k2S2 . Load analysis: . Short-circuit current calculation maximum values at the busbars (beginning of line) and minimum values at the end of line • the type of conductor (bare conductor. Selection of protective circuit-breakers with: .2. .definition of the position of the power distribution centers (switchboards). Verification of the voltage drop limits at the final loads negative outcome • insulation material (none. singlecore cable with sheath.definition of the conductor type (conductors and insulation materials.) required by the method of installation.definition of the total power absorbed.…). the carrying capacity of a copper conductor is about 30% greater than the carrying capacity of an aluminium conductor of the same cross section. 0 Not applicable. but lower than the current carrying capacity of the conductor: Ib ≤ In ≤ Iz . . flush floor Cable Without Clipped On in. it is necessary to: • choose the type of cable and installation according to the environment. For a correct dimensioning of a cable.. single-core cable without sheath.breaking capacity higher than the maximum prospective short-circuit current.Wiring systems”. An aluminium conductor of the same cross section has an electrical resistance about 60% higher and a weight half to one third lower than a copper conductor.verification of the protection against short-circuit: the specific let-through energy by the circuit breaker under short-circuit conditions shall be lower than the specific let-through energy which can be withstood by the cable: negative outcome Verification of the coordination with other equipments (discrimination and negative back-up.calculation of the voltage drop at the load current under specific reference conditions (motor starting. .. Table 1 shows the types of conductors permitted by the different methods of installation. capacitors.. barriers. dimension and weight requirements.1 Introduction 2 Protection of feeders 2 Protection of feeders Installation dimensioning 2.) outcome ABB SACE .verification of the protection against overload: the rated current or the set current of the circuit-breaker shall be higher than the load current. multi-core cable) is selected according to mechanical resistance. The following parameters are used to select the cable type: • conductive material (copper or aluminium): the choice depends on cost.)..2.4 “Protection against short-circuit”]. verification of the coordination with switch disconnectors. – Not permitted..2 Installation and dimensioning of cables The flow chart below suggests the procedure to follow for the correct dimensioning of a plant.rated current In not lower than the load curren Ib.evaluation of the current (I b ) in the single connection elements. degree of insulation and difficulty of installation (bends.. Dimensioning of transformers and generators with margin connected to future predictable power supply requirements (by approximation from +15÷30%) Dimensioning of conductors: . taking into account the utilization factors and demand factors. XLPE-EPR): the insulation material affects the maximum temperature under normal and short-circuit conditions and therefore the exploitation of the conductor cross section [see Chapter 2.verification of the protection against indirect contacts (depending on the distribution system). resistance to corrosive environments (chemical reagents or oxidizing elements). • verify the voltage drop..definition of the paths and calculation of the length of the connection elements.). . joints along the route. PVC. Table 1: Selection of wiring systems Verification of the protection of conductors: .definition of the power absorbed by the loads and relevant position. ABB SACE . In general. . or not normally used in practice.1 Current carrying capacity and methods of installation Selection of the cable The international reference Standard ruling the installation and calculation of the current carrying capacity of cables in residential and industrial buildings is IEC 60364-5-52 “Electrical installations of buildings – Part 5-52 Selection and Erection of Electrical Equipment.characteristics compatible with the type of protected load (motors.

or masonry wall or spaced less than 0.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2. 11 70.Electrical devices B1 12 16 26 B2 B1 (8) or B2 (9) 15 ABB SACE . D. 0 0 15. 14 - 20. 8. 0 Not applicable or not normally used in practice. 15. or spaced less than 0. . 31. 7. 51. 33. 2 59. 32. F. 34 30. 58 Overhead Item n. 52. 5 - - 0 10.3 times (20) cable diameter from a wooden wall – fixed directly under a wooden ceiling (21) 1SDC010001F0201 Methods of installation Reference method of installation to be used to obtain currentcarrying capacity C 27 . 32. flush floor Cable With On fixings Conduit trunking) ducting Cable brackets insulators wire 30. B2. 33. 55 0 33. 9 - 0 - - 0 - - 36 - 36 35 30. 31. 31. 16 56 Cable channel Buried in Ground Embedded in Structure Surface Mounted 72.Electrical devices B1 Insulated conductors or single-core cable in suspended cable trunking (8) Multi-core cable in suspended cable trunking (9) 8 9 The number in each box indicates the item number in Table 3.Not permitted. 71 44. 53 6. 45 6. 60 50. 16 32. G) and the tables to define the theoretical current carrying capacity of the conductor and any correction factors required to allow for particular environmental and installation situations. 9. From Tables 2 and 3 it is possible to identify the installation identification number. 34 30. 44 56 54. 34 0 70. 73 57.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders 2 Protection of feeders For industrial installations. 32. 46. B1. 21 4.2. Insulated conductors or single-core cables in conduit on a wooden. 12. Table 3: Examples of methods of installation To define the current carrying capacity of the conductor and therefore to identify the correct cross section for the load current. the method of installation (A1. Table 2: Method of installation Situations Building voids Without fixings 40. A2. 8. or masonry wall or spaced less than 0. 34 4 5 6 7 TV TV ISDN ISDN Insulated conductors or single-core cable run in mouldings A1 13 14 Insulated conductors or single-core cables in skirting trunking (13) Multi-core cable in skirting trunking (14) B1 (13) or B2 (14) 20 21 ABB SACE . 13.3 times conduit diameter from it Multi-core cable in conduit on a wooden.3 times conduit diameter from it Insulated conductors or single-core cables in cable trunking on a wooden wall – run horizontally (6) – run vertically (7) Insulated conductors in conduit single-core or multi-core cable architrave Insulated conductors in conduit single-core or multi-core cable window frames or in A1 or in A1 Single-core or multi-core cables: – fixed on. C. 71 - 3 1. the standardized method of installation that better suits the actual installation situation must be identified among those described in the mentioned reference Standard. 7. E. Description Room 1 Insulated conductors or single-core cables in conduit in a thermally insulated wall A1 Room 2 Multi-core cables in conduit in a thermally insulated wall A2 Room 3 Multi-core cable direct in a thermally insulated wall A1 Methods of installation Method of installation Cable trunking (including skirting Cable ladder Support Cable tray trunking. 31. multi-core cables are rarely used with cross section greater than 95 mm2. 33.

3 De De 30 On unperforated tray 1 C ≤ 0.5 De ≤ V < 20 De B2 V ≥ 20 De B1 Methods of installation ≤ 0.3 De De ≤ 0.5 De ≤ V < 5 D e V De 32 On brackets or on a wire mesh 1 46 E or F Single-core or multi-core cable: – in a ceiling void 1 – in a suspended floor B2 5 De ≤ V < 50De B1 ≤ 0.5 De ≤ V < 20 De B2 V ≥20 De B1 29 1SDC010002F0201 33 50 .5 De ≤ V < 5 De E or F V 44 Insulated conductors in cable ducting in masonry having a thermal resistivity not greater than 2 Km/W ≤ 0. 2 Protection of feeders Reference method of installation to be used to obtain currentcarrying capacity Description Item n.3 De Spaced more than 0.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2.2.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders Methods of installation Item n.Electrical devices Single-core or multi-core cable suspended from or incorporating a support wire Bare or insulated conductors on insulators E or F or G E or F TV TV ISDN ISDN Insulated conductors or single-core cable in flush cable trunking in the floor B1 51 Multi-core cable in flush cable trunking in the floor B2 52 53 Insulated conductors or single-core cables in embedded trunking (52) Multi-core cable in embedded trunking (53) B1 (52) or B2 (53) 54 Insulated conductors or single-core cables in conduit in an unventilated cable channel run horizontally or 2 vertically E or F De G 28 V ABB SACE .5 De ≤ V < 20 De B2 V ≥ 20 De B1 V 24 Insulated conductors in cable ducting 2 in a building void 1.3 De B2 5 De ≤ V < 50 De B1 ≤ 0. Description Reference method of installation to be used to obtain currentcarrying capacity V 40 Single-core or multi-core cable in a 2 building void 1.3 times cable diameter from a wall 34 On ladder 35 36 ABB SACE .Electrical devices 1.3 De 31 On perforated tray 1 1.3 De 1.

85 0.08 1. Table 4: Correction factor for ambient air temperature other than 30 °C Insulation Multi-core cables in conduit in masonry B2 70 Multi-core cable in conduit or in cable ducting in the ground D 71 Single-core cable in conduit or in cable ducting in the ground D 72 Sheathed single-core or multi-core cables direct in the ground – without added mechanical protection D 73 Sheathed single-core or multi-core cables direct in the ground – with added mechanical protection D 1SDC010003F0201 60 1 De is the external diameter of a multi-core cable: – 2. V is the smaller dimension or diameter of a masonry duct or void.94 0.80 0. 2 De is the external diameter of conduit or vertical depth of cable ducting.12 1.40 – – 0. ABB SACE . consult manufacturer.14 1.04 0.50 – – – – – – – (a) 30 XLPE and EPR 1. floor or ceiling void. ABB SACE . • k1 is the correction factor if the ambient temperature is other than 30 °C.57 0.93 0.60 0.75 – 0.87 0.88 0.11 1.87 0.14 1.50 0. The cable carrying capacity of a cable that is not buried in the ground is obtained by using this formula: I z = I 0 k1k2 = I 0 ktot 55 Insulated conductors in conduit in an open or ventilated cable channel in the floor B1 56 Sheathed single-core or multi-core cable in an open or ventilated cable channel run horizontally or vertically B1 57 Single-core or multi-core cable direct in masonry having a thermal resistivity not greater than 2 Km/W Without added mechanical protection C 58 Single-core or multi-core cable direct in masonry having a thermal resistivity not greater than 2 Km/W With added mechanical protection C 59 Insulated conductors or single-core Cables in conduit in masonry B1 Correction factor k1 The current carrying capacity of the cables that are not buried in the ground refers to 30 °C ambient temperature. Description 2 Protection of feeders Reference method of installation to be used to obtain currentcarrying capacity Installation not buried in the ground: choice of the cross section according to cable carrying capacity and type of installation where: • I0 is the current carrying capacity of the single conductor at 30 °C reference ambient temperature.61 0.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders Methods of installation Item n.91 0.45 0.92 0. or the vertical depth of a rectangular duct.96 0.17 1.32 For higher ambient temperatures.Electrical devices Ambient temperature (a) °C 10 15 20 25 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 PVC 1.87 0.58 0.71 0.70 0. • k2 is the correction factor for cables installed bunched or in layers or for cables installed in a layer on several supports.71 0.2 x the cable diameter when three single core cables are bound in trefoil.47 0.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2.15 1. If the ambient temperature of the place of installation is different from this reference temperature.79 0. or – 3 x the cable diameter when three single core cables are laid in flat formation.22 1.41 – – – Mineral (a) PVC covered or bare and exposed Bare not exposed to touch 105 °C to touch 70 °C 1.67 0.2.65 0.06 0.20 1.96 0.82 0. the correction factor k1 on Table 4 shall be used.54 – – 0.76 0.07 1.Electrical devices 31 .12 1. The depth of the channel is more important than the width.04 0.07 1.26 1.65 – – 0.84 0. according to the insulation material.

b) in conduit. arranged horizontally or vertically. ceiling. The correction factors for bunched cables or cables in layers are calculated by assuming that the bunches consist of similar cables that are equally loaded. from 10 to 25 mm2).two single-core cables belonging to different circuits are spaced when the distance between them is more than twice the external diameter of the cable with the larger cross section. These factors have not been tabled. The cables on a layer are installed on a wall. A group of cables is considered to consist of similar cables when the calculation of the current carrying capacity is based on the same maximum allowed operating temperature and when the cross sections of the conductors is in the range of three adjacent standard cross sections (e. ABB SACE . a) Definition of layer or bunch layer: several circuits constituted by cables installed one next to another.two multi-core cables are spaced when the distance between them is at least the same as the external diameter of the larger cable.Electrical devices 33 . but must be calculated for each bunch or layer. c) double layer bunch: several circuits constituted by cables that are not spaced and are not installed in a layer. ABB SACE . c) on perforated tray Cables in layers: a) spaced. tray. spaced or not.g.2.g.Electrical devices 32 The value of correction factor k2 is 1 when: • the cables are spaced: . b) > 2 De2 a) De2 1SDC010003F0001 De1 c) b) 1SDC010002F0001 c) < 30 cm Bunched cables: a) in trunking. The heat dissipation of a single cable is different from that of the same cable when installed next to the other ones. several layers superimposed on a single support (e. The calculation of the reduction factors for bunched cables with different cross sections depends on the number of cables and on their cross sections.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders 2 Protection of feeders Correction factor k2 The cable current carrying capacity is influenced by the presence of other cables installed nearby. b) not spaced. • the adjacent cables are loaded less than 30 % of their current carrying capacity. . The factor k2 is tabled according to the installation of cables laid close together in layers or bunches. tray) are considered to be a bunch. floor or on a cable ladder.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2.

85 0.00 33 2 0.80 0.96 0.78 1 0. but may lead to under utilization of cables with a larger cross section.89 2 1.72 multicore cables Number of three-phase circuits (note 4) Touching Vertical perforated trays The following tables show the reduction factor (k2). embedded or enclosed Single layer on wall. cleats.96 2 0.87 2 0. each three phase set of conductors should be considered as a circuit for the purpose of this table.68 0.70 Three cables in horizontal formation Touching 31 225 mm (note 3) To be used with current-carrying capacities.65 0. For closer spacing the factors should be reduced.45 0.96 0.79 0. cable trunking or cable ducting is: Table 6: Reduction factor for single-core cables with method of installation F k2 = 1 n where: • k2 is the group reduction factor.00 1.97 0.00 0.77 0.72 0.93 0.00 0.78 De Methods E and F NOTE 1 These factors are applicable to uniform groups of cables.86 1 1. no reduction factor need be applied. Table 5: Reduction factor for grouped cables Method of installation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 12 16 20 1.82 0.62 0.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders 2 Protection of feeders The reduction factor for a group containing different cross sections of insulated conductors or cables in conduits. NOTE 2 Values are given for vertical spacings between trays of 300 mm. Ladder supports.86 1 1.66 0.00 0.93 (note 2) 34 3 0.90 0.52 0. ABB SACE .85 0.91 0.86 – 2 0.98 0.00 0. 0. NOTE 4 For circuits having more than one cable in parallel per phase.96 0.and three-core cables. For closer spacing the factors should be reduced.38 1 2 3 Perforated trays 1 0. Values for such installations may be significantly lower and must be determined by an appropriate method.80 0.80 0. Number of trays Method of installation in Table 3 . The reduction factor obtained by this equation reduces the danger of overloading of cables with a smaller cross section.72 0.91 0. cleats. reference Use as a multiplier to rating for 20 mm Perforated trays Three cables in vertical formation Touching 34 Three cables in horizontal formation 20 mm Methods A to F ≥2 D 2D ee 31 D Dee (note 2) No further reduction factor for more than nine circuits or 1.86 31 (note 2) Ladder supports. • n is the number of circuits of the bunch.97 0.92 0. and to the tables for three loaded conductors for the three-core cables.95 0.78 0.75 0.95 0. Such under utilization can be avoided if large and small cables are not mixed in the same group.73 0. and the corresponding factor is applied to the tables for two loaded conductors for the two-core cables. 2 floor or unperforated tray Single layer fixed 3 directly under a wooden ceiling Single layer on a 4 perforated horizontal or vertical tray Single layer on ladder 5 support or cleats etc.79 0.Electrical devices 34 ABB SACE .95 0. etc.Electrical devices 35 1SDC010004F0201 Arrangement Item (cables touching) Bunched in air.89 3 0.00 0.98 0.61 20 mm Method C Spaced Vertical perforated trays ≥2 D e 31 225 mm Three cables in trefoil formation (note 3) 1.87 0.81 3 0. the total number of cables is taken as the number of circuits.81 0.00 1. equally loaded. NOTE 2 Where horizontal clearances between adjacent cables exceeds twice their overall diameter.60 0. (note 2) 1.73 0.96 0.75 0. 32 1 1.84 – 32 1 1.00 0.82 0. – multi-core cables.00 0. etc.87 0.72 0.79 0.54 0.96 33 2 0.41 0.73 0.57 0.95 0.2.89 3 0. on a 1 surface. NOTE 3 The same factors are applied to: – groups of two or three single-core cables.94 0.63 0.00 0.72 0.98 0.64 0.90 ≥2 D e De 20 mm NOTE 1 Factors are given for single layers of cables (or trefoil groups) as shown in the table and do not apply when cables are installed in more than one layer touching each other.71 0. NOTE 5 If a group consists of n single-core cables it may either be considered as n/2 circuits of two loaded conductors or n/3 circuits of three loaded conductors.90 0.70 0.93 0.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2.97 0. NOTE 4 If a system consists of both two. NOTE 3 Values are given for horizontal spacing between trays of 225 mm with trays mounted back to back and at least 20 mm between the tray and any wall.50 0.88 0.97 0.

79 0.91 0.00 0.92 0.87 – 3 1.98 0.70 1 1.00 0.91 0.82 0.00 0.00 1.85 – 1 1.88 0.96 0.66 1 1.97 0. Number of cables Number of trays 1 2 3 4 6 9 1 1.98 0.70 Touching Perforated trays 20 mm 31 2.82 0.00 0.98 0.00 0. ABB SACE .00 0. For closer spacing the factors should be reduced. 1 1.00 1. Values for such installations may be significantly lower and must be determined by an appropriate method.78 0.77 0.76 0. from Table 4 determine the correction factor k1 according to insulation material and ambient temperature.80 0.72 2 1.Electrical devices 36 1SDC010005F0201 NOTE 1 Factors apply to single layer groups of cables as shown above and do not apply when cables are installed in more than one layer touching each other.99 0.91 0.88 0.93 – 6. cleats.96 – 3 1.00 0. ABB SACE .87 – 2 1.87 0.73 0.79 0. calculate the value of current I’b by dividing the load current Ib (or the rated current of the protective device) by the product of the correction factors calculated: I'b = 31 Spaced Ib I = b k1k2 k tot (note 3) 225 mm D Dee 5. etc.73 2 1.85 0.87 0. 32 33 Spaced (note 2) 34 DDee 20 mm NOTE 2 Values are given for vertical spacings between trays of 300 mm and at least 20 mm between trays and wall.00 0.88 0.68 3 1. the actual cable current carrying capacity is calculated by IZ = I0 k1 k2.71 0.78 2 1.79 0.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders 2 Protection of feeders Table 7: Reduction factor for multi-core cables with method of installation E To summarize: Method of installation in Table 3 The following procedure shall be used to determine the cross section of the cable: 1.88 0.76 0.00 0.79 0.80 0.00 0.00 0.82 0.00 0.00 – 2 1.96 0.00 0.87 0.00 1.99 0.85 – 1 1.00 1. Table 6 for singlecore cables in a layer on several supports.00 1.71 0. For closer spacing the factors should be reduced.86 0.00 0. determine the cross section of the cable with capacity I0 ≥ I’b.73 3 1. Spaced (note 2) De 20 mm Touching 225 mm Vertical perforated trays 4.95 0.86 0. 3.98 0. Table 7 for multi-core cables in a layer on several supports or the formula shown in the case of groups of cables with different sections to determine the correction factor k2 appropriate for the numbers of circuits or multicore cables.76 0.00 0.78 0. NOTE 3 Values are given for horizontal spacing between trays of 225 mm with trays mounted back to back.Electrical devices 37 .81 0. from Table 8 or from Table 9.73 0.2. use Table 5 for cables installed in layer or bunch.73 0.76 0. depending on the method of installation.95 0.80 0.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2. Touching 20 mm Ladder supports. from Table 3 identify the method of installation.97 0.91 – 2 1.89 0. on insulation and conductive material and on the number of live conductors.88 0.76 0.

5 17.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 400 500 630 Loaded conductors A2 Cu XLPE EPR PVC 2 3 19 26 35 45 61 81 106 131 158 200 241 278 318 362 424 486 17 23 31 40 54 73 95 117 141 179 216 249 285 324 380 435 ABB SACE .5 20 17.5 25 23 33 31 44 41 58 53 71 65 86 78 108 98 130 118 150 135 172 155 195 176 229 207 263 237 38 2 3 23 31 42 54 75 100 133 164 198 253 306 354 20 28 37 48 66 88 117 144 175 222 269 312 2 Cu XLPE EPR PVC 3 17.5 16.5 2.5 27 24 36 32 46 41 63 57 85 76 112 96 138 119 168 144 213 184 258 223 299 259 344 299 392 341 461 403 530 464 PVC 2 3 2 3 26 35 45 62 84 101 126 154 198 241 280 324 371 439 508 24 32 41 57 76 90 112 136 174 211 245 283 323 382 440 21 28 36 49 66 83 103 125 160 195 226 261 298 352 406 18.5 26 24 36 32 48 43 63 57 77 70 93 84 118 107 142 129 164 149 189 170 215 194 252 227 289 261 2 XLPE EPR PVC 3 Cu Al XLPE EPR 2 3 B2 B1 2 13 18.5 17.5 26 23 35 30 44 38 60 52 80 69 105 90 128 111 154 133 194 168 233 201 268 232 ABB SACE .5 15.5 33 30 25 23 26 42 38 32 29 33 57 51 43 39 45 76 68 57 52 60 99 89 75 68 78 121 109 92 83 96 145 130 110 99 115 183 164 139 125 145 220 197 167 150 175 253 227 192 172 201 290 259 219 196 230 329 295 248 223 262 386 346 291 261 307 442 396 334 298 352 PVC 3 18 24 31 41 55 71 87 104 131 157 180 206 233 273 313 2 Al XLPE EPR 3 14.0 25 22 18.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders 2 Protection of feeders Table 8: Current carrying capacity of cables with PVC or EPR/XLPE insulation A1 Conductor Insulation S[mm2] 1.5 14 20 18.0 32 44 59 73 90 110 140 170 197 227 259 305 351 39 1SDC010006F0201 Installation method .Electrical devices Cu Al XLPE EPR 2 3 14.5 16.0 41 36 54 48 71 62 86 77 104 92 131 116 157 139 181 160 PVC 2 3 24 33 45 58 80 107 138 171 209 269 328 382 441 506 599 693 22 30 40 52 71 96 119 147 179 229 278 322 371 424 500 576 2 XLPE/EPR 3 19.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2.5 13.5 25 22.5 24 21 30 27.5 19.5 14 13.5 24 21 32 28 41 36 57 50 76 68 101 89 125 110 151 134 192 171 232 207 269 239 3 25 33 43 59 79 105 130 157 200 242 281 22 29 38 52 71 93 116 140 179 217 251 2 3 18.5 15.5 18 26 24 34 31 46 42 61 56 80 73 99 89 119 108 151 136 182 164 210 188 240 216 273 245 321 286 367 328 PVC 2 3 20 27 35 48 64 84 103 125 158 191 220 253 288 338 387 19 25 32 44 58 76 94 113 142 171 197 226 256 300 344 2 3 14.2.5 19.5 13.Electrical devices Cu Al XLPE EPR PVC 2 C PVC 3 2 3 15 20 27 34 46 62 80 99 118 149 179 206 23 31 40 54 72 94 115 138 175 210 242 21 28 35 48 64 84 103 124 156 188 216 2 Al XLPE EPR 3 17.5 25 25.5 16.0 32 28 44 39 60 53 79 70 97 86 118 104 150 133 181 161 210 186 2 22 30 40 51 69 91 119 146 175 221 265 305 XLPE EPR PVC 3 2 19.

values should be multiplied by 0.2. ABB SACE . De is the external diameter of the cable.9.0 33 43 37.Electrical devices 41 .5 31 26 29 38 33 36 33 28 31 41 35 39 34 39 33. For bare cables exposed to touch.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2.5 23 19 21 28 24 27 25 21 23 31 26 29 26 29 2.0 37 49 4 40 35 38 51 44 47 44 37 41 54 46 51 45 51 56 64 1.5 25 21 23 31 26 30 26 22 26 33 28 32 28 32 35 40 2. For metallic sheath temperature 105 °C no correction for grouping need to be applied.5 34 28 31 42 35 41 36 30 34 45 38 43 37 43 47 54 4 45 37 41 55 47 53 47 40 45 60 50 56 49 56 61 70 6 57 48 52 70 59 67 60 51 57 76 64 71 62 71 78 89 10 77 65 70 96 81 91 82 69 77 104 87 96 84 95 105 120 16 102 86 92 127 107 119 109 92 102 137 115 127 110 125 137 157 25 133 112 120 166 140 154 142 120 132 179 150 164 142 162 178 204 35 163 137 147 203 171 187 174 147 161 220 184 200 173 197 216 248 50 202 169 181 251 212 230 215 182 198 272 228 247 213 242 266 304 70 247 207 221 307 260 280 264 223 241 333 279 300 259 294 323 370 95 296 249 264 369 312 334 317 267 289 400 335 359 309 351 385 441 120 340 286 303 424 359 383 364 308 331 460 385 411 353 402 441 505 150 388 327 346 485 410 435 416 352 377 526 441 469 400 454 498 565 185 240 440 514 371 434 392 457 550 643 465 544 492 572 472 552 399 466 426 496 596 697 500 584 530 617 446 497 507 565 557 624 629 704 1SDC010007F0201 Installation method For single-core cables the sheaths of the cables of the circuit are connected together at both ends.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders 2 Protection of feeders Table 9: Current carrying capacity of cables with mineral insulation C Metallic sheath temperature 70 °C Sheath E or F Metallic sheath temperature 105 °C Bare cable not exposed to touch PVC covered or bare exposed to touch Metallic sheath temperature 70 °C G Metallic sheath temperature 105 °C Metallic sheath temperature 70 °C Metallic sheath temperature 105 °C Bare cable not exposed e to touch PVC covered or bare exposed to touch Bare cable not exposed to touch PVC covered or bare exposed to touch or Loaded conductors or or or or or De De De 500 V 750 V Note 1 Note 2 Note 3 Note 4 De S[mm2] 2 3 3 2 3 3 2 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 1.Electrical devices 40 ABB SACE .

• k1 is the correction factor if the temperature of the ground is other than 20°C.5 m 0. Tables 11.90 0.60 0.80 0. according to their distance from other cables or the distance between the ducts.80 0.65 0.04 0.85 0.53 0.7 m and a soil thermal resistivity of 2.75 0.07 1.125 m 0.71 0.55 0. The heat dissipation of a single cable is different from that of the same cable installed next to the other ones.55 0. 42 ABB SACE .80 Multi-core cables Insulation PVC 1.84 0.55 0.90 0.45 – – – – Cable to cable clearance (a) XLPE and EPR 1.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2.80 0.Electrical devices Number of circuits 2 3 4 5 6 Nil (cables touching) 0.76 0. The correction factor k2 is obtained by the formula: The current carrying capacity of a cable buried in the ground is calculated by using this formula: I z = I 0 k1k 2k 3 = I 0 k tot k2 = k 2' .80 0.10 1.38 a a a a Single-core cables NOTE Values given apply to an installation depth of 0.05 0. Table 10: Correction factors for ambient ground temperatures other than 20 °C Ground temperature °C 10 15 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 ABB SACE . k 2'' where: • I0 is the current carrying capacity of the single conductor for installation in the ground at 20°C reference temperature.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders 2 Protection of feeders Installation in ground: choice of the cross section according to cable carrying capacity and type of installation Correction factor k2 The cable current carrying capacity is influenced by the presence of other cables installed nearby.25 m 0.75 0. 12.2.55 0.85 0. If the ground temperature is different.63 0.95 0.60 0.93 0.60 0. Table 11: Reduction factors for cables laid directly in the ground Correction factor k1 The current carrying capacity of buried cables refers to a ground temperature of 20 °C. 2.60 0.70 0.65 0.5 Km/W.Electrical devices 43 .5 Km/W.96 0.85 0.46 0. use the correction factor k1 shown in Table 10 according to the insulation material.70 0.75 0.70 0. • k2 is the correction factor for adjacent cables. • k3 is the correction factor if the soil thermal resistivity is different from the reference value. and 13 show the factor k2’ values for single-core and multi-core cables that are laid directly in the ground or which are installed in buried ducts.71 0.77 0.89 0.70 0.89 0.80 0.50 One cable diameter 0.65 0.

65 0.05 2.80 0.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2.90 k 2'' = 1 n Multi-core cables where: n is the number of circuits in the duct.Electrical devices 44 ABB SACE . Soil with low thermal resistivity facilitates heat dissipation.18 1.80 0.90 0.90 0. • if the conductors are not of similar size.5 1.90 Single-core cables a a NOTE Values given apply to an installation depth of 0.7 m and a soil thermal resistivity of 2.85 0.Electrical devices 45 .85 0. the correction factor is calculated by using this formula: Cable to cable clearance (a) Nil (cables touching) 0.1 2 1.75 0.70 Note 1: the overall accuracy of correction factors is within ±5%.70 0.0 m 0. Table 14: Correction factors for soil thermal resistivities other than 2.80 1.80 0.96 Duct to duct clearance (a) Nil (ducts touching) 0.90 0.70 0.90 0. ABB SACE .25 m 0.65 0. • if several conductors of similar sizes are present in the same duct (for the meaning of “group of similar conductors”. Note 2: the correction factors are applicable to cables drawn into buried ducts. Note 3: the correction factors are applicable to ducts buried at depths of up to 0. k2’’ is obtained from the first row of Table 5.80 0.95 0. Soil thermal resistivity influences the heat dissipation of the cable.80 0.85 0.5 m 0.5 1 3 0.0 m 0.5 Km/W.70 0. a Correction factor k3 NOTE Values given apply to an installation depth of 0. for cables laid direct in the ground the correction factors for thermal resistivities less than 2.5 Km/W.75 0.90 0.5 Km/W.80 0.90 0.2. see the paragraphs above). 1.8 m.90 0.85 0.90 0.60 0.90 0.95 0.25 m 0.7 m and a soil thermal resistivity of 2.80 0.5 Km/W will be higher.95 0.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders 2 Protection of feeders Table 12: Reduction factors for multi-core cables laid in single way ducts in the ground For correction factor k2’’: • for cables laid directly in the ground or if there are not other conductors within the same duct.5 m 0.60 0.5 Km/W Table 13: Reduction factors for single-core cables laid in single way ducts in the ground Number of single-core circuits of two or three cables 2 3 4 5 6 Thermal resistivities Km/W Correction factor 1 1.80 0. Where more precise values are required they may be calculated by methods given in IEC 60287. IEC 60364-5-52 states as reference value for the soil thermal resistivity 2.85 0.95 0. the value of k2’’ is 1.60 Number of circuits 2 3 4 5 6 0. whereas soil with high thermal resistivity limits heat dissipation.

for cables? no multi-core cable? single layer? XLPE EPR Insulation k 2 from table 6 XLPE EPR PVC k 2 ' from table 12 more than one cable per conduit? yes no Al no k 2 ' from table 13 k 2 from table 5 yes similar sections? no k 2 '' = 1 n yes k 2 ''=1 PVC k 2 '' from table 6 1. determine the cross section of the cable with I0 ≥ I’b.5 Km/W? yes k 3 from table 14 no k3 = 1 1SDC010008F0201 S[mm2] 1SDC010009F0201 yes yes no 1 k 2 '' = n D k 2 from table 7 multi-core cable? k2 = 1 similar sections? Table 15: Current carrying capacity of cables buried in the ground Cu k 2 ' from table 11 (k 2 ''=1) yes yes no Conductor yes no I z = I 0 k 1k 2 k 3 Installation method k 1 from table 10 no Ambient air temperature <> 30 °C? 5. from Table 10. according to the method of installation. determine the correction factor k1 according to the insulation material and the ground temperature. Method of installation table 3 Ib 3.Electrical devices 47 .Electrical devices k tot =k 1 *k 2 I' b =I b /k tot k tot =k 1 *k 2 *k 3 k 2 =k 2 '*k 2 '' table current carrying capacity I 0 > I' b Thermal resistivity <> 2.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 Loaded conductors 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 26 34 44 56 73 95 121 146 173 213 252 287 324 363 419 474 22 29 37 46 61 79 101 122 144 178 211 240 271 304 351 396 22 29 38 47 63 81 104 125 148 183 216 246 278 312 361 408 18 24 31 39 52 67 86 103 122 151 179 203 230 258 297 336 26 34 42 56 73 93 112 132 163 193 220 249 279 322 364 22 29 36 47 61 78 94 112 138 164 186 210 236 272 308 22 29 36 48 62 80 96 113 140 166 189 213 240 277 313 18. the insulation and conductive material and the number of live conductors. Table 13 or the formula for groups of non-similar cables to determine the correction factor k2 according to the distance between cables or ducts. Table 12. the actual cable current carrying capacity is calculated by. from Table 15. selection of wiring systems table 1 erection of wiring systems table 2 2. use Table 11.2. 4.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2. yes 46 S [mm2 ] I z = I 0 *k tot END ABB SACE .5 24 30 40 52 66 80 94 117 138 157 178 200 230 260 ABB SACE . calculate the value of the current I’b by dividing the load current Ib (or the rated current of the protective device) by the product of the correction factors calculated: yes D method? Ground temperature <> 20 °C? no Ib I Ib = = b k1k2 k 3 k tot ' yes k 1 from table 4 k1 = 1 no k1 = 1 cables laid directly in the ground? 6. from Table 14 determine factor k3 corresponding to the soil thermal resistivity.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders 2 Protection of feeders To summarize: START Use this procedure to determine the cross section of the cable: 1.5 2.

etc. Where the neutral current is expected to be higher than the phase current then the cable size should be selected on the basis of the neutral current. the number of loaded is two. The reduction in heat generated by the phase conductors offsets the heat generated by the neutral conductor to the extent that it is not necessary to apply any reduction factor to the current carrying capacity for three loaded conductors. more than 10 %. In three-phase systems with high unbalance.86 > 45 - - 1 Where IN is the current flowing in the neutral calculated as follows: IN = I'b = IN 0. i. kIII is the third harmonic content of phase current. fluorescent lighting banks and dc power supplies such as those found in computers (for further information on harmonic disturbances see the IEC 61000). where the neutral conductor in a multi-core cable carries current as a result of an unbalance in the phase currents the temperature rise due to the neutral current is offset by the reduction in the heat generated by one or more of the phase conductors. This neutral current is due to the phase currents having a harmonic content which does not cancel in the neutral. If the neutral current is more than 135 % of the phase current and the cable size is selected on the basis of the neutral current. ABB SACE .2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2.Electrical devices 48 Reduction factor % Size selection is based on phase current 0 ÷ 15 1 15 ÷ 33 0.86 - I 'b = I 'b = - 33 ÷ 45 - - 0. In single-phase circuits. In this case the conductor size shall be chosen on the basis of the highest phase current.3 . These reduction factors have been calculated based on third harmonic currents. The magnitude of the neutral current due to the third harmonic may exceed the magnitude of the power frequency phase current. In such a case the neutral current will have a significant effect on the current-carrying capacity of the cables in the circuit. 12th. higher harmonics (e. for example. Effect of harmonic currents on balanced three-phase systems: reduction factors for harmonic currents in fourcore and five-core cables with four cores carrying current Where the neutral conductor carries current without a corresponding reduction in load of the phase conductors. In all cases the neutral conductor shall have an adequate cross section. If significant. 0. then lower reduction factors may be applicable: these factors can be calculated only by taking into account the real shape of the current in the loaded phases. The reduction factors given in Table 16 only apply in the balanced three-phase circuits (the current in the fourth conductor is due to harmonics only) to cables where the neutral conductor is within a four-core or five-core cable and is of the same material and cross-sectional area as the phase conductors. it is necessary to reduce the tabulated current carrying capacity for three loaded conductors. 9th.86 I 'b = I N Ib . Table 16: Reduction factors for harmonic currents in four-core and five-core cables Third harmonic content of phase current A B 1SDC010007F0001 N C ABB SACE . The most significant harmonic which does not cancel in the neutral is usually the third harmonic. Tables 8.2. since the current in the neutral conductor is negligible.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders 2 Protection of feeders Note on current carrying capacity tables and loaded conductors Equipment likely to cause significant harmonic currents are. the current flowing in the neutral conductor shall be taken into account in ascertaining the current-carrying capacity of the circuit. k III k tot Ib is the load current.Electrical devices 49 .86 Current to take in account for the cable selection Ib’ Size selection is based on neutral current Current to take in account for the cable selection Ib’ Ib k tot - - Ib k tot . then the three phase conductors will not be fully loaded.g. 9 and 15 provide the current carrying capacity of loaded conductors (current carrying conductors) in normal service conditions. In balanced or slightly unbalanced three-phase circuits the number of loaded conductors is three.e. ktot is the total correction factor.) are expected or there is an unbalance between phases of more than 50 %. Where the cable size selection is based on a neutral current which is not significantly higher than the phase current.

method of installation E.87 Correction factor for adjacent cables k2 Installation conditions: • ambient temperature: : • adjacent circuits with For the multi-core cables grouped on the perforated tray see Table 5.87. for a temperature of 40 °C and PVC insulation material. k 2 = 0. • load current: : 100 A k 1 = 0. 1x(3x50) mm2. 2x70 mm2.73 50 ABB SACE . A 70 mm2 cross section cable can carry.87. 0. with three loaded conductors.87. under Standard reference conditions. the reference number is 31. given that: 40 °C a) three-phase circuit consisting of 4 single-core cables.4 A k1k2 0. according to the actual conditions of installation. As a first step. 196 A. 4x50 mm2.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders 2 Protection of feeders Example of cable dimensioning in a balanced threephase circuit without harmonics Procedure: Dimensioning of a cable with the following characteristics: • conductor material: : copper In Table 3. • each circuit a).73 = 124 A c 1SDC010008F0001 d ABB SACE . The current carrying capacity.4 A. it is possible to find the reference number of the installation and the method of installation to be used for the calculations.Electrical devices 51 . I’b is calculated by: d) single-phase circuit consisting of 2 single-core cables. is obtained. b) and d) constitute a separate circuit.Electrical devices Ib 100 = = 157. for a multi-core copper cable with PVC insulation. k1 = 0. the total number of circuits is 7. a cross section with current carrying capacity of I0 ≥ I’b = 157. 0. 0. • circuit c) consists of three circuits. is Iz = 196 . the number of circuits or multi-core cables present shall be determined. 9x95 mm2. since it is composed by three cables in parallel per phase. I 'b = a b From Table 8. Type of installation • insulation material: : PVC • type of cable: : multi-core Correction factor of temperature k1 • installation: : cables bunched on horizontal perforated tray From Table 4. which corresponds to method E (multi-core cable on tray). c) three-phase circuit consisting of 9 single-core (3 per phase) cables. Referring to the row for the arrangement (single layer on the perforated tray) and to the column for the number of circuits (7) b) three-phase circuit consisting of one multi-core cable.2.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2. In this example.73 After k1 and k2 have been determined.

the reference number is 31. 3 k III = 115. • no adjacent circuits. The current in the neutral conductor is: Procedure: Type of installation On Table 3. Table 16 shows that the cable shall be dimensioned according to the current of the neutral conductor and a reduction factor of 0. ABB SACE .6 = 207A ktot and current I’b is: I 'b = I N = 207A From Table 8. with three loaded conductors. If the third harmonic content is 60 %. The current in the neutral conductor is: Correction factor for adjacent cables k2 As there are no adjacent cables. Table 16 shows that for a third harmonic content of 28% the cable must be dimensioned for the current that flows through the phase conductors. The current I’b becomes: I 'b = Installation conditions: • ambient temperature: Ib 115 = = 133. so k2 = 1 After k1 and k2 have been determined. 3 . A 35 mm2 cross section cable can carry. I’b is calculated by: I 'b = Ib .86 must be applied. under Standard reference conditions. 0. Dimensioning of a cable with the following characteristics: • conductor material: : copper • insulation material: : PVC • type of cable: : multi-core • installation: : layer on horizontal perforated tray • load current: : 115 A : 30 °C The third harmonic content is assumed to be 28%.4 = 138 A ktot IN = Ib = 115 A k1k 2 Ib . method of installation E. is still 126 A.86 0. it is possible to find the reference number of the installation and the method of installation to be used for the calculations. 0. but a reduction factor of 0. for a temperature of 30 °C and PVC insulation material k1 = 1 138 IN = = 160. a 50 mm2 cable with carrying capacity of 153 A shall be selected. 126 A. which corresponds to method E (multi-core cable on tray).Electrical devices 52 ABB SACE . is obtained. Table 16 shows that the cable shall be dimensioned according to the current of the neutral conductor. In this example. from Table 8. If the third harmonic content is 40 %.7 A k1 . a 70 mm2 cable with 196 A current carrying capacity shall be selected. IN = and the value of current I’b is: Temperature correction factor k1 I 'b = From Table 4. k 2 . The current carrying capacity. 0. a cross section with current carrying capacity of I0 ≥ I’b = 115 A. 3 .86 0. but a reduction factor of 1 must be applied.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders 2 Protection of feeders Example of dimensioning a cable in a balanced threephase circuit with a significant third-harmonic content If no harmonics are present. . since the value of factors k1 and k2 is 1.5 A 0.86 From Table 8. .86 From Table 8.86 must be applied. a 95 mm2 cable with current carrying capacity of 238 A must be selected.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2. for a multi-core copper cable with PVC insulation.2.Electrical devices 53 . according to the actual conditions of installation. 3 kIII = 115.

for 50 Hz.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders 2 Protection of feeders 2.Electrical devices 55 . • electrom echanical devices: the reference Standard states that devices such as contactors and auxiliary releases have a minimum voltage below which their performances cannot be guaranteed. the voltage drop is calculated by the following formula: L (1) ∆U = kZIb = kIb ( r cos + x sin ) [V] n where • k is a coefficient equal to: .512 requires that “the voltage drop in normal service shall be compatible with the conditions arising from the starting current of the lamps”. the cable carrying capacity Iz shall be considered. The performance of a device may be impaired if supplied with a voltage different from its rated voltage.Wiring systems” Clause 525 states that “in the absence of other considerations it is recommended that in practice the voltage drop between the origin of consumer’s installation and the equipment should not be greater than 4% of the rated voltage of the installation. if the voltage drops.External lighting installations” Clause 714. Normally. For example: • motors: the torque is proportional to the square of the supply voltage. making it more difficult to start up motors. the maximum torque shall also decrease. Temporary conditions such as voltage transients and voltage variation due to abnormal operation may be disregarded”. the starting torque shall also decrease.2. • Ib [A] is the load current. • IEC 60364-7-714 “Electrical installations of buildings . for three-phase systems. great variation may cause them to switch off. therefore. but in certain cases. 54 ∆u% = ∆U 100 Ur (2) Resistance and reactance values per unit of length are set out on the following table by cross-sectional area and cable formation.2 for single-phase and two-phase systems. • electronic appliances: they are very sensitive to variations in voltage and that is why they are fitted with stabilizers. they are not very sensitive to small variations in voltage. • cosϕ is the power factor of the load: sin = 1 . • x [Ω/km] is the reactance of the single cable per kilometre. • L [km] is the length of the conductor. • n is the number of conductors in parallel per phase. ABB SACE . for example.Requirements for special installations or locations . • r [Ω/km] is the resistance of the single cable per kilometre. if no information are available.2. • incandescent lamps: the more the voltage drops the weaker the beam becomes and the light takes on a reddish tone. • discharge lamps: in general.2 Voltage drop Voltage drop calculation In an electrical installation it is important to evaluate voltage drops from the point of supply to the load.5 recommends that: “the voltage drop from the point of supply to the load shall not exceed 5% of the rated voltage under normal operating conditions”.Electrical devices For an electrical conductor with impedance Z. Other considerations include start-up time for motors and equipment with high inrush current. the holding of the contacts becomes unreliable below 85% of the rated voltage. ABB SACE . Selection and erection of electrical equipment .2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2. the percentage value in relation to the rated value Ur is calculated by: To limit these problems the Standards set the following limits: • IEC 60364-5-52 “Electrical installations of buildings. • IEC 60204-1”Safety of machinery – Electrical equipment of machines – General requirements” Clause 13. the reactance value shall be multiplied by 1.cos 2 .2. For a contactor. in case of 60 Hz.

24 1.074 0.0817 1.79 6.550 0.323 0.779 0.43 4.0762 0.89 5.24 0.101 6.78 0.89 4.44 0.25 1.28 1.33 0.5 2.17 14.84 0.35 0.156 5.0761 0.0908 0.0861 2.11 0.94 0.73 11.19 two-core cable three-core cable single-phase three-phase 27.22 0.1 0.24 10.41 0.252 0.43 11.740 0.36 0.80 5.51 0.384 0.540 0.0966 0.28 1.56 6.075 S[mm2] 1.88 2.43 0.65 7.31 0.8 0.44 14.129 0.48 1.64 2.50 0.9 for copper cables two-core/three-core cable r[Ω/km] x[Ω/km] @ 80 [°C] 24.km)] values by cross section and formation of the cable according to the most common cosϕ values.25 0.356 0.168 8.191 0.123 0.153 0.0908 0.19 0.58 2.16 0.58 0.101 0.188 0.465 0.112 0.5 2.29 1.54 3.15 8.0928 0.0783 0.0939 0.483 0.641 0.48 1.5 2.13 0.48 3.67 0.29 0.0752 0.907 0.38 0.Electrical devices cosϕ=1 single-core cable single-phase three-phase 29.0742 0.08 0.21 0.67 0.0752 0.236 0.0975 0.14 9.206 0.0745 0.42 0.41 0.41 0.473 0.57 1.26 0.57 0.25 0.397 0.0742 0.101 3.0955 2.0779 0.27 0.91 0.78 1.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 56 ABB SACE .112 0.84 7.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables S [mm2] 1.94 0.056 0.315 0.14 Table 4: Specific voltage drop at cosϕ=0.358 0.95 0.5 2.43 0.078 0.9 single-core cable single-phase three-phase 26. single-core cable r[Ω/km] x[Ω/km] @ 80 [°C] 14.0762 0.67 0.960 0.0813 1.81 0.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2.168 14.334 0.0783 0.0965 0.66 0.889 0.93 2.36 9.177 0.118 14.82 0.156 9.97 0.27 0.0928 0.143 6.60 25.0955 3.125 0.31 0.24 0.81 1.71 0.259 0.28 23.135 3.79 23.878 0.106 0.17 0.47 0.25 0.08 0.0745 0.58 0.328 0.20 16.143 3.21 0.31 1.691 0.22 0.25 0.22 0.69 1.68 0.0902 0.075 Table 3: Specific voltage drop at cosϕ=1 for copper cables S[mm2] 1.60 2.0751 0.0902 0.86 2.82 2.36 0.0895 ABB SACE .680 0.30 0.30 0.70 1.119 1.54 1.389 0.31 8.796 0.21 0.33 0.42 6.31 0.55 4.27 0.159 0.074 0.109 9.93 6.Electrical devices cosϕ=0.241 0.38 0.14 3.125 0.2.0943 0.65 2.44 1.0751 0.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 single-core cable r[Ω/km] x[Ω/km] @ 80 [°C] 24.08 0.0817 0.109 5.157 0.96 4.18 57 .112 1.0895 two-core/three-core cable r[Ω/km] x[Ω/km] @ 80 [°C] 15.58 0.48 0.0861 1.20 26.16 3.35 0.15 18.119 2.118 9.203 0.42 0.0813 0.101 0.0975 0.0939 0.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 Table 2: Resistance and reactance per unit of length of aluminium cables S [mm2] 1.077 0.0965 0.57 0.47 1.15 0.228 0.0779 0.101 0.16 0.13 two-core cable three-core cable single-phase three-phase 30.310 0.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 2 Protection of feeders 2 Protection of feeders Table 1: Resistance and reactance per unit of length of copper cables The following tables show the ∆Ux [V/(A.01 10.494 0.101 0.63 16.82 15.135 2.106 1.19 0.16 15.155 0.81 0.63 17.654 0.

55 0.36 0.47 9.75 13.05 14.59 3.20 1.63 0.44 12.29 0.31 0.21 12.84 0.27 0.15 1.95 0.88 0.28 1.5 2.43 0.03 0.08 0.11 1.48 0.52 0.56 1.71 4.30 0.38 6.75 8.92 25.75 for copper cables S[mm2] 1.51 2.99 0.75 single-core cable single-phase three-phase 22.36 0.54 0.21 0.49 0.96 1.74 3.35 0.24 0.38 0.89 12.74 4.41 0.22 0.55 1.66 12.53 5.28 0.26 0.66 0.68 14.52 3.41 1.18 Table 6: Specific voltage drop at cosϕ=0.36 0.55 1.21 0.33 0.19 two-core cable three-core cable single-phase three-phase 25.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 ABB SACE .35 0.65 0.26 9.85 single-core cable single-phase three-phase 25.08 0.65 7.02 2.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 ABB SACE .26 0.22 0.2.21 0.8 single-core cable single-phase three-phase 23.79 22.02 3.99 0.79 0.92 8.22 two-core cable three-core cable single-phase three-phase 49.23 0.97 3.27 1.5 2.50 0.22 10.67 0.76 11.34 15.19 1.56 0.46 0.26 0.26 0.18 1.76 43.04 0.60 0.95 0.42 0.93 3.91 18.62 0.25 1.81 19.62 0.09 29.26 0.73 3.39 2.33 0.57 11.73 0.10 0.85 for copper cables Table 7: Specific voltage drop at cosϕ=0.15 0.26 1.41 0.50 0.90 0.54 2.42 2.18 1.22 59 .77 42.22 0.20 two-core cable three-core cable single-phase three-phase 22.10 5.36 0.31 0.42 0.48 4.29 0.30 0.23 2.39 2.51 9.19 Table 8: Specific voltage drop at cosϕ=1 for aluminium cables two-core cable three-core cable single-phase three-phase 24.08 2.45 6.79 0.34 0.42 19.26 0.40 5.69 9.94 0.55 13.83 0.35 0.55 0.42 0.25 0.43 18.34 1.25 0.75 0.31 0.64 0.72 0.49 0.23 29.47 1.83 1.35 1.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 cosϕ =0.91 0.47 1.63 1.40 0.08 7.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2.30 0.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 cosϕ=0.23 0.65 3.38 1.59 2.22 0.23 0.78 0.39 4.34 1.62 0.65 4.99 2.23 2.24 0.69 0.59 7.36 25.94 0.52 0.94 15.29 0.32 0.31 0.16 5.34 3.72 16.21 7.28 3.05 2.10 0.87 0.33 6.07 1.34 21.20 S[mm2] 1.40 0.34 0.57 0.35 15.87 1.54 0.29 0.49 5.14 0.44 0.21 0.05 2.29 0.25 0.41 0.98 6.87 6.Electrical devices cosϕ=0.31 13.5 2.45 0.8 for copper cables S[mm2] 1.35 0.26 0.59 1.07 1.41 2.79 7.48 6.35 0.45 5.52 3.80 5.48 0.19 58 S[mm2] 1.30 21.54 7.76 0.42 13.41 1.54 0.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders 2 Protection of feeders Table 5: Specific voltage drop at cosϕ=0.Electrical devices cosϕ=1 single-core cable single-phase three-phase 48.39 0.24 0.46 10.62 1.93 2.5 2.21 0.52 2.95 1.78 0.25 0.44 0.62 8.31 0.95 3.41 0.41 0.36 0.88 20.76 8.

02 23.81 5.49 1.30 1.53 9.80 0.30 0.03 1.34 0.94 8.14 26.5 2.35 2.47 8.09 5.26 two-core cable three-core cable single-phase three-phase 44.92 0.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders 2 Protection of feeders Table 9: Specific voltage drop at cosϕ=0.84 4.38 0.09 5.36 0.82 1.88 38.43 1.8 single-core cable single-phase three-phase 39.07 20.08 8.37 0.35 0.36 0.46 0.31 3.62 0.75 13.29 0.28 3.01 0.51 0.27 two-core cable three-core cable single-phase three-phase 37.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2.08 9.09 13.93 14.75 5.43 0.25 1.64 0.43 1.34 0.61 0.49 0.55 22.40 5.35 0.59 0.46 0.30 0.25 61 .16 1.81 1.78 6.55 0.43 0.06 0.07 3.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 cosϕ=0.49 1.61 0.54 0.91 0.25 13.87 22.40 16.68 0.12 16.45 0.63 2.84 15.36 1.69 4.37 1.01 1.53 0.35 2.24 3.26 S[mm2] 1.13 0.97 0.76 0.5 2.63 6.44 0.24 1.66 11.43 0.70 0.09 3.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 ABB SACE .44 0.26 Table 12: Specific voltage drop at cosϕ=0.27 two-core cable three-core cable single-phase three-phase 42.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 cosϕ=0.47 2.65 0.50 0.64 3.38 0.29 1.51 0.95 34.72 1.87 27.18 0.12 9.59 0.29 0.85 for aluminium cables cosϕ=0.53 0.58 19.53 0.51 0.45 5.00 16.23 19.84 0.59 24.36 0.06 0.49 0.53 0.35 0.73 2.35 8.02 0.31 0.38 0.5 2.74 1.57 1.72 4.73 6.45 22.66 0.85 12.76 0.88 0.42 36.73 25.63 3.30 0.87 3.44 0.72 1.49 1.31 0.36 0.56 23.29 9.30 0.34 2.99 1.02 1.65 1.2.55 0.80 31.85 single-core cable single-phase three-phase 41.30 0.34 2.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 ABB SACE .78 0.05 25.15 2.42 0.64 14.63 0.50 1.92 0.04 38.66 1.27 9.07 10.Electrical devices cosϕ=0.60 2.27 S[mm2] 1.30 1.31 0.47 32.42 0.35 0.26 60 S[mm2] 1.85 3.26 6.96 23.20 5.52 0.30 0.58 4.86 9.73 2.05 5.53 0.24 1.60 0.14 1.8 for aluminium cables S[mm2] 1.64 0.12 21.50 14.63 36.73 0.31 0.71 2.90 1.57 1.27 1.75 15.50 0.91 1.67 20.9 single-core cable single-phase three-phase 44.45 0.41 0.68 0.63 0.75 for aluminium cables Table 10: Specific voltage drop at cosϕ=0.95 12.96 3.5 2.42 0.94 0.31 0.69 9.78 0.61 6.9 for aluminium cables Table 11: Specific voltage drop at cosϕ=0.87 10.15 2.63 0.98 0.31 0.71 0.41 11.12 6.44 0.39 2.72 1.18 0.54 4.49 2.56 14.76 2.46 0.02 13.89 4.57 0.Electrical devices two-core cable three-core cable single-phase three-phase 39.22 33.37 1.38 0.88 0.30 0.12 0.27 3.93 3.81 0.30 1.85 0.75 single-core cable single-phase three-phase 36.74 0.52 2.64 10.37 0.31 0.54 2.17 12.

2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders 2 Protection of feeders Example 1 Method for defining the cross section of the conductor according to voltage drop in the case of long cables To calculate a voltage drop on a three-phase cable with the following specifications: • rated voltage: 400 V.81 . 100 . L ∆U . L = 0. ∆U = ∆U x . • cable formation: multi-core copper cable. 100 = 100 = 0. which corresponds to this percentage value: ∆u% = In the case of long cables. 0. 56.1 “Current carrying capacity and methods of installation”) may have a negative result. • cable length: 25 m. 100 = 100 = 0.9 28.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2. for a multi-core 10 mm2 cable it is possible to read that ∆Ux voltage drop corresponds to 3. consisting of a multi-core copper cable with EPR insulation. fr= 50 Hz. L = 3. I .Electrical devices The Table 8 of Chapter 2. • cable length: 50 m.60 V/(A⋅km). From Table 5. 56 .81 V/(A⋅km). 400. the maximum ∆Uxmax value calculated by using the formula: ∆u%. 4.1 shows S = 10 mm2. it results: b is compared with the corresponding values on Tables 4÷12 by choosing the smallest cross section with a ∆Ux value lower than ∆Uxmax. 2x(3x10) mm2. km) 100 . I b .2 .05 = 3.U r 2% . 3x50 mm2.14 = 28. Maximum permitted voltage drop 2%.2.28 V 2 2 ∆u% = which corresponds to this percentage value: Pu 35000 = = 56 A 3 .2.02 V/(A . ∆U .6 . ∆U .9) with a 140 m cable installed on a perforated tray.14 63 .Electrical devices ∆u% . 0.60.05% 400 Ur This value is too high. To define the correct cross section.03 V Example: Supply of a three-phase load with Pu = 35 kW (Ur=400 V. 50 .U r ∆U x max = (3) 100.62% 690 Ur ∆U x max = 62 ABB SACE . I b . it results: ∆U = 3. for the multi-core 10 mm2 cable it is possible to read that the voltage drop per A and per km is 3. cos 3 .03 .9. From Table 4.U r . • power factor cosϕ: 0.42 V/(A⋅km). 0.2 V which corresponds to this percentage value: L 0. • power factor cosϕ: 0. • load current Ib: 50 A. it results: ∆U = ∆U x . From Table 4. for a 50 mm2 single-core cable it is possible to read that a ∆Ux voltage drop corresponds to 0. By multiplying this value by the length in km and by the current in A. I b . or if particular design specifications impose low limits for maximum voltage drops. I b .28 . = 4. cosϕ=0. ∆u% = ABB SACE .025 = 2. 2. 0. By multiplying this value by the length in km and by the current in A. • cable formation: single-core copper cable.42. 100 = 100 = 7. 400 = = 1.51% 400 Ur Load current Ib is: Ib = Example 2 To calculate a voltage drop on a three-phase cable with the following specifications: • rated voltage: 690 V.2. • load current Ib: 100 A.85. By multiplying this value by the length in km and by the current in A. L 100 . the verification using as reference the cross section calculated on the basis of thermal considerations (calculation according to chapter 2.

to prevent unwanted tripping.356 1.45⋅Iz will also be verified.Electrical devices 65 .236 0. I b2 .5 2.27 1.960 9. S [mm2] 1.43 0.796 0.0761 AI 24.155 0. • Iz is the continuous current carrying capacity of the cable.323 1. For this cross section ∆Ux = 0.334 0.654 0.328 0. The Standard allows an overload current that may be up to 45% greater than the current carrying capacity of the cable but only for a limited period (conventional trip time of the protective device). L [W] 1000 whereas single-phase losses are: Pj = 2 . r .0943 0.6⋅In current must automatically melt the fuse. L = 0.08 5.153 0. • lower than the current carrying capacity of the cable.228 3. r .45Iz I2 According to condition (1) to correctly choose the protective device. 56 .157 0.14 = 6. the formula I2 ≤ 1.35 V 2.125 0.45 .57 3.740 2.3 Protection against overload The Standard IEC 60364-4-43 “Electrical installation of buildings . it is also essential to check formula (2) because IEC 60269-2-1 on “Low-voltage fuses” states that a 1. I b2 . • In is the rated current of the protective device.45⋅Iz or In ≤ 0.465 1. • r is the phase resistance per unit of length of the cable at 80 °C [Ω/km] (see Table 1). it is necessary to check that the circuit-breaker has a rated (or set) current that is: • higher than the load current. The verification of condition (2) is not necessary in the case of circuit-breakers because the protective device is automatically tripped if: • I2 = 1.550 0. 0.35 .252 0. By using this value it results: ∆U = ∆U x .2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders 2 Protection of feeders From Table 4 a cross section of 50 mm2 can be chosen.203 0.0966 0.8 8. Iz 1SDC010009F0001 This corresponds to a percentage value of: ∆U .483 0.191 0.41 0. ∆u% = 100 = 100 = 1.125 Iz In 1.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 I b ≤ In ≤ I z I2 ≤ 1.077 0.3 Joule-effect losses Joule-effect losses are due to the electrical resistance of the cable.310 0. Therefore.206 0.81.71 2.078 (1) (2) Where: • Ib is the current for which the circuit is dimensioned.129 64 ABB SACE .259 0.2.907 0. • L is the cable length [m].494 1.389 0.02 V/(A⋅km). The lost energy is dissipated in heat and contributes to the heating of the conductor and of the environment.81< 1.056 0. • I2 is the current ensuring effective operation in the conventional time of the protective device. L [W] 1000 Ib Table 1: Resistance values [Ω/km] of single-core and multi-core cables in copper and aluminium at 80 °C Single-core cable ABB SACE .6% 400 Ur AI 24.68 3.24 1.123 0.358 6.680 9.Protection against overcurrent coordination between conductors and overload protective devices” specifies coordination between conductors and overload protective devices (normally placed at the beginning of the conductor to be protected) so that it shall satisfy the two following conditions: 2. the rated current In is the set current.159 0. In this case.78 2.779 0. Two-core/three-core cable Cu 15.9⋅Iz. I b . A first estimate of three-phase losses is: Pj = 3. formula (2) becomes 1.2. for circuit-breakers. if In ≤ Iz.3⋅In for circuit-breakers complying with IEC 60947-2 (circuit-breakers for industrial use). 6. where: • Ib is the load current [A].241 0.540 0.473 0.45⋅In for circuit-breakers complying with IEC 60898 (circuit-breakers for household and similar installations).112 3.641 0.Electrical devices Cu 14.878 14.384 14. When the protective device is a fuse.177 6. • I2 = 1.315 0. to prevent cable overload.6⋅In ≤ 1.397 0.889 0.691 2.1 9.188 0.91 5. for adjustable protective releases.

9 .9 Iz In Cable specifications Iz = 171 A Protective device specifications T2N160 PR221DS-LS (circuit-breaker with microprocessor release) In = 160 A: set current I1 = 0. Ur = 400 V. cosϕ = 0.Electrical devices 66 T1B160 1P TM R125 (TM single-pole circuit-breaker with fixed thermal release) ABB SACE . three-phase load so Ib = 128 A Ib 1SDC010010F0001 and this means that the cable is not fully exploited. three-phase load so Ib = 160 A Cable specifications Fuse: choice of rated current Iz = 190 A Where the use of a single conductor per phase is not feasible.8 A Example 3 Load specifications Pr = 100 kW.9. cosϕ = 0.Electrical devices 67 .9 x In = 180 A Example 1 Example 4 Load specifications Load specifications Pr = 70 kW. Ur = 400 V .3 Protection against overload 2 Protection of feeders 2 Protection of feeders To summarize: to carry out by a fuse protection against overload.9. cosϕ = 0. Examples Protective device specifications T3N250 TM R200 (TM circuit-breaker with adjustable thermal release) In = 200A. single-phase load so Ib = 121 A Cable specifications Cable specifications Iz = 134 A Iz = 134 A Protective device specifications Protective device specifications T1B160 TM R125 (TM circuit-breaker with adjustable thermal release) In = 125 A ABB SACE . and the currents in the parallel conductors are unequal. Ur = 230 V . cosϕ = 0.2.3 Protection against overload 2. the design current and requirements for overload protection for each conductor shall be considered individually. Ur = 400 V.9.Iz Load specifications Pr = 80 kW. three-phase load so Ib = 112 A Pr = 25 kW.88 x In = 140. the following must be achieved: Example 2 Ib ≤ In ≤ 0.9. set current I1 = 0. Iz In Ib 1SDC010011F0001 Circuit-breaker: choice of rated current 0.

24·10 2.84·10 2.30·10 -2 3.84·10 2 7. it is generally sufficient.06·10 Cross section [mm2 ] PVC EPR/XLPE G2 Table 1: Values of k for phase conductor PVC >300 mm2 EPR XLPE Rubber 60 °C Initial temperature °C 70 70 90 Final temperature °C 160 140 Mineral PVC Bare 60 70 105 250 200 160 250 Material of conductor: 115 103 143 141 115 135/115 a Aluminium 76 68 94 93 - - tin-soldered joints in copper conductors 115 - - - - - Copper a 1 5.27·10 1 1.5 4 6 -2 2.32·10 1 1.74·10 4.16·10 -1 3.16·10 1 150 1 1.81·10 185 2 4.24·10 Cu 141 4.99 5.33·10 2 7.18·10 -1 7. 1.11·10 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 10 16 25 35 1.19·10 1 1 120 1 This value shall be used for bare cables exposed to touch.00·10 4. ABB SACE . Vol.other types of joints in conductors. which are calculated by using the parameters of Table 1.95·10 -2 k 50 Cu 115 3.24·10 -1 3.48·10 Al 76 1.33·10 Cable PVC EPR/XLPE Rubber 2.19·10 2 5.95·10 3 1.95·10 300 2 2 1.27 1.62·10 2 3. • S is the cable cross section [mm2].08·10 -1 7. while the minimum value is the value of the phase to neutral short-circuit current (phase to phase if the neutral conductor is not distributed) or phase to earth at the end of the cable. 1SDC010010F0201 NOTE 1 Other values of k are under consideration for.97·10 Al 93 2.80·10 2 2.53·10 2 1.52·10 Cu 141 4.08·10 1 1 2.09·10 2 2 6.26 5.25·10 240 2 7.47·10 2 1.09 1.small conductors (particularly for cross section less than 10 mm2). NOTE 3 The above factors are based on IEC 60724.duration of short-circuit exceeding 5 s.4 Protection against short-circuit A cable is protected against short-circuit if the specific let-through energy of the protective device (I2t) is lower or equal to the withstood energy of the cable (k2S2): I2t ≤ k 2S2 (1) Table 2: Maximum withstood energy for cables k2 S2 [(kA)2 s] where • I2t is the specific let-through energy of the protective device which can be read on the curves supplied by the manufacturer (see Electrical installation handbook. in the case of conductors in parallel it is the cross section of the single conductor.99·10 -2 5.21·10 1 9.28·10 Al 94 1. but not always.44·10 1 2.76·10 -2 9.39 8.98·10 3 2 3 2 3 2 The formula (1) must be verified along the whole length of the cable.02·10 2 4.30·10 1 2. Due to the shape of the specific let-through energy curve of a circuit breaker.61 7. Cross section [mm2 ] k 1.97·10 2.21·10 Cu 143 5. NOTE 2 The nominal current of the short-circuit protective device may be greater than the current carrying capacity of the cable.99·10 1 2.00·10 2 3.31·10 1 6.78·10 1.11·10 Al 94 2.27·10 -2 1.4 “Specific let-through energy curves”) or from a direct calculation in the case of devices that are not limiting and delaying. to verify formula (1) only for the maximum and minimum short-circuit current that may affect the cable.36·10 -1 3. .28·10 8. The maximum value is normally the value of the three-phase short-circuit current at the beginning of the line. see Annex D.Electrical devices 68 ABB SACE .79·10 2 7.38·10 70 95 -1 -2 2.bare conductors.15·10 2 4.41·10 -1 3.96·10 1.78·10 2 1. .60·10 2 1.47·10 -2 1.5 Cu 115 2.83·10 1.52 1.23 1.65·10 1 1 1 2. .32 3. .12·10 -1 4.90·10 1 8.41·10 -2 1.61·10 Cu 143 4. 2.62·10 5.85·10 1 7.2. • k is a factor that depends on the cable insulating and conducting material.79·10 1 7.60·10 -2 1.21 5.51·10 1 1.41 -1 -1 8.18·10 5.86·10 1 1.98·10 -2 8.44·10 1 1. Conductor insulation PVC ≤300 mm2 1. Chapter 3.4 Protection against short-circuit 2 Protection of feeders 2 Protection of feeders Table 2 shows the maximum withstood energy for cables according to the cross section.08 2.18·10 2 5. the conductor material and the type of insulation.98·10 2 4.20·10 3 1.94·10 1 1. The values of the most common installations are shown in Table 1.98·10 1 1.24·10 Al 93 1.Electrical devices 69 1SDC010002F0901 Cable .04 -1 5. for a more detailed calculation.27·10 Al 76 1.48 3.

• 1. verify that Ikmin >1.2) where: 10-1 1SDC010011F0001 10-2 10-3 10-1 1 10 [KA] This verification can be simplified by comparing only the let-through energy value of the circuit-breaker at the maximum short-circuit current with the withstood energy of the cable and by ensuring that the circuit breaker trips instantaneously at the minimum short-circuit current: the threshold of the shortcircuit protection (taking into consideration also the tolerances) shall therefore be lower than the minimum short-circuit current at the end of the conductor. • L is the length of the protected conductor [m]. .1) with distributed neutral conductor (2. ABB SACE .75 300 0. I3 (3) where: • I3 is the current that trips the magnetic protection of the circuit-breaker. • U0 is the phase to earth supply voltage [V]. Ur .0.2. S . • Ur is the supply voltage [V]. k par 2L 1. 0.72 • kpar is the correcting coefficient for conductors in parallel: number of parallel conductors kpar* 2 2 3 2. k sec . .5 . k 0 sec par L 1.4 Protection against short-circuit 2.2 is the tolerance at the trip threshold. • S is the cross section of the conductor [mm2].Electrical devices 71 .2 *kpar = 4 (n-1)/n where: n = number of conductors in parallel per phase • m is the ratio between the resistances of the neutral conductor and the phase conductor (if they are made of the same material m is the ratio between the cross section of the phase conductor and the cross section of the neutral conductor).80 240 0.4 Protection against short-circuit 2 Protection of feeders 2 Protection of feeders Calculation of short-circuit current at end of the conductor [(KA)2s] 102 Minimum short-circuit current can be calculated by the following approximate formulas: 10 Ikmin = 1 Ikmin = 0.2 .8 .7 4 3 5 3. .8 U k . (1 + m) .85 180 0.9 150 0. .5 .027 for aluminium.Electrical devices 70 ABB SACE . • ρ is the resistivity at 20 °C of the material of the conductors in Ωmm2/m and is: . S with non-distributed neutral conductor (2.018 for copper. • ksec is the correction factor which takes into account the reactance of the cables with cross section larger than 95 mm2: S[mm2] ksec 120 0. • Ikmin is the minimum value of the prospective short-circuit current [kA]. After calculating the minimum short-circuit current.0.

enables the maximum length protected by the protective device to be obtained for a precise instantaneous trip threshold.5 10-1 (kA)2s (for the curves of specific let-through energy. . U .0 A L Protection against short-circuit at the beginning of the conductor T1N160 R160 (breaking capacity 36 kA@400 V) I2t (@30 kA) = 7. . the circuit breaker shall definitely trip if the values exceed 1920 A.5 2. see Volume 1.Electrical devices 72 1SDC010011F0201 Cable Section 50 mm2 Cable data: Insulated copper conductor in PVC Length = 150 m S = 50 mm2 Iz = 134 A section [mm2] 1. Maximum protected length The formula (3). 400 V rated voltage. 51 49 47 45 43 42 39 37 34 32 31 29 23 19 18 14 11 ABB SACE .018 Ωmm2/m. If tolerance is 20%. In Table 3. when solved for the length. Protection against short-circuit at end of the conductor The minimum short-circuit current at end of the conductor (ksec=1 and kpar=1) is: Ikmin = 0.non-distributed neutral.4) k2S2 = 1152 ⋅ 502 = 3.three-phase system. the increase in cable resistivity due to heating caused by the short-circuit current and the reduction of voltage due to the fault. The correction factors shown after the table must be applied if the system conditions are different from the reference conditions. k par = 1. The values on the table below take into account the 20% tolerance coefficient for the magnetic trip value.2. the maximum protected length can be identified for a given cross section of the cable and for the setting threshold of the instantaneous protection of the circuit breaker against short-circuit: .5 20 370 617 30 246 412 40 185 309 50 148 247 60 123 206 70 105 176 80 92 154 90 82 137 100 74 123 120 61 102 140 52 88 150 49 82 160 46 77 180 41 68 200 37 61 220 33 56 250 29 49 280 26 44 300 24 41 320 23 38 350 21 35 380 19 32 400 18 30 420 17 29 450 16 27 480 15 25 500 14 24 520 14 23 550 13 22 580 12 21 600 12 20 620 11 19 650 11 19 680 10 18 700 10 17 750 16 800 15 850 14 900 13 950 13 1000 12 1250 1500 1600 2000 2500 3000 3200 4000 5000 6300 8000 9600 10000 12000 15000 20000 24000 30000 I3[A] 4 658 494 395 329 282 246 219 197 164 141 131 123 109 98 89 79 70 65 61 56 52 49 47 43 41 39 38 35 34 32 31 30 29 28 26 24 23 21 20 19 15 13 12 6 741 593 494 423 370 329 296 246 211 197 185 164 148 134 118 105 98 92 84 78 74 70 65 61 59 57 53.5 .4 Protection against short-circuit 2 Protection of feeders Example 2 Protection of feeders Table 3: Maximum protected length U Ur = 400 V Ik = 30 kA Choice of CB1 CB1 System data: Rated voltage 400 V Ik = 30 kA T1N 160 R160 PVC Cu L = 150 m Iz = 134.31.98 kA 2L 1.Electrical devices 10 705 617 549 494 412 353 329 309 274 247 224 198 176 165 154 141 130 123 118 110 103 99 95 90 85 82 80 76 73 71 66 62 58 55 52 49 40 33 31 25 20 16 15 12 10 16 790 658 564 527 494 439 395 359 316 282 263 247 226 208 198 188 176 165 158 152 144 136 132 127 122 116 113 105 99 93 88 83 79 63 53 49 40 32 26 25 20 16 13 10 25 772 686 617 561 494 441 412 386 353 325 309 294 274 257 247 237 224 213 206 199 190 182 176 165 154 145 137 130 123 99 82 77 62 49 41 39 31 25 20 15 13 12 10 35 786 691 617 576 540 494 455 432 412 384 360 346 332 314 298 288 279 266 254 247 230 216 203 192 182 173 138 115 108 86 69 58 54 43 35 27 22 18 17 14 12 50 772 705 650 617 588 549 514 494 475 449 426 412 398 380 363 353 329 309 290 274 260 247 198 165 154 123 99 82 77 62 49 39 31 26 25 21 16 12 10 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 768 720 691 665 629 596 576 558 532 508 494 461 432 407 384 364 346 277 230 216 173 138 115 108 86 69 55 43 36 35 29 23 17 14 12 809 782 757 722 690 670 626 586 552 521 494 469 375 313 293 235 188 156 147 117 94 74 59 49 47 39 31 23 20 16 847 790 667 627 593 561 533 427 356 333 267 213 178 167 133 107 85 67 56 53 44 36 27 22 20 840 787 741 700 663 630 504 420 394 315 252 210 197 157 126 100 79 66 63 52 42 31 26 25 731 585 487 457 365 292 244 228 183 146 116 91 76 73 61 49 37 30 30 711 593 556 444 356 296 278 222 178 141 111 93 89 74 59 44 37 40 667 533 427 356 333 267 213 169 133 111 107 89 71 53 44 49 73 .copper conductor with resistivity equal to 0.8 .101 (kA)2s The cable is therefore protected against short-circuit at the beginning of the conductor. the cable is therefore fully protected against short-circuit. k sec . . Chapter 3.4 Protection against short-circuit 2. S The magnetic threshold of the circuit breaker T1N160 R160 is set at 1600 A. ABB SACE .

0. by the correction factors in order to obtain a value that is compatible with the installation operating conditions: Ur [V] (three-phase value) 2301 400 440 500 690 kv 0. Neutral not distributed Rated voltage = 400 V Protective device: T2N160 R100 Magnetic threshold: I3 = 1000 A Phase cross section = Neutral cross section = 70 mm2 The table shows that at I3 = 1000 A.58. kd is 0. 1 = = 0.39. a protected length equivalent of L0= 533 m is obtained.58 1 1.39 3 1+ S 3 1+ 300 150 SN L= L0 .58. 0.39 = 207. Correction factor for distributed neutral: kd Multiply the length value obtained from the table by the correction factor kd: Example 2 Neutral distributed Rated voltage = 400 V Protective device: T3S250 R200 Magnetic threshold: I3 = 2000 A Phase cross section = 300 mm2 Neutral cross section = 150 mm2 For I3 = 2000 A and S = 300 mm2.4 Protection against short-circuit 2 Protection of feeders 2 Protection of feeders Correction factor for voltage other than 400 V: kv To summarize: Multiply the length value obtained from the table by the correction factor kv: On the table.S N By applying the correction factor kd required when the neutral is distributed: kd is 0. if necessary.39 = 533 .9 m This is the maximum protected length with neutral distributed. multiply the length value obtained from the table above by the correction factor kr = 0. the 70 mm2 cable is protected up to 346 m. kd = Correction factor for aluminium conductors: kr If the cable is in aluminium. ABB SACE . In particular: if S = SN if S = 2.73 L = L 0 k v kd k r Example 1 1 230 V single-phase is the equivalent of a three-phase 400 V system with distributed neutral and with the cross section of the phase conductor the same as the cross section area of the neutral conductor. so that kv is 0. for the cross section and magnetic trip threshold it is possible to read a maximum protected value L0. 1 2 . 1 kd = 3 1+ S SN where • S is the phase cross section [mm2]. ABB SACE .Electrical devices 75 . This length shall then be multiplied.2.4 Protection against short-circuit 2. • SN is the neutral cross section [mm2].67.25 1.Electrical devices 74 2 .1 1. 2 .

in TN-C systems. the neutral conductor is also a protective conductor and cannot therefore be disconnected. voltage to earth arising on the neutral conductor constitutes a hazard for people. current values on the neutral conductor higher than the maximum current detected on the phase conductors. by not protecting the neutral conductor with single-pole devices. in TN-C systems. thereby making available a voltage that is different from the phase to phase voltage.m.5 Neutral and protective conductors 2 Protection of feeders 2 Protection of feeders TT or TN systems: • if the cross section of the neutral conductor is the same or larger than the cross section of the phase conductor.the neutral conductor is protected against short-circuit by the protective device of the phase conductors. since this conductor is also a protective conductor. This may be caused by a phase to neutral short-circuit and by the disconnection of the neutral conductor due to accidental breaking or to tripping of single-pole devices (fuses or single-pole circuit breakers). the Standards specify minimum cross sections (see next clause) for the neutral conductor in order to prevent accidental breaking and they forbid the use of any device (single-pole or multi-pole) that could disconnect the PEN. Furthermore.Electrical devices 76 ABB SACE .5 Neutral and protective conductors Neutral conductor The neutral conductor is a conductor that is connected to the system neutral point (which generally but not necessarily coincides with the star centre of the secondary windings of the transformer or the windings of the generator).s. The 3rd harmonic (150 Hz) current of the line conductors will be added with the same phase angle to the neutral conductor current. The need for protection on the neutral conductor and the possibility of disconnecting the circuit depend on the distribution system: Figure 2: Three-phase alternative power supply with a 4-pole switch Power supply 2 Power supply 1 NOTE . • if the cross section of the neutral conductor is less than the cross section of the phase conductor. L1 L2 L3 PEN PE L1 L2 L3 Supplier User 1SDC010012F0201 P 1SDC010013F0001 If fault conditions arise. the exposed conductive parts of the single-phase equipment could take the system rated voltage to earth. this voltage reaches the connected exposed conductive parts. all the necessary measures to prevent this type of fault shall be taken. the functions of neutral conductor and protective conductor can be combined in a single conductor (PEN). Current using equipment ABB SACE . In certain specific cases.g. If the neutral conductor only is disconnected in a four-conductor circuit the supply voltage to the single-phase loads may be altered so that they are supplied by a voltage different from the U0 phase to neutral voltage (as shown in Fig.2. cause r. Protection and disconnection of the neutral conductor U1 = P P N U1 R1 3 .Electrical devices 77 . but not necessarily the neutral conductor.This method prevents electromagnetic fields due to stray currents in the main supply system of an installation. For TN-C systems. In TN-S systems. The sum of the currents within one cable must be zero. there is neither the need to detect overcurrents on the neutral conductor nor to use a breaking device (neutral conductor is not protected or disconnected). in fact. it is able to contribute to the transmission of electric power. a voltage to earth may occur on the neutral conductor. e.the maximum current that can flow through the neutral conductor during normal service is lower than the neutral current carrying capacity. In certain cases and under specific conditions. R 1 R1+ R2 R2 Figure 1: Disconnection of the neutral conductor Moreover. Therefore. 2. the neutral conductor has to be disconnected to prevent currents circulating between parallel supply sources (see Figures 2 and 3) 2. overcurrents on the neutral conductor must be detected so as to have the phase conductors. at any instant. 1). if the neutral conductor is disconnected. U0 . This ensures that the neutral current will flow only in the neutral conductor of the respective switched on circuit. the neutral need not be disconnected if the supply conditions are such that the neutral conductor can be considered to be reliable at earth potential. this requirement applies only if there are no harmonics that may. disconnected (neutral conductor protected but not disconnected): in this case the overcurrents on the neutral conductor do not need to be detected if the following conditions are simultaneously fulfilled: 1. As already mentioned.

the neutral conductor included.Electrical devices 79 1SDC010013F0201 yes IT system: The Standard advises against distributing the neutral conductor in IT systems. the overcurrents must be detected on the neutral conductor of each circuit in order to disconnect all the live conductors on the corresponding circuit. . including the neutral one (neutral conductor protected and disconnected). If the neutral conductor is distributed.15 x Neutral carrying capacity ? Is the neutral protected by the short-circuit protection of the phase conductor? no yes yes Neutral max current < Neutral carrying capacity (Iz)? no For all distribution systems. due to unintentional circular stray currents generating electromagnetic fields. It is necessary to: . It is not necessary: -the presence of a breaking device for the neutral. -open the neutral contact. • the circuit is protected by a residual current device with rated residual current lower than 0.Electrical devices 78 It is necessary to: detect the neutral current in order to open all the contacts (phase and neutral). whenever necessary.15 times the current carrying capacity of the corresponding neutral conductor. 1SDC010014F0001 no Is the circuit protected by a RCD with I∆n≤ 0.2. It is necessary to: -open the phase contacts It is not necessary to: -detect the neutral overcurrent. connection and disconnection of the neutral conductor. • the neutral conductor is connected at the same moment or before the phase conductor.5 Neutral and protective conductors 2. ABB SACE . It is necessary to: -detect the neutral current.open all the contacts (phase and neutral) It is not necessary to: -detect the neutral current. Overcurrents do not need to be detected on the neutral conductor in any of the following cases: • the neutral conductor is protected against short-circuit by a protective device fitted upstream. Neutral shall not be disconnected before the phase conductors Neutral shall be reconnected at the same time as or before the phase conductors ABB SACE .5 Neutral and protective conductors 2 Protection of feeders 2 Protection of feeders Figure 3: Three-phase alternative power supply with non-suitable 3-pole switch L1 L2 L3 PEN PE START L1 L2 L3 no Upstream protection for the neutral? SN ≥ S? TT/TN System? no yes yes no yes NOTE – A three-phase alternative power supply with a non-suitable 3-pole switch. -open the phase contacts. It is not necessary to: -open the neutral contact. This device must disconnect all the live conductors. shall ensure that: • the neutral conductor is not disconnected before the phase conductor.

2. current flowing through the protective conductor in the event of a fault with low impedance [A]. 16 k 2 k1 . if both the following conditions are met: • the cross section of the neutral conductor is at least 16 mm2 for copper conductors and 25 mm2 for aluminium conductors. selected from Table 1 Chapter 2. the minimum cross section of the protective conductor SPE can be obtained by using the following formula: SPE = I 2t k (1) where: • SPE is the cross section of the protective conductor [mm2].5 Neutral and protective conductors 2 Protection of feeders 2 Protection of feeders Determination of the minimum cross section of the neutral conductor Protective conductor The neutral conductor. If there is high harmonic distortion (the harmonic content is greater than 10%).Electrical devices 80 ABB SACE .5 Neutral and protective conductors 2. the cross section of the neutral conductor cannot be less than the cross section of the phase conductors. or 25 mm2 in aluminium. ABB SACE . 1 The cross section of phase conductors shall be dimensioned in compliance with the instructions of the Chapter 2.4 according to the materials of the conductor and insulation. shall have the same cross section as the line conductor: • in single-phase. the Standards specify a minimum cross section of 10 mm2 for copper and 16 mm2 for aluminium conductors k1 is the value of k for the line conductor. the reduction of the cross section is permitted only in accordance with the rules for sizing of the neutral conductor.s.1 The cross section of the neutral conductor can be less than the cross section of the phase conductor when the cross section of the phase conductor is greater than 16 mm2 with a copper cable.Electrical devices 81 1SDC010014F0201 Phase cross section S [mm2] Single-phase/two-phase circuits Cu/Al Any Three-phase circuits S ≤ 16 Cu S > 16 Three-phase circuits S ≤ 25 Al S > 25 16 < S ≤ 25 S 2 . • t is the trip time of the protective device [s]. if any. when the size of the line conductors is less than or equal to 16 mm2 in copper. two-wire circuits whatever the section. as for example in equipment with discharge lamps.1 “Current carrying capacity and methods of installation” k2 is the value of k for the protective conductor. Determination of the minimum cross sections The minimum cross section of the protective conductor can be determined by using the following table: Table 2: Cross section of the protective conductor Cross section of line conductor S [mm2 ] Minimum cross section of the corresponding protective conductor [mm2 ] If the protective conductor is of the same material as the line conductor S ≤ 16 If the protective conductor is not of the same material as the line conductor k1 . neutral cross section SN [mm2] S* S* 16 S* 25 16* S > 25 S* 2 k1 . • I is the r. • in polyphase and single-phase three-wire circuits. or 25 mm2 with an aluminium cable.m. * For a PEN conductor.2. • there is no high harmonic distortion of the load current. S k Table 1: Minimum cross sections of the neutral conductor Min. S k2 2 Where * for TN-C systems. For a more accurate calculation and if the protective conductor is subjected to adiabatic heating from an initial known temperature to a final specified temperature (applicable for fault extinction time no longer than 5s).

on the type of insulation and on initial and final temperature. a larger standardized cross section shall be chosen. If Table 2 or formula (1) do not provide a standardized cross section. This requires that the appliance has a separate terminal for a second protective conductor. Table 4: Values of k for protective conductors as a core incorporated in a cable or bunched with other cables or insulated conductors a b Copper Final Aluminium Steel Values for k 70 160/140 a 90 °C PVC 90 a 90 °C thermosetting 90 250 143 94 52 60 °C rubber 60 200 141 93 51 85 °C rubber 85 220 134 89 48 Silicon rubber 180 350 132 87 47 160/140 115/103 a 100/86 a 76/68 a 42/37 a a 36/31 a 66/57 1SDC010015F0201 Initial 70 °C PVC Material of conductor Temperature °C b Conductor insulation The lower value applies to PVC insulated conductors of cross section greater than 300 mm2. the protective conductor shall be incorporated in the same wiring system as the live conductors or be located in their immediate proximity. Further values of k can be taken from the Tables in Annex D. through its total run.5 mm2 Cu/16 mm2 Al.Electrical devices 82 ABB SACE . Temperature limits for various types of insulation are given in IEC 60724. which provides the formula for accurate calculation of the value of k. the cross section of the protective conductor. if no mechanical protection ise provided. which is not part of the supply cable.Electrical devices 83 . ABB SACE .4 mm2 Cu/16 mm2 Al. . if a mechanical protection is provided. • or a second protective conductor of at least the same cross-sectional area as required for protection against indirect contact shall be laid up to a point where the protective conductor has a cross-sectional area not less than 10 mm2 Cu or 16 mm2 Al. Regardless of whether Table 2 or formula (1) are used. reinforced protective conductors shall be designed as follows: • either the protective conductor shall have a cross-sectional area of at least 10 mm2 Cu or 16 mm2 Al. When overcurrent protective devices are used for protection against electric shock. Material of conductor Temperature °C b 73 a 2 The lower value applies to PVC insulated conductors of cross section greater than 300 mm .5 Neutral and protective conductors 2.2.5 Neutral and protective conductors 2 Protection of feeders 2 Protection of feeders • k is a constant which depends on the material of the protective conductor. The most common values can be taken from Tables 3 and 4. b Temperature limits for various types of insulation are given in IEC 60724. shall be at least: .2. Table 3: Values of k for insulated protective conductors not incorporated in cables and not bunched with other cables Initial Copper Aluminium Final Steel Values for k 70 °C PVC 30 160/140 a 143/133 a 95/88 a 52/49 a 90 °C PVC 30 143/133 a 143/133 a 95/88 a 52/49 a 90 °C thermosetting 30 250 176 116 64 60 °C rubber 30 200 159 105 58 85 °C rubber 30 220 168 110 60 Silicon rubber 30 350 201 133 1SDC010015F0201 Conductor insulation For current using equipment intended for permanent connection and with a protective conductor current exceeding 10 mA.

busbar trunking systems (BTSs) optimize the power distribution despite the inevitable modifications that are carried out (additions.95 50 0.1/2 if the BTS is supplied from the centre or from both ends simultaneously.straight elements: base elements of the line for carrying energy from the source to the loads. displacements. . .lighting lines (medium power).flat.08 35 1. tee joints and cross elements to create any type of route.2 ABB SACE .coupling: electrical and mechanical connecting elements for different elements. .central power supply. • b is the supply factor. Table 1: Correction factor kt for ambient temperature other than 40 °C Loads • Number. . where: • IZ0 is the current that the BTS can carry for an indefinite time at the reference temperature (40 °C). . cos r [A] (1) m where: • Pt is the sum of the active power of all the installed loads [W].1 if the BTS is supplied from one side only. etc). Busbar trunking systems are subject to the following Standards: . the load current must be determined using the following data: Choice of BTS current carrying capacity A BTS shall be chosen so that its current carrying capacity Iz complies with the following formula: Power supply I b ≤ I Z 0 . Load current calculation for three-phase system Load current Ib for a three-phase system is calculated by the following formula: BTSs consist of: . • Ib is the load current. . Dimensioning of a BTS To dimension a BTS. • Ur is the operating voltage [V]. power and cosϕ and type of loads supplied by the same BTS ABB SACE . .pull boxes: elements that enable lamps or operating machines to be supplied directly with integrated protection (fuses or circuit breakers).single-phase . replacement of loads) and to facilitate maintenance work and safety verifications.three-phase. which is: . • cosϕm is the average power factor of the loads. . Ib = Pt .from one end.05 40 1 45 0.17 25 1. . • kt is the correction factor for ambient temperature values other than the reference ambient temperature shown on Table 1. .edge-on. If possible. NOTE: BTSs shall be placed at a distance from the walls and the ceilings in such a way as to enable visual inspection of connections during assembly and to facilitate insertion of the branch units. • Type of installation: .Electrical devices (2) 84 Ambient Temperature [°C] 15 kt 1.from both ends.supplying sources of light. b . .routing elements: flexible joints for the creation of curves or overcoming obstacles. They are mainly used for: .IEC 60439 – 1 “Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies – Part 1: Type-tested and partially type-tested assemblies” .2. 3 U .12 30 1. • Rated voltage • Short-circuit current at the supply point • Ambient temperature. • Length. it is preferable to install the BTS edge-on so as to improve mechanical resistance and reduce any possible deposit of powder and polluting substances that might affect the level of internal insulation. .6 Busbar trunking systems (BTSs) In electrical installations for industrial environments. • Type of BTS supply: .power supply and distribution (medium and large power).suspensions/accessories: hanging and fixing elements for BTS and for any support required for special loads (lighting components.supplying moving equipment (bridge cranes).6 Busbar trunking systems 2 Protection of feeders 2 Protection of feeders BTS geometry 2. .Electrical devices 20 1. safety and low power distribution.85 85 .vertical. kt = I Z • General type of load supply: . distribution. horizontal and vertical angles.IEC 60439 – 2 “Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies – Part 2: Particular requirements for busbar trunking systems (busways)”.conductors/busbars.

Cu SB4 350A 4 cond.025 0. Cu MRf 800A 5 cond.019 0.290 0. Cu HRC2 5000A 4 cond. Cu SB4 160A 4 cond.205 0.122 0.023 0.038 0.A.122 Ur [V] 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 500 500 500 500 1000 1000 500 500 500 500 1000 1000 500 500 500 500 1000 1000 500 500 500 500 1000 1000 500 500 Size 700 700 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1200 1250 1250 1500 1600 1600 2000 2000 2400 2500 2500 3000 3000 3200 3200 4000 4000 5000 5000 Type SB6 700A 5 cond.037 0.097 0.2.023 Ur [V] 500 500 1000 1000 1000 500 500 500 500 1000 1000 1000 1000 500 500 500 500 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 *phase resistance at Iz0 ABB SACE .073 0.011 0.p.092 0. Cu HRC1 2000A 4 cond. Cu HL2544 25A 4+4 cond. Cu LB404 40A 4 cond.205 0. Cu SC 1500A 4 cond.077 xph [mΩ/m] 1.580 1.007 0. Cu SB7 500A 4 cond. Cu SB4 250A 4 cond. Cu HL254 25A 4 cond. Cu SB6 500A 5 cond.314 0. Cu SC 2500A 4 cond.077 0. Cu HRC1 1000A 4 cond.216 0. Cu MRf 250A 5 cond. Cu SC 1000A 4 cond.122 0. Cu SB6 350A 5 cond.115 0.026 0.122 0. Cu SB7 160A 4 cond.011 0.188 0.005 0.017 0.142 0. Cu SB4 500A 4 cond.022 0. Cu SC 1600A 4 cond.173 1.026 0.129 0.144 1.074 0. Cu SC 5000A 4 cond.122 0.188 0.129 0. Cu SC 2000A 4 cond.120 0. Cu HRC2 4000A 4 cond. Cu MRf 1000A 5 cond.637 0.120 0. Cu SC 4000A 4 cond.068 0.073 0. Cu Number of conductors 5 4 4 5 4 4 5 5 4 4 5 4 4 4 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 IZ0 [A] 700 700 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1200 1250 1250 1500 1600 1600 2000 2000 2400 2500 2500 3000 3000 3200 3200 4000 4000 5000 5000 rph* [mΩ/m] 0.314 0. Cu MR 1000A 4 cond.008 0.027 0.335 0. Cu SB5 1000A 5 cond.092 0.120 0. Cu SC 800A 4 cond.556 3.314 0.047 0. Cu MRf 630A 5 cond. Cu SB7 350A 4 cond.021 0.072 0.216 0.068 0. Cu SB5 350A 5 cond. Cu SC 1250A 4 cond. Cu SC 3200A 4 cond.122 0.040 0.142 0.648 0.205 0.122 0. Cu SL 63A 4 cond.6 Busbar trunking systems 2 Protection of feeders 2 Protection of feeders Note: the following tables refer to Zucchini S. Cu SB6 800A 5 cond.076 0. Cu SC 3000A 4 cond.400 0.205 0. Cu SL 40A 4 cond. Cu SB5 700A 5 cond.008 xph [mΩ/m] 0.122 0.247 0. Cu SB6 1000A 5 cond. products Table 2: Current carrying capacity IZ0 of copper BTS Size 25 25 25 40 40 40 40 63 100 160 160 160 160 160 250 250 250 250 250 250 315 315 350 350 350 350 400 400 500 500 500 500 630 630 700 700 Type LB254 25A 4 cond.014 0.038 0. Cu HL404 40A 4 cond.038 0.077 0.400 1. Cu HRC1 1600A 4 cond.068 0. Cu SB7 250A 4 cond.092 0. Cu MR 315A 4 cond. Cu SB4 1000A 4 cond.019 0.142 0.025 0.188 0.074 0.366 0.205 0.876 3.018 0.194 0.020 0.034 0.015 0.038 0. Cu MRf 400A 5 cond.574 0.285 0.122 0.031 0.129 0. Cu SB4 700A 4 cond.188 0. Cu MS 100A 4 cond. Cu SB7 800A 4 cond.Electrical devices 86 ABB SACE .072 0. Cu HRC2 3200A 4 cond. Cu MRf 315A 5 cond. Cu MS 160A 4 cond.120 0. Cu SC 1200A 4 cond. Cu MR 400A 4 cond.6 Busbar trunking systems 2. Cu HRC1 1250A 4 cond.142 0.072 0.194 0. Cu HL4044 40A 4+4 cond.034 0.516 2.129 0. Cu SB7 1000A 4 cond.092 0.335 0.035 0.120 0. Cu SB5 800A 5 cond.205 0.120 0. Cu SB6 160A 5 cond.129 0. Cu SB5 500A 5 cond.Electrical devices 87 .122 0.072 0.792 1. Cu MR 250A 4 cond.964 6. Cu HRC2 3000A 4 cond.068 0.115 0.122 0.012 0.122 0.516 3. Cu Number of conductors 4 4 4+4 4 4 4+4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 4 4 5 4 5 5 4 4 5 4 5 5 4 4 5 4 5 5 4 4 5 4 5 IZ0 [A] 25 25 25 40 40 40 40 63 100 160 160 160 160 160 250 250 250 250 250 250 315 315 350 350 350 350 400 400 500 500 500 500 630 630 700 700 rph* [mΩ/m] 6.011 0.194 0.030 0.335 0. Cu SB5 250A 5 cond.876 6. Cu SC 2400A 4 cond. Cu MR 800A 4 cond.009 0. Cu SB6 250A 5 cond.790 0.188 0. Cu MR 630A 4 cond.314 0. Cu SB5 160A 5 cond.194 0.016 0.047 0.031 0.580 0.035 0.077 0.011 0.129 0.335 0.188 0.013 0.015 0.285 0. Cu SB4 800A 4 cond. Cu SB7 700A 4 cond. Cu HRC1 2500A 4 cond.

260 0.022 0.260 0.202 0.431 0.431 0.073 0.054 0.260 0.041 0.012 0. Al MR 250A 4 cond. Al SB4 315A 4 cond.260 0.016 0.020 0.021 0.186 0.186 0.591 0. Al SB7 800A 4 cond.071 0.024 Ur [V] 500 500 500 500 1000 1000 1000 500 500 500 500 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 *phase resistance at Iz0 ABB SACE . Al MR 800A 4 cond.102 0.202 0.011 0. Al MR 630A 4 cond. Al SC 1250A 4 cond. Al SB6 800A 5 cond. Al HRC1 2000A 4 cond. Al SB6 315A 5 cond. Al HRC2 2250A 4 cond.032 0.072 0.127 0. Al SB6 630A 5 cond. Al HRC1 1600A 4 cond.022 0.017 0.073 0. Al HRC2 4000A 4 cond.186 0. Al MR 315A 4 cond.072 0.431 0.096 0.097 0. Al SB7 500A 4 cond.226 0.125 0. Al MRf 630A 5 cond.202 0. Al SC 2500A 4 cond. Al HRC1 1000A 4 cond. Al MRf 250A 5 cond. Al HRC2 3200A 4 cond.049 0. Al SC 1600A 4 cond.130 0.202 0. Al SB6 400A 5 cond.591 0. Al SB6 250A 5 cond. Al SB7 250A 4 cond.097 0. Al SB7 315A 4 cond.Electrical devices 89 . Al SC 800A 4 cond.072 0. Al SB4 160A 4 cond. Al SC 1500A 4 cond.202 0.226 0.130 0.394 0. Al SB5 160A 5 cond. Al MRf 315A 5 cond. Al SC 2000A 4 cond. Al SB5 500A 5 cond. Al SB5 250A 5 cond.034 0.023 0.034 0. Al SC 3200A 4 cond.008 0.6 Busbar trunking systems 2.017 0.017 0.431 0.181 0.130 0.009 0.029 0.062 0. Al SB7 400A 4 cond.041 0. Al SC 4000A 4 cond.068 0.186 0. Al SB5 630A 5 cond.096 0.071 0.044 0. Al SB7 160A 4 cond.186 0.011 0.020 0. Al SB4 500A 4 cond.062 0.102 0. Al SC 1000A 4 cond.067 0.028 0.014 xph [mΩ/m] 0.144 0.071 0.181 0. Al SB7 630A 4 cond.260 0. Al HRC2 2500A 4 cond.027 0. Al SC 2400A 4 cond.053 0.023 0.6 Busbar trunking systems 2 Protection of feeders 2 Protection of feeders Table 3: Current carrying capacity IZ0 of aluminium BTS Size Type Number of conductors IZ0 [A] rph* [mΩ/m] xph [mΩ/m] Ur [V] 160 160 160 160 160 160 250 250 250 250 250 250 315 315 315 315 315 315 400 400 400 400 400 400 500 500 500 500 630 630 630 MR 160A 4 cond.073 0.071 0.097 0.260 0.066 0. Al SC 1200A 4 cond.125 0. Al SB5 315A 5 cond. Al HRC1 1250A 4 cond.097 0. Al HRC2 4500A 4 cond. Al SB4 400A 4 cond. Al SB5 400A 5 cond.097 0.102 0. Al Number of conductors 4 5 5 4 4 5 4 4 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 IZ0 [A] 630 630 630 630 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 1000 1000 1200 1250 1250 1500 1600 1600 2000 2000 2250 2400 2500 2500 3000 3200 3200 4000 4000 4500 rph* [mΩ/m] 0.066 0. Al SB6 500A 5 cond.236 0.125 0.144 0.202 0.130 0. Al MRf 800A 5 cond. Al SC 630A 4 cond.125 0. Al SB5 800A 5 cond.127 0.044 0.096 0.226 0.034 0.186 0.127 0.097 0. Al SB4 800A 4 cond. Al 4 5 4 5 5 4 4 5 4 5 5 4 4 5 4 5 5 4 4 5 4 5 5 4 4 5 5 4 4 5 4 160 160 160 160 160 160 250 250 250 250 250 250 315 315 315 315 315 315 400 400 400 400 400 400 500 500 500 500 630 630 630 0.062 0. Al MRf 160A 5 cond.102 0.096 0.073 0. Al MRf 400A 5 cond.096 0.127 0. Al SB4 250A 4 cond.130 0.087 0. Al SB6 160A 5 cond.014 0. Al MR 400A 4 cond.096 0.035 0.024 0.226 0.130 0.029 1000 1000 500 500 500 500 1000 1000 500 500 500 500 1000 1000 500 500 500 500 1000 1000 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 1000 1000 1000 Size 630 630 630 630 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 1000 1000 1200 1250 1250 1500 1600 1600 2000 2000 2250 2400 2500 2500 3000 3200 3200 4000 4000 4500 Type SB4 630A 4 cond.181 0.181 0.Electrical devices 88 ABB SACE .2.236 0. Al SC 3000A 4 cond.394 0.023 0.

This can be extrapolated from the limitation curves shown in Volume 1.6 Busbar trunking systems 2. IkpCB < I kp BTS ? no 1SDC010017F0201 1 The protection against short-circuit does not need to be checked if MCBs up to 63 A are used whenever correctly dimensioned for overload protection. for adjustable protective devices. yes END ABB SACE . Voltage drop OK ? no yes Circuit-breaker choice Ib < InCB < IZ ? Protection against electrodynamic effects The following formula shall be fulfilled: no yes Ikp CB ≤ Ikp BTS (5) I2 t CB < I2 t BTS ? no yes where: • Ikp CB is the peak limited by the circuit-breaker at the maximum short-circuit current value at the installation point.3.2. Chapter 3. • I2tBTS is the withstood energy of the BTS and it is normally given by the manufacturer (see Tables 4 and 5). the rated current In is the set current. In such cases.4. in fact.6 Busbar trunking systems 2 Protection of feeders 2 Protection of feeders BTS protection START Protection against overload BTSs are protected against overload by using the same criterion as that used for the cables. This can be extrapolated from the curves shown in Volume 1 Chapter 3. • In is the rated current of the protective device. Temperature <> 40 °C ? yes no Protection against short-circuit1 kt from Table 1 kt=1 The BTS must be protected against thermal overload and electrodynamic effects due to the short-circuit current. • Iz is the continuous current carrying capacity of the BTS. The following formula shall be verified: I b ≤ In ≤ I z Ib (3) where: • Ib is the current for which the circuit is designed. protection against both thermal and electrodynamic effects is certainly adequate because of the energy and peak limitations offered by these protective devices. • Ikp BTS is the maximum peak current value of the BTS (see Tables 4 and 5). Protection against thermal overload The following formula shall be fulfilled: BTS choice (I b < kt*IZ0 =IZ ) I2t CB ≤ I2t BTS (4) where: • I2tCB is the specific let-through energy of the circuit-breaker at the maximum short-circuit current value at the installation point.Electrical devices 90 ABB SACE .Electrical devices 91 .

2 118. Cu SB7 350A 4 cond. Cu SB7 700A 4 cond.29 20.4 1024 1024 1024 7744 7744 2500 7744 7744 2500 7744 3600 7744 7744 4900 30976 8100 30976 8100 30976 8100 30976 10000 I2tPE [(kA)2s] 756.25 777. Cu SC 1250A 4 cond.4 169 169 169 187. Cu SB4 350A 4 cond.5 26 26 26 26 63 63 58 58 58 58 75. Cu SB6 350A 5 cond.75 756.64 0. Cu SL 63A 4 cond.5 101.4 1500 4646.4 4646.4 453.6 75.25 60 100 100 100 187. Cu SB5 350A 5 cond.2 132 93 .4 232. Cu HRC1 1600A 4 cond. Cu HL4044 40A 4+4 cond. Cu SB4 1000A 4 cond.4 63 116.25 756.4 116.25 1296 1296 756.25 756. Cu SB5 800A 5 cond.64 0.4 2160 4646.5 101.5 312.8 34.6 75.75 756.25 777.25 756. Cu SC 1500A 4 cond.6 1296 3969 1600 614.73 1 1 7. Cu SC 2400A 4 cond.25 756.25 Ipeakph [kA] 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 17 17 17 17 52.5 312.4 92. Cu MRf 630A 5 cond.8 232.75 756. Cu SB5 160A 5 cond. Cu HRC2 5000A 4 cond.6 31. Cu SB7 800A 4 cond.25 777.6 15.5 312. Cu HRC1 1250A 4 cond.8 92 Size Type 700 700 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1200 1250 1250 1500 1600 1600 2000 2000 2400 2500 2500 3000 3000 3200 3200 4000 4000 5000 5000 SB6 700A 5 cond.6 15.73 1 1 7.6 Busbar trunking systems 2 Protection of feeders 2 Protection of feeders Table 4: Values of the withstood energy and peak current of copper BTS Size Type 25 25 25 40 40 40 40 63 100 160 160 160 160 160 250 250 250 250 250 250 315 315 350 350 350 350 400 400 500 500 500 500 630 630 700 700 LB254 25A 4 cond.64 0.2 118.8 34.4 2940 18585.2 118. Cu MRf 250A 5 cond.29 20.5 52.8 45.5 169 169 169 169 900 900 756.5 312.48 0.25 30.5 31.4 63 116.4 4646.25 756. Cu MR 250A 4 cond.5 101.2.4 36 36 36 36 116.6 75.4 83.4 45.6 15.6 37. Cu SC 5000A 4 cond.5 26 26 26 26 52.5 312. Cu SB4 800A 4 cond.5 31.4 4646.6 139 58 58 58 58 75.25 756.5 101. Cu HL404 40A 4 cond. Cu HRC2 3200A 4 cond. Cu MS 100A 4 cond. Cu MR 315A 4 cond.25 756.6 4860 18585.75 756. Cu SB5 250A 5 cond.25 756.4 45.25 756.4 34.25 60 100 100 100 187.8 34.4 50.6 4860 18585.75 756.6 15.4 1024 1024 1024 4646. Cu SC 3000A 4 cond. Cu SB4 250A 4 cond.25 30.6 58 58 IpeakN [kA] 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10.25 I2tPE [(kA)2s] 0.73 1 1 7. Cu HRC1 2500A 4 cond. Cu ABB SACE .2 10.25 756.4 169 169 169 187. Cu HRC1 1000A 4 cond.6 Busbar trunking systems 2.4 79. Cu SC 3200A 4 cond.29 7.4 169 169 169 540 900 453.25 100 100 100 100 312.8 232. Cu SB7 250A 4 cond.75 756.25 1296 1296 3969 756. Cu SB4 500A 4 cond. Cu SC 800A 4 cond. Cu SB6 800A 5 cond.48 0.4 45. Cu SB7 1000A 4 cond.6 1296 2381. Cu MR 630A 4 cond.64 0.25 777.6 1296 3969 453.8 232.6 15. Cu SB6 160A 5 cond.8 37.2 116.8 34. Cu SB4 700A 4 cond. Cu SB6 1000A 5 cond.8 45.2 31. Cu ABB SACE .29 7.6 4860 18585.6 139 84 60 60 60 60 194 194 105 194 194 105 194 132 194 194 154 387 198 387 198 387 198 387 220 IpeakN [kA] 34.5 312.25 777.8 34. Cu MRf 315A 5 cond. Cu HRC1 2000A 4 cond.5 52. Cu SC 1000A 4 cond.25 756. Cu SC 4000A 4 cond.2 10.25 756.5 15. Cu MS 160A 4 cond. Cu MRf 1000A 5 cond.Electrical devices I2tph [(kA)2s] 0. Cu SB7 500A 4 cond.8 34.25 756. Cu SB5 700A 5 cond.25 756.25 30. Cu SC 2500A 4 cond. Cu SB5 1000A 5 cond.4 83.6 1296 453.8 45. Cu HRC2 4000A 4 cond.4 116.8 34.5 15.4 34.6 1296 453.64 0. Cu SB6 250A 5 cond.5 169 169 169 169 312.4 116. Cu SC 1600A 4 cond.6 15.25 756.8 34.25 1296 1296 3969 1600 1024 1024 1024 1024 7744 7744 2500 7744 7744 2500 7744 3600 7744 7744 4900 30976 8100 30976 8100 30976 8100 30976 10000 I2tN [(kA)2s] 756.4 169 169 169 540 900 453.4 1500 4646. Cu SB7 160A 4 cond.6 1296 2381. Cu SB6 500A 5 cond. Cu SL 40A 4 cond. Cu SB5 500A 5 cond.25 756.2 10.25 777. Cu HRC2 3000A 4 cond.8 34. Cu MR 400A 4 cond.6 6000 Ipeakph [kA] 58 58 75.Electrical devices I2tph [(kA)2s] 756.25 756. Cu MRf 400A 5 cond.4 960 614.25 756. Cu MR 800A 4 cond. Cu HL254 25A 4 cond.29 7. Cu LB404 40A 4 cond.29 20. Cu MRf 800A 5 cond. Cu SB4 160A 4 cond. Cu SC 1200A 4 cond.25 I2tN [(kA)2s] 0. Cu SC 2000A 4 cond. Cu MR 1000A 4 cond.64 0.48 0. Cu HL2544 25A 4+4 cond.

Al HRC2 3200A 4 cond. Al SB7 500A 4 cond.2 10.5 26 26 26 26 52.4 211.4 45.4 1024 1024 1024 777.6 15. Al HRC2 4500A 4 cond.5 60 100 100 100 187.5 105.6 88 67.5 52.2 211. Al SB4 315A 4 cond. Al MRf 630A 5 cond.4 1024 1024 1024 777. Al HRC2 2500A 4 cond. Al SC 3200A 4 cond.5 45.2 10.8 132 95 . Al SB4 250A 4 cond.5 312. Al SB6 250A 5 cond. Al SB5 800A 5 cond.5 40.5 176 84 176 176 105 176 176 105 176 132 154 352 352 198 352 352 198 352 198 220 IpeakN [kA] 40.8 40. Al MR 400A 4 cond.4 1024 1024 1024 6400 1600 6400 6400 2500 6400 6400 2500 6400 3600 4900 25600 25600 8100 25600 25600 8100 25600 8100 10000 I2tPE [(kA)2s] 614.5 52.5 312.6 75. Al MR 800A 4 cond.5 40.4 48 94 Size Type 630 630 630 630 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 1000 1000 1200 1250 1250 1500 1600 1600 2000 2000 2250 2400 2500 2500 3000 3200 3200 4000 4000 4500 SB4 630A 4 cond.5 52.2 118.8 211.4 169 169 169 375 625 101.2 118.6 80 IpeakN [kA] 18 18 10.5 67. Al SB7 315A 4 cond. Al SB4 400A 4 cond. Al SB7 630A 4 cond. Al SB5 250A 5 cond.5 52. Al ABB SACE .4 45. Al SB7 160A 4 cond.5 40.5 15. Al HRC2 2250A 4 cond. Al SC 630A 4 cond.4 169 169 169 540 900 375 625 625 625 375 625 625 625 777.5 67.2 31. Al SB5 400A 5 cond.5 169 169 169 169 625 625 169 169 169 169 900 900 625 625 625 625 625 625 625 625 1296 1296 1444 I2tN [(kA)2s] 67. Al MRf 315A 5 cond. Al HRC1 2000A 4 cond.6 105. Al MRf 400A 5 cond. Al SB6 500A 5 cond.5 31.5 15. Al SC 800A 4 cond. Al SC 1500A 4 cond. Al MRf 800A 5 cond. Al SB6 630A 5 cond.5 100 100 100 100 312.5 112. Al SB6 800A 5 cond.4 52.6 15.5 112. Al SB5 160A 5 cond.5 31. Al SB7 400A 4 cond.6 15. Al SB5 630A 5 cond. Al SC 3000A 4 cond.5 40. Al HRC1 1000A 4 cond. Al SB5 315A 5 cond. Al HRC1 1600A 4 cond.5 67.5 31.5 112.6 15. Al SC 2500A 4 cond.5 52.5 67.Electrical devices I2tph [(kA)2s] 1024 1024 1024 1024 1296 1296 1764 1024 1024 1024 1024 6400 1600 6400 6400 2500 6400 6400 2500 6400 3600 4900 25600 25600 8100 25600 25600 8100 25600 8100 10000 I2tN [(kA)2s] 614.5 101.6 15. Al SB7 250A 4 cond. Al SB6 160A 5 cond. Al SB6 400A 5 cond.5 31.6 50.6 1296 1058. Al MRf 250A 5 cond.6 1296 1764 614. Al SB4 500A 4 cond. Al SC 1000A 4 cond.5 67. Al SC 1600A 4 cond.5 312.8 211.5 31.6 Busbar trunking systems 2.5 52. Al SC 1250A 4 cond.5 52.4 Ipeakph [kA] 30 30 17 17 17 17 52.6 105.6 1296 1444 I2tPE [(kA)2s] 67.5 67.6 75. Al SC 2000A 4 cond.8 37. Al MR 315A 4 cond. Al ABB SACE .5 40.6 63 105. Al SB6 315A 5 cond.6 63 105. Al MRf 160A 5 cond.2.4 169 169 169 540 900 375 625 625 625 375 625 625 625 777.5 52. Al SB7 800A 4 cond.6 31.5 31.6 1296 866.5 52.4 169 169 169 375 625 101.5 31. Al SB5 500A 5 cond.5 60 100 100 100 187.5 31. Al SC 4000A 4 cond.8 31. Al SC 2400A 4 cond.6 15.5 75.6 37. Al HRC2 4000A 4 cond. Al SB4 160A 4 cond.2 211.Electrical devices I2tph [(kA)2s] 112. Al HRC1 1250A 4 cond.2 118.5 45.5 40.4 105. Al MR 250A 4 cond.5 101.6 Busbar trunking systems 2 Protection of feeders 2 Protection of feeders Table 5: Values of the withstood energy and peak current of aluminium BTS Size Type 160 160 160 160 160 160 250 250 250 250 250 250 315 315 315 315 315 315 400 400 400 400 400 400 500 500 500 500 630 630 630 MR 160A 4 cond. Al MR 630A 4 cond.5 75. Al SC 1200A 4 cond.5 26 26 26 26 63 63 52.6 79. Al SB4 800A 4 cond.4 1024 1024 1024 3840 960 3840 3840 1500 3840 3840 1500 3840 2160 2940 15360 15360 4860 15360 15360 4860 15360 4860 6000 Ipeakph [kA] 67.2 92.5 31.2 10.4 614.

L3 L2 m ) [V] L1 (6a) ∆ u= a . there is no inflammable material nearby. Ib . . L. i. 100 Ur (7) where Ur is rated voltage.5 0. • rt is the phase resistance per unit of length of BTS.e. From both ends Central In explosive environments and environments with greater risk of fire. 3 . • cosϕm is average power factor of the loads. c. • L is the BTS length [m]. It is therefore necessary to protect also the feeder against overload. the voltage drop can be calculated more accurately by using the formulas below. the length does not exceed 3 metres. the risk of short-circuit is minimized. the voltage drop can be calculated by using the following simplified formula: ∆u= a .8. Arrangement of loads Load concentrated at the end Evenly distributed load Evenly distributed load Load concentrated at the ends Evenly distributed load Current distribution factor 1 0. To reduce the voltage drop in very long BTS the power can be supplied at an intermediate position rather than at the end (see Table 6). In the latter case. b. is not already protected against short-circuit and overload by the device located upstream of the cable.protection against short-circuit: there is no need to protect the feeder against the short-circuit if simultaneously: a. which generally consists of cable duct. cos 1000 m + x . For three-phase systems with a power factor (cosϕm) not lower than 0. 2 . protection against short-circuit is always required.6 Busbar trunking systems 2. inside the pull box. sin If the loads cannot be considered to be evenly distributed. the overload protection device shall be installed at the outgoing point.25 0. ( rt .protection against overload: the current carrying capacity of the feeder is generally lower than that of the BTS. cos m + x . the voltage drop can be calculated by the following formula if the BTS has a constant cross section (as usual): ∆u = 3[ rt ( I 1L1 cos 1+ I 2 L2 cos ABB SACE . L. as shown in Table 6: 96 L L For the distribution of the three-phase loads shown in the figure.25 0. The protection device against overload can be placed inside the pull box or on the incoming panel. In locations with greater risk of fire. measured under thermal steady-state conditions [mΩ/m].Electrical devices l3 ABB SACE . which depends on the circuit supply and the arrangement of the electric loads along the BTS. ( rt .6 Busbar trunking systems 2 Protection of feeders 2 Protection of feeders Protection of the outgoing feeders Table 6: Current distribution factor If the outgoing feeder. Ib . sin 1000 m ) [V] (6b) l1 l2 L where: • a is the current distribution factor. protection against overload can also be provided by the circuit breakers protecting the single outgoing feeder from the panel only if the sum of their rated currents is lower or equal to the current carrying capacity Iz of the outgoing feeder. Voltage drop Calculation of voltage drop for unevenly distributed loads If a BTS is particularly long.125 • Ib is the load current [A]. the value of the voltage drop must be verified. • x is the phase reactance per unit of length of BTS [mΩ/m].2. Percentage voltage drop is obtained from: ∆ u% = ∆u . the following measures shall be taken: Type of supply From one end only .Electrical devices 2 + I 3 L3 cos 3 ) + x( I 1L1 sin 1 + I 2 L2 sin 2 + I 3 L3 sin 3 )] 97 1SDC010015F0001 For single-phase BTS the formula is: .

Upon supply of a lighting installation. • rt is the phase resistance per unit of length of BTS measured under thermal steady-state conditions [mΩ/m]. losses must be assessed section by section on the basis of the currents flowing through them. heating it until light is emitted.incandescent. L [W] (9b) Pj = 1000 where: • Ib is the current used [A].6 Busbar trunking systems 3 Protection of electrical equipment 2 Protection of feeders Generally speaking. • L is the length of BTS [m]. Li . • Ii is i-th load current [A]. I i . this formula becomes: 3 rt . equal to approximately 15 times the rated current. This possible peak has a value of approximately 15÷20 times the rated current. The correct dimensioning of the switching and protection devices must take these problems into account. and is present for a few milliseconds.5÷3 In In while single-phase losses are: 4-5 milliseconds 2 . . rt . . Subsequently. The electrical behaviour of these lamps involves a high peak current. after a few milliseconds the current returns to the rated value. Time [minutes] The most commonly used lamps are of the following types: . The losses are dissipated in heat and contribute to the heating of the trunking and of the environment.Electrical devices Length L1 L2-L1 L3-L2 Current I1+I2+I3 I2+I3 I3 Losses P1=3rtL1(I1+I2+I3)2 P2=3rt(L2-L1)(I2+I3)2 P3=3rt(L3-L2)(I3)2 Ptot=P1+P2+P3 98 Time [milliseconds] 3.fluorescent. 1000 I i . L [W] (9a) 1000 Inrush 1. Li . Three-phase losses are: Pj = Peak I [A] 15÷20 In 3 . presents a very low electrical resistance. the resistance value increases considerably. .halogen. • Li is the distance of the i-th load from the beginning of the BTS [m].Electrical devices 99 1SDC010003F0901 ∆u = 3. I b2 .1 Protection and switching of lighting circuits . sin Introduction mi [V] (8) where: • rt is the phase resistance per unit of length of BTS. measured under thermal steady-state conditions [mΩ/m]. Calculation of power losses is useful for correctly dimensioning the air-conditioning system for the building. • cosϕm is average power factor of the i-th load. metal halide and sodium vapour. ABB SACE .5 min. cos mi + x . Peak current diagram Inrush current diagram I [A] Joule-effect losses Joule-effect losses are due to the electrical resistance of the BTS. The peak is caused by the lamp filament which. for a brief period an initial current exceeding the rated current (corresponding to the power of the lamps) circulates on the network. due to the very fast heating of the element.2. e. in the case of distribution of loads shown in the previous figure: 1° section 2° section 3° section Total losses in BTS ABB SACE . • x is the phase reactance per unit of length of BTS [mΩ/m].g. there may also be an inrush current with a value of approximately 1. For accurate calculations. Incandescent lamps Incandescent lamps are made up of a glass bulb containing a vacuum or inert gas and a tungsten filament. I b2 .5÷3 times the rated current. lasting up to some minutes. rt . initially cold. The current flows through this filament. causing the decrease in the current absorbed.high intensity discharge: mercury vapour.

A momentary loss of power makes the restarting of the system and the heating necessary. which absorb from 10% to 20% of the rated power of the lamp. Fluorescent lamps Fluorescent lamps are a so-called discharge light source. Once the lamp has been switched on. in turn. a conventional or electronic controller. and it is necessary to stabilize the intensity of the current. a lower dissipation of heat. ABB SACE .1 Protection and switching of lighting circuits 3 Protection of electrical equipment 3 Protection of electrical equipment Halogen lamps High intensity discharge lamps: mercury vapour. this material transforms the ultraviolet radiation into radiation which has a wavelength within the visible spectrum. which are struck by the arc. The discharge is created by an appropriate peak in voltage. depending on the type of lamp) which contains mercury vapour at low pressure. The documentation supplied by the manufacturer includes tables for contactor selection. at maximum. but requires a high peak current.in PFC lamps. magnetic (conventional) and electronic. the gas offers an ever lower resistance. ABB SACE .6. There are three main types of high intensity discharge lamps: mercury vapour. metal halide and sodium vapour Halogen lamps are a special type of incandescent lamp in which the gas contained within the bulb prevents the vaporized material of the tungsten filament from depositing on the surface of the bulb and forces re-deposition on the filament.Electrical devices 101 . according to the number of lamps to be controlled. High intensity discharge lamps require a suitably sized controller and a heating period which can last some minutes before the emission of the rated light output. quartz. The colour characteristics and the efficiency of the lamp depend upon the different metallic elements present in the gas.1 Protection and switching of lighting circuits 3. the initial transient current may lead to peak currents equal to. and to their type. this lowers the power factor to approximately 0. generated by a starter.Electrical devices 100 Lamp type Incandescent lamps Halogen lamps Fluorescent lamp High intensity discharge lamps Non PFC PFC Non PFC PFC Peak current 15In 15In − 20In − 20In Inrush current 2In 2In 2In Turn-on time 10 s 1÷6 s 2÷8 min 2÷8 min Protection and switching devices IEC 60947-4-1 identifies two specific utilization categories for lamp control contactors: • AC-5a switching of electric discharge lamps. improves the quality of the light emitted and increases the life of the lamp. Electronic controllers offer specific advantages such as a saving in the energy absorbed. using a controller (reactor).3. The light is produced by a discharge within a transparent enclosure (glass. etc. In this case. Once the discharge has started. This phenomenon slows the deterioration of the filament. The value of the inrush current depends upon the presence of a power factor correction capacitor: . . The electrical behaviour of these lamps is the same as that of incandescent lamps. 10 times the rated current.9 There are two types of controllers. Non PFC lamps have inrush currents of up to twice the rated current for approximately 5 minutes. and an inrush current of up to twice the rated current for approximately 5 minutes. • AC-5b switching of incandescent lamps. flicker-free light. in some cases. normally a capacitor is added to increase the power factor to a value of more than 0. Compact fluorescent lamps are made up of a folded tube and a plastic base which contains. the arc is able to vaporize the metallic elements contained in the gas. PFC lamps have a peak current equal to 20 times the rated current. The colour of the light emitted depends upon the fluorescent material used. metal halide and sodium vapour. and ensure a stable. the gas within the enclosure emits energy in the ultraviolet range which strikes the fluorescent material. which can reach 20 times the rated current.non PFC lamps have inrush currents equal to approximately twice the rated current and a turn-on time of about ten seconds. the presence of the capacitor allows the reduction of the turnon time to a few seconds. releasing energy in the form of radiation which is both ultraviolet and within the visible spectrum.4÷0. If the lamp is fitted with an electronic controller. Some types of fluorescent lamps with electronic reactors do not need a starter. The special type of bulb glass blocks the ultraviolet radiation and allows only the visible radiation to pass through. The functioning of high intensity discharge lamps is the same as that of fluorescent lamps with the difference that the discharge occurs in the presence of a gas at high pressure. determined by the charge of the capacitor.

A S= 10.Electrical devices 1SDC010032F0201 Rated Power [W] S270 D20 S270 D25 103 . an approximate example is shown in Figure1. the following tables show the maximum number of lamps per phase which can be controlled by the combination of ABB circuit breakers and contactors for some types of lamps.A S= 8.1 Protection and switching of lighting circuits 3. [t] Contactor Icw With reference to the above verification criteria.B L= 0.92.B L= 1.A S= 10.68.B L= 0. for three phase installations with a rated voltage of 400 V and a maximum short-circuit current of 15 kA.Electrical devices N° lamps per phase 60 0. according to their power and absorbed current Ib1 .55 3 4 4 6 8 9 13 14 16 21 24 102 ABB SACE .coordination shall exist with the contactor under short-circuit conditions (lighting installations are not generally characterized by overloads). 1 Turning-on characteristics [A] For calculation see Annex B Calculation of load current Ib 1SDC010004F0901 .B L= 0.1 Protection and switching of lighting circuits 3 Protection of electrical equipment 3 Protection of electrical equipment For the selection of a protection device the following verifications shall be carried out: Figure 1: Approximate diagram for the coordination of lamps with protection and switching devices .B Contactor type A26 A26 A26 A26 A30 A40 A50 A63 A75 A95 A110 Rated current Ib [A] ABB SACE . Circuit-breaker characteristics Table 1: Incandescent and halogen lamps Ur= 400 V Ik= 15 kA Incandescent/halogen lamps Circuit-Breaker type S270 D20 S270 D32 S270 D50 T2N160R63 T2N160R63 T2N160R100 T2N160R100 T2N160R100 T2N160R160 Setting PR221 DS ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- L= 0.91 17 19 20 30 42 46 65 73 80 105 120 300 1.28 6 7 8 12 16 18 26 29 32 42 48 1000 4.A S= 7.A S= 8.27 57 65 70 103 142 155 220 246 272 355 390 100 0.A S= 8.68.68.45 34 38 42 62 85 93 132 147 163 210 240 200 0.76.B L= 0.the trip characteristic curve shall be above the turning-on characteristic curve of the lighting device to avoid unwanted trips.3.37 11 12 13 20 28 30 43 48 53 70 80 500 2.

18 5 83 94 105 155 215 233 335 360 400 530 40 0.68.A S= 8.38 40 44 50 73 100 110 157 173 192 250 278 40 0.A S= 10.A.A S= 10.1 Protection and switching of lighting circuits 3 Protection of electrical equipment 3 Protection of electrical equipment Table 2: Fluorescent lamps Ur= 400 V Ik= 15 kA Fluorescent lamps non PFC S270 D16 S270 D20 S270 D20 S270 D32 S270 D40 S270 D50 S270 D63 T2N160 R100 T2N160 R100 T2N160 R100 T2N160 R160 L= 0.B L= 0.45 33 37 42 62 84 93 133 145 162 210 234 65 0.A S= 10.B A26 A26 A26 A26 A30 A40 A50 A63 A75 A95 Contactor type S270 D25 S270 D32 N° lamps per phase Rated Power [W] Rated current Ib [A] Capacitor [µF] 20 0.B L= 0.1 Protection and switching of lighting circuits 3.A S= 10.B L= 0.A S= 10.68.B L= 0.2 12 14 15 23 31 35 50 55 60 79 88 Ur= 400 V 1SDC010033F0201 Circuit-Breaker type Ik= 15 kA Fluorescent lamps PFC Circuit-Breaker type S270 D25 S270 D40 S270 D63 T2N160 R63 T2N160 R63 T2N160 R100 T2N160 R100 T2N160 R100 Setting PR221 DS --- --- --- --- --- L= 0.8 18 21 23 35 47 52 75 82 91 118 132 100 1.B S= 0.42 7 35 40 45 66 92 100 142 158 173 225 80 0.15 13 14 16 24 33 36 52 57 63 82 92 110 1.A S= 10.Electrical devices 104 ABB SACE .Electrical devices 105 .68.S= 10.96.B A50 A63 A75 A95 A110 Setting PR221 DS Contactor type A26 A26 A26 A26 A30 A40 N° lamps per phase Rated Power [W] Rated current Ib [A] 20 0.B L= 0.65 16 23 26 29 43 59 64 92 101 112 145 110 0.76.76.7 21 24 27 40 54 60 85 94 104 135 150 80 0.3.B L= 1.96.26 5 58 65 75 107 150 160 230 255 280 365 65 0.68.52 7 28 32 36 53 74 80 115 126 140 180 100 0.7 18 21 24 27 40 55 59 85 94 104 135 ABB SACE .A S= 10.

A50 contactor.B A26 A26 A26 A30 A40 A50 A63 A75 A95 A110 Rated current Ib [A] 150 1.88.5 36 8 9 10 15 18 20 33 38 42 54 59 400 2.5 48 5 5 6 9 11 12 20 23 25 32 36 600 3. per phase.B S= 6. .B S= 6.B L= 1.B S= 4. select the cell showing the number of controllable lamps immediately above the number of lamps per phase present in the installation.B A63 A75 A95 A110 17 23 26 29 38 41 10 14 16 17 23 25 6 7 9 10 12 15 17 3 4 5 7 8 8 11 12 1 2 3 3 4 5 5 6 7 S270D20 S270D20 S270D32 S270D40 S270D40 T2N160 R100 T2N160 R100 T2N160 R100 T2N160 R160 T2N160 R160 --- --- --- --- --- L= 0.B A50 Rated Power [W] A40 T2N160 R100 L= 0.3.3 - 1 Circuit-Breaker type S270D16 Setting PR221 DS --A26 Ur= 400 V T2N160 R100 L= 1.5. ABB SACE . of 200 W each.3 65 4 4 5 7 8 9 15 17 19 24 27 1000 6.2 100 - - - 4 4 5 8 9 10 13 14 Rated Power [W] 1SDC010034F0201 Contactor type L= 0.5. with protection L set at 0. corresponding to the cell for 65 lamps per phase the following equipment are suggested: .Electrical devices 106 ABB SACE .B S= 4. In table 1.92.88. made up of 55 incandescent lamps.84. curve A and protection S set at 10. curve B. supplied by a three phase network at 400 V 15 kA.8 6 7 8 11 15 250 3 4 4 5 7 9 400 4.B S= 6.5.B L= 0.5. on the row corresponding to 200 W.B S= 6.B S= 6.5.2 1 2 2 1000 10.B L= 0.1 Protection and switching of lighting circuits 3. In the specific case.5.B S= 8.B Example: Switching and protection of a lighting system.8.1 Protection and switching of lighting circuits 3 Protection of electrical equipment 3 Protection of electrical equipment Table 3: High intensity discharge lamps Ur= 400 V Ik= 15 kA Fluorescent lamps non PFC Circuit-Breaker type S270D16 S270D2 S270D20 S270D32 S270D40 S270D40 S270D50 S270D63 Setting PR221 DS Contactor type A26 A26 A26 A26 A30 T2N160 R160 L= 0.5.Electrical devices 107 .8.4 3 3 3 4 600 6.ABB Tmax T2N160 R63 circuit breaker with PR221/DS type electronic release.8.B N° lamps per phase Ik= 15 kA Fluorescent lamps PFC N° lamps per phase Rated current Ib [A] Capacitor [µF] 150 1 20 13 14 15 23 28 30 50 58 63 81 88 250 1.

5÷4)·Irg. a transitory phase: may last up to some seconds (0.5 s). Ikg = Typical configurations include: • “Island supply” (independent functioning) of the priority loads in the case of a lack of energy supply through the public network. and is characterized by the transitory reactance X’d (15÷40% of the rated impedance value). it can be estimated that the maximum value of the short-circuit current of a generator. at the rated voltage of the installation Ur. and by the subtransient time constant T”d (5÷30 ms). characterized by the subtransient reactance X”d (5÷20% of the rated impedance value). if the function S is not present. a subtransient phase: with a brief duration (10÷50 ms). is equal to: 3.5÷4)·Irg. • for circuit breakers with electronic releases: . 2. . 100 Srg 3 . t [s] Irg . X 'd' % where Irg is the rated current of the generator: Irg = Unlike the public supply network.in the case of n identical generators in parallel: Icu(Ics) ≥ Ikg·(n-1). the current supplied by the generator is a function of the parameters of the machine itself. set between 1.5/3·In. in such away as to “intercept” the decrement curve of the generator: I2 = (1. 3. function I can be set at the indicated values I3 = (1.trip threshold of the delayed short-circuit protection function (S). as the short-circuit contribution from the network is normally greater than the contribution from the generator. so as to achieve discrimination with the devices installed downstream.in the case of operation in parallel with the network: Icu(Ics) ≥ IkNet. and is characterized by the synchronous reactance Xd (80÷300% of the rated impedance value). . which has a constant contribution. Ur The circuit breaker for the protection of the generator shall be selected according to the following criteria: • the set current higher than the rated current of the generator: I1 ≥ Irg.trip threshold of the instantaneous short-circuit protection function (I) set at a value greater than the rated short-circuit current of the generator.in the case of a single generator: Icu(Ics) ≥ Ikg. a synchronous phase: may persist until the tripping of external protection. • breaking capacity Icu or Ics higher than the maximum value of short-circuit current at the installation point: . • for circuit breakers with thermomagnetic releases: low magnetic trip threshold: I3 =2. with rated power Srg. or in parallel with the public utility supply network. in case of a short-circuit.5÷2.2 Protection and switching of generators 3 Protection of electrical equipment 3 Protection of electrical equipment As a first approximation. either as an alternative to.2 Protection and switching of generators The need to guarantee an ever greater continuity of service has led to an increase in the use of emergency supply generators. and by the transitory time constant T’d (0.Electrical devices 109 . it is possible to identify the following successive phases: 1.3.Electrical devices 1SDC010018F0201 10-2 1 10 102 x Irg 108 ABB SACE . • Supply to the user installation in parallel with the public supply network.5 and 4 times the rated current of the generator.03÷2.5 s). and to allow fast tripping in the event of a short-circuit upstream of the device (working in parallel with other generators or with the network): 101 Synchronous phase 1 Transient phase I 3Cb ≥ I kg 10-1 Subtransient phase 10-3 ABB SACE . and decreases with time. .

ABB SACE . the tables refer to 400 V (Table 1). 500 V (Table 3) and 690 V (Table 4).Electrical devices 110 ABB SACE . 440 V (Table 2).2 Protection and switching of generators 3.2 Protection and switching of generators 3 Protection of electrical equipment 3 Protection of electrical equipment The following tables give ABB SACE suggestions for the protection and switching of generators. 4 6 7 9 11 14 17 19 21 22 28 31 35 38 42 44 48 55 69 80 87 100 111 138 159 173 180 190 208 218 242 277 308 311 346 381 415 436 484 554 692 727 865 1107 1730 2180 2214 2250 2500 2800 3150 3500 MCB MCCB ACB S20L/S250 B6 S20L/S250 B10 S20L/S250 B13 S20L/S250 B16 T2 160 I=10 T2 160 I=25 S20L/S250 B25 S20L/S250 B32 S20L/S250 B50 T2 160 I=63 S20L/S250 B63 S280 B80 T2 160 I=100 S280 B100 T2 160 I=160 T2 160/S4 160 S4 250 S3 250 S4 250 S5 320 S5 400 S5 630 S6 630 S6 800 S6 800 S7 1250 E1/E2 1250 S7 1250 S7 1600 S8 3200 E2/E3 1600 E2/E3 2000 E3 3200 E3 3200/E4 4000 E4 4000 E6 5000/6300 Table 2 Table 3 440 V S rg [kVA] MCB 4 6 7 9 11 14 17 19 21 22 28 31 35 38 42 44 48 55 69 80 87 100 111 138 159 173 180 190 208 218 242 277 308 311 346 381 415 436 484 554 692 727 865 1107 1730 2180 2214 2250 2500 2800 3150 3500 S20L/S250 B6 S20L/S250 B8 S20L/S250 B10 S20L/S250 B13 S20L/S250 B16 S20L/S250 B20 S20L/S250 B25 MCCB S rg [kVA] ACB T2 160 I=10 T2 160 I=25 S20L/S250 B32 S20L/S250 B40 S20L/S250 B50 T2 160 I=63 S20L/S250 B63 S280 B80 S280 B100 T2 160 I=100 T2 160 I=160 T2 160 I=160 S4 160 S4 250 S3 250 S4 250 S5 320 S5 400 S5 630 S6 630 S6 800 S6 800 S7 1000 S7 1000 S7 1250 S7 1600 E1/E2 1250 E2/E3 1600 E3 2500 S8 3200 E3 3200 E4 3600 E4 4000 E6 5000/6300 4 6 7 9 11 14 17 19 21 22 28 31 35 38 42 44 48 55 69 80 87 100 111 138 159 173 180 190 208 218 242 277 308 311 346 381 415 436 484 554 692 727 865 1107 1730 2180 2214 2250 2500 2800 3150 3500 500 V MCB MCCB ACB Srg [kVA] 690 V MCB 4 6 7 9 11 14 17 19 21 22 28 31 35 38 42 44 48 55 69 80 87 100 111 138 159 173 180 190 208 218 242 277 308 311 346 381 415 436 T2 160 I=10 T2 160 I=25 T2 160 I=63 T2 160 I=100 T2 160 I=160 S3 250 S4 250 S4 250 S5 320 S5 400 S5 630 S6 630 S6 800 S6 800 S7 1000 Table 4 484 E1/E2 1250 S7 1250 S7 1600 S8 2500 E2/E3 1600 E3 2500 S8 3200 E3 3200 E4 4000 E6 5000/6300 554 692 727 865 1107 1730 2180 2214 2250 2500 2800 3150 3500 MCCB ACB T2 160 I=10 T2 160 I=25 T2 160 I=63 T2 160 I=100 T2 160 I=160 S4 160 S4 160 S4 250 S5 320 S5 400 S5 630 S6 630 S5 630 S6 630 S6 800 S6 800 S7 1000 S7 1600 S8 2500 E1 800 E1/E2 1250 E2/E3 1600 1SDC010017F0001 Srg [kVA] 400 V 1SDC010016F0001 Table 1 E2 2000 E3 2500 E3 2500 S8 3200 E3 3200 Note: It is always advisable to check that the settings of the releases are correct with respect to the effective decrement curve of the current of the generator to be protected.Electrical devices 111 .3.

ensure continuous functioning of motors. 101kA 112 ABB SACE .84 – A.start motors. 10 4 s 10 3 s T2 160 The main types of motor which can be operated and which determine the characteristics of the starter are defined by the following utilization categories: 10 2 s 10 1 s Table 1: Utilization categories and typical applications 1s Current type 100 kVA generator decrement curve AC-2 1SDC010019F0201 10-1s 10-2s 10-1kA ABB SACE .2 A X’’d = 6. value greater than Irg . capable of making. function I: 1. operated otherwise than by hand. . which defines the above as follows: Contactor: a mechanical switching device having only one position of rest. The two devices must be coordinated with equipment capable of providing protection against short-circuit (typically a circuit breaker with magnetic release only). switching off during running(1) Squirrel-cage motors: starting.3 Protection and switching of motors Protection of a generator with Srg = 100 kVA. Time-Current Curves Circuit-breaker: defined by IEC 60947-2 as a mechanical switching device.4 A.3 ms (transient time constant) From table 2.2 Protection and switching of generators 3 Protection of electrical equipment 3 Protection of electrical equipment Example: 3. carrying and breaking currents under normal circuit conditions including operating overload conditions. Thermal release: thermal overload relay or release which operates in the case of overload and also in case of loss of phase. The characteristics of the starter must comply with the international Standard IEC 60947-4-1.guarantee protection of motors against working overloads. carrying for a specified time and breaking currents under specified abnormal circuit conditions. with electronic release PR221-LS.Electrical devices 113 . during such limited time periods the number of such operations should not exceed five per minutes or more than ten in a 10 minutes period.Electrical devices 1kA Utilization categories Alternating Current ac AC-3 AC-4 Typical applications Slip-ring motors: starting. capable of making. with In = 160 A. For correct protection of the generator. switching off Squirrel-cage motors: starting. an ABB SACE T2N160 circuit-breaker is selected. plugging.3. . .disconnect motors from the supply line. inching (1) AC-3 categories may be used for occasionally inching or plugging for limited time periods such as machine set-up.6 % (transient reactance) Xd = 230 % (synchronous reactance) T’’d = 5. in a system with a rated voltage of 440 V The generator parameters are: Ur = 440 V Srg = 100 kVA f = 50 Hz Irg = 131. The starter is typically made up of a switching device (contactor) and an overload protection device (thermal release).5 ms (subtransient time constant) T’d = 39. which is not necessarily part of the starter. carrying and breaking currents under normal circuit conditions and also making.5 % (subtransient reactance) X’d = 17.5 Electromechanical starter The starter is designed to: . the following settings are selected: function L: 0. corresponding to 134.

After the switchover.3.asynchronous three-phase squirrel-cage motors (AC-3): the most widespread type due to the fact that they are of simple construction. contactors KL and KY are closed.3 Protection and switching of motors 3 Protection of electrical equipment 3 Protection of electrical equipment The choice of the starting method and also. if necessary. accompanied by a series of drawbacks. The most common starting methods for asynchronous squirrel-cage motors are detailed below: Direct starting With direct starting. With alternating current. and an increase in the acceleration time. thus achieving the reduction of peak inrush current.high current consumption and associated voltage drop which may cause damages to the other parts of the system connected to the network. With this new configuration. the current and the torque follow the progress of the curves associated with normal service connections (delta). . This method is generally used with small and medium power motors which reach full working speed in a short time. and the current absorbed from the line is reduced by 1/3 compared with that absorbed with delta-connection. proportional to the square of the voltage. Once the set time has elapsed. starting the motor with star-connection gives a voltage reduction of √3. and have quite a high starting torque. The timer starts to measure the start time with the motor connected in star. the line voltage is applied to the motor terminals in a single operation. including. reducing working life. Hence a squirrel-cage motor develops a high starting torque with a relatively reduced acceleration time. delayed by approximately 50 ms. contactors KL and K∆ closed. the first contact of the timer opens the KY contactor and the second contact.slip-ring motors (AC-2): characterized by less demanding starting conditions. however.on starting.violent acceleration which has negative effects on mechanical transmission components (belts. the DOL (Direct On Line) starter. the stator windings are star-connected. is reduced by 3 times. with the closing of line contactor KL. MCCB KL K∆ KY 1SDC010019F0001 TOR MCCB Motor KL Starting sequence 1SDC010018F0001 TOR Motor ABB SACE . . in which: .Electrical devices 114 By pressing the start button. the most commonly used motor types are as follows: .once the normal speed of the motor is nearly reached. Starting methods As can be easily checked. economical and sturdy. the switchover to delta is carried out. the motor becomes delta-connected.3 Protection and switching of motors 3. Other types of starting for squirrel-cage motors are accomplished by reducing the supply voltage of the motor: this leads to a reduction in the starting current and of the motor torque. but require elevated starting currents. even with a supply network of low power. of the type of motor to be used depends on the typical resistant torque of the load and on the shortcircuit power of the motor supplying network.Electrical devices 115 . compared with the torque that the same motor would supply when delta-connected. Star-Delta starter The most common reduced voltage starter is the Star-Delta starter (Y-∆). chains and mechanical joints). These advantages are. ABB SACE . they develop high torque with short acceleration times. The start-up torque. but intended to start with a low initial resistant torque. This method is generally applied to motors with power from 15 to 355 kW. closes the K∆ contactor. for example: . .

contactor K2 is opened. can detect any 3rd harmonic currents. On start-up. MCCB K2 K1 K2 K1 K3 TOR Motor The autotransformer reduces the network voltage by the factor K (K=1.36÷0. which may occur due to saturation of the magnetic pack and by adding to the fundamental current. and according to the type of coordination achieved with the short-circuit protection device (Type 1 and Type 2). With reference to the connection diagram. the torque is reduced by K2 times (0. The reduction of the supply voltage is achieved by using a fixed tap autotransformer or a more expensive multi tap autotransformer. the current is limited to 2.25÷1. the motor is connected to the taps of the autotransformer and the contactors K2 and K1 are closed.Electrical devices 116 1SDC010021F0001 1SDC010020F0001 Inductance TOR Motor In compliance with the above mentioned Standard. excluding the autotransformer so as to supply the full network voltage. Applications can be found with squirrel-cage motors which generally have a power from 50 kW to several hundred kilowatts. Starting with autotransformers Starting with autotransformers is the most functional of the methods used for reduced voltage starting.64). On starting. ABB SACE . contactor K1 is opened and main contactor K3 is closed. The use of reactors notably reduces the power factor.5 times the rated value. and when it has reached approximately 80% of its normal speed. and higher power doublecage motors. but is also the most expensive. in series to the stator. inserted in the delta circuit.3 Protection and switching of motors 3. and as a consequence the start-up torque is reduced by K2 times compared with the value of the full rated voltage. For a reduction K (0. and are then excluded by the opening of contactor K2.6÷0.3. even for motors with power greater than 100 kW. once the normal speed is reached. the motor starts at a reduced voltage. even if limited to the starting phase. The reduction of the supply voltage is achieved by the insertion of inductive reactors or resistors.8) of the motor voltage.8).Electrical devices 117 . Subsequently. the motor is supplied via contactor K2. On starting. ABB SACE . overload the motor without involving the line. while the use of resistors causes the dissipation of a high power (Joule effect). It is possible to achieve exclusions by step of the resistors or reactors with time-delayed commands.3 Protection and switching of motors 3 Protection of electrical equipment 3 Protection of electrical equipment The thermal release TOR. the equipment used for a Star/Delta starter must be able to carry the following currents: Ir 3 KL line contactor and K∆ delta contactor Ir 3 KY star contactor Ir 3 overload protection release Starting with inductive reactors or resistors This type of starting is used for simple or double-cage rotors.5÷3. starters can also be classified according to tripping time (trip classes). Therefore. the reactors are short-circuited by the closing of contactor K1. where Ir is the rated current of the motor.

while the welding of the contactor contacts is allowed. the contactor and/or the thermal release must be replaced. In order to clearly determine a coordination type.5 7. • rated motor current.3 1.5 2. • rated system voltage. and therefore the equipment necessary to achieve it. The trip classes are defined in the following table 2: Table 3: 400 V 35 kA DOL Normal Type 2 (Tmax.8 3. as they can easily be separated (with a screwdriver. • thermomagnetic circuit-breaker .4 TA25DU1.5 6.5 15. • short-circuit current at installation point.contactor .8 4 3. The starter may still not be able to function and must be inspected.5 11 15 18. and class 30 with a heavy duty start-up type.2 22 28.5 36 42 56 68 83 98 135 58 193 232 282 349 430 520 545 610 T2N160 MF1.5 TA25DU11 TA25DU14 TA25DU19 TA42DU25 TA75DU42 TA75DU52 TA75DU52 TA75DU80 TA75DU80 TA110DU110 TA110DU110 TA200DU175 TA200DU200 TA450DU235 TA450DU310 TA450DU310 E500DU500 E500DU500* E800DU800 E800DU800 E800DU800 [A] 1 1.75 1.5 22 30 37 45 55 75 90 110 132 160 200 250 290 315 355 [A] 1.2 3 4 5.5 T2N160 MA 20 T2N160 MA 32 T2N160 MA 52 T2N160 MA 52 T2N160 MA 52 T2N160 MA 80 T2N160 MA 80 T2N160 MA 100 T3N250 MA 160 T3N250 MA 200 T3N250 MA 200 S4N250 PR211-I In250 S5N400 PR211-I In320 S5N400 PR211-I In400 S6N630 PR211-I In630 S6N630 PR211-I In630 S6N800 PR211-I In800 S6N800 PR211-I In800 S6N800 PR211-I In800 I3 [A] 21 21 26 42 52 65 110 145 163 210 288 392 469 547 840 960 1200 1440 1800 2400 3000 3840 4800 6300 7560 8000 9600 9600 Type A9 A9 A9 A9 A16 A26 A26 A30 A30 A30 A30 A50 A50 A50 A63 A75 A95 A110 A145 A185 A210 A260 A300 AF400 AF580 AF580 AF580 AF750 Thermal Overload Relay Current setting Type min max TA25DU1. Coordination type Type 1 It is acceptable that in the case of short-circuit the contactor and the thermal release may be damaged. Isomax – Contactor – Thermal release) Motor Table 2: Trip class Trip Class 10A 10 20 30 Tripping time in seconds (Tp) 2 < Tp ≤ 10 4 < Tp ≤ 10 6 < Tp ≤ 20 9 < Tp ≤ 30 where Tp is the cold trip time of the thermal release at 7.37 0. ABB supplies solutions with: • magnetic circuit-breaker .1 1.Electrical devices 119 .690 V 35 kA . It is normal procedure to associate class 10 with a normal start-up type.Electrical devices 118 ABB SACE .thermal release.2 T2N160 MF 4 T2N160 MF 5 T2N160 MF 8. the thermal release must not be damaged.2 times the set current value (for example: a release in class 10 at 7.7 2.6 T2N160 MF1. for example).6 T2N160 MF 2 T2N160 MF 3.contactor.5 TA25DU8.50 kA) and for the most frequently used starting types.8 TA25DU2.8 1. if necessary. • thermomagnetic circuit-breaker with PR212 MP electronic release – contactor.5 T2N160 MF 11 T2N160 MF 12.5 1. and the breaker release reset.5 5 4.6 8.4 1. but must trip within 10 s).2 times the set current value must not trip within 4 s. the following must be known: • power of the motor in kW and type.6 11.500 V . for asynchronous squirrel-cage motor (AC-3).440 V .5 7.3 Protection and switching of motors * Connection kit not available MA: magnetic only adjustable release MF: fixed magnetic only release The requested devices shall be coordinated with each other in accordance with the prescriptions of the Standard. such as direct starting and Star/Delta starting. • starting type: DOL or Y/∆ .4 2. without any significant deformation.5 5 6. Type 2 In the case of short-circuit.5 11 10 14 13 19 18 25 29 42 36 52 36 52 60 80 60 80 80 110 80 110 130 175 150 200 165 235 220 310 220 310 150 500 150 500 250 800 250 800 250 800 1SDC010020F0201 3. Contactor MCCB Pe Ir Type [kW] 0.3 Protection and switching of motors 3 Protection of electrical equipment 3 Protection of electrical equipment Trip classes The following is an example of the type of tables available: The trip classes differentiate between the thermal releases according to their trip curve. For the most common voltages and short-circuit values (400 V .normal or heavy duty – Type 1 or Type 2.5 6 8.1 1. ABB SACE .4 TA25DU4 TA25DU5 TA25DU6.9 2.55 0.3.

5 11 15 18.5 36 42 56 68 83 98 135 158 193 232 282 349 430 520 545 610 T2S160 MF 1. 1SDC010021F0201 MOTOR Pe Ir Type I3 Type [kW] 0.4 TA25DU1.500 MA : magnetic only adjustable release * : Using mounting kits.8 TA25DU2.8 1.5 11 10 14 13 19 18 25 29 42 36 52 36 52 60 80 60 80 80 110 80 110 130 175 150 200 165 235 220 310 220 310 150 500 150 500 250 800 250 800 250 800 1SDC010022F0201 3.500 355 610 S6N800 PR211-I In800 8000 AF400 AF400 A260 E500DU500 150 .5 15.5 36 T2N160 MA52 469 A50 A50 A26 TA75DU25 18-25 22 42 T2N160 MA52 547 A50 A50 A26 TA75DU32 22-32 30 56 T2N160 MA80 720 A63 A63 A30 TA75DU42 29-42 Type Motor Contactor MCCB STAR * Type [A] 37 68 T2N160 MA80 840 A75 A75 A30 TA75DU52 36-52 45 83 T2N160 MA100 1050 A75 A75 A30 TA75DU63 45 .5 2.5 7.110 110 193 T3N250 MA200 2400 A145 A145 A95 TA200DU135 100 .3 Protection and switching of motors 3 Protection of electrical equipment 3 Protection of electrical equipment Table 4: 400 V 35 kA Y/∆ Normal Type 2 (Tmax.5 5 4.Electrical devices 121 .500 315 545 S6N630 PR211-I In630 7560 AF400 AF400 A260 E500DU500 150 . use Star-contactor size same as Delta-contactor size.5 T2S160 MA 20 T2S160 MA 32 T2S160 MA 52 T2S160 MA 52 T2S160 MA 52 T2S160 MA 80 T2S160 MA 80 T2S160 MA 100 T3S250 MA 160 T3S250 MA 200 T3S250 MA 200 S4H250 PR211-I In250 S5H400 PR211-I In320 S5H400 PR211-I In400 S6S630 PR211-I In630 S6S630 PR211-I In630 S6S800 PR211-I In800 S6S800 PR211-I In800 S6S800 PR211-I In800 [A] 21 21 26 42 52 65 110 145 163 210 288 392 469 547 840 960 1200 1440 1800 2400 3000 3840 4800 6300 7560 8000 9600 9600 A9 A9 A9 A9 A16 A26 A26 A30 A30 A30 A30 A50 A50 A50 A63 A75 A95 A110 A145 A185 A210 A260 A300 AF400 AF580 AF580 AF580 AF750 Thermal Overload Relay Current setting Type min max TA25DU1.5 T2S160 MF 11 T2S160 MF 12.4 TA25DU4 TA25DU5 TA25DU6.135 132 232 S4N250 PR211-I In250 3000 A145 A145 A110 TA200DU175 130 .Electrical devices 120 ABB SACE .6 T2S160 MF 2 T2S160 MF 3.55 0.37 0.5 7.1 1.5 TA25DU11 TA25DU14 TA25DU19 TA42DU25 TA75DU42 TA75DU52 TA75DU52 TA75DU80 TA75DU80 TA110DU110 TA110DU110 TA200DU175 TA200DU200 TA450DU235 TA450DU310 TA450DU310 E500DU500 E500DU500* E800DU800 E800DU800 E800DU800 [A] 1 1.1 1.3.5 1.63 55 98 T2N160 MA100 1200 A75 A75 A40 TA75DU63 45 .5 22 30 37 45 55 75 90 110 132 160 200 250 290 315 355 [A] 1.9 2.2 3 4 5.5 6 8.7 2.2 22 28.175 160 282 S5N400 PR211-I In400 4000 A210 A210 A145 TA200DU175 130 .5 TA25DU8.500 290 520 S6N630 PR211-I In630 7560 AF400 AF400 A260 E500DU500 150 .75 1.4 1.5 6.6 8.6 11.5 5 6.3 1.8 4 3.63 75 135 T3N250 MA160 1700 A95 A95 A75 TA110DU90 66 .90 90 158 T3N250 MA200 2000 A110 A110 A95 TA110DU110 80 .235 250 430 S6N630 PR211-I In630 6300 AF400 AF400 A210 E500DU500 150 . Isomax – Contactor – Thermal release) Table 5: 400 V 50 kA DOL Normal Type 2 (Tmax.3 Protection and switching of motors * Connection kit not available MA: magnetic only adjustable release MF: fixed magnetic only release ABB SACE .175 200 349 S5N400 PR211-I In400 4800 A210 A210 A185 TA450DU235 165 .8 3. Isomax – Contactor – Thermal release) Pe [kW] MCCB Ir [A] Contactor I3 LINE DELTA Thermal Overload Relay [A] Type Type Type 18.4 2.6 T2S160 MF 1.2 T2S160 MF 4 T2S160 MF 5 T2S160 MF 8.

500 290 520 S6S630 PR211-I In630 7560 AF400 AF400 A260 E500DU500 150 .5 TA25DU11 TA25DU14 TA25DU19 TA42DU25 TA75DU32 TA75DU42 TA75DU52 TA75DU63 TA75DU80 TA110DU90 TA110DU110 TA200DU135 TA200DU175 TA450DU235 TA450DU235 TA450DU310 E500DU500 E500DU500** E500DU500** E800DU800 E800DU800 min max [A] 1 1.8 4 3.5 T2H160 MF 8.Electrical devices 123 .5 11 15 18.3 1.2 3 4.4 2.110 110 193 T3S250 MA200 2400 A145 A145 A95 TA200DU135 100 .5 36 T2S160 MA52 469 A50 A50 A26 TA75DU25 18-25 22 42 T2S160 MA52 547 A50 A50 A26 TA75DU32 22-32 30 56 T2S160 MA80 720 A63 A63 A30 TA75DU42 29-42 37 68 T2S160 MA80 840 A75 A75 A30 TA75DU52 36-52 45 83 T2S160 MA100 1050 A75 A75 A30 TA75DU63 45 .5 T2H160 MF 3.Electrical devices 122 ABB SACE .4 5. use Star-contactor size same as Delta-contactor size.8 1.5 2.90 90 158 T3S250 MA200 2000 A110 A110 A95 TA110DU110 80 .4 1.2 3 4 5.6 T2H160 MF 2 T2H160 MF 2.37 0.135 132 232 S4H250 PR211-I In250 3000 A145 A145 A110 TA200DU175 130 .5 11 10 14 13 19 18 25 22 32 29 42 36 52 45 63 60 80 65 90 80 110 100 135 130 175 165 235 165 235 220 310 150 500 150 500 150 500 250 800 250 800 1SDC010024F0201 Pe [kW] MCCB 1SDC010023F0201 MOTOR * Magnetic only adjustable release ** Connection kit not available MA: magnetic only adjustable release MF: fixed magnetic only release ABB SACE . Isomax – Contactor – Thermal release) Table 7: 440 V 50 kA DOL Normal Type 2 (Tmax.5 13.63 75 135 T3S250 MA160 1700 A95 A95 A75 TA110DU90 66 .1 1. Isomax – Contactor – Thermal release) Ir [A] Type Contactor Motor Thermal Overload Relay I3 LINE DELTA STAR * [A] Type Type Type Type MCCB Contactor Thermal Overload Relay Current setting [A] 18.2 T2H160 MF 5 T2H160 MF 6.7 2.7 7.63 55 98 T2S160 MA100 1200 A75 A75 A40 TA75DU63 45 .500 MA : magnetic only adjustable release * : Using mounting kits.2 3.75 1.5 19 26 32 38 52 63 75 90 120 147 177 212 260 320 410 448 500 549 Type I3 Type T2H160 MF 1 T2H160 MF 1.3 Protection and switching of motors 3 Protection of electrical equipment 3 Protection of electrical equipment Table 6: 400 V 50 kA Y/∆ Normal Type 2 (Tmax.4 TA25DU3.5 7.8 10.235 250 430 S6S630 PR211-I In630 6300 AF400 AF400 A210 E500DU500 150 .500 355 610 S6S800 PR211-I In800 8000 AF400 AF400 A260 E500DU500 150 .1 TA25DU4 TA25DU5 TA25DU6. Pe Ir [kW] 0.4 TA25DU1.3 Protection and switching of motors 3.3.5 T2H160 MF 11 T2H160 MA 20 T2H160 MA 32 T2H160 MA 32 T2H160 MA 52 T2H160 MA 52 T2H160 MA 80 T2H160 MA 80 T2H160 MA 100 S3H160 In125 * S3H250 In200 * S3H250 In200 * S4H250 PR211-I In250 S5H400 PR211-I In320 S5H400 PR211-I In400 S5H400 PR211-I In400 S6H630 PR211-I In630 S6H630 PR211-I In630 S6H800 PR211-I In800 S6H800 PR211-I In800 [A] 13 21 26 33 42 65 84 110 145 180 240 336 469 547 720 840 1050 1400 1920 2300 3000 3200 4000 4800 6300 7560 8000 9600 A9 A9 A9 A9 A16 A26 A26 A30 A30 A30 A30 A50 A50 A50 A63 A75 A95 A110 A145 A185 A210 A260 A300 AF 400 AF 580 AF 580 AF 580 AF 580 Type TA25DU1.4 1.175 160 282 S5H400 PR211-I In400 4000 A210 A210 A145 TA200DU175 130 .175 200 349 S5H400 PR211-I In400 4800 A210 A210 A185 TA450DU235 165 .7 2.8 TA25DU2.1 2.55 0.5 6.5 7.5 5 4.500 315 545 S6S630 PR211-I In630 7560 AF400 AF400 A260 E500DU500 150 .5 22 30 37 45 55 75 90 110 132 160 200 250 290 315 355 [A] 1 1.

500 290 448 S6H630 PR211-I In630 6300 AF400 AF400 A260 E500DU500 150 .1 2.2 T2L160 MF 4 T2L160 MF 6. Pe Ir I3 [kW] 0.5 7.5 7.500 MA : magnetic only adjustable release * : Magnetic only adjustable release ** : Using mounting kits.5 2.500 315 500 S6H630 PR211-I In630 6300 AF400 AF400 A260 E500DU500 150 .5 TA25DU11 TA25DU14 TA25DU19 TA75DU25 TA75DU32 TA75DU42 TA75DU52 TA75DU63 TA80DU80 TA110DU90 TA200DU135 TA200DU150 TA200DU175 TA 450DU235 TA 450DU310 TA 450DU310 E 500DU500 E 500DU500** E 500DU500** E 500DU500** [A] 0.8 4 3.1 12.135 160 260 S5H400 PR211-I In400 4000 A210 A210 A145 TA200DU175 130 .1 TA25DU4 TA25DU5 TA25DU6.6 1 1 1.2 3.6 T2L160 MF 1.5 T2L160 MA 20 T2L160 MA 32 T2L160 MA 52 T2L160 MA 52 T2L160 MA 52 T2L160 MA 80 T2L160 MA 80 T2L160 MA 100 S3L250 In200 * S3L250 In200 * S3L250 In200 * S4L250 PR211-I In250 S5L400 PR211-I In320 S5L400 PR211-I In400 S6L630 PR211-I In630 S6L630 PR211-I In630 S6L630 PR211-I In630 S6L630 PR211-I In630 Thermal Overload Relay Type Current setting min max A9 A9 A9 A9 A16 A26 A26 A30 A30 A30 A30 A50 A50 A50 A63 A75 A95 A110 A145 A145 A185 A210 A260 A300 AF 400 AF 580 AF 580 AF 580 TA25DU1.3 1.4 TA25DU1.500 355 549 S6H630 PR211-I In630 7560 AF400 AF400 A260 E500DU500 150 .2 17.5 6.5 2. use Star-contactor size same as Delta-contactor size.1 1.2 2.110 110 177 S4H250 PR211-I In250 2500 A145 A145 A95 TA200DU110 80 .5 11 10 14 13 19 18 25 22 32 29 42 36 52 45 63 60 80 65 90 100 135 110 150 130 175 165 235 220 310 220 310 150 500 150 500 150 500 150 500 1SDC010026F0201 Pe [kW] MCCB 1SDC010025F0201 MOTOR * Magnetic only adjustable release ** Connection kit not available MA: magnetic only adjustable release MF: fixed magnetic only release ABB SACE .37 0.Electrical devices 125 .75 1.5 T2L160 MF 3.80 90 147 S3H250 In200 * 1850 A145 A145 A75 TA200DU110 80 . Isomax – Contactor – Thermal release) Table 9: 500 V 50 kA DOL Normale Type 2 (Tmax.8 2.5 22 30 37 45 55 75 90 110 132 160 200 250 290 315 355 [A] 0.2 6.3.235 250 410 S6H630 PR211-I In630 6300 AF400 AF400 A210 E500DU500 150 .2 1.8 4 5.2 3 4 5.55 0.0 TA25DU1.9 9.175 200 320 S5H400 PR211-I In400 4800 A210 A210 A185 TA450DU235 165 .5 6 8.5 32 T2H160 MA52 392 A 50 A 50 A 16 TA75DU25 18-25 22 38 T2H160 MA52 469 A 50 A 50 A 26 TA75DU25 18-25 Type MCCB Motor Thermal Overload Relay STAR ** [A] 30 52 T2H160 MA80 720 A 63 A 63 A 26 TA75DU42 29-42 37 63 T2H160 MA80 840 A 75 A 75 A 30 TA75DU42 29-42 45 75 T2H160 MA80 960 A 75 A 75 A30 TA75DU52 36-52 55 90 T2H160 MA100 1150 A 75 A 75 A40 TA75DU63 45 .5 TA25DU8.88 1.3 Protection and switching of motors 3.5 T2L160 MF 8.Electrical devices 124 ABB SACE .3 Protection and switching of motors 3 Protection of electrical equipment 3 Protection of electrical equipment Table 8: 440 V 50 kA Y/∆ Normal Type 2 (Tmax.110 132 212 S4H250 PR211-I In250 3000 A145 A145 A110 TA200DU135 100 .8 TA25DU3.5 T2L160 MF 11 T2L160 MF 12.63 75 120 S3H250 In200 * 1600 A145 A145 A75 TA80DU80 60 .5 23 29 34 45 56 67 82 110 132 158 192 230 279 335 394 440 483 [A] 13 21 21 33 42 52 84 110 145 163 240 336 392 469 624 840 960 1200 1700 2050 2400 3000 3840 4800 5040 6300 7560 7560 T2L160 MF 1 T2L160 MF 1.4 1.5 11 15 18.5 5 4.6 T2L160 MF 2. Isomax – Contactor – Thermal release) Ir [A] Contactor I3 LINE DELTA Contactor Type Type [A] Type Type Type Type 18.

320 2240 A210 132 232 S5H400 PR212-MP In320 128 .3.235 290 394 S6L630 PR211-I In630 5040 AF400 AF400 A210 E500DU500 150 .52 75 110 S3L160 In125 * 1400 A145 A145 A50 TA80DU80 60 .100 600 A145 45 T2L160 MA52 547 A 63 A 63 A 26 TA75DU32 22-32 37 56 T2L160 MA80 720 A 75 A 75 A 30 TA75DU42 29-42 37 68 S4H160 PR212-MP In100 40 .630 3780 AF400 250 430 S6H800 PR212-MP In630 256 .200 1800 A185 110 193 S5H400 PR212-MP In320 128 .160 1440 A145 90 158 S4H250 PR212-MP In200 80 .Electrical devices 126 ABB SACE .320 2880 AF400** 200 349 S6H800 PR212-MP In630 256 .Contactor) MOTOR Pe [kW] Ir [A] 22 34 MCCB Type T2L160 MA52 Contactor MCCB Thermal Overload Relay I3 LINE DELTA STAR ** [A] Type Type Type Type 430 A 50 A 50 A 16 TA75DU25 [A] 18-25 Contactor Type l1 range Current setting PR212 MP release I3* Type Pe [kW] Ir [A] [A] [A] 56 S4H160 PR212-MP In100 40 . ** : A300 in case of Normal Start.Electrical devices 127 .80 90 132 S3L250 In200 * 1700 A145 A145 A75 TA110DU90 65 .150 200 279 S5L400 PR211-I In400 4000 A210 A210 A145 TA200DU175 130 .90 110 158 S3L250 In200 * 2000 A145 A145 A95 TA200DU110 80 .160 1120 A145 75 135 S4H160 PR212-MP In160 64 . the PR212MP release recognizes when the motor is starting-up.3 Protection and switching of motors 3 Protection of electrical equipment 3 Protection of electrical equipment Table 10: 500 V 50 kA Y/∆ Normal Type 2 (Tmax.52 55 82 T2L160 MA100 1050 A 75 A 75 A30 TA75DU52 36 .500 1SDC010027F0201 30 30 1SDC010028F0201 MOTOR * In order to avoid tripping during motor start-up.3 Protection and switching of motors 3.135 160 230 S4L250 PR211-I In250 3000 A145 A145 A110 TA200DU150 110 .500 315 440 S6L630 PR211-I In630 6300 AF400 AF400 A210 E500DU500 150 . ABB SACE .110 132 192 S3L250 In200 * 2500 A145 A145 A95 TA200DU135 100 . MA: magnetic only adjustable release *: Magnetic only adjustable release **: Using mounting kits.630 5670 AF580 355 610 S6H800 PR212-MP In630 256 .175 250 335 S5L400 PR211-I In400 4800 A210 A210 A185 TA450DU235 165 .630 5670 AF580 45 67 T2L160 MA80 840 A 75 A 75 A30 TA75DU52 36 .630 5670 AF580 315 545 S6H800 PR212-MP In630 256 .630 5040 AF460 290 520 S6H800 PR212-MP In630 256 .320 2560 A260 160 282 S5H400 PR212-MP In320 128 .100 900 A145 55 98 S4H160 PR212-MP In160 64 .500 355 483 S6L630 PR211-I In630 6300 AF400 AF400 A260 E500DU500 150 . Isomax – Contactor – Thermal release) Table 11: 400 V 50 kA DOL Normal-Heavy Duty Type 2 (PR212MP . use Star-contactor size same as Delta-contactor size.100 700 A145 45 83 S4H160 PR212-MP In100 40 .

Electrical devices Ir [A] 1SDC010030F0201 MOTOR * In order to avoid tripping during motor start-up.630 4410 AF460 355 451 S6L800 PR212-MP In630 256 .Electrical devices 129 .630 5670 AF400 AF400 AF400 290 395 S6L800 PR212-MP In630 256 .320 2880 A210 A210 A145 110 158 S4L250 PR212-MP In200 80 .100 900 A145 A145 A50 30 45 S4L160 PR212-MP In100 40 .160 1440 A145 A145 A75 45 67 S4L160 PR212-MP In100 40 .320 2560 A260 290 520 S6H800 PR212-MP In630 256 .630 5670 AF400 AF400 A260 250 335 S6L800 PR212-MP In630 256 .160 1280 A145 132 232 S5H400 PR212-MP In320 128 . must be set with class 30 starting class.100 600 A145 55 98 S4H160 PR212-MP In160 64 .630 5040 AF580 1SDC010029F0201 Pe [kW] * In order to avoid tripping during motor start-up.3 Protection and switching of motors 3 Protection of electrical equipment 3 Protection of electrical equipment Table 12: 400 V 50 kA Y/∆ Normal-Heavy Duty Type 2 (PR212MP .630 3780 AF400 AF400 A185 132 192 S5L400 PR212-MP In320 128 . 128 ABB SACE .630 5040 AF400 AF400 A260 160 230 S5L400 PR212-MP In320 128 . ** : A300 in case of Normal Start. the PR212MP release recognizes when the motor is starting-up. ** The protection against overload (L function) of the MP release.320 2560 A210 A210 A145 90 132 S4L160 PR212-MP In160 64 .630 3780 AF400 355 610 S6H800 PR212-MP In630 256 .3. ABB SACE .320 2240 A210 250 430 S6H800 PR212-MP In630 256 .630 5670 AF400 AF400 A260 200 279 S5L400 PR212-MP In320 128 .Contactor) Table 13: 500 V 50 kA DOL Normal-Heavy Duty Type 2 (PR212MP .100 800 A145 110 193 S5H400 PR212-MP In320 128 .200 1800 A185 200 349 S6H800 PR212-MP In630 256 .320 2880 AF400** 315 545 S6H800 PR212-MP In630 256 .Contactor) Contactor MCCB Type MOTOR MCCB Delta Star l1 range Current setting Line PR212 MP contactor contactor contactor release I3* Type Type Type Contactor Type l1 range Current setting PR212MP release I3* Type Pe [kW] Ir [A] [A] [A] [A] [A] 45 83 S4H160 PR212-MP In100 40 .160 1440 A145 160 282 S5H400 PR212-MP In320 128 .100 700 A145 90 158 S4H250 PR212-MP In200 80 . the PR212MP release recognizes when the motor is starting-up.320 2240 A210 A210 A95 75 110 S4L160 PR212-MP In160 64 .200 1800 A145 A145 A95 55 82 S4L160 PR212-MP In100 40 .630 4410 AF460 315 415 S6L800 PR212-MP In630 256 .100 600 A145 75 135 S4H160 PR212-MP In160 64 .160 1120 A145 A145 A50 37 56 S4L160 PR212-MP In100 40 .3 Protection and switching of motors 3.

The diagram below shows the inrush current curve for a 20/0. Example: • Ir (rated current): 349 A. depends on the size of the transformer.320 2880 A210 A210 A145 250 335 S6L800 PR212-MP In630 256 . This transformer has an inrush current during the very first moments equal to 7 times the rated current. termed “inrush”.160 1440 A145 A145 A75 110 158 S4L250 PR212-MP In200 80 . The choice of the protection devices must take into account transient insertion phenomena.160 1280 A145 A145 A50 90 132 S4L160 PR212-MP In160 64 .320 2240 A210 A210 A95 160 230 S5L400 PR212-MP In320 128 . • delta contactor: A210. this transient phenomenon stops after a few tenths of a second.100 900 A145 A145 A50 75 110 S4L160 PR212-MP In160 64 .100 700 A145 A145 A50 55 82 S4L160 PR212-MP In100 40 .4 Protection and switching of transformers * In order to avoid tripping during motor start-up.320 2560 A210 A210 A145 200 279 S5L400 PR212-MP In320 128 .Contactor) MCCB Type General aspects Contactor Star Delta l1 range Current setting Line PR212MP contactor contactor contactor Type Type Type release I3* Pe [kW] Ir [A] [A] [A] 45 67 S4L160 PR212-MP In100 40 . • magnetic trip threshold: I3 = 4800 A (12xIn).630 4410 AF400 AF400 A260 355 483 S6L800 PR212-MP In630 256 . must be set with class 30 starting class. In particular. for both medium and low voltage supplies. ** The protection against overload (L function) of the MP release. • short-circuit protection device: circuit breaker S5H400 PR211-I In400.4 kV of 400 kVA transformer. 1s 10-1s 10-2s 3 ABB SACE .Electrical devices 10kA 131 .630 3780 AF400 AF400 A185 290 394 S6L800 PR212-MP In630 256 . • thermal release TA450DU235. • line contactor: A210. of a three phase asynchronous squirrel-cage motor with the following data: rated voltage Ur = 400 V short-circuit current Ik = 50 kA rated motor power Pr = 200 kW from Table 6.630 4410 AF400 AF400 A210 315 440 S6L800 PR212-MP In630 256 . the PR212MP release recognizes when the motor is starting-up.Electrical devices 1SDC010022F0001 For a Y/∆ Normal starting Type 2.3 Protection and switching of motors 3 Protection of electrical equipment 3 Protection of electrical equipment Table 14: 500 V 50 kA Y/∆ Normal-Heavy Duty Type 2 (PR212MP . for smaller sizes there are higher values of inrush current during the very first moments. • star contactor: A185. The curve which represents these transient phenomena in the time-current diagram. during which the current may reach values higher than the rated full load current.200 1800 A145 A145 A95 132 192 S5L400 PR212-MP In320 128 . the following information can be found: 1kA 130 ABB SACE .630 5040 AF400 AF400 A260 Transformers are used to achieve a change in the supply voltage. setting range 165-235 A (to be set at I r = 202 A ). 1SDC010031F0201 MOTOR 3.3. on the relevant row.

4 Protection and switching of transformers 3. formula (1) becomes: Ur = 3 ⋅ ( Zt ) Ur 100 Sr = [A] (3)  uk % U r2  3 ⋅ uk %⋅Ur   3⋅ ⋅   100 Sr  1SDC010024F0001 10-1s Ik = 10-2s The diagram below shows the inrush current curve for a 20/0. 10kA 132 ABB SACE . from the rated power of the transformer (Sr [VA]) and the percentage short-circuit voltage (uk%) is equal to: Zt = uk % U r2 ⋅ [Ω] 100 Sr 10 3 s S4N250 PR211 In=250 A 10 2 s 10 1 s (2) 250 kVA Trafo 1s Considering the upstream short-circuit power of the network to be infinite (ZNet=0). • Zt is the short-circuit impedance of the transformer. this point is defined on the time-current diagram by the value of short-circuit current which can pass through the transformer and by a time equal to 2 s. • Ur20 is the rated LV no-load voltage of the transformer [V]. Ur [A] 3 ⋅ ( ZNet + Zt ) Ik = 10 4 s (1) where: • Ur is the rated voltage of the transformer [V].Electrical devices MV/LV unit with single transformer The rated current at the LV side of the transformer (Ir) is determined by the following formula: 1000⋅ Sr Ir = [A] (4) 3 ⋅ U r 20 where: • Sr is the rated power of the transformer [kVA].4 Protection and switching of transformers 3 Protection of electrical equipment 3 Protection of electrical equipment The transformer protection devices must also guarantee that the transformer cannot operate above the point of maximum thermal overload under shortcircuit conditions. • ZNet is the short-circuit impedance of the network [Ω]. 1s 1SDC010023F0001 10-1s 10-2s 1kA ABB SACE .3. The short-circuit current (Ik) flowing for a fault with low impedance at the LV terminals of the transformer is calculated by using the following formula: In summary: for the correct protection of the transformer and to avoid unwanted trips. 10-1 kA 1kA 10kA Criteria for the selection of protection devices For the protection at the LV side of MV/LV transformers. as stated by Standard IEC 60076-5. 250 kVA transformer with uk% = 4 %. the selection of a circuit breaker shall take into account: • the rated current at LV side of the protected transformer (this value is the reference value for the rated current of the circuit breaker and the setting of the protections). the trip curve of the protection device must be above the inrush current curve and below the overload point. The diagram below shows a possible position of the time-current curve of an upstream protection device of a 690/400 V.4 kV of 400 kVA transformer (uk% = 4 %) and the thermal overload point.Electrical devices 133 . • the maximum short-circuit current at the point of installation (this value determines the minimum breaking capacity (Icu/Ics) of the protection device).

according to the hypothesis that the upstream network short-circuit power is infinite and the loads are passive. at the LV terminals of the transformer. a circuit-breaker with a breaking capacity higher than twice the short-circuit current of one of the transformers must be chosen (assuming that all the transformers are equal and the loads are passive). the short-circuit current that flows through the circuit-breaker is equal to the contribution of a single transformer. it is possible to obtain a more precise value for Ik by using formula (1). ABB SACE . Ik1 MV/LV substation with more than one transformer in parallel For the calculation of the rated current of the transformer. 134 Ik3 A Ik2 + Ik3 The breaking capacity of each protection circuit-breaker on the LV side shall be higher than the short-circuit current equivalent to the short-circuit current of each equal transformer multiplied by the number of them minus one.Electrical devices 135 1SDC010025F0001 If the short-circuit power of the upstream network is not infinite and cable or busbar connections are present.4 Protection and switching of transformers 3 Protection of electrical equipment 3 Protection of electrical equipment The full voltage three-phase short-circuit current (Ik). in the case of a fault downstream of a transformer circuit-breaker (circuit-breaker A). Icu (Ics) ≥ Ik.4 Protection and switching of transformers 3. the short-circuit current that flows is equal to the contribution of the other two transformers in parallel.Electrical devices Ik2 B Ik = Ik1 + Ik2 + Ik3 ABB SACE . can be expressed as (assuming that the short-circuit power of the network is infinite): For a correct dimensioning. As can be seen from the diagram below. The protection circuit-breaker must have: In ≥ Ir. (5) where: uk% is the short-circuit voltage of the transformer. Ik = 100⋅ I r [A] uk % The circuit-breakers positioned on the outgoing feeders (circuit-breakers B) shall have a breaking capacity higher than the sum of the short-circuit currents of the three transformers. . where ZNet is the sum of the impedance of the network and of the impedance of the connection.3. In the case of a fault upstream of the same circuit-breaker. the above applies (formula 4). in %.

9 In=1600 1 In=1600 1 In=1600 1 In=2500 0.9 30.Electrical devices Trafo Feeder Ik [kA] 3.7 58.0 19.7 171.7 75.4 19.9 12.9 7.4 Protection and switching of transformers 3 Protection of electrical equipment 3 Protection of electrical equipment Selection of the circuit-breaker The following tables show some possible choices of ABB SACE circuit-breakers.0 9.9 In=400 0.1 ABB SACE Circuit Breaker T1B160 T1B160 S5N400 S5N400 S5N400 S5N400 S5N630 S5N630 S6N630 S6N630 S6N630 S6N630 S6N800 S6N800 S7S1250/E1B1250 S7S1250/E1B1250 S7S1600/E2B1600 S7S1600/E2B1600 S7S1600/E2B1600 S7S1600/E2B1600 S7S1600/E3S1600 E3N2500 E3N2500 E3H2500 E3N3200 E3N3200 E3H3200 E3N3200 E3N3200 S8V3200/E6V3200 Release Busbar Ik size setting R160 1 R160 1 In=320 0.3 6.8 48.9 74.2 48.3 38.6 15.5 60.8 In=3200 0.3 77.6 38.9 In=630 0.4 38.8 In=3200 1 In=3200 1 In=3200 1 [kA] 3.9 In=1250 0.8 10.7 37.3 139.7 38.9 In=1600 0.8 7.5 7.9 30.8 15.7 117.4 39.8 24.9 95.7 24.7 In=630 0.2 7.9 In=1600 0.9 In=630 1 In=630 1 In=800 1 In=800 1 In=1250 0.6 30.5 24.Electrical devices S7S1250 S7S1250/E1N1250 S7S1600/E2N1600 S7S1250/E2N1250 S7S1250/E1N1250 S7S1250/E2L1250 S7L1250/E2L1250 S7S1250/E1B1250 S7S1250/E2L1250 S7L1250/E2L1250 S7S1250/E1N1250 S7H1250/E2L1250 S7L1250 S7S1250/E2N1250 S7L1250/E2L1250 S7L1250 S7S1600/E2N1600 E2N2000 S7S1600/E2L1600 S7L1600/E2L1600 S7S1600/E2B1600 S7S1600/E2L1600 S7L1600/E2L1600 S7S1600/E2N1600 S7H1600/E2L1600 S7L1600 S7S1600/E2N1600 S7L1600/E2L1600 S7L1600 E3H2000 E3H2500 E3L2000 E3L2500 E6V3200 E3H2000 E3L2000 E2N2000 E3H2000 E6V3200 E2N2000 E3L2000 E3H2500 E3H3200 E3L2500 E6V3200 E6V4000 E3H2500 E3H3200 E4H4000 E6V3200 E6V3200 E6V4000 E3N2500 E3L2500 E6V3200 E6V4000 137 1SDC010035F0201 Transformer .4 15.9 6.0 113.5 30.9 In=2500 0.6 39.9 3.8 15.0 60.9 19.8 In=3200 0.7 93.9 6.4 Protection and switching of transformers 3.9 In=630 0.9 60.9 In=320 0.3.9 In=2500 0.7 In=630 0. according to the characteristics of the transformer to be protected.9 12.9 47.9 111.9 In=400 0.6 19.5 48.5 12.8 114.3 12.5 75.4 24.2 Feeder Circuit Breaker type and rated current 32 A 63 A 125 A 160 A S250/S260 T1B160 S250/S260 T1B160 S250/S260 T1B160 S250/S260 T1B160 S250/S260 T1B160 T1B160 S250/S260 T1B160 S250/S260 T1B160 S250/S260 T1B160 T1B160 S250/S260 T1B160 T1C160 T1B160 T1C160 T1B160 T1N160 T1C160 T2N160 T1C160 T2S160 T2L160 T1C160 T2S160 T2L160 T1N160 T2H160 S4L160 T2N160 T2L160 S4L160 136 A 250 A 400 A 630 A 800 A 1250 A 1600 A 2000 A 2500 A 3200 A 4000 A T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3S250 T3N250 T3S250 S3L250 T3N250 T3S250 S3L250 T3N250 S3H250 S4L250 T3S250 S3L250 S4L250 S5N400 S5N400 S5N400 S5N630 S5N400 S5N400 S5N630 S5N400 S5N400 S5N/S6N630 S5N400 S5N/S6N630 S5N400 S5N/S6N630 S5N400 S5N/S6N630 S5N400 S5N/S6N630 S5N400 S5N/S6N630 S5N400 S5N/S6N630 S5N400 S5N/S6N630 S5H400 S5H/S6S630 S5L400 S5L/S6L630 S5N400 S5N/S6N630 S5H400 S5H/S6S630 S5L400 S5L/S6L630 S5N400 S5N/S6N630 S5H400 S5H/S6H630 S5L400 S5L/S6L630 S5N400 S5N/S6N630 S5L400 S5L/S6L630 S5L400 S5L/S6L630 S6N800 S6N800 S6N800 S6N800 S6N800 S6N800 S6N800 S6S800 S6L800 S6N800 S6S800 S6L800 S6N800 S6H800 S6L800 S6N800 S6L800 S6L800 ABB SACE . Table 1: Protection and switching of 230 V transformers uk Trafo I r Busbar Ib [kVA] 1 x 63 2 x 63 1 x 100 2 x 100 1 x 125 2 x 125 1 x 160 2 x 160 1 x 200 2 x 200 1 x 250 2 x 250 1 x 315 2 x 315 1 x 400 2 x 400 1 x 500 2 x 500 1 x 630 2 x 630 3 x 630 1 x 800 2 x 800 3 x 800 1 x 1000 2 x 1000 3 x 1000 1 x 1250 2 x 1250 3 x 1250 % [A] 158 158 251 251 314 314 402 402 502 502 628 628 791 791 1004 1004 1255 1255 1581 1581 1581 2008 2008 2008 2510 2510 2510 3138 3138 3138 [A] 158 316 251 502 314 628 402 803 502 1004 628 1255 791 1581 1004 2008 1255 2510 1581 3163 4744 2008 4016 6025 2510 5020 7531 3138 6276 9413 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 Circuit Breaker "B" Feeder Circuit Breaker Circuit Breaker "A" LV side Sr ABB SACE .6 10.9 In=3200 0.

92 0.95 0.2 2.95 0.95/0.8 0.2 3.4 7.1 54.5 34.1 8.95 0.2 28 17.4 Protection and switching of transformers 3 Protection of electrical equipment 3 Protection of electrical equipment Table 2: Protection and switching of 400 V transformers Circuit-Breaker "A" LV side uk Trafo I r Busbar Ib [kVA] 1 x 63 2 x 63 1 x 100 2 x 100 1 x 125 2 x 125 1 x 160 2 x 160 1 x 200 2 x 200 1 x 250 2 x 250 1 x 315 2 x 315 1 x 400 2 x 400 1 x 500 2 x 500 1 x 630 2 x 630 3 x 630 1 x 800 2 x 800 3 x 800 1 x 1000 2 x 1000 3 x 1000 1 x 1250 2 x 1250 3 x 1250 1 x 1600 2 x 1600 3 x 1600 1 x 2000 2 x 2000 3 x 2000 1 x 2500 1 x 3125 % [A] 91 91 144 144 180 180 231 231 289 289 361 361 455 455 577 577 722 722 909 909 909 1155 1155 1155 1443 1443 1443 1804 1804 1804 2309 2309 2309 2887 2887 2887 3608 4510 [A] 91 182 144 288 180 360 231 462 289 578 361 722 455 910 577 1154 722 1444 909 1818 2727 1155 2310 3465 1443 2886 4329 1804 3608 5412 2309 4618 6927 2887 5774 8661 3608 4510 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 6.95 0.95 1 1 Feeder Circuit-Breaker type and rated current Busbar Ik [kA] 2.3 85.3 65 28.2 4.8 67.95/0.95/0.4 28.95/0.5 22.9 17.25 6.4 3.95 0.95/0.95 0.95 0.8 11.2 14 17.95 0.95 0.8 5.7 11.95 0.7 32 A 63 A 125 A 160 A S250/S260 S250/S260 T1B160 S250/S260 T1B160 S250/S260 T1B160 S250/S260 T1B160 S250/S260 T1B160 S250/S260 T1B160 T1B160 S250/S260 T1B160 T1B160 S250/S260 T1B160 T1C160 T1B160 T1C160 T1B160 T1N160 T1C160 T1N160 T1C160 T2S160 T2H160 T1C160 T2S160 T2H160 T1N160 T2H160 T2L160 T1N160 T2H160 S4L160 T2N160 T2H160 S3X125 S3X200 T2S160 S4L160 S3X125 S3X200 T2H160 T2H160 138 250 A T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3S250 S3L250 T3N250 T3S250 S3L250 T3N250 S3H250 S3L250 T3N250 S3L250 S4L250 T3N250 S3L250 S4X250 T3S250 S4L250 S4X250 S3H250 S3L250 400 A 630 A 800 A 1250 A 1600 A 2000 A 2500 A 3200 A 4000 A S5N400 S5N400 S5N400 S5N400 S5N400 S5N400 S5N400 S5N400 S5N400 S5H400 S5L400 S5N400 S5H400 S5L400 S5N400 S5H400 S5L400 S5N400 S5L400 S5L400 S5N400 S5L400 S6X400 S5H400 S5L400 S6X400 S5H400 S5L400 S5N/S6N630 S5N/S6N630 S5N/S6N630 S5N/S6N630 S5N/S6N630 S5H/S6S630 S5L/S6L630 S5N/S6N630 S5H/S6S630 S5L/S6L630 S5N/S6N630 S5H/S6H630 S5L/S6L630 S5N/S6N630 S5L/S6L630 S5L/S6L630 S5N/S6N630 S5L/S6L630 S6X630 S5H/S6S630 S5L/S6L630 S6X630 S5H/S6H630 S5L/S6L630 S6N800 S6N800/E1B800 S6S800/E1N800 S7S1250/E1N1250 S6L800/E2N1250 S7L1250/E2N1250 S6N800/E1B800 S6S800/E1N800 S7S1250/E1N1250 S6L800/E2N1250 S7L1250/E2N1250 S6N800/E1B800 S7S1250/E1B1250 S6H800/E2N1250 S7H1250/E2N1250 S6L800/E3H1250 S7L1250/E3H1250 S6N800/E1B800 S7S1250/E1B1250 S6L800/E3H1250 S7L1250/E3S1250 S6L800/E3S1250 S7L1250/E3H1250 S6N800/E1B800 S7S1250/E1B1250 S6L800/E3S1250 S7L1250/E3S1250 S8V2000/E2L1250 S6S800/E1N800 S7S1250/E1N1250 S6L800/E3H1250 S7L1250/E3H1250 E2L1250 S6H800/E2N1250 S7H1250/E2N1250 S6L800/E3S1250 S7L1250/E3S1250 ABB SACE .2 22.25 6.95 0.2 4.8 0.95/0.95 0.3 21.6 4.96 0.2 11.7 ABB SACE Circuit-Breaker T1B/T2N160 T1B/T2N160 T1B/T2N160 T1B/T2N160 T3N/S4N250 T3N/S4N250 T3N/S4N250 T3N/S4N250 S5N400 S5N400 S5N400 S5N400 S6N630 S6N630 S6N630/S6N800 S6N630/S6N800 S6N800/S7S1250 S6N800/S7S1250 S7S1250/E1B1250 S7S1250/E1B1250 S7S1250/E1N1250 S7S1250/E1B1250 S7S1250/E1B1250 S7S1250/E1N1250 S7S1600/E2B1600 S7S1600/E2B1600 S7H1600/E2N1600 E2B2000 E2B2000 E3S2000 E3N2500 E3N2500 E3S2000 E3N3200 E3N3200 E3H3200 E4S4000 E6H5000 Circuit-Breaker "B" Feeder Circuit-Breaker Release size R100/In=100 R100/In=100 R160/In=160 R160/In=160 R200/In=250 R200/In=250 R250/In=250 R250/In=250 In=320 In=320 In=400 In=400 In=630 In=630 In=630/800 In=630/800 In=800/1000 In=800/1000 In=1000 In=1000 In=1000 In=1250 In=1250 In=1250 In=1600 In=1600 In=1600 In=2000 In=2000 In=2000 In=2500 In=2500 In=2500 In=3200 In=3200 In=3200 In=4000 In=5000 setting 0.3.4 53.6 64.4 35.1 27.1 122.95 0.95 0.6 35.7 7.95/0.25 6.Electrical devices S7L1600/E2N1600 S7S1600/E2N1600 S7L1600/E2N1600 S7H1600/E2N1600 S7L1600/E3H1600 S7S1600/E2B1600 S7L1600/E3S1600 S7L1600/E3H1600 S7S1600/E2B1600 S7L1600/E3S1600 S8V2000/E2L1600 S7S1600/E2N1600 S7L1600/E3H1600 E2L1600 S7H1600/E2N1600 S7L1600/E3S1600 E2N2000 E2N2500 E2N2000 E3H2000 E3H2500 E3H3200 E3S2000 E3S2500 E3S3200 E3H2000 E3H2500 E3H3200 E4H4000 E3S2000 E3L2000 E2N2000 E3H2000 E3L2000 E2N2000 E3S2000 E3S2500 E3S3200 E4S4000 E3L2500 E6V3200 E6V4000 E3H2500 E3L2500 E3N2500 E3S2500 E3H3200 E4H4000 E6V3200 E6V4000 E3N3200 E3S3200 E4S4000 139 1SDC010036F0201 Transformer Sr .Electrical devices Trafo Feeder Ik [kA] 2.8 67.8 0.96 0.6 44.95 0.95 0.2 7.6 3.95 0.92 0.8 80.1 14.95 0.95 0.9 8.8 0.6 67 44.6 81.7 5.2 14.1 43.9 33.6 22.7 98.5 4.9 22.3 42.7 35.95 0.7 69.2 34.8 22.95 0.6 44.4 Protection and switching of transformers 3.9 67.2 100.4 5.7 17.7 34.8 0.9 54.8 0.8 0.6 7.25 ABB SACE .3 43.8 65.95 0.2 22.8 54.5 8.6 11.95/0.95 0.8 42.2 8.2 14.8 0.

7 61.9 In=2000 0.5 62.3 20.1 31.9 25.9 40.3 38.7 R200/In=250 0.5 89.6 24.5 6.9 In=800 0.3.4 Protection and switching of transformers 3 Protection of electrical equipment 3 Protection of electrical equipment Table 3: Protection and switching of 440 V transformers Circuit-Breaker "A" LV side uk Trafo I r Busbar Ib [kVA] 1 x 63 2 x 63 1 x 100 2 x 100 1 x 125 2 x 125 1 x 160 2 x 160 1 x 200 2 x 200 1 x 250 2 x 250 1 x 315 2 x 315 1 x 400 2 x 400 1 x 500 2 x 500 1 x 630 2 x 630 3 x 630 1 x 800 2 x 800 3 x 800 1 x 1000 2 x 1000 3 x 1000 1 x 1250 2 x 1250 3 x 1250 1 x 1600 2 x 1600 3 x 1600 1 x 2000 2 x 2000 3 x 2000 1 x 2500 1 x 3125 % [A] 83 83 131 131 164 164 210 210 262 262 328 328 413 413 525 525 656 656 827 827 827 1050 1050 1050 1312 1312 1312 1640 1640 1640 2099 2099 2099 2624 2624 2624 3280 4100 [A] 83 165 131 262 164 328 210 420 262 525 328 656 413 827 525 1050 656 1312 827 1653 2480 1050 2099 3149 1312 2624 3936 1640 3280 4921 2099 4199 6298 2624 5249 7873 3280 4100 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 6.1 10.9 In=1600 0.9 In=630 0.3 3.9/0.9 In=1250 0.2 12.9 In=1600 0.1 3.6 20.7 74.1 5.8 38.2 6.8 72.9 [kA] 2.9 In=1250 0.9 31.9 In=400 0.1 5.5 25.1 39.9 48.2 39.9 In=2500 0.88 R100/In=100 0.9 In=1000 0.88 R160/In=160 0.2 19.9 In=3200 0.9/0.9 In=4000 0.8 16.1 8.5 ABB SACE Circuit-Breaker T1B/T2N160 T1B/T2N160 T1B/T2N160 T1B/T2N160 T3N/S4N250 T3N/S4N250 T3N/S4N250 T3N/S4N250 S5N400 S5N400 S5N400 S5N400 S5N630 S5N630 S5N630 S5N630 S6N800 S6N800 S7S1250/E1B1250 S7S1250/E1B1250 S7S1250/E1B1250 S7S1250/E1B1250 S7S1250/E1B1250 S7S1250/E1B1250 S7S1600/E2B1600 S7S1600/E2B1600 S7H1600/E2N1600 E2B2000 E2B2000 E2N2000 E2N2500 E2N2500 E2N2500 E3N3200 E3N3200 E3S3200 E4S4000 E6H5000 Circuit-Breaker "B" Feeder Circuit-Breaker Release Busbar Ik size setting R100/In=100 0.3 4.9 In=3200 0.9 In=1000 0.9 In=2000 0.1 2.1 16.8 61.2 25.9 In=1600 0.85/0.4 40.9 R250/In=250 0.3 77.25 ABB SACE .9 In=2500 0.3 59.5 31.5 Feeder Circuit-Breaker type and rated current 32 A 63 A 125 A 160 A S250/S260 S250/S260 T1B160 S250/S260 T1B160 S250/S260 T1B160 T1B160 S250/S260 T1B160 T1C160 T1B160 T1C160 T1B160 T1N160 T1C160 T1N160 T1C160 T2N160 T1N160 T2S160 T1N160 T2S160 T2L160 T1N160 T2S160 T2L160 T2N160 T2H160 T2L160 T2S160 T2L160 S3X125 S3X200 T2S160 T2L160 S3X125 S3X200 T2S160 S4L160 S3X125 S3X200 T2H160 T2L160 140 250 A 400 A 630 A 800 A 1250 A 1600 A 2000 A 2500 A 3200 A 4000 A T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3S250 T3N250 T3S250 T3N250 T3S250 S3L250 T3N250 S3H250 S3L250 T3S250 S3L250 S4L250 T3S250 S3L250 S4X250 T3S250 S3L250 S4X250 S3H250 S4L250 S4X250 S3L250 S3L250 S5N400 S5N400 S5N400 S5N400 S5N400 S5N400 S5H400 S5N400 S5H400 S5L400 S5N400 S5H400 S5L400 S5N400 S5H400 S5L400 S5H400 S5L400 S6X400 S5H400 S5L400 S6X400 S5H400 S5L400 S6X400 S5H400 S5L400 S5N630 S5N630 S5H/S6S630 S5N630 S5H/S6S630 S5L/S6L630 S5N630 S5H/S6S630 S5L/S6L630 S5N/S6N630 S5L/S6L630 S5L/S6L630 S5H/S6S630 S5L/S6L630 S6X630 S5H/S6S630 S5L/S6L630 S6X630 S5H/S6S630 S5L/S6L630 S6X630 S5L/S6L630 S5L/S6L630 S6S800 S6S800/E1B800 S7S1250/E1B1250 S6L800/E2N1250 S7L1250/E2N1250 S6N800/E1B800 S6S800/E1B800 S7H1250/E1B1250 S6L800/E2N1250 S7L1250/E2N1250 S6N800/E1B800 S6L800/E2N1250 S7H1250/E1N1250 S6L800/E3S1250 S7L1250/E3S1250 S6S800/E1B800 S7S1250/E1B1250 S6L800/E2N1250 S7L1250/E2N1250 S8V2000/E2L1250 S6S800/E1B800 S7S1250/E1B1250 S6L800/E2N1250 S7L1250/E2N1250 S8V2000/E2L1250 S6S800/E1B800 S7H1250/E1N1250 S6L800/E3H1250 S7L1250/E3H1250 S6L800/E2N1250 S6L800/E2N1250 ABB SACE .4 6.7 R250/In=250 0.5 32.88 R160/In=160 0.Electrical devices Trafo Feeder Ik [kA] 2.1 8.7 49.2 10.6 32.9 In=1000 0.1 12.5 4.1 4.2 20.25 6.6 31.8 59.9 12.9 20.2 5.9/0.1 10.88 R200/In=250 0.9 In=800 0.4 Protection and switching of transformers 3.9 In=2500 0.85/0.7 In=630 0.9 20.9 In=400 0.5 12.5 8.7 58.9 In=320 0.6 16.25 6.2 10.1 15.6 40.4 49.7 30.6 49.9 In=320 0.9 In=1250 0.4 111.4 60.9 91.1 4.7 In=630 0.9 In=2000 0.7 20.1 3.9 In=5000 0.9 In=630 0.Electrical devices S7H1250/E1N1250 S7L1250/E2N1250 S7L1600/E2N1600 E2N2000 S7H1600/E2B1600 S7L1600/E2N1600 E2N2000 E3N2500 E3N3200 E4S4000 S7H1600/E2N1600 S7L1600/E3S1600 E2N2000 E3S2000 E3S2500 E3S3200 S7L1600/E2N1600 S8V2000/E2L1600 S7S1600/E2B1600 S7L1600/E2N1600 S8V2000/E2L1600 S7H1600/E2B1600 S7L1600/E3H1600 E2N2000 E3N2500 E3H2000 E3H2500 E3H3200 E4H4000 S7H1600/E2N1600 S7L1600/E2N1600 E2N2000 E3H2000 E2B2000 E3H2000 E6V3200 E2N2000 E2N2000 E3N2500 E3N3200 E3H2500 E3H3200 E4H4000 E3H2500 E3H3200 E4H4000 E6V4000 E3N2500 E3N2500 E3N3200 141 1SDC010037F0201 Transformer Sr .3 6.25 6.9 8.9 In=3200 0.9/0.8 61.

9 0.3 8.9/0.5 31.3 25.5 8.9 0.7 49.9/0.1 12.6 4.2 57.1 25.3 2.9 0.3 6.3 71.9 0.8 39.9 0.7 0.2 19.92 0.9 0.9/0.7 16.25 6.7 47.1 38.9/0.2 5.5 20.Electrical devices Trafo Feeder Ik [kA] 1.6 38.2 10.9 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.5 6.9 0.9 31.88 0.7 40.9/0.9 0.2 32 A 63 A 125 A T1B160 T1B160 T1B160 T1N160 T1B160 T1N160 T1C160 T2S160 T1N160 T2L160 T1N160 S3N160 T2S160 S3N160 T2L160 S3H160 S3N160 S4H160 S3N160 S4L160 S3X125 S3N160 S4L160 S3X125 S3H160 S3X125 S3X125 S4H160 S3X125 S3X125 S4H160 S3X125 S3X125 S4L160 S3X125 S3X125 S3X125 S3X125 142 160 A 250 A 400 A 630 A 800 A 1250 A 1600 A 2000 A 2500 A 3200 A 4000 A S3N250 S3N250 S3X200 S3X200 S3X200 S3X200 S3X200 S3X200 S3X200 S3X200 S3X200 S3X200 S3X200 S3X200 S3N250 S3N250 S3H250 S3N250 S4H250 S3N250 S4L250 S4X250 S3N250 S4L250 S4X250 S3H250 S4X250 S4X250 S4H250 S4X250 S4X250 S4H250 S4X250 S4X250 S4L250 S4X250 S4X250 S4X250 S4X250 S5N400 S5N400 S5H400 S5N400 S5L400 S6X400 S5N400 S5L400 S6X400 S5N400 S6X400 S6X400 S5H400 S6X400 S6X400 S5H400 S6X400 S6X400 S5L400 S6X400 S6X400 S6X400 S6X400 S5H/S6S630 S5L/S6L630 S6X630 S5L/S6L630 S6X630 S5N/S6N630 S6X630 S6X630 S5H/S6S630 S6X630 S6X630 S5H/S6S630 S6X630 S6X630 S5L/S6L630 S6X630 S6X630 S6X630 S6X630 E2B1600 S6L800 E2B1600 S7L1250/E1B800 S7L1250/E1B1250 S8V2000/E2N1250 S8V2000/E2N1600 S6S800/E1B800 S8H2000/E2B1250 S8H2000/E2B1600 E3N2500 S6S800/E1B800 S8V2000/E2B1250 S8V2000/E2B1600 E3N2500 S6L800/E1B800 S7L1250/E1B1250 S8V2000/E2N1250 S8V2000/E2N1600 E2L1250 E2L1600 S7L1250/E1B800 S7L1250/E1B1250 S7L1600/E2B1600 S8H2000/E2B1600 S8H2000/E2B1250 ABB SACE .9 0.2 10.9 25.3 20.8 39.9 0.9/0.8 13.2 31.9 0.2 2.2 3.1 4.1 2.2 39.9/0.2 4.7 0.3 16.9 0.88 0.3 15.72 0.0 20.72 0.25 6.9 0.9/0.3 5.1 12.5 12.8 25.9 0.3.8 46.9 0.1 20.7 20.1 5.25 Circuit-Breaker "B" Feeder Circuit-Breaker Circuit-Breaker "A" LV side uk ABB SACE .2 8.3 31.2 ABB SACE Circuit-Breaker T1B/T2N160 T1B/T2N160 T1B/T2N160 T1B/T2N160 T1B/T2N160 T1B/T2N160 T1C/T2N160 T1C/T2N160 T3N250/S4N250 T3N250/S4N250 T3S250/S4N250 T3S250/S4N250 S5N400 S5N400 S5N400 S5N400 S5N630 S5N630 S5N630 S5N630 S5L630 S6N800 S6N800 S6L800 S7S1250/E1B1250 S7S1250/E1B1250 S7L1250/E1B1250 S7H1250/E1B1250 S7S1250/E1B1250 E2B1250 E2B1600 E2B1600 E2B1600 E2B2000 E2B2000 E2B2000 E3N2500 E3N3200 Release size R63/In=63 R63/In=63 R100/In=100 R100/In=100 R125/In=160 R125/In=160 R160/In=160 R160/In=160 R200/In=250 R200/In=250 R250/In=250 R250/In=250 In=320 In=320 In=400 In=400 In=630 In=630 In=630 In=630 In=630 In=800 In=800 In=800 In=1000 In=1000 In=1000 In=1250 In=1250 In=1600 In=1600 In=1600 In=1600 In=2000 In=2000 In=2000 In=2500 In=3200 setting 0.9 0.2 12.9/0.3 37.92 0.1 58.9 25.25 6.1 2.6 2.2 13.Electrical devices E2N2000 E2B2000 E3N3200 E2N2000 E3N2500 E3S2000 E3S2500 E3S3200 E4S4000 E2B2000 143 1SDC010037F0201 Transformer Sr .1 6.7 24.0 20.9 0.7 0.9 Feeder Circuit-Breaker type and rated current Busbar Ik [kA] 1.88 0.3 6.9 12.3 2.2 16.9 0.4 Protection and switching of transformers 3 Protection of electrical equipment 3 Protection of electrical equipment Table 4: Protection and switching of 690 V transformers Trafo I r Busbar Ib [kVA] 1 x 63 2 x 63 1 x 100 2 x 100 1 x 125 2 x 125 1 x 160 2 x 160 1 x 200 2 x 200 1 x 250 2 x 250 1 x 315 2 x 315 1 x 400 2 x 400 1 x 500 2 x 500 1 x 630 2 x 630 3 x 630 1 x 800 2 x 800 3 x 800 1 x 1000 2 x 1000 3 x 1000 1 x 1250 2 x 1250 3 x 1250 1 x 1600 2 x 1600 3 x 1600 1 x 2000 2 x 2000 3 x 2000 1 x 2500 1 x 3125 % [A] 53 53 84 84 105 105 134 134 167 167 209 209 264 264 335 335 418 418 527 527 527 669 669 669 837 837 837 1046 1046 1046 1339 1339 1339 1673 1673 1673 2092 2615 [A] 53 105 84 167 105 209 134 268 167 335 209 418 264 527 335 669 418 837 527 1054 1581 669 1339 2008 837 1673 2510 1046 2092 3138 1339 2678 4016 1673 3347 5020 2092 2615 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 6.3 10.4 Protection and switching of transformers 3.3 10.8 0.6 5.6 2.9/0.3 1.9 0.3 3.9 0.9 8.9 0.6 24.88 0.6 3.7 37.3 4.

corresponding to the row relevant to 3 630 kVA (3x630) transformers. • In (1000 A) is the rated current of the transformer circuit-breaker (electronic release chosen by the user). ABB SACE . it is essential that the design engineers carry out precise checks. • Setting (0.95) indicates the set value of function L of the electronic release. • S7S1250 or E1N1250 is the size of the transformer circuit-breaker.4 kV with uk% equal to 4% and outgoing feeder circuit-breakers B1/B2/B3 of 63-400-800 A: Level B circuit-breakers (outgoing feeder) A2 B1 63 A ABB SACE . Example: Supposing the need to size breakers A1/A2/A3. It must also be noted that the short-circuit currents given are determined using the hypothesis of 750 MVA power upstream of the transformers.4 Protection and switching of transformers 3 Protection of electrical equipment 3 Protection of electrical equipment NOTE From Table 2. • corresponding to 63 A.8 kA) is the value of the short-circuit current to consider for the choice of the breaking capacity of each of the transformer circuit-breakers. Therefore. read circuit-breaker B3 Isomax S6L800 or E2N1250. other factors such as selectivity.4 Protection and switching of transformers 3.2 kA) is the short-circuit current due to the contribution of all three transformers.Electrical devices B2 400 A A3 B3 1SDC010026F0001 A1 • Busbar Ik (64. • corresponding to 800 A. disregarding the impedances of the busbars or the connections to the circuit-breakers. read circuit-breaker B1 Tmax T2H160. • Trafo Feeder Ik (42.3.Electrical devices 145 . the information for the selection of circuit-breakers is supplied only with regard to the current in use and the prospective short-circuit current. For a correct selection. back-up protection. it can be read that: The tables refer to the previously specified conditions. Level A circuit-breakers (LV side of transformer) • Trafo Ir (909 A) is the current that flows through the transformer circuit-breakers. • Busbar Ib (2727 A) is the maximum current that the transformers can supply. read circuit-breaker B2 Isomax S5L400. Refer to the relevant chapters for selections appropriate to the various cases. • corresponding to 400 A. 800 A 144 The choice made does not take into account discrimination/back-up requirements. the decision to use limiting circuitbreakers etc. must also be considered. on the LV side of the three transformers of 630 kVA 20/0.

1 General aspects U P IR I S IQ Q In alternating current circuits. ABB SACE . in quadrature to the voltage.6 0. is used to produce the flow necessary for the conversion of powers through the electric or magnetic field. the other dimensioning parameters remaining equal.75 0. there could be no flow of power. the total current (I) lags in comparison with the active component IR. but not available to the user. .75 0. both the line as well as the supply generator can be sized for a lower apparent power value required by the load. the current absorbed by the user can be represented by two components: .5 0.8 0.3 1.85 0.3 2. other than the active power P.3÷1. as shown by Figure 1 and Figure 2.9÷6.33÷0. which is essential for the conversion of electrical energy.0÷0.6 0. in phase with the supply voltage.7 1.9 0. It results: cos = IR P (1) = S I The reactive demand factor (tanϕ) is the relationship between the reactive power and the active power: tan = ABB SACE . a certain reactive power Q. Without this.97 1 0.2÷0.6 0.the reactive component IQ. increasing the power factor of the load: .65÷0.6 1.3÷0.3 1.4. In an electrical installation.the active component IR.4÷0.25 0 The power factor correction is the action increasing the power factor in a specific section of the installation by locally supplying the necessary reactive power.7÷0. Thus.9÷0. usually electrical with different characteristics. light and/or thermal).3 0.compensated . ϕ is the phase shifting between the voltage U and the current l. The complex of the power generated and transmitted constitutes the apparent power S.5 2.75÷0.15 0.95 0.decreases the relative voltage drop urp per unit of active power transmitted.uncompensated Mercury vapour lamps Sodium vapour lamp AC DC converters DC drives AC drives Resistive load cosϕ power factor 0.15 tanϕ reactive demand factor 9.increases the transmittable active power and decreases the losses.Electrical devices Q (2) P 146 Table 1: Typical power factor Load Transformers (no load condition) Motor (full load) Motor (no load) Metal working apparatuses: . it is necessary to generate and transmit.95÷0.Resistance welding: .35÷0.1÷0.4÷0.4÷0.7÷1. . and therefore the total power absorbed from the upstream side. is directly correlated to the output (and therefore to the part of electrical energy transformed into energy of a different type. so as to reduce the current value to the equivalent of the power required.9 0.6 0. mechanical.1 General aspects 4 Power factor correction 4 Power factor correction Table 1 shows some typical power factors: 4. In detail.Arc melting furnace Fluorescent lamps .5 0.3÷0.Arc welding .75 2. In the most common case.9 1. in the presence of ohmic-inductive type loads. such as in the core of a transformer or in the air gap of a motor.7÷0.6÷0.62 6.0÷0. Power factor (cosϕ) is defined as the ratio between the active component IR and the total value of the current l.3÷1.9 2.Electrical devices 147 .Arc welding compensated .

4.Q1 = P ⋅ ( tan 1 .1 General aspects 4. Q1.7 0. The same inconveniences are present in the distribution installation of the final user. The power factor is an excellent index of the size of the added costs and is therefore used by the distribution authority to define the purchase price of the energy for the final user.70 0.90 1.00 Improved power factor ABB SACE . with a cosϕ too close to the unit.ϕ2 are the reactive power and the phase shifting after power factor correction. and at the same time not to risk having.Electrical devices 148 Power factor correction unit (reactive power generator) ABB SACE .tan 2 ) (3) where: P is the active power. Qc is the reactive power for the power factor correction.Electrical devices P Q1 S1 Motor 1SDC010041F0201 Qc 10 1SDC010040F0201 Active Power % increase original power factor 0.50 1SDC010039F0201 Relative voltage drop Cable cross section Load power factor Figure 2: Transmittable active power In the case of a sinusoidal waveform.oversizing of the conductors and and of the components of the transmission lines.80 0. a leading power factor when the power factor corrected device is working with a low load. Voltage drop per unit of active power transmitted 10 1 0. Q2.9 P Q2 S2 100 Q2 P S2 Q1 Qc S1 1 0.ϕ1 are the reactive power and the phase shifting before power factor correction.8 0.higher Joule-effect losses and higher voltage drops in the components and lines. . the reactive power necessary to pass from one power factor cosϕ1 to a power factor cosϕ2 is given by the formula: Qc = Q2 .5 0. The ideal situation would be to have a cosϕ slightly higher than the set reference so as to avoid payment of legal penalties.6 0. also due to the possibility of unexpected overvoltages. Active power increase with equal dimensioning factors 1000 0.4 149 . and therefore has a series of further inconveniences which can be summarized as: .1 General aspects 4 Power factor correction 4 Power factor correction Figure 1: Relative voltage drop The distribution authority is responsible for the production and transmission of the reactive power required by the user installations. The distribution authority generally does not allow others to supply reactive power to the network.

1 General aspects 4 Power factor correction 4 Power factor correction Table 2 shows the value of the relationship Example Kc = Qc = tan P 1 .172 0.828 0.65 0.536 0.451 0.817 0.242 0.reduced losses (less than 0.843 0.508 0.235 0.62 0.713 0.5 W/kvar in low voltage).257 0.432 0.324 0.086 0.052 0.966 0.73 0.344 0.624 0.729 0.484 150 Qc = K c .292 0.70 0.549 0.594 0.849 0.214 0.658 0.453 0.837 0.186 0.838 0.646 0.8 to 0.370 0.234 0. testing and rating .333 1.93).381 0.519 0.111 0. Table 2: Factor Kc Kc cosϕ1 0.593 0.91 0.96 1. P = 0.343 0.138 0.750 0.030 0.062 1.774 0.283 0.566 0.480 0.145 0.882 0.525 0.419 0.302 0.686 0.1 General aspects 4.608 0.743 0.698 0.084 0.86 0.424 0.712 0.686 0.82 0.355 0. is installing capacitors.646 0.757 0.364 0.447 0.590 0.low cost compared with synchronous compensators and electronic power converters.371 0.387 0.870 0.706 0.020 0.488 0.700 0.569 0.376 0.272 0.683 0.652 0.733 0.936 0.536 0.80 0.679 0.the possibility of covering a wide range of powers and different load profiles.839 0.Electrical devices 151 .847 0.277 0.451 0.429 0.538 0. at the intersection of the column corresponding to the final power factor (0.798 0.265 0.121 0.716 0.565 0.583 0.546 0.157 1.309 0.816 0.510 0.72 0.937 0.992 0.329 0.138 1.141 0.556 0.654 0.167 0.355 .005 0.903 0.519 0.90 ABB SACE .775 0.802 0.713 0.66 0.499 0.395 0. The disadvantages are sensitivity to overvoltages and to the presence of nonlinear loads.Electrical devices 0.90 0.663 0.739 0.720 0.503 0.87 0.515 0.69 0.74 0.64 0. .204 0.Performance.97 1.745 0.500 0.521 0.220 0.403 0.350 0. each with a relatively small power.026 0.682 0.877 0.4.93 the power factor of a threephase installation (Ur= 400 V) which absorbs an average power of 300 kW.078 1.079 0.829 0.Part 1: General .935 0.617 0.198 0.964 0.787 0. .715 0.183 0.425 0.251 0.Safety requirements .426 0.873 0.870 0.89 0.779 0.60 0.77 0.209 0.85 0.096 1.458 0. simply supplying in parallel different combinations of components.608 0.526 0.553 0.316 0.268 0.567 0.369 0.78 0.79 0. the value of Kc (0.748 0.970 0.473 0.67 0.776 0.620 0.537 0. .652 0.685 0.149 0.81 0.466 0.083 1.132 0.388 0.156 0.907 0.909 0.216 0.469 0.982 0.369 0.162 0.289 0.262 0.078 0.85 0.214 0.92 0. especially for an installation which already exists.tan 2 Supposing the need to change from 0.316 0.966 0.406 0.565 0.875 0.487 0.184 0.397 0.390 0.294 0.781 0.328 0.400 0.635 0.225 0.88 0. The Standards applicable to power factor correction capacitors are as follows: .484 0.549 0.007 0.672 0.439 0. .941 0.281 0.815 0.645 0.159 0.492 0. Capacitors have the following advantages: .580 0.936 0.806 0.857 0.191 1.317 0.652 0.629 0.950 0.714 0.373 0.447 0.512 0. From Table 2.266 0.057 0.026 0.810 0.358 0.433 0.888 0.821 0.508 0.654 0. the current absorbed decreases from 540 A to 460 A (a reduction of approximately 15%).298 0.123 1.460 0.974 0.477 0.055 0.68 0.625 0.194 0.905 0.94 0.029 0.c.270 0.309 0.83 0.ease of installation and maintenance.672 0.407 0.683 0.Guide for installation and operation”.724 0.573 0.855 0.058 1.355) can be read.775 0.578 0. ABB SACE .552 0.380 0.597 0.98 1.052 0.634 0.090 1.936 0.089 cosϕ2 0.660 0.164 0.177 0.246 0.429 0.745 0.872 0.581 0.048 1. 300 = 106.027 0.810 0. testing and rating .573 0.400 0.c.240 0.347 0.169 1.789 0.459 0.413 0.805 0.114 0.511 0.750 0.766 0.907 0.601 0.130 1.904 0.Guide for installation and operation”.193 0.105 0.904 0.188 0.530 0.761 0.265 1.599 0.713 0.93 0. and the row corresponding to the starting power factor (0.289 0.135 0.104 0.108 1.221 0.75 0.354 0.343 0.919 0.395 0.262 0.807 0.201 1.303 0.692 0.233 1.741 0.623 0.230 0.878 0. The reactive power Qc which must be generated locally shall be: (4) for different values of the power factor before and after the correction.Safety requirements .421 0.80 0.5 kvar Due to the effect of power factor correction.61 0.335 0.242 0.846 0.996 0.679 0.605 0.299 0.770 0.99 1.049 1.63 0.849 0.028 0.76 0.130 0. Characteristics of power factor correction capacitor banks The most economical means of increasing the power factor.082 0.540 0.483 0.337 0.Part 1: GeneralPerformance.456 0.361 0.794 0.291 0.398 0.117 0.777 0.998 0.8).547 0.581 0.743 0.514 0.372 0.299 1.474 0.481 0. systems having a rated voltage up to and including 1000 V .IEC 60831-1 “Shunt power capacitors of the self-healing type for a.613 0.417 0.626 0.71 0.631 0.238 0.452 0.623 0.IEC 60931-1 “Shunt power capacitors of the non-self-healing type for a.95 0.328 0.015 0.483 0.878 0.495 0.320 0.211 0.563 0.541 0.84 0.042 1.421 0.970 1.443 0.342 1 1.840 0.275 0.156 0.248 0.594 0.686 0.344 0.593 0.909 0.058 0.657 0.318 0.190 0.938 0.109 0. systems having a rated voltage up to and including 1000 V .714 0.

the normal procedure is to connect the PFC bank to the motor only when it is running. at rated voltage Ur. The usual connection diagrams are shown in the following Figure: From this data it is possible to find the size characteristics of the capacitors by using the following formulae (5): Starter Starter Rated current of the components Qr 2 2 π fr ⋅ U r I r = 2 π fr ⋅ C ⋅ U r Il = Ir Line current C= Qr 2 2π f r ⋅ U r I r = 2 π fr ⋅ C⋅U r / 3 Il = Ir Three-phase delta-connection C= Starter Qr 2π f r ⋅ U r ⋅ 3 2 I r = 2 π fr ⋅ C ⋅ U r Il = Ir ⋅ 3 With three-phase systems. to avoid the risk detailed above. In this case. the current absorbed I0 [A] is solely reactive.9 ⋅ Q0 = 0. the voltage is maintained on the load side of the switching and control device. Considering that under no-load conditions.4. The adjustment of cosϕ is systematic and automatic with benefit not only to the energy distribution authority. it results: Qc = 0.1 General aspects 4 Power factor correction 4 Power factor correction The characteristics of a capacitor. which the capacitor must withstand indefinitely. for the same reactive power. • rated frequency fr (usually equal to that of the network). the star-connection requires a capacity 3 times larger and subjects the capacitors to a voltage and a current times less than the analogous delta-connection.2 Power factor connection method 4. but also to the whole internal distribution system of the user.9 ⋅ 3 ⋅U r ⋅ I 0 [kvar] (6) 1000 The current I 0 is generally given in the documentation supplied by the manufacturer of the motor. However. 4. and to disconnect it before the disconnection of the motor supply. Capacitors are generally supplied with connected discharge resistance. and are connected and disconnected simultaneously. calculated so as to reduce the residual voltage at the terminals to 75 V in 3 minutes. for a motor with power Pr. are: Individual PFC of motors • rated voltage Ur. ABB SACE . •rated power Qr. the motor will continue to rotate (residual kinetic energy) and self-excite with the reactive energy supplied by the capacitor bank. to avoid a leading power factor. This type of power factor correction is advisable in the case of large users with constant load and power factor and long connection times. M M c c Diagram 2 Diagram 1 M 1SDC010028F0001 C= Capacity of the capacitor bank Three-phase star-connection 1SDC010005F0901 Single-phase connection c Diagram 3 In the case of direct connection (diagrams 1 and 2) there is a risk that after disconnection of the supply. Individual PFC is usually applied to motors and fluorescent lamps. given on its nameplate. acting as an asynchronous generator.2 Power factor correction method Single PFC Single or individual power factor correction is carried out by connecting a capacitor of the correct value directly to the terminals of the device which absorbs reactive power. in the case of diagram 3. Installation is simple and economical: capacitors and load can use the same overload and short-circuit protection.Electrical devices 152 As a general rule. it is advisable to use a PFC with reactive power Qc below 90% of the reactive power absorbed by the no-load motor Q0. generally expressed in kvar (reactive power of the capacitor bank). with the risk of dangerous overvoltages of up to twice the rated voltage value. if the voltage is expressed in volts.Electrical devices 153 . The capacitor units or small lighting capacitors are connected directly to loads. as stated in the reference Standard. ABB SACE .

86 0.87 0.84 565 0.8 72.5 22 30 37 45 55 75 90 110 132 160 200 250 315 5 5 7.3 7.2 178.89 30 0.85 280 0.86 0.95 0.84 450 0.2 Power factor connection method 4.9 252.5 5 5 7.82 0.83 0.93 12.95 0.2 29.88 15 0.94 0.96 0.91 0.5 29 37 45 59 74 90 104 140 167 202 250 After PFC cosϕ2 I2 [A] 155 .95 0.93 0. according to the power and the number of poles.4 507.2 143.8 249.92 0.5 11 15 18.87 0.6 257.98 0.9 174.7 123.95 0.82 0.8 210.93 0.7 18.9 5 0.86 0.96 0.9 144.9 58.93 0.5 53 64 79 95 131 152 194 228 269 334 410 510 0.96 12.94 0.3 122.84 163 0.97 0.96 0.94 0.5 15 20 20 30 30 35 50 400V / 50 Hz / 8 poles 0.5 11 15 18.94 0.2 120.2 87.6 Before PFC cosϕr Ir [A] / 750 r/min 18.5 22 30 37 45 55 75 90 110 132 160 200 250 315 2.86 0.96 0.9 20 0.88 5 0.94 0.98 0.86 0.5 31.81 36 0.93 0.97 0.95 0.84 0.6 24.95 0.5 7.9 18.94 0.93 0.5 22 30 37 45 55 75 90 110 132 160 200 250 315 400V / 50 Hz / 2 poles 2.79 0.85 355 0.95 0.Electrical devices Pr [kW] Qc [kvar] 7.5 0.95 0.5 10 10 12.83 0.Electrical devices Qc [kvar] Before PFC cosϕr Ir [A] After PFC cosϕ2 I2 [A] 7.93 0.5 391.1 71.8 0.93 0.95 0.83 202 0.76 0.4.5 35 41 56 68 83 98 135 158 192 232 282 351 430 545 0.84 0.0 210.6 178.88 30 0.91 5 0.8 145.92 50 0.96 0.83 240 0.4 0.5 10 12.94 0.0 486.5 28.82 141 0.5 11 15 18.8 75.94 0.5 10 15 15 20 20 20 20 30 40 40 50 50 60 400V / 50 Hz / 4 poles 0.87 0.5 0.4 60.98 0.84 0.2 317.97 0.5 59.83 69 0.5 11 15 18.6 146.96 0.2 514.87 0.3 25.2 21. Table 3: Reactive power for power factor motor correction Pr [kW] ABB SACE .0 62.96 0.84 82 0.1 47.92 0.5 35.2 Power factor connection method 4 Power factor correction 4 Power factor correction Table 3 shows the values of reactive power for power factor correction of some ABB motors.5 32 38.78 23 0.2 399.84 101 0.4 90.9 181.4 7.5 7.93 13.97 0.5 37.81 43 0.9 154 ABB SACE .8 214.96 0.92 12.1 23.78 0.78 31 0.97 0.9 40 0.94 0.94 0.78 0.4 320.98 0.3 30.1 86.97 0.7 18.7 0.6 318.8 47.7 30.94 0.92 / 3000 r/min 13.79 15.8 72.83 56 0.83 0.5 0.7 35.92 0.97 0.86 30 0.81 0.89 12.4 24.5 49.89 15 0.94 0.82 0.97 0.95 0.88 10 0.97 0.83 0.0 404.9 20 26.96 0.9 122.77 0.6 88.95 0.96 0.89 10 0.5 7.95 0.5 50.81 0.79 0.5 15 20 25 30 35 45 50 60 70 75 400V / 50 Hz / 6 poles / 1000 r/min 0.87 / 1500 r/min 14.89 2.2 25.9 36.95 0.5 22 30 37 45 55 75 90 110 132 5 7.88 15 0.4 19.98 0.8 209.

35 1.9 1.85 6.6 12 1 2.75 1 Example Supposing the need for PFC of a 630 kVA oil-distribution transformer which supplies a load which is less than 60% of its rated power.61 4.20 4. when using the simplified formula.4 poles).1 2 1.30 4.65 2. 156 ABB SACE .25 1.30 2.62 ⋅  ⋅ 630 − 8. the percentage value of the no-load current i0%.9 4.45 5.00 16 2. it is advisable to carry out power factor correction directly at the transformer.95 3.1 11 14 17 25 31 38 47 53 64 89 125 2.00 24 3.80 5.9 2.50 17 26 0.5 1. In particular.20 8.85 2.2 2.50 5.4 kvar ⋅ 630 + 0.35 2. in installations constituted by several transformer substations.25 9. the necessary PFC power is 17 kvar.00 20 2.70 2.70 24.4 1.3 4.92 =19.40 9.3 5 6.40 3.Electrical devices For a 630 kVA oil-distribution transformer with a load factor of 0.00 19.50 24 3. the iron losses Pfe and the copper losses Pcu [kW].9 3. the result is: Example    4% i %    1.6 1.80 18.50 Hz .2 1.8 0.1 1.62 ⋅     100  100   100   100 ABB SACE .3 1.5 6.00 7.20 8.20 17. the percentage value of the short-circuit voltage uk%.5.9 kW Pfe = 1.30 13.8 8.4 5.90 3.8 8.00 27 4.00 33.3 1. Table 4: PFC reactive power for ABB transformers Individual power factor correction of three-phase transformers A transformer is an electrical device of primary importance which.1 7.00 56 load factor KL 0.3 2.4 1.5 0.8% uk% = 4% Pcu = 8.3 10 13 16 20 25 40 49 61 77 90 111 157 212 2.9 1.4. In general.2 Power factor connection method 4 Power factor correction 4 Power factor correction Example Table 4 shows the reactive power of the capacitor bank Qc [kvar] to be connected on the secondary side of an ABB transformer.3 6.1 1.5 0.60 14 1.00 8 10 1.00 34 4.6 0.7 1.7 4.8 kvar   100   100  while.8 1.3 6.22−+ 0.80 38.9 12 14 17 20 25 29 38 45 54 81 5. is often constantly in service.2 0.3 0.7 1.05 4.75 13.8% 2 u % Qc =  0 ⋅ Sr  + K L ⋅  k ⋅ Sr  =  ⋅ 630 = 20.55 3. For a three-phase asynchronous motor.5 2.80 6.4 1.7 1.4 0.7 1.4 10 13 16 19 23 29 35 43 52 67 82 101 159 8 12 15 19 24 29 36 45 56 69 85 109 134 166 269 0 Oil Distribution Transformer MV-LV 0. the PFC power suggested in the table is 30 kvar.8%   4%  ⋅ 630 1.8 7 8. due to the system requirements.9 0.9 7.4 1.4 9.80 4.20 21.2 2.6 8.60 7.50 7.50 1.48 3.6 2 0.1 3.60 15.00 11 15 0.50 14 20 0.00 18 34 3.20 5.3 1.5 2. the PFC power required is approximately: 2 2 i %  u %  i %   2 2 2 2 u % Qc =  0 ⋅ Sr  − Pfe + K L ⋅  k ⋅ Sr  − Pcu ≈  0 ⋅ Sr  + K L ⋅  k ⋅ Sr  [kvar] (7)  100   100   100   100  where KL is the load factor.8 4.45 10.10 16. From the data on the transformer nameplate: i0% = 1.6 6.3 0.5 11 13 16 20 24 30 31 37 48 73 1.25 0.1 9.8 3.40 6.6 1.80 9.7 9.8 5.2 Power factor connection method 4.72 5.90 11 1.20 3.7 5.2 11 14 18 22 28 35 60 74 93 118 142 175 252 333 100 160 200 250 315 400 500 630 800 1000 1250 1600 2000 2500 3150 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 8 Cast Resin Distribution Transformer MV-LV 2.50 15 23 0.5 1. according to the different minimum estimated load levels.7 4 4.4 1. Reading the data from the transformer nameplate.9 5.1 1.7 5.94 8. 110 kW (400 V . the PFC power (Qc) for a transformer with rated power Sr [kVA] should not exceed the reactive power required under minimum reference load conditions. defined as the relationship between the minimum reference load and the rated power of the transformer. Pfe [kW] Qc [kvar] Pcu [kW] Sr [kVA] uk% [%] io% [%] 50 100 160 200 250 315 400 500 630 800 1000 1250 1600 2000 2500 3150 4000 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 2.Electrical devices 157 .5 8.4 0.2 kW The PFC power of the capacitor bank connected to the transformer is: 2 2 i %  u %  2 2 2 Qc =  0 ⋅ Sr  − Pfe + K L ⋅  k ⋅ Sr  − Pcu =  100   100  2 2  1.6 1.00 14.7 13 0.

with high peak (25÷200 Ir). thus having a high installed power and a quite low average power absorption by the loads which function simultaneously.Electrical devices 159 . . In particular.the capacitors shall normally function with an effective current value up to 130% of their rated current Ir (due to the possible presence of voltage harmonics in the network). Centralized PFC 1SDC010030F0001 Furthermore.the rated current of the circuit-breaker shall be greater than 1. ABB SACE . withstand the transient currents which occur when connecting and disconnecting the banks. Therefore: . The main disadvantage of centralized PFC is that the distribution lines of the installation. perform a high number of no-load and on-load operations. 1.the circuit-breaker shall have an adequate making capacity. This method achieves a compromise between the economical solution and the correct operation of the installation.5 ⋅ I r (8) 3 ⋅U r Therefore: . downstream of the PFC device. the use of a single PFC system at the installation origin ensures a remarkable decrease in the total power of the capacitors to be installed. the making and breaking capacity of the circuit-breaker must be adequate to the short.the setting of the instantaneous short-circuit protection must not cause unwanted trips.circuit current values of the installation.3 Circuit-breakers for the protection and switching of capacitor banks The circuit-breakers for the protection and switching of capacitor banks in LV shall: This consists of local power factor correction of groups of loads with similar functioning characteristics by installing a dedicated capacitor bank. ABB SACE . In the case of installations with many loads occasionally functioning. 4. directly installed in the main distribution switchboards. the use of a permanently connected capacitor bank is only possible if the absorption of reactive energy is fairly regular throughout the day. 1SDC010029F0001 4 Power factor correction Group of loads to be power factor corrected 4.5⋅Ir.the overload protection setting shall be equal to 1. C LV Feeders The daily load profile is of fundamental importance for the choice of the most suitable type of power factor correction.3⋅ 1. withstand the periodic or permanent overcurrents due to the voltage harmonics and to the tolerance (+15%) of the rated value of capacity. be coordinated with any external device (contactors). The maximum current which can be absorbed by the capacitor bank Icmax is: Ic max = 1.2 Power factor connection method 4. of short duration (1÷3 ms). The connection of a capacitor bank.Electrical devices 158 Standards IEC 60831-1 and 60931-1 state that: . in which not all loads function simultaneously and/or in which some loads are connected for only a few hours a day.5⋅Ir.a tolerance of +15% on the value of the capacity is allowed. the solution of using single PFC becomes unsuitable as many of the capacitors installed could stay idle for long periods. 2. associated with transient currents with high frequency (1÷15 kHz). since only the line downstream of the installation point of the capacitor bank is not correctly exploited.4.2 Power factor connection method 4 Power factor correction PFC in groups Centralized PFC normally uses automatic units with capacitor banks divided into several steps. must be dimensioned taking into account the full reactive power required by the loads. also with high frequency. the instantaneous magnetic and electronic releases shall not trip due to these peak currents. . 3. . In installations. similar to a closing operation under shortcircuit conditions.15⋅ Qr ≈ 1.

Electrical devices 161 . the instantaneous short-circuit protection shall be deactivated (I3 = OFF). refer to Volume 1. .IMCB = rated current of the protection release [A]. and to a voltage of 440 V for Emax air circuit-breakers (Table 7).Nel = number of electrical operations with reference to a voltage of 415 V for Tmax and Isomax moulded-case circuit breakers (Tables 5 and 6). . the selection tables for circuit-breakers: for the definition of the version according to the required breaking capacity.QM= power of the capacitor bank which can be connected [kvar] with reference to the indicated voltage and 50 Hz frequency.fel = frequency of electrical operations [op/h].fmech = frequency of mechanical operations [op/h]. The following symbols are used in the tables (they refer to maximum values): .3 Circuit-breakers for the protection and switching of capacitor banks 4 Power factor correction 4 Power factor correction The second condition is generally respected: • for thermomagnetic releases. Hereunder. the magnetic protection shall be set at a value not less than 10⋅Icmax Qr I3 ≥ 10 ⋅ I cmax = 15⋅Ir=15⋅ (9) 3 ⋅U r • for electronic releases.IMC= rated current of the connected capacitor bank [A].1 “General characteristics”.4. .3 Circuit-breakers for the protection and switching of capacitor banks 4. . . . Table 7: Selection table for SACE Emax air circuit-breakers CB Type E1 B N E2 B-N E2 B-N E2 B-N E3 N-S-H E3 N-S-H E3 N-S-H E3 N-S-H E3 N-S-H E4 S-H E6 H-V IMCB IMC [A] 1250 1250 1600 2000 1250 1600 2000 2500 3200 3200 3200 [A] 834 834 1067 1334 834 1067 1334 1667 2134 2134 2134 QM [kvar] 400 V 578 578 739 924 578 739 924 1155 1478 1478 1478 440 V 636 636 813 1017 636 813 1017 1270 1626 1626 1626 500 V 722 722 924 1155 722 924 1155 1444 1848 1848 1848 690 V 997 997 1275 1594 997 1275 1594 1992 2550 2550 2550 Nmech fmech 25000 25000 25000 25000 20000 20000 20000 20000 20000 15000 12000 [op/h] 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 Nel fel 10000 15000 12000 10000 12000 10000 9000 8000 6000 7000 5000 [op/h] 30 30 30 30 20 20 20 20 20 10 10 Table 5: Selection table for Tmax moulded-case circuit-breakers IMCB IMC QM [kvar] Nmech fmech CB Type [A] [A] 400 V 440 V 500 V 690 V [op/h] T1 B-C-N 160 160 107 74 81 92 127 25000 240 T2 N-S-H-L 160* 160 107 74 81 92 127 25000 240 T3 N-S 250* 250 167 115 127 144 199 25000 120 * for plug-in version reduce the maximum power of the capacitor bank by 10% Nel fel 8000 8000 10000 [op/h] 120 120 120 Table 6: Selection table for SACE Isomax S moulded-case circuit-breakers CB Type S3 N-H-L 160 S3 N-H-L 250 S4 N-H-L 160 S4 N-H-L 250 S5 N-H-L 400 S5 N-H-L 630 S6 N-S-H-L 630 S6 N-S-H-L 800 S7 S-H-L 1250 S7 S-H-L 1600 S8 H-V 2000 S8 H-V 2500 S8 H-V 3200 IMCB IMC [A] 160 250 160 250 400 630 630 800 1250 1600 2000 2500 3200 [A] 107 167 107 167 267 333 420 533 833 1067 1333 1667 2133 ABB SACE .Nmech = number of mechanical operations. Chapter 3.Electrical devices QM [kvar] 400 V 74 115 74 115 185 231 291 369 577 739 924 1155 1478 440 V 81 127 81 127 203 254 320 406 635 813 1016 1270 1626 500 V 92 144 92 144 231 288 364 462 722 924 1155 1443 1847 690 V 127 199 127 199 319 398 502 637 996 1275 1593 1992 2550 Nmech fmech 25000 25000 20000 20000 20000 20000 20000 20000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 [op/h] 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 Nel fel 10000 8000 10000 8000 7000 5000 7000 5000 7000 5000 3000 2500 1500 [op/h] 120 120 120 120 60 60 60 60 20 20 20 20 10 160 ABB SACE .

000 . from the current passing through the human body. Probability of ventricular fibrillation up to about 50%.000 500 AC-1 AC-2 AC-3 AC-4 200 100 50 20 10 0. The above mentioned Standard gives different values of impedance as a function of the touch voltage and of the current path.3 1. by generating uncontrolled contractions.Electrical devices 162 ABB SACE . once the human body impedance has been calculated.3 c1 . The effects are: AC-3 0.000 2. b 1SDC010042F0201 ms 10.c3 Beyond curve c3 0. on a time-current diagram. .000 mA Physiological effects Usually no reaction. the involuntary contraction of these muscles alters the normal respiratory process and the subject may die due to suffocation or suffer the consequences of traumas caused by asphyxia. Usually no organic damage to be expected. Note: very high currents do not usually induce muscular tetanization because.5 mA Up to line b* Line b up to curve c1 AC-4 Above curve c1 AC-4. breathing arrest and severe burns may occur in addition to the effects of zone 3. the limit for the body current for line b remains constant at a value of 200 mA.1 General aspects: effects of current on human beings a AC-4. Probability of ventricular fibrillation above 50%. the muscular contraction is so sustained that the involuntary muscle movements generally throw the subject away from the conductive part. This anomaly may become an irreversible phenomenon since it persists even when the stimulus has ceased.tetanization: the muscles affected by the current flow involuntary contract and letting go of gripped conductive parts is difficult.breathing arrest: if the current flows through the muscles controlling the lungs.000 Danger to persons due to contact with live parts is caused by the flow of the current through the human body. This Standard shows.1 General aspect: effects of current on human beings 5 Protection of human beings 5 Protection of human beings Figure 1: Time-current zones of the effects of alternating current on the human body 5. c2 c3 2.Electrical devices 163 .c2 c2 .burns: they are due to the heating deriving.2 Zone limits Up to 0. including atrial fibrillation and transient cardiac arrest without ventricular fibrillation increasing with current magnitude and time. . Usually no harmful physiological effects.000 .1 AC-4.2 Duration of current flow t AC-4. The electrical impedance of the human body depends on many factors. dangerous pathophysiological effects such as cardiac arrest. Reversible disturbances of formation and conduction of impulses in the heart.000 10. By applying Ohm’s law it is possible to define the safety curve for the allowable voltages.5 mA line a 0. by Joule effect.ventricular fibrillation: the most dangerous effect is due to the superposition of the external currents with the physiological ones which. c1 5. Probability of ventricular fibrillation increasing up to about 5%. This Standard gives also a related figure for direct current.2 AC-4.1 AC-4.1 Zone designation AC-1 AC-2 The Standard IEC 60479-1 “Effects of current on human being and livestock” is a guide about the effects of current passing through the human body to be used for the definition of electrical safety requirements. four zones to which the physiological effects of alternating current (15 ÷100 Hz) passing through the human body have been related. Increasing with magnitude and time. when the body touches such currents.5 1 2 5 10 20 50 100 200 Body current IB 500 1. * For durations of current-flow below 10 ms. ABB SACE .5. Likelihood of cramplike muscular contractions and difficulty in breathing for durations of current-flow longer than 2 s. induce alterations of the cardiac cycle.000 5.

5.1 General aspect: effects of current on human beings

5 Protection of human beings

5 Protection of human beings

The Standard IEC 60479-1 has adopted precautionary values for the impedance
reported in the figure so as to get the time-voltage safety curve (Figure 2) related
to the total touch voltage UT (i.e. the voltage which, due to an insulation failure,
is present between a conductive part and a point of the ground sufficiently far,
with zero potential).
This represents the maximum no-load touch voltage value; thus, the most
unfavorable condition is taken into consideration for safety’s sake.

5.2 Distribution systems
The earth fault modalities and the consequences caused by contact with live
parts, are strictly related to the neutral conductor arrangement and to the
connections of the exposed conductive parts.
For a correct choice of the protective device, it is necessary to know which is
the distribution system of the plant.
IEC 60364-1 classifies the distribution systems with two letters.

Figure 2: Safety curve

The first letter represents the relationship of the power system to earth:
- T: direct connection of one point to earth, in alternating current systems,
generally the neutral point;
- I: all live parts isolated from earth, or one point, in alternating current systems,
generally the neutral point, connected to earth through an impedance.

2
t [s] 10

The second letter represents the relationship of the exposed conductive parts
of the installation to earth:
- T: direct electrical connection of the exposed conductive parts to earth;
- N: direct electrical connection of the exposed conductive parts to the earthed
point of the power system.

10

Subsequent letters, if any, represent the arrangement of neutral and protective
conductors:
- S: protective function is provided by a conductor separate from the neutral
conductor;
- C: neutral and protective functions combined as a single conductor (PEN
conductor).

1

Three types of distribution system are considered:
TT System

1SDC010031F0001

10

10

2

PE

3

10
UT [V]

TN System

From this safety curve it results that for all voltage values below 50 V, the tolerance
time is indefinite; at 50 V the tolerance time is 5 s. The curve shown in the figure
refers to an ordinary location; in particular locations, the touch resistance of the
human body towards earth changes and consequently the tolerable voltage
values for an indefinite time shall be lower than 25 V.
Therefore, if the protection against indirect contact is obtained through the
disconnection of the circuit, it is necessary to ensure that such breaking is
carried out in compliance with the safety curve for any distribution system.

ABB SACE - Electrical devices

164

L1
L2
L3
PEN

ABB SACE - Electrical devices

(TN-C)

(TN-S)

N
PE

1SDC010033F0001

10-2

1SDC010032F0001

L1
L2
L3
N

10-1

165

5.2 Distribution systems

5.2 Distribution systems

5 Protection of human beings

5 Protection of human beings

IT System

In TN systems, the fault current flows towards the power supply neutral point
through a solid metallic connection, practically without involving the earth
electrode (Figure 2).
Figure 2: Earth fault in TN system

L1
L2
L3
1SDC010034F0001

N

PE

Ik

0

L1
L2
L3
PEN
Ik

(TN-C)

PE N

(TN-S)

1SDC010036F0001

In TT systems, the neutral conductor and the exposed conductive parts are
connected to earth electrodes electrically independent; the fault current flows
towards the power supply neutral point through earth (Fig. 1):
Figure 1: Earth fault in TT systems
Ik
L1
L2
L3
N

RA
Ik

In TT installations, the neutral conductor is connected to the supply star center,
it is usually distributed and has the function of making the phase voltage (e.g.
230 V) available, useful for single-phase load supply. The exposed conductive
parts, on the contrary, singularly or collectively, are locally connected to earth.
TT systems are generally used for civil installations.
TN systems are typically used when the power supply is distributed to loads
having their own electrical substation. The neutral conductor is directly earthed
in the substation; the exposed conductive parts are connected to the same
earthing point of the neutral conductor, and can be locally earthed.
Three types of TN system are considered according to the arrangement of
neutral and protective conductors:
1. TN-C neutral and protective functions are combined in a single conductor
(PEN conductor);
2. TN-S neutral and protective conductors are always separated;
3. TN-C-S neutral and protective functions are combined in a single
conductor in a part of the system (PEN) and are separated in another part
(PE + N).
ABB SACE - Electrical devices

166

Figure 3: Earth fault in IT system
L1
L2
L3
Ik
C3 C2 C1
1SDC010037F0001

1SDC010035F0001

RB

IT systems have no live parts directly connected to earth, but they can be
earthed through a sufficiently high impedance. Exposed conductive parts shall
be earthed individually, in groups or collectively to an independent earthing
electrode.
The earth fault current flows towards the power supply neutral point through
the earthing electrode and the line conductor capacitance (Figure 3).

Ik

This distribution system is used for particular plants, where the continuity of
supply is a fundamental requirement, where the absence of the supply can
cause hazards to people or considerable economical losses, or where a low
value of a first earth fault is required. In these cases, an insulation monitoring
device shall be provided for optical or acoustic signalling of possible earth
faults, or failure of the supplied equipment.

ABB SACE - Electrical devices

167

5.3 Protection against both direct and indirect contact

5 Protection of human beings

5 Protection of human beings

5.3 Protection against both direct and
indirect contact
Contacts of a person with live parts can be divided in two categories:
- direct contacts;
- indirect contacts.
A direct contact occurs when a part of the human body touches a part of the
plant, usually live (bare conductors, terminals, etc.).
A contact is indirect when a part of the human body touches an exposed
conductive parts, usually not live, but with voltage presence due to a failure or
wear of the insulating materials.
The measures of protection against direct contact are:
- insulation of live parts with an insulating material which can only be removed
by destruction (e.g. cable insulation);
- barriers or enclosures: live parts shall be inside enclosures or behind barriers
providing at least the degree of protection IPXXB or IP2X; for horizontal surfaces
the degree of protection shall be of at least IPXXD or IP4X (for the meaning of
the degree of protection codes please refer to Volume 1, chapter 6.1 Electrical
switchboards);
- obstacles: the interposition of an obstacle between the live parts and the
operator prevents unintentional contacts only, but not an intentional contact
by the removal of the obstacle without particular tools;
- placing out of reach: simultaneously accessible parts at different potentials
shall not be within arm’s reach.
An additional protection against direct contact can be obtained by using residual
current devices with a rated operating residual current not exceeding 30 mA. It
must be remembered that the use of a residual current device as a mean of
protection against direct contacts does not obviate the need to apply one of
the above specified measures of protection.
The measures of protection against indirect contact are:
- automatic disconnection of the supply: a protective device shall automatically
disconnect the supply to the circuit so that the touch voltage on the exposed
conductive part does not persist for a time sufficient to cause a risk of harmful
physiological effect for human beings;
- supplementary insulation or reinforced insulation, e.g. by the use of Class II
components;

ABB SACE - Electrical devices

168

- non-conducting locations: locations with a particular resistance value of
insulating floors and walls (≥ 50 kΩ for Ur ≤ 500 V; ≥ 100 kΩ for Ur > 500 V)
and without protective conductors inside
- electrical separation, e.g. by using an isolating transformer to supply the circuit;
- earth-free local equipotential bonding: locations where the exposed conductive
parts are connected together but not earthed.
Finally, the following measures provide combined protection against both direct
and indirect contact:
- SELV (Safety Extra Low Voltage) system and PELV (Protective Extra Low
Voltage) system;
- FELV (Functional Extra Low Voltage) system.
The protection against both direct and indirect contact is ensured if the
requirements stated in 411 from IEC 60364-4-41 are fulfilled; particularly:
- the rated voltage shall not exceeds 50 V ac r.m.s. and 120 V ripple-free dc;
- the supply shall be a SELV or PELV source;
- all the installation conditions provided for such types of electrical circuits shall
be fulfilled.
A SELV circuit has the following characteristics:
1) it is supplied by an independent source or by a safety source. Independent
sources are batteries or diesel-driven generators. Safety sources are supplies
obtained through an isolating transformer;
2) there are no earthed points. The earthing of both the exposed conductive
parts as well as of the live parts of a SELV circuit is forbidden;
3) it shall be separated from other electrical systems. The separation of a SELV
system from other circuits shall be guaranteed for all the components; for
this purpose, the conductors of the SELV circuit may be contained in multiconductor cables or may be provided with an additional insulating sheath.
A PELV circuit has the same prescription of a SELV system, except for the
prohibition of earthed points; in fact in PELV circuits, at least one point is always
earthed.

ABB SACE - Electrical devices

169

m. the phase conductor. Ia is the current causing the automatic operation within 5 s of the overcurrent protective device. connection to earth is admissible 1SDC010035F0001 L1 L2 L3 N FELV circuit earth connections by estraneous conductive parts. Figure 1 shows the main features of SELV. PELV. the protective devices must be coordinated with the earthing system in order to rapidly disconnect the supply. ABB SACE .3 Protection against both direct and indirect contact 5 Protection of human beings 5 Protection of human beings FELV circuits are used when for functional reasons the requirements for SELV or PELV circuits cannot be fulfilled.connection of the exposed conductive parts of the equipment of the FELV circuit to the protective conductor of the primary circuit. by metal pipe or structural steelwork protective conductor earth electrode 50 Ia or Rt ≤ 50 I ∆n where: Rt is the total resistance. of the circuit-breaker [A].5. equal to the sum of the earth electrode (RA) and the protective conductor for the exposed conductive parts [Ω]. the fault resistance. Assuming 50 V (25 V for particular locations) as limit voltage value. Note 1: Overcurrent protective devices are not shown in this figure. . for 1 min. . According to IEC 60364-4 requirements. the insulation of accessible non-conductive parts of the equipment shall be reinforced during erection so that it can withstand a test voltage of 1500 V ac r. connection to earth is admissible L1 L2 L3 N PE PE safety isolating transformer or equivalent source. e.Electrical devices 171 .4 TT System An earth fault in a TT system involves the circuit represented in Figure 1: Figure 1: Earth fault in TT system Ik RB The fault current involves the secondary winding of the transformer. c) plugs of FELV systems shall not be able to enter socket-outlets of other voltage systems. they require compliance with the following rules: a) protection against direct contact shall be provided by either: . within one second. I∆n is the rated residual operating current.barriers or enclosures with degree of protection in accordance with what stated above (measures of protection against direct contact). PELV and FELV systems. the condition to be fulfilled in order to limit the touch voltage on the exposed conductive parts under this limit value is: no safety source.g.s. 5. read from the tripping curve of the device [A]. no earthing PE E SELV PELV Rt ≤ E FELV PELV circuit 50 V ac 120 V dc E PE 1SDC010043F0201 Class II equipment voltage limits for extra-low voltages: RA Ik Figure 1: SELV.Electrical devices 170 ABB SACE . if the touch voltage reaches harmful values for the human body. provided that the latter is subject to one of the measures of protection against direct contact. b) protection against indirect contact shall be provided by: . FELV systems safety isolating transformer or equivalent source. If this test is not passed. the protective conductor and the earth electrode resistance (plant earthing system (RA) and earthing system which the neutral is connected to (RB))..insulation corresponding to the minimum test voltage specified for the primary circuit. and plugs of other voltage systems shall not be able to enter socket-outlets of FELV systems.connection of a live conductor of the FELV circuit to the protective conductor of the primary circuit provided that an automatic disconnection of the supply is applied as measure of protection.

the trip current value in less than 5 s. with reference to an ordinary location (50 V): 104 s 103 s 102 s Table 1: Earth resistance values 10s Rt [Ω] 5000 1666 500 166 100 16 5 1. which is not an easily obtainable value. whereas. when starting from cold conditions (the worst case for thermomagnetic releases). ABB SACE . 50 = 0. Therefore. when some feeders are protected by overcurrent devices and some others by residual current devices.4 TT System 5 Protection of human beings 5 Protection of human beings From the above. for the achievement of the coordination of all the loads with the earthing system. with the latter. it must be necessary to carry out an earthing system with an earth resistance Rt ≤ 0.Electrical devices 173 . by using the same circuit breaker mounting ABB SACE RC221 residual current release.03 A. read from the tripping characteristic curve.03 0.03 which can be easily obtained in practice.5.5 3 10 30 10-2 s 750 A 0.06 Ω 750 In order to provide the required protection.1kA 1kA 10kA So: Rt ≤ In an electrical installation with a common earthing system and loads protected by devices with different operating currents. On the contrary. it is necessary to obtain very low earth resistance values (usually less than 1 Ω) since the 5 s tripping current is generally high.06 Ω.1 0.6 5s 1s 10-1 s Example: Assuming to provide protection by using an automatic circuit breaker Tmax T1B160 R125. it is advisable to protect all the loads of a TT system by means of residual current circuit breakers coordinated with the earthing system to obtain the advantages of both a quick disconnection of the circuit when the fault occurs as well as an earthing system which can be easily accomplished.4 TT System 5. the required value of earth resistance is: Rt ≤ As a consequence. with the former. In fact. since the Rt shall be calculated on the basis of the I5s of the overcurrent device and since it is the highest tripping current between these two kind of devices. is about 750 A.shall be considered. it is possible to realize earthing systems with resistance value of thousands of ohms. 1SDC010038F0001 I∆n [A] 0. it is clear that Rt value is considerably different when using automatic circuit breakers instead of residual current devices.Electrical devices 172 ABB SACE . Table 1 reports the maximum earth resistance values which can be obtained using residual current devices. 50 = 1666. the worst case represented by the device with the highest tripping current . all the advantages deriving from the use of residual current releases are nullified.01 0. which are easier to be carried out. with rated residual operating current I∆n = 0.6 Ω 0.3 0.

Ia is the current causing the automatic operation of the disconnecting protective device within the time stated in Table 1.5 TN System 5 Protection of human beings 5 Protection of human beings In TN installations.4 0. thus limiting the short-circuit current.5 TN System An earth fault in a TN system involves the circuit represented in Figure 1: Figure 1: Earth fault in TN system The use of residual current devices improves the conditions for protection in particular when the fault impedance doesn’t have a low value. Ik Ik PE N Finally. due to the low value of the impedance of the fault loop. for distribution circuits.00 kVA cosϕ = 0. according to IEC 60364-4 prescriptions. therefore.2 0. an earth fault with low impedance occurring on the LV side causes a short circuit current with quite high value. I a ≤ U0 Example: In the plant represented in Figure 2. voltage to earth [V].38% Iz = 134. 5.m. it is important to highlight the fact that the residual current devices cannot be used in TN-C system. since the neutral and protective functions are provided by a unique conductor: this configuration prevents the residual current device from working. a conventional disconnecting time not exceeding 5 s is permitted [A].4s) ≤ U0 = I kLG = 3 kA Zs Figure 2 U where: Zs is the impedance of the fault loop comprising the source. -QF1 T1B 160 R125 -WC1 3x(1x50)+1x(1x25)+1G25 PVC Cu dV = 0. the earth fault current is: Ik LG = 3 kA The rated voltage to earth is 230 V. it shall be verified that: I a ( 0.1 L 174 -U1 Ur = 400 V LLLN / TN-S ABB SACE .8 0.Electrical devices Disconnecting time [s] 0. (TN-S) The fault loop does not affect the earthing system and is basically formed by the connection in series of the phase conductor and of the protective conductor.0 kA Table 1: Maximum disconnecting times for TN system U0 [V] 120 230 400 > 400 ABB SACE .s. the following condition shall be fulfilled: Z s . To provide a protection with automatic disconnection of the circuit. this current can persist for quite long time causing overheating of the conductors and fire risks. the live conductor up to the point of the fault and the protective conductor between the point of the fault and the source [Ω]. according to Table 1. if the protection is provided by means of a residual current device.90 175 . U0 is the nominal ac r. Ia is the rated residual operating current I∆n.Electrical devices 1SDC010039F0001 (TN-C) 1SDC010036F0001 0 L1 L2 L3 PEN Sr = 70. as a function of the rated voltage U0 or.0 A L = 20 m -B1 Ik LG = 3. The protection against indirect contact can be provided by automatic circuit-breakers: it is necessary to verify that the operating current within the stated times is lower than the short-circuit current.5.

UL is 50 V for ordinary locations (25 V for particular locations). tolerable by the human body for an indefinite time.6 IT System As represented in Figure 1. as shown in the safety curve (see Chapter 5. the automatic disconnection of the circuit in case of the first earth fault is not necessary only if the following condition is fulfilled: 1s Rt . As a consequence.Electrical devices 177 .0 kA 104 s Figure1: Earth fault in IT system L1 L2 L3 103 s Ik 3x(1x50)+1x(1x25)+1G25 C3 C2 C1 1SDC010037F0001 102 s T1B160 R125 101 s Ik According to IEC 60364-4. Figure 3: LG Time-Current curves IkLG=3. 5.Electrical devices 950 A 1kA 10kA 176 where: Rt is the resistance of the earth electrode for exposed conductive parts [Ω]. Id is the fault current. it is clear that the circuit-breaker trips in 0. of the first fault of negligible impedance between a phase conductor and an exposed conductive part [A]. the first earth fault is characterized by such an extremely low current value to prevent the overcurrent protections from disconnecting. I d ≤ U L 1SDC010040F0001 0. the touch voltage value on the exposed conductive parts is lower than 50 V.5 TN System 5 Protection of human beings 5 Protection of human beings From the tripping curve (Figure 3). after the first fault.4s 10-1 s 0. In IT system installations. without the necessity of using an additional residual current device.1kA ABB SACE . the deriving touch voltage is very low.1 “General aspects: effects of current on human beings”).4 s for a current value lower than 950 A. the earth fault current in an IT system flows through the line conductor capacitance to the power supply neutral point. If this condition is fulfilled. the protection against indirect contact is provided by the same circuit-breaker which protects the cable against short-circuit and overload. For this reason. an insulation monitoring device shall be provided to ABB SACE .5.

in case of an earth fault if the I∆ value exceeds the rated residual operating current I∆n.6 IT System 5 Protection of human beings 5 Protection of human beings indicate the occurrence of a first earth fault.8 0. if the requirements mentioned at point b) cannot be fulfilled by using an overcurrent protective device. whether suddenly applied or slowly rising.8 5 0. . for residual sinusoidal alternating currents and residual pulsating direct currents. The residual current device threshold shall be carefully chosen in order to avoid unwanted tripping.AC type: the tripping is ensured for residual sinusoidal alternating currents.4 0. Another classification referred to the operating time delay is: .2 IEC 60364-4 states that. r 2 Ia L N if the neutral is distributed: U Z 's ≤ . • Ia is the operating current of the protection device in the disconnecting time specified in Table 1. the circuit at the secondary side of the toroid sends a command signal to a dedicated opening coil causing the tripping of the circuit-breaker. the conditions of a TN system apply.time delayed S-type.2 0. ABB SACE . whether suddenly applied or slowly rising. the protection of every supplied load shall be provided by means of a residual current device.4 “TT system”). the following conditions shall be fulfilled: if the neutral is not distributed: The operating principle of the residual current release is basically the detection of an earth fault current. the vectorial sum of the currents I∆ is equal to zero. R 1SDC010041F0001 T Table 1: Maximum disconnecting time in IT systems Rated voltage U0/Ur [V] 120/240 230/400 400/690 580/1000 disconnecting time [s] neutral not distributed neutral distributed 0. . • Ur is the rated voltage between phases [V]. whether suddenly applied or slowly rising. the supply shall be disconnected according to the following modalities: 5.Electrical devices 178 ABB SACE . • Z’s is the impedance of the fault loop comprising the neutral conductor and the protective conductor of the circuit [Ω]. or within 5 s for distribution circuits.4 0. b) where exposed conductive parts are interconnected by a protective conductor collectively earthed. the conditions for protection are the same as for TT systems (see Chapter 5. due also to the particular path followed by the first fault current through the line conductor capacitance to the power supply neutral point (instead of the faulted line. . in particular.5. included the neutral if distributed. in the event of a second fault.undelayed type. 0 2 Ia where • U0 is the rated voltage between phase and neutral [V]. A first classification of RCDs can be made according to the type of the fault current they can detect: .B type: tripping is ensured for residual direct currents. Figure 1: Operating principle of the residual current device U Zs ≤ . • Zs is the impedance of the fault loop comprising the phase conductor and the protective conductor of the circuit [Ω].A type: tripping is ensured for residual sinusoidal alternating currents and residual pulsating direct currents. another sound line with higher capacitance could be affected by a higher fault current value). In absence of an earth fault.1 0.Electrical devices 179 . by means of a toroid transformer which embraces all the live conductors.7 Residual current devices (RCDs) Generalities on residual current circuit-breakers a) where exposed conductive parts are earthed in groups or individually.

a signal commands the opening mechanism of a circuit-breaker or a line contactor.pure residual current circuit-breakers (RCCBs): they have only the residual current release and can protect only against earth fault.3: Type of release). As a conclusion. since the other RCDs do not detect any fault current. Chapter 2. in order to avoid unwanted tripping.Electrical devices 181 . discrimination between two RCDs connected in series can be achieved: .5 s 180 ABB SACE . in case of earth fault. also the whole of the leakage currents in the plant. .residual current circuit-breakers with external toroid: they are used in industrial plants with high earth fault currents. it is possible to distinguish among: . they provide the protection against both overcurrents as well as earth fault current.§ 413. located on the supply side. these devices shall satisfy both the following conditions: . for this reason.for S type residual current circuit-breakers. Figure 2: Horizontal discrimination between RCDs I∆ ABB SACE . According to IEC 60364-5-53. which represents the maximum value of the residual current which does not cause the circuit breaker trip.for 0. it is necessary to consider. RCQ) by choosing the upstream device with time and current thresholds directly greater than the downstream device.7 Residual current devices 5 Protection of human beings 5 Protection of human beings RCDs can be coupled.3 A t inst.5 s I∆ I∆ 00. .3 A t 0. for the protection against thermal and dynamical stresses.for I∆ < 0.vertical discrimination: it is realized by using RCDs connected in series. . There are two types of discrimination between RCDs: . if any. Discrimination between RCDs The Standard IEC 60364-5-53 states that discrimination between residual current protective devices installed in series may be required for service reasons. . it is possible to conclude that: .residual current circuit-breakers with overcurrent protection (RCBOs): they are the combination of a thermomagnetic circuit breaker and a RCD. .3 A t 0. They must be coupled with thermomagnetic circuit-breakers or fuses.the rated residual operating current on the device located on the supply side shall be higher than that of the residual current protective device located on the load side. However.5⋅I∆n the RCD shall not operate. in addition to the coordination with the earthing system.for electronic residual current releases (RC211/212. in case of earth fault.7 Residual current devices 5.5⋅I∆n < I∆ < I∆n the RCD could operate. Figure 3: Vertical discrimination between RCDs I∆ I∆ 1 A t1s I∆ I∆ 0. with other devices. it is necessary to provide protective measures against indirect contacts in the part of the switchboard and of the plant upstream the RCD. the maximum disconnecting time at I∆n shall not exceed 1 s (IEC 60364-4-41.5⋅I∆n.5 I∆n.1) I∆ 0. RC221/222. Therefore.for I∆ > I∆n the RCD shall operate. a very important parameter for residual current devices is the residual non-operating current. This discrimination can be achieved by selecting and installing RCDs in order to provide the disconnection from the supply by the RCD closest to the fault. to provide continuity of supply to the parts of the installation not involved by the fault. their vectorial sums on each phase shall not be greater than 0. by choosing general type circuit-breakers located downstream with I∆n equal to one third of I∆n of the upstream ones. 1. For the protection against indirect contacts in distribution circuits in TT system. For the choice of the rated operating residual current. or not.the non-actuating time-current characteristic of the residual current protective device located on the supply side (upstream) shall lie above the total operating time-current characteristic of the residual current protective device located on the load side (downstream). it is equal to 0. keeping carefully into consideration the tolerances (see Vol. The non-actuating time-current characteristic is the curve reporting the maximum time value during which a residual current greater than the residual non-operating current (equal to 0. They are composed by a release connected to an external toroid with a winding for the detection of the residual current. only the faulted line is disconnected. time-delayed type. (complying with IEC 61008-1 and IEC 61009).5. Given I∆n the operating residual current.5. . particularly when safety is involved.I∆n) involves the residual current circuitbreaker without causing the tripping.5 s I∆ .Electrical devices I∆ 0.3 A t 0. in this way.horizontal discrimination: it provides the protection of each line by using a dedicated residual current circuit breaker. to ensure discrimination between two residual current protective devices in series.

Electrical devices 183 .2 is the magnetic threshold tolerance allowed by the Standard. TN system The formula for the evaluation of the minimum short circuit current is: I k min = L= L1 L2 L3 N PE PE S⋅ n is the ratio between the total phase conductor cross section SPE Ik N L3 L2 L1 1SDC010043F0001 PE REN SN ⋅ n is the ratio between the total neutral conductor cross section SPE (single neutral conductor cross section SN multiplied by n.8 is the coefficient representing the reduction of the voltage. number of conductors in parallel) and the protective conductor cross section SPE assuming they are made of the same conductor material. it shall be verified that the circuitbreaker trips within a time lower than the maximum time stated by the Standard.5.8 ⋅ U 0 ⋅ S ⋅ k1 ⋅ k2 1. .8 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings 5 Protection of human beings 5 Protection of human beings . . due to the overheating caused by the short-circuit current.SPE is the protection conductor cross section. assuming that: .L is the length of the cable. For the calculation of the minimum short-circuit current.80 240 0. . .2 ⋅ ρ ⋅ (1 + m) ⋅ I k min Dy (single phase conductor cross section S multiplied by n.Ur is the rated voltage between phases. is accepted. with respect to the 20 °C value.m= n−1 n 120 0.72 182 IT system The formulas below are valid when a second fault turns the IT system into a TN system. number of conductors in parallel) and the protective conductor cross section SPE assuming they are made of the same conductor material.a 80 % reduction of the supply voltage is considered as effect of the short-circuit current.a 50 % increasing of the conductors resistance.m1= 0. ABB SACE .90 150 0. . For the protection against indirect contact. obtainable from the following table: Phase conductor cross section [mm2] k1 ABB SACE . .8 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings As described in the previous chapters. .1. It is necessary to separately examine installations with neutral not distributed and neutral distributed.8 ⋅ U 0 ⋅ S ⋅ k1 ⋅ k2 1.Electrical devices 0. this verification is carried out by comparing the minimum short-circuit current of the exposed conductive part to be protected with the operating current corresponding to the time stated by the Standard. .5 ⋅ 1. . .k1 is the correction factor which takes into account the reactance of cables with cross section larger than 95 mm2. . .k2 is the correction factor for conductors in parallel. k2 = 4 where n is the number of conductor in parallel per phase.S is the phase conductor cross section.2 ⋅ ρ ⋅ (1 + m) ⋅ L and consequently: Legend of the symbols and constants of the formula: . . in order to avoid pathophysiological effects for people touching live parts.85 185 0.5 is the coefficient representing the increasing in the resistance.75 300 0.1. obtainable by the following formula: 5. the Standards give indications about the maximum disconnecting time for the protective devices.ρ is the conductor resistivity at 20 °C. . The formula below is obtained by applying Ohm’s law between the protective device and the fault point.5 ⋅ 1.0. The minimum short-circuit current occurs when there is a short-circuit between the phase and the protective conductors at the farthest point on the protected conductor.SN is the neutral conductor cross section. an approximate method can be used.the conductor reactance is considered only for cross sections larger than 95 mm2.U0 is the rated voltage between phase and ground.

6 Table 1 for IT systems.2 ⋅ ρ ⋅ (1 + m) ⋅ I k min Protective conductor cross section SPE [mm2] S 16 S/2 Note: phase and protective conductors having the same isolation and conductive materials Case B: three-phase + neutral circuits in IT system with neutral distributed Whenever the S function (delayed short-circuit) of electronic releases is used for the definition of the maximum protected length. The formula is: I k min = 0. it is necessary to verify that the tripping time is lower than the time value reported in Chapter 5.Electrical devices For conditions different from the reference ones.2 ⋅ ρ ⋅ (1 + m) ⋅ I k min Dy PE Z Ik PE L3 L2 L1 Ik N L3 L2 L1 L2 1SDC010045F0001 L1 PE L3 PE REN PE Z Ik B Note for the use of the tables PE L3 L2 L1 L3 L2 L1 1SDC010044F0001 Ik A PE REN The tables showing the maximum protected length (MPL) have been defined considering the following conditions: .8 ⋅ U 0 ⋅ S ⋅ k1⋅ k2 2 ⋅ 1.5 ⋅ 1.2 ⋅ ρ ⋅ (1 + m1) ⋅ I k min 184 ABB SACE .one cable per phase. the following correction factors shall be applied.5 ⋅ 1.2 ⋅ ρ ⋅ (1 + m1) ⋅ L and consequently: L= ABB SACE .8 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings 5 Protection of human beings 5 Protection of human beings Neutral not distributed Dy L1 When a second fault occurs.2 ⋅ ρ ⋅ (1 + m) ⋅ L L3 N PE and consequently: L= 0.8 ⋅U r ⋅ S ⋅ k1⋅ k 2 2 ⋅1. .5 ⋅ 1. .rated voltage equal to 400 V (three-phase system).5 ⋅ 1.neutral not distributed.copper cables.8 ⋅ U 0 ⋅ SN ⋅ k1⋅ k 2 2 ⋅ 1.5 ⋅1.5 ⋅ 1. .protective conductor cross section according to Table 1: Neutral distributed Case A: three-phase circuits in IT system with neutral distributed The formula is: I k min = Table 1: Protective conductor cross section 0. the formula becomes: I k min L2 0.8 ⋅ U r ⋅ S = ⋅ k1 ⋅ k2 2 ⋅ 1.8 ⋅ U 0 ⋅ SN ⋅ k1⋅ k 2 2 ⋅ 1.Electrical devices 185 .5.8 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings 5. .5 Table 1 for TN systems and in Chapter 5.2 ⋅ ρ ⋅ (1 + m) ⋅ L Phase conductor cross section S [mm2] S ≤ 16 16 < S ≤ 35 S > 35 and consequently: L= 0. for IT system only.8 ⋅ U 0 ⋅ S ⋅ k1⋅ k2 2 ⋅ 1. 0.

2: Curve B For 230 V single-phase systems.5.58.75 kPE 0.11 1.13 1.7 3 3. 6 3.86 1.2 0.91 1.19 1.55 0.5 1.4 8 3.8 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings 5.Electrical devices 186 CURVE In I3 S 1.06 0.73 TN system MPL by MCB Table 2.71 2.39 1.2 n is the number of conductors in parallel per phase.00 Correction factor for neutral distributed in IT system (for Table 3 only): the value of the maximum protected length shall be multiplied by 0.25 1.91 1.59 1.02 1.67 0.3: Curve C CURVE C C C In ≤3 4 6 I3 30 40 60 S SPE 1.1 500 1.06 1.5 Correction factor for three-phase voltage different from 400 V: the value of the maximum protected length read in Table 2 (TN system) or Table 3 (IT system) shall be multiplied by the following factor: voltage [V] kV 230 0.1: Curve Z CURVE In I3 S 1.8 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings 5 Protection of human beings 5 Protection of human beings Correction factors Correction factor for cable in parallel per phase: the value of the maximum protected length read in Table 2 (TN system) or Table 3 (IT system) shall be multiplied by the following factor: n 2 3 4 5 kp 2 2.42 1.75 0.85 1.5 4 6 10 16 16 16 B ≤6 30 B 8 40 B 10 50 B 13 65 B 16 80 B 20 100 B 25 125 B 32 160 B 40 200 B 50 250 B 63 315 173 288 461 692 1153 1845 2250 130 216 346 519 865 1384 1688 104 173 277 415 692 1107 1350 80 133 213 319 532 852 1039 65 108 173 259 432 692 844 52 86 138 208 346 554 675 42 69 111 166 277 443 540 32 54 86 130 216 346 422 26 43 69 104 173 277 338 35 55 83 138 221 270 27 44 66 110 176 214 B 80 400 B 100 500 35 52 86 138 169 190 28 42 69 111 135 152 Table 2.54 1. Correction factor for aluminium cables: the value of the maximum protected length read in Table 2 (TN system) or Table 3 (IT system) shall be multiplied by the following factor: kAl 0. ABB SACE .00 1.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 SPE 1.5 4 6 10 16 25 SPE 1.80 1.28 1.20 1.67 1.77 1.93 1.71 0.6 0.5 4 6 10 16 16 Z ≤10 30 Z 13 39 Z 16 48 Z 20 60 Z 25 75 Z 32 96 Z 40 120 Z 50 150 Z 63 189 173 288 461 692 1153 1845 2250 133 221 354 532 886 1419 1730 108 180 288 432 721 1153 1406 86 144 231 346 577 923 1125 69 115 185 277 461 738 900 54 90 144 216 360 577 703 43 72 115 173 288 461 563 58 92 138 231 369 450 45 72 108 180 288 352 Table 2.10 1.25 690 1.8 1.5 173 130 86 2.3 7 3. no correction factor is necessary.5 2.5 288 216 144 4 4 461 346 231 6 6 692 519 346 10 10 1153 865 577 16 16 1845 1384 923 25 16 2250 1688 1125 35 16 ABB SACE .5 2.48 1.96 1.00 0.64 Correction factor for protective conductor cross section SPE different from the cross sections stated in Table 1: the value of the maximum protected length shall be multiplied by the coefficient corresponding to the phase conductor cross section and to the ratio between the protective conductor (PE) and the phase cross sections: SPE/S S ≤16 mm2 25 mm2 35 mm2 >35 mm2 0.Electrical devices C 8 80 C 10 100 C 13 130 C 16 160 C 20 200 C 25 250 C 32 320 C 40 400 C 50 500 C 63 630 65 108 173 259 432 692 844 52 86 138 208 346 554 675 40 67 106 160 266 426 519 32 54 86 130 216 346 422 26 21 16 13 43 35 27 22 17 14 69 55 43 35 28 22 104 83 65 52 42 33 173 138 108 86 69 55 277 221 173 138 111 88 338 270 211 169 135 107 C C C 80 100 125 800 1000 1250 17 26 43 69 84 95 14 21 35 55 68 76 11 17 28 44 54 61 187 .5 2.37 1.5 2.66 0.5 1.5 0.33 1.5 2.29 0.20 1.27 1.87 1 1.58 400 1 440 1.5 2 0.13 2.13 0.

5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 T2 T2 In 1.5 216 144 4 4 346 231 6 6 519 346 10 10 865 577 16 16 1384 923 25 16 1688 1125 35 16 D 4 80 D 6 120 D 8 160 D 10 200 D 13 260 D 16 320 D 20 400 D 25 500 D 32 640 D D D D D 40 50 63 80 100 800 1000 1260 1600 2000 65 108 173 259 432 692 844 43 72 115 173 288 461 563 32 54 86 130 216 346 422 26 43 69 104 173 277 338 20 33 53 80 133 213 260 16 27 43 65 108 173 211 13 22 35 52 86 138 169 10 17 28 42 69 111 135 8 14 22 32 54 86 105 6 11 17 26 43 69 84 ABB SACE .Electrical devices S 1.5 2.5.7: Tmax T2 TMD 9 14 21 35 55 68 7 11 16 27 44 54 9 13 22 35 42 47 7 10 17 28 34 38 188 S 1.5 2.Electrical devices 123 205 328 491 819 1311 1598 98 164 262 393 655 1048 1279 79 131 210 315 524 839 1023 1151 62 104 166 250 416 666 812 914 49 82 131 197 328 524 639 720 1092 39 66 105 157 262 419 511 576 874 31 52 84 126 210 335 409 460 699 979 8 13 21 31 52 84 102 115 175 245 343 417 518 526 17 25 42 67 81 91 139 194 273 331 411 418 13 20 33 52 64 72 109 153 215 261 324 329 10 16 26 42 51 58 87 122 172 209 259 263 8 13 21 34 41 46 70 98 137 167 207 211 10 16 26 32 36 55 76 107 130 162 165 189 .5 130 86 2.6: TmaxT1 TMD Table 2.8 6 8 10 11 13 15 16 20 25 26 32 37 40 41 45 50 63 56 59 81 84 112 140 154 182 210 224 280 350 364 448 518 560 574 630 700 882 92 88 154 146 246 234 369 350 615 584 984 934 1201 1140 64 106 170 255 425 681 830 62 103 164 246 410 656 800 46 77 123 185 308 492 600 37 62 98 148 246 394 480 34 56 89 134 224 358 437 28 47 76 114 189 303 369 25 41 66 98 164 263 320 23 38 62 92 154 246 300 18 31 49 74 123 197 240 15 25 39 59 98 158 192 14 24 38 57 95 151 185 12 19 31 46 77 123 150 10 17 27 40 67 106 130 9 15 25 37 62 98 120 15 24 36 60 96 117 14 22 33 55 88 107 20 30 49 79 96 16 23 39 63 76 Table 2.5 4 4 6 6 10 10 16 16 25 16 K ≤2 28 K ≤3 42 185 308 492 738 1231 1969 2401 123 205 328 492 820 1313 1601 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K 4 4.5 1.8 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings 5.5 2.2 4 5 6.5 246 197 2.5: Curve D CURVE D D In ≤2 3 I3 40 60 S SPE 1.5 16÷50 63 80 100 125 160 10 In 10 In 10 In 10 In 10 In 10 In 10 In 10 In 500 A 10 In 10 In 10 In 10 In 10 In 157 262 419 629 1048 1677 ABB SACE .2 5.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 In I3 SPE 1.4: Curve K CURVE In I3 S SPE 1.6 2 I3 10 In 10 In SPE 1.5 3.5 2.8 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings 5 Protection of human beings 5 Protection of human beings TN system MPL by MCB TN system MPL by MCCB Table 2.5 2.5 1.3 8 10 12.5 2.5 410 328 4 655 524 6 983 786 10 1638 1311 16 2621 2097 16 16 25 35 50 70 95 95 T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 2.5 4 6 10 16 16 16 25 35 50 T1 ≤50 500 A T1 63 10 In T1 80 10 In T1 100 10 In T1 125 10 In T1 160 10 In 6 10 15 23 38 62 75 84 128 179 252 12 18 31 49 60 67 102 142 200 10 14 24 38 47 53 80 112 157 8 12 19 31 38 42 64 90 126 6 9 15 25 30 34 51 72 101 7 12 19 23 26 40 56 79 Table 2.

9: SACE Isomax S3 TM S 1.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 In I3 SPE 2.5 4 6 10 16 16 16 25 35 50 70 95 95 Table 2.5 In T2 160 5. using function S the MPL shall be multiplied by 1. S3 with I3=10 In shall be applied Note 1: if the setting of function S or I is different from the reference value (6) the MPL value shall be multiplied by the ratio between the reference value and the set value.1.5 2.5 2.8 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings 5 Protection of human beings TN system MPL by MCCB In I3 SPE 4 6 10 16 16 16 25 35 50 70 95 95 120 S 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 5 Protection of human beings TN system MPL by MCCB Table 2.5 4 6 10 16 16 16 25 35 50 70 95 95 120 150 S4 100 6 In S4 160 6 In S4 250 6 In 12 19 29 48 77 94 106 160 224 315 382 475 483 18 30 48 59 66 100 140 197 239 297 302 19 31 38 42 64 90 126 153 190 193 S5 320 6 In S5 400 6 In S5 630 6 In S6 630 6 In 24 29 33 50 70 98 119 148 151 180 216 23 26 40 56 79 96 119 121 144 173 25 36 50 61 75 77 92 110 25 36 50 61 75 77 92 110 S6 S7 S7 S7 S8 S8 S8 S8 800 1000 1250 1600 1600 2000 2500 3200 6 In 6 In 6 In 6 In 6 In 6 In 6 In 6 In 20 28 39 48 59 60 72 86 22 31 38 48 48 58 69 18 25 31 38 39 46 55 14 20 24 30 30 36 43 14 20 24 30 30 36 43 16 19 24 24 29 35 13 15 19 19 23 28 10 12 15 15 18 22 Note: for S3X.8: Tmax T3 TMD T3 63 10 In T3 80 10 In T3 100 10 In T3 125 10 In 17 25 42 67 81 91 139 194 273 331 411 418 499 13 20 33 52 64 72 109 153 215 261 324 329 393 10 16 26 42 51 58 87 122 172 209 259 263 315 8 13 21 34 41 46 70 98 137 167 207 211 252 T3 160 10 In T3 200 10 In 10 16 26 32 36 55 76 107 130 162 165 197 8 13 21 26 29 44 61 86 104 130 132 157 T3 250 10 In In I3 SPE 1. S4 and S6 values shall respectively be applied ABB SACE .5.5 4 6 10 16 16 16 25 35 50 70 95 95 S 1.5 In T2 63 5.11: SACE Isomax S4÷S8 with PR211. Table 2. Besides.5) the value of the MPL shall be multiplied by the ratio between the reference value and the set value.5 2.5 In T2 25 5. Note 2: for S4X and S6X.5 In T2 100 5.10: Tmax T2 with PR221 DS-LI T2 10 5.PR212 S3 S3 S3 S3 S3 S3 S3 S3 S3 32÷50 80 100 125 160 200 250 32÷50 80 500 A 10 In 10 In 10 In 10 In 10 In 10 In 300 A 5 In 8 13 21 31 52 84 102 115 175 245 343 417 518 526 13 20 33 52 64 72 109 153 215 261 324 329 10 16 26 42 51 58 87 122 172 209 259 263 8 13 21 34 41 46 70 98 137 167 207 211 10 16 26 32 36 55 76 107 130 162 165 8 13 21 26 29 44 61 86 104 130 132 10 17 20 23 35 49 69 83 104 105 13 22 35 52 87 140 170 192 291 408 572 695 864 877 26 39 66 105 128 144 218 306 429 521 648 658 S3 100 5 In 21 31 52 84 102 115 175 245 343 417 518 526 S3 125 5 In 17 25 42 67 81 91 139 194 273 331 411 418 S3 160 5 In 20 33 52 64 72 109 153 215 261 324 329 S3 200 5 In 16 26 42 51 58 87 122 172 209 259 263 S3 250 5 In 21 34 41 46 70 98 137 167 207 211 S 2.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 In I3 SPE 1.8 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings 5.5 In 79 131 210 315 524 839 1023 1151 1747 2446 3434 4172 5183 5265 31 52 84 126 210 335 409 460 699 979 1374 1669 2073 2106 12 21 33 50 83 133 162 183 277 388 545 662 823 836 21 31 52 84 102 115 175 245 343 417 518 526 20 33 52 64 72 109 153 215 261 324 329 Note: if the setting of function I is different from the reference value (5.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 10 17 20 23 35 49 69 83 104 105 126 Table 2.5 2.Electrical devices 190 ABB SACE .Electrical devices 191 .

5 1.5 2.5 4 6 10 16 16 Table 3.5 1.Electrical devices 193 .5 4 6 10 16 25 35 55 92 148 221 369 590 720 B ≤6 30 B 8 40 B 10 50 B 13 65 B 16 80 B 20 100 B 25 125 B 32 160 B 40 200 B 50 250 B 63 315 150 250 400 599 999 1598 1949 112 187 300 449 749 1199 1462 90 150 240 360 599 959 1169 69 115 184 277 461 738 899 56 94 150 225 375 599 731 45 75 120 180 300 479 585 36 60 96 144 240 384 468 28 47 75 112 187 300 365 22 37 60 90 150 240 292 30 48 72 120 192 234 24 38 57 95 152 186 B 80 400 B 100 500 30 45 75 120 146 165 24 36 60 96 117 132 CURVE D D In ≤2 3 I3 40 60 S SPE 1.5 268 178 134 4 4 428 285 214 6 6 642 428 321 10 10 1070 713 535 16 16 1712 1141 856 25 16 2088 1392 1044 K K 4.8 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings 5.5 2.5 4 6 10 16 16 16 40 67 107 161 268 428 522 32 54 86 128 214 342 418 29 49 78 117 195 311 380 25 41 66 99 165 263 321 21 36 57 86 143 228 278 20 33 54 80 134 214 261 16 27 43 64 107 171 209 13 21 34 51 86 137 167 12 21 33 49 82 132 161 10 17 27 40 67 107 130 9 14 23 35 58 93 113 8 13 21 32 54 86 104 13 21 31 52 84 102 12 19 29 48 76 93 17 26 43 68 84 14 20 34 54 66 Table 3.3: Curve C CURVE C C In ≤3 4 I3 30 40 S SPE 1.5 2.5 150 112 2.1: Curve Z CURVE In I3 S 1.2: Curve B CURVE In I3 S 1.5 4 6 10 16 25 SPE 1.5: Curve D Table 3.8 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings 5 Protection of human beings 5 Protection of human beings IT system MPL by MCB IT system MPL by MCB Table 3.8 59 81 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K 6 8 10 11 13 15 16 20 25 26 32 37 40 41 45 50 63 84 112 140 154 182 210 224 280 350 364 448 518 560 574 630 700 882 76 127 204 306 510 815 994 54 89 143 214 357 571 696 SPE 1.Electrical devices C C C 80 100 125 800 1000 1250 15 22 37 60 73 82 12 18 30 48 58 66 10 14 24 38 47 53 192 ABB SACE .5 250 187 4 4 400 300 6 6 599 449 10 10 999 749 16 16 1598 1199 25 16 1949 1462 35 16 C 6 60 C 8 80 C 10 100 C 13 130 C 16 160 C 20 200 C 25 250 C 32 320 C 40 400 C 50 500 C 63 630 75 125 200 300 499 799 974 56 94 150 225 375 599 731 45 75 120 180 300 479 585 35 58 92 138 230 369 450 28 47 75 112 187 300 365 22 37 60 90 150 240 292 18 30 48 72 120 192 234 14 23 37 56 94 150 183 11 19 30 45 75 120 146 15 24 36 60 96 117 12 19 29 48 76 93 ABB SACE .5 161 107 80 2.5.5 1.2 5.5 2.5 112 75 2.5 2.5 2.4: Curve K Z ≤8 30 Z 10 30 Z 13 39 Z 16 48 Z 20 60 Z 25 75 Z 32 96 Z 40 120 Z 50 150 Z 63 189 150 250 400 599 999 1598 1949 150 250 400 599 999 1598 1949 115 192 307 461 768 1229 1499 94 156 250 375 624 999 1218 75 125 200 300 499 799 974 60 100 160 240 400 639 780 47 78 125 187 312 499 609 37 62 100 150 250 400 487 50 80 120 200 320 390 40 63 95 159 254 309 CURVE K K K In ≤2 ≤3 4 I3 28 42 56 S SPE 1.5 187 125 4 4 300 200 6 6 449 300 10 10 749 499 16 16 1199 799 25 16 1462 974 35 D 4 80 D 6 120 D 8 160 D 10 200 D 13 260 D 16 320 D 20 400 D 25 500 D 32 640 D D D D D 40 50 63 80 100 800 1000 1260 1600 2000 56 94 150 225 375 599 731 37 62 100 150 250 400 487 28 47 75 112 187 300 365 22 37 60 90 150 240 292 17 29 46 69 115 184 225 14 23 37 56 94 150 183 11 19 30 45 75 120 146 9 15 24 36 60 96 117 7 12 19 28 47 75 91 6 9 15 22 37 60 73 7 12 18 30 48 58 6 10 14 24 38 46 7 11 19 30 37 41 6 9 15 24 29 33 Table 3.5 2.

3 8 10 12.5 2.8:Tmax T3 TMD T1 80 10 In 11 16 26 42 52 58 88 123 173 T1 100 10 In 8 12 21 33 41 46 69 97 136 T1 125 10 In 7 10 17 27 32 37 55 78 109 T1 160 10 In 5 8 13 21 26 29 44 62 87 In I3 S 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 6 10 17 20 23 35 49 68 SPE 4 6 10 16 16 16 25 35 50 70 95 95 120 T3 63 10 In T3 80 10 In T3 100 10 In T3 125 10 In T3 160 10 In T3 200 10 In T3 250 10 In 14 22 36 58 70 79 120 168 236 287 356 362 432 11 17 28 45 55 62 95 132 186 226 281 285 340 9 14 23 36 44 50 76 106 149 181 224 228 272 7 11 18 29 35 40 61 85 119 145 180 182 218 9 14 23 28 31 47 66 93 113 140 142 170 7 11 18 22 25 38 53 74 90 112 114 136 9 15 18 20 30 42 59 72 90 91 109 Table 3.7: Tmax T2 TMD Table 3.6: Tmax T1 TMD T1 ≤50 500 A In I3 SPE 1.Electrical devices 195 .5 2.5 4 6 10 16 16 16 25 35 50 S 1.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 In I3 SPE 1.6 2 2.516÷50 63 80 100 125 10 In 10 In 10 In 10 In 10 In 10 In 10 In 500 A 10 In 10 In 10 In 10 In 136 106 227 177 363 284 545 426 908 709 1453 1135 1384 85 142 227 340 567 908 1107 68 113 182 272 454 726 886 997 54 90 144 216 360 576 703 791 43 71 113 170 284 454 554 623 946 34 57 91 136 227 363 443 498 757 27 7 45 11 73 18 109 27 182 45 291 73 354 89 399 100 605 151 847 212 297 361 449 456 14 22 36 58 70 79 120 168 236 287 356 362 11 17 28 45 55 62 95 132 186 226 281 285 9 14 23 36 44 50 76 106 149 181 224 228 7 11 18 29 35 40 61 85 119 145 180 182 T2 160 10 In 9 14 23 28 31 47 66 93 113 140 142 S 1.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 5 8 13 20 33 53 65 73 111 155 218 T1 63 10 In Table 3.5 2.8 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings 5 Protection of human beings 5 Protection of human beings IT system MPL by MCCB IT system MPL by MCCB Table 3.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 In I3 SPE 1.5 2.5 4 6 10 16 16 16 25 35 50 70 95 95 T2 T2 T2 1.9: SACE Isomax S3 TM S 1.8 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings 5.Electrical devices 194 ABB SACE .5 2.5 2.2 4 5 6.5 10 In 10 In 10 In 213 355 567 851 1419 2270 170 284 454 681 1135 1816 T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 3.5.5 4 6 10 16 16 16 25 35 50 70 95 95 S3 S3 S3 S3 S3 S3 S3 S3 S3 32÷50 80 100 125 160 200 250 32÷50 80 500 A 10 In 10 In 10 In 10 In 10 In 10 In 300 A 5 In 7 11 18 27 45 73 89 100 151 212 297 361 449 456 11 17 28 45 55 62 95 132 186 226 281 285 9 14 23 36 44 50 76 106 149 181 224 228 7 11 18 29 35 40 61 85 119 145 180 182 9 14 23 28 31 47 66 93 113 140 142 7 11 18 22 25 38 53 74 90 112 114 9 15 18 20 30 42 59 72 90 91 11 19 30 45 76 121 148 166 252 353 496 602 748 760 23 34 57 91 111 125 189 265 372 452 561 570 S3 100 5 In S3 125 5 In S3 160 5 In S3 200 5 In S3 250 5 In 18 27 45 73 89 100 151 212 297 361 449 456 14 22 36 58 70 79 120 168 236 287 356 362 17 28 45 55 62 95 132 186 226 281 285 14 23 36 44 50 76 106 149 181 224 228 18 29 35 40 61 85 119 145 180 182 Note: for S3X S3 with I3=10 In shall be applied ABB SACE .

Note 2: for S4X and S6X.Electrical devices 197 .5 In T2 63 5.5 In 18 27 45 73 89 100 151 212 297 361 449 456 T2 160 5. Besides.5 4 6 10 16 16 16 25 35 50 70 95 95 T2 10 5. the MPL shall be multiplied by 1.5 In 68 113 182 272 454 726 886 997 1513 2119 2974 3613 4489 4559 27 45 73 109 182 291 354 399 605 847 1190 1445 1796 1824 11 18 29 43 72 115 141 158 240 336 472 573 713 724 T2 100 5.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 In I3 SPE 1. using function S.8 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings 5 Protection of human beings 5 Protection of human beings IT system MPL by MCCB IT system MPL by MCCB Table 3.1.5 In T2 25 5. S4 and S6 values shall respectively be applied. ABB SACE .10: Tmax T2 with DS221DS-LS S 1.5 2.5 4 6 10 16 16 16 25 35 50 70 95 95 120 150 S4 100 6 In S4 160 6 In S4 250 6 In 10 17 25 42 67 81 91 139 194 273 331 411 418 16 26 42 51 57 87 121 170 207 257 261 17 27 32 37 55 78 109 132 165 167 S5 320 6 In S5 400 6 In S5 630 6 In S6 630 6 In 21 25 29 43 61 85 103 129 131 156 187 20 23 35 49 68 83 103 104 125 150 22 31 43 53 65 66 79 95 22 31 43 53 65 66 79 95 S6 S7 S7 S7 S8 S8 S8 S8 800 1000 1250 1600 1600 2000 2500 3200 6 In 6 In 6 In 6 In 6 In 6 In 6 In 6 In 17 24 34 41 51 52 62 75 19 27 33 41 42 50 60 16 22 26 33 33 40 48 12 17 21 26 26 31 37 12 17 21 26 26 31 37 14 17 21 21 25 30 11 13 16 17 20 24 9 10 13 13 16 19 Note 1: if the setting of function S or I is different from the reference value (6) the MPL value shall be multiplied by the ratio between the reference value and the set value.8 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings 5.5 2. ABB SACE .Electrical devices 196 In I3 SPE 2.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 17 28 45 55 62 95 132 186 226 281 285 Note: if the setting of function I is different from the reference value (5.5) the MPL value shall be multiplied by the ratio between the reference value and the set value.5 In S 2.11: SACE Isomax S4÷S8 with PR211-212 Table 3.5.

1 Slide rules Yellow slide rule: cable sizing These slide rules represent a valid instrument for a quick and approximate dimensioning of electrical plants.orange slide rule: cable verification and protection. ABB SACE . Side Calculation of the short-circuit current for three-phase fault on the load side of a cable line with known cross section and length.blue slide rule: motor and transformer protection.1 Slide rules Annex A: Calculation tools Annex A: Calculation tools A. the calculation methods and the data reported are gathered from the IEC Standards in force and from plant engineering practice.green slide rule: protection coordination.A.Electrical devices 199 . Side Definition of the current carrying capacity. The instruction manual enclosed with the slide rules offers different examples and tables showing the correction coefficients necessary to extend the general reference conditions to those actually required. ABB also offers a slide rule for contactor choice. .yellow slide rule: cable sizing. impedance and voltage drop of cables. .Electrical devices 198 ABB SACE . In addition. 1SDC008059F0001 These two-sided slide rules are available in four different colors. . All the given information is connected to some general reference conditions. easily identified by subject: . a diagram for the calculation of the short-circuit current on the load side of elements with known impedance.

Side Selection of the circuit-breakers when back-up protection is provided. ABB SACE .1 Slide rules A. ABB SACE .Electrical devices 201 . Side Definition of the discrimination limit current for the combination of two circuitbreakers in series.Electrical devices 200 1SDC008061F0001 1SDC008060F0001 Side Verification of cable protection against indirect contact and short-circuit with ABB MCBs (modular circuit-breakers).1 Slide rules Calculation tools Calculation tools Orange slide rule: cable verification and protection Green slide rule: protection coordination Side Verification of cable protection against indirect contact and short-circuit with ABB SACE MCCBs (moulded-case circuit-breakers).A.

maximum power and maximum peak current of the transformer (category AC-6a) to be switched.A. the slide rule can determine: . DOL start-up (coordination type 2 in compliance with the Standard IEC 60947-4-1).characteristic data. ABB SACE . .the device for protection against short-circuit. etc. In particular.Electrical devices 203 . such as rated voltage and rated impulse withstand voltage. .maximum power and maximum peak current of the capacitor bank (category AC-6b) to be switched.1 Slide rules A.Electrical devices 202 1SDC008063F0001 1SDC008062F0001 Side Sizing of a transformer feeder. power loss and maximum number of operations for resistive load switching (category AC-1).rated operational current.1 Slide rules Calculation tools Calculation tools Blue slide rule: motor and transformer protection Contactor slide rule Side Selection and coordination of the protection devices for the motor starter. a diagram for the calculation of the short-circuit current on the load side of transformers with known rated power.thermal release and number of operations for motor switching in utilization categories AC-3 and AC-4. according to the selected contactor. . In addition. .number of incandescent lamps (category AC-5b) to be switched. ABB SACE .. coil consumption (holding and pull-in values). .Y/∆ and DOL coordination with fuses and circuit-breakers. controlled frequency range. This slide rule allows a quick selection of the contactor suitable for the plant requirements. . .

the economic criteria stated in the Standard IEC 60827-3-2. • Automatic sizing of busbar trunking system. the maximum allowed voltage drop.2 DOCWin Annex A: Calculation tools Annex A: Calculation tools A. as additional calculation criterion. • Possibility of setting. NFC 15-100. Meshed networks can also be managed. and can be considered as a function of the rated current or of the load current. • Calculation of the active and reactive power required by each single power source. as additional calculation criterion. with low or medium voltage supply. • It is possible to enter and modify the data of the objects which form the network by using a table.Electrical devices 204 ABB SACE .A. phase-toneutral. ABB SACE .2 DOCWin DOCWin is a software for the dimensioning of electrical networks.time / current curves (I-t). VDE 2984. phase-to-phase. Networks can be completely calculated through simple operations starting from the definition of the single-line diagram and thanks to the drawing functions provided by an integrated CAD software. • Management of the demand factor for each single node of the network and of the utilization factor on the loads. • Management of local (motors) and centralized power factor correction with capacitor banks. The power dissipated by the single apparatus is automatically derived by the data files of the software. IEC 60092 (naval installations) and IEC 60890. The calculation is also carried out for MV sections.Electrical devices 205 . IEC 60364. Cable line sizing • Cable line sizing according to thermal criteria in compliance with the following Standards: CEI 64-8 (tables CEI UNEL 35024-35026). • Short-circuit current calculation for three-phase.current / let-through energy curves (I-I2t). with or without voltage regulator. • Possibility of setting. with two or three windings. phase-to-ground faults. • Sizing and check on the dynamic withstand of busbars in compliance with the Standard IEC 60865.or twophase loads. Magnitude and phase shift of the node voltage and of the branch current are completely defined for each point of the network.current limiting curves (peak): visual check of the effects of the settings on the trip characteristics of protection devices. for both MV as well as LV. . Network calculation • Load Flow calculation using the Newton-Raphson method. • The diagram can be divided into many pages. taking into account also the time-variance contribution of rotary machines (generators and motors). MV/LV and LV/LV transformers. with no limits to the network complexity. Supplies • There are no pre-defined limits: the software manages MV and LV power supplies and generators. • Calculation of switchboard overtemperature in compliance with Standard IEC 60890. according to the requirements. in compliance with the Standards IEC 60909-0. IEC 61363-1 (naval installations) or with the method of symmetric components. Curves and verifications • Representation of: . The software can manage networks with multiple slacks and unbalances due to single. • It is possible to define different network configurations by specifying the status (open/closed) of the operating and protective devices. . • The program controls the coherence of drawings in real time. Drawing and definition of networks Creation of the single-line diagram.

• All information can be exported in the most common formats of data exchange. ABB SACE . cables.Electrical devices 206 ABB SACE . • Verification of the maximum voltage drop at each load.A. • Motor coordination management through quick access to ABB tables. motors and generators. • Verification of the protection devices. curves and reports of the single components of the network can be printed by any printer supported by the hardware configuration. • Possibility of entering the curve of the utility and of the MV components point by point. Selection of operating and protection devices • Automatic selection of protection devices (circuit-breakers and fuses) • Automatic selection of operating devices (contactors and switch disconnectors) • Discrimination and back-up managed as selection criteria.2 DOCWin A. transformers. to verify the tripping discrimination of protection devices.2 DOCWIN Calculation tools Calculation tools • Representation of the curves of circuit-breakers.Electrical devices 207 . Printouts • Single-line diagram. with discrimination level adjustable for each circuit-breaker combination. • Discrimination and back-up verification also through quick access to coordination tables. with control over the setting parameters of the adjustable releases (both thermomagnetic as well as electronic). • All print modes can be customized.

2 0.28 836.74 883. 0.33 8.25 836. The table has been calculated considering cosϕ to be equal to 1.05 0.43 0.71 Table 2: Correction factors for load current with cosϕ other than 0.2 0.61 128.29 92.79 179.05 0.67 92.74 58.65 769.75 384.95 898.1 for single-phase systems or for direct current systems.59 230 400 415 697.947 0.26 0.00 267.97 102.30 141.05 0.06 0.26 0.67 3.45 500 600 690 0.67 33.32 72.30 138.23 0.02 1673.39 2.80 833.5 1 2 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 200 ABB SACE .69 291.93 1.95 189.50 694.27 4.37 464.16 0.80 697.89 37.75 386.14 0.88 874.38 32. for single-phase systems it is the phase voltage).92 7.05 1159.20 123.06 0.86 4.56 320.9 P [kW] 0.46 64.02 16.66 139.55 3.7 1.87 2.00 12.28 583.92 1391.03 0.13 251.06 0.Annex B: Calculation of load current Ib Annex B: Calculation of load current Ib The formula for the calculation of the load current of a generic load is: P Ib = k ⋅U r ⋅ cos ϕ P [kW] 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 where: • P is the active power [W].84 85.28 0.67 111.98 89.89 850.81 102.5 1 2 5 10 20 ABB SACE . The table has been calculated considering cosϕ to be equal to 0.07 0.08 0.74 541.05 0.36 24.45 1.44 1122.65 1255.92 117.70 21. • cosϕ is the power factor.27 111.40 1090.76 1082.60 3.02 278.58 588.00 4.33 0.00 50.09 0.96 748.24 223.55 1154.21 1468.50 1.77 53.14 2.03 0. Table 1: Load current for three-phase systems with cosϕ = 0.88 418.23 106.22 2649.66 38.08 0.04 32.08 0.67 481.16 139.25 14.60 0.64 115.94 208 cosϕact kcosϕ* * 1 0.38 213.125 0.86 511.70 362.9 500 600 690 0.80 334.20 0.8 1.13 0.41 2.11 218.57 1093.09 0.40 371.95 0.49 28.31 641.83 0.63 1313.53 96.1 0.99 209 .26 128.39 510.83 25.Electrical devices 230 400 0.75 374.99 149.46 0.43 278.57 6.46 2.48 418.38 1523.65 9.17 4.9 0.06 0.04 0.00 Ur [V] 415 440 Ib [A] 0.92 46.30 18.9 1 For cosϕact values not present in the table.40 1.03 0.15 76.83 1.39 2091.45 2.38 83.56 1603.00 10.49 55.15 74.49 224.96 500 600 690 320.25 2.34 1236.35 195.64 1.21 8.33 908.17 0.18 927.31 2370.06 962.03 0.62 192.31 650.46 167.53 240.13 153.95 216.77 790.06 0.48 86.79 5.33 16.06 1457.19 96.48 1812.37 61.02 618.19 45.04 0.68 160. the value from Table 1 must be multiplied by the coefficient given in Table 2 corresponding to the actual value of the power factor (cosϕact).28 743.9.16 43.1 0.41 192.10 22.15 0.37 557.75 108.09 7.31 0.88 855.78 83.83 0.90 449.24 0. Table 3: Load current for single-phase systems with cosϕ = 1 or dc systems P [kW] 0.96 0.07 0.15 0.68 2789.06 0.56 1.67 1020.21 427.25 1015.04 0.06 0.04 185.78 65.04 641.15 80.11 64.90 87.00 2.91 325.53 204.74 976.72 1.30 144.286 0.86 130.76 2510.14 5.32 0.83 77.28 2.08 0.35 8.08 728.95 27.57 139.21 0.16 1385.91 306.35 641.22 145.77 947.14 0.9 cos ϕ act Table 3 allows the load current to be determined for some power values according to the rated voltage.09 0.00 40.20 1. for three-phase systems.55 12.47 1166.63 1202.09 0.48 0.75 1.26 1312.71 1069.78 Ur [V] 440 Ib[A] 364.49 200.29 0.12 154.57 120.74 43.16 Ur [V] 440 Ib [A] 0.29 320.87 309.96 166.19 0.04 0.2 0.35 10.34 160.73 1.20 1115.00 0.57 1534.10 962.25 0.42 801.04 0.59 390. for different power factors.50 705.10 0.50 721.13 400.38 174.19 46.29 0.38 176.059 kcosϕ = 0.08 74.11 1394.46 185.58 13.31 695.23 929.49 437.45 463.19 1443.50 25.Electrical devices 230 400 415 0.05 513.70 1218.82 4.25 1026.59 27.98 801.69 21.80 160.34 557.73 15.04 0.17 0.06 0.05 11. the value from Table 3 must be multiplied by the coefficient given in Table 4 corresponding to the actual value of the power factor (cosϕact).15 0.07 0.10 0.07 2.94 481.89 55.75 0.06 116.32 64.00 20.20 577.29 14.45 256.10 0.58 170.25 1042.08 42.48 102.85 1.49 51.41 231.33 0.88 882. • Ur is the rated voltage [V] (for three-phase systems it is the line voltage.23 112.13 0.47 128.13 561.83 604.85 1283.64 131.79 962.36 1239.49 1545. Table 1 allows the load current to be determined for some power values according to the rated voltage.14 0.00 1363.77 1.50 5.90 7.04 0.06 0.08 48. for different power factors.80 1.45 208.81 1283.69 801.60 772.46 30.11 0.58 29.73 48.13 534.42 12.18 656.53 1.17 0.11 0.12 0.17 232.85 2231.09 0.47 1004.10 0. • k is a coefficient which has the value: .94 1952.

5 2 2.5 7.85 1.2 18.33 200.00 2000.7 13.43 144.2 15.00 1625.00 1375.4 15.5 6.5 5 5.5 8.39 120.8 32 39.42 0.00 333.25 0.95 1.3 3.00 1800.5 16.4 11.35 361.38 1.87 240.17 869.96 1159.7 0.28 Table 4: Correction factors for load current with cosϕ other than 1 cosϕact kcosϕ* * 1 1 0.5 25.8 4.29 96.7 3.5 28. 1500 rpm at 50 Hz.20 1.9 5.86 362.22 0.12 0.00 300.00 1900.00 1250.00 900. according to the rated voltage.8 15.78 507.8 7.33 100.91 188.2 71.21 0.00 500.70 2826.00 625.34 1204.2 8.73 500 600 690 60.83 75.3 40.00 180.1 54.45 481.48 3260.37 963.3 12 13.02 1.1 45.26 3.00 140.00 280.64 797.00 100.22 1.76 1.00 260.86 1084.04 4130.32 434.3 4.5 4.2 2.9 12.59 0.9 6 6.6 33 38 44 54 60 64.00 1750.00 275.09 3043.00 375. Note: these values are given for information only.55 0.8 52.9 83.64 136.45 909.6 23.00 250. • cosϕ is the power factor of the lamps which has the value: .41 722.64 0.1 7.91 1704.3 32 34.48 57.5 2 2.00 272.5 7.8 26.33 0.43 4347.25 579.96 1304.68 1 1.41 202.46 86.Annex B: Calculation of load current Ib Annex B: Calculation of load current Ib 230 400 130.6 8.45 318.00 2125.0.6 11.81 1449.85 1.82 1325.19 0.91 217.33 0.9 1. .00 200.1 61.85 1.24 0.00 1125.91 454.5 30.5 6.00 1083.94 130.00 583.75 1807.87 304.5 8.17 724.00 1200.12 0.35 1521.83 391.1.00 800.30 2608.4 28.67 1250.64 68.37 0.3 23.30 0.57 1086.00 80. .3 96.00 1100. and may vary according to the motor manifacturer and depending on the number of poles Table 5: Motor load current Motor power [kW] 0.4 4 5 5.75 1.06 1.8 1.4 10.6 9.9 10.00 300.89 843.6 14.16 313.00 1400.67 83.9 20.00 216.91 113.9 10.40 0.3 35.97 72.4 10 11 12.67 2.31 4.2 30. ABB SACE .82 795.8 10 11 12.9 8.4 17 21 23 28 35 37 40 47 55 66 72 80 90 96 105 135 138 165 182 200 230 242 250 260 280 320 325 340 385 425 450 500 535 580 650 740 780 830 920 990 1100 440 V [A] 0. Lighting circuits kcosϕ = 0.2 8.5 10.1 1.49 1086.1 1.77 216.00 500.4 68 77.09 2272.39 260.33 1166.00 225.3 75.00 1000.30 1445.71 2048.18 1931.33 416.2 92.9 37.5 14.7 10.42 1231.Electrical devices 240 V [A] 0.00 1875.19 2168.00 160.6 13 15 17.00 50.00 600.22 3.26 521.09 181.053 0.55 1818.00 220.7 19 22.0.00 700.6 7.67 1500. • kB is a coefficient which has the value: .00 1300.7 79 85.56 0.00 875.74 1739.67 192.8 19.45 2159.18 340. for delta-connected lamps.5 3.52 2173.15 1.42 173.8 90.00 2375.55 568.28 0.2 84.00 2000.33 1666.5 15 18.40 0.33 250.5 20 22 25 30 37 40 45 51 55 59 75 80 90 100 110 129 132 140 147 160 180 184 200 220 250 257 295 315 355 400 450 475 500 560 600 670 PS = hp 1/12 1/8 1/6 1/4 1/3 1/2 3/4 1 1.43 173.1 50.9 67 73.00 1600.38 0.6 3.00 1500.176 For cosϕact values not present in the table.60 0. • nL is the number of lamps per phase.36 1250.00 120.45 115.82 2045.5 2.4 49.00 150.67 43.27 1686.00 P [kW] 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 Ur [V] 415 440 Ib [A] 72.5 2 3 3.5 13.5 6.4 101 124 134 150 168 181 194 245 260 292 325 358 420 425 449 472 502 578 590 626 700 803 826 948 990 1080 1250 1410 1490 1570 1750 – – ABB SACE .8 11.35 347.50 0.1 2.3 107 119 131 153 157 167 173 188 212 217 235 260 295 302 348 370 405 450 508 540 565 630 680 760 660-690 V [A] – – – – – 0.7 6.4 2.00 1583.8 7.91 2391.70 652.82 204.7 114 123 136 154 166 178 226 241 268 297 327 384 393 416 432 471 530 541 589 647 736 756 868 927 1010 1130 1270 1340 1420 1580 – – 380-400 V [A] 0.4 4.06 289.6 6.93 159.5 3 3.65 3913.00 240.5 21 23 25 28 33 42 44 49 56 60 66 82 86 98 107 118 135 140 145 152 170 190 200 215 235 268 280 320 337 366 410 460 485 510 570 610 680 211 .5 11.9 1.1 2.00 750.25 1.22 1.1 90.55 0.9 123 131 146 162 178 209 214 227 236 256 289 295 321 353 401 412 473 505 549 611 688 730 770 860 920 1030 500 V [A] 0.1 1.1 6.93 602.00 175.87 3478.5 8.22 608.9 26.9 10.25 5.00 200.8 24.6 37.9 for lamps with compensation.73 1136.09 1022.96 101.00 125.00 350.64 1477.18 0.76 1.1 42.36 159.16 2409.25 0.9 16.67 500.18 90.7 9.7 4 5 5.10 869.48 144.111 0.4 for lamps without compensation.46 0.00 1000.9 7.16 0.67 1000.00 1700.Electrical devices 210 Motors Table 5 gives the approximate values of the load current for some three-phase squirrel-cage motors.16 3.2 43.5 8.77 1.1 9 9.66 2.67 750.4 27.67 183.00 66.00 1333.2 61.75 1.6 3.00 2250.1 5.37 0.67 133.67 233.18 681.3 3.00 833.78 478.3 106 112 128 143 156 184 186 200 207 220 254 259 278 310 353 363 416 445 483 538 608 645 680 760 810 910 600 V [A] 0.7 27.27 1590.3 21.429 1 cos ϕ act The current absorbed by the lighting system may be deduced from the lighting equipment catalogue.6 64.25 337.7 18.3 22 25 30 37 40 44 50 60 72 79 85 97 105 112 140 147 170 188 205 242 245 260 273 295 333 340 370 408 460 475 546 580 636 710 800 850 890 1000 1080 1200 415 V [A] 0.5 5 5. • UrL is the rated voltage of the lamps.00 166.5 14 15.58 168.2 5.33 150.2 48. or approximately calculated using the following formula: Ib= PL nL kBkN U rL cos ϕ where: • PL is the power of the lamp [W].00 1500.57 942.1 4.23 1927.55 227.59 4.30 434.26 3695.6 14.06 0.88 1304.7 1.03 1014.88 1.00 2500.5 15 17 20 25 27 30 34 40 50 54 60 70 75 80 100 110 125 136 150 175 180 190 200 220 245 250 270 300 340 350 400 430 480 545 610 645 680 760 810 910 Rated current of the motor at: 220-230 V [A] 0.73 295.7 63.25 for lamps which need auxiliary starters.13 1956. • kN is a coefficient which has the value: .7 8.2 58.333 0.00 116.6 13 14 17.27 250.3 5.9 69.00 1363.09 0.5 8 9 11 12.40 2 2.7 9.4 29.78 1566.1 8.03 4.27 0.74 565.00 100.4 66.35 1376.35 0.71 652.9 3.67 2289.39 289.9 21.1 for lamps which do not need any auxiliary starter.1 19.55 0.33 916.2 6.1 16.1 for star-connected lamps.96 265.48 2.3 18.20 0.3 96.93 2.33 1416.5 73.9 6.00 400.33 666.90 217.00 325.

Electrical devices Three-phase short-circuit 212 ABB SACE .38IkLL (ZL = 0. • ZL phase conductor impedance. • ZN neutral conductor impedance. • ZPE protective conductor impedance.87 IkLLL 2Z L 2 IkLL IkLLL=1.33IkLLL (ZL = 0. the following symbols are used: • Ik short-circuit current.58IkLL (ZL = ZPE) IkLPE=0.58IkLL (ZL = ZN) IkLN=0.Electrical devices IkLL=1.87IkLLL U 3 = r = IkLLL = 0.16IkLL IkLN IkLLL=2IkLN (ZL = ZN) IkLLL=3IkLN (ZL = 2ZN) IkLLL=IkLN (ZN ≅ 0) ZN ABB SACE . • Ur rated voltage. For more accurate calculation.5ZPE) ILPE=IkLLL (ZPE ≅ 0) IkLPE=0.16IkLL (ZN ≅ 0) Phase to PE short-circuit (TN system) IkLPE ILPE=0. • pha PE fault.6IkLN (ZL = 2ZN) IkLL=0.5ZN) ILN=IkLLL (ZN ≅ 0) IkLN=0.16IkLL (ZPE ≅ 0) - 213 . Two phase fault Note ZL ZL ZL IkLLL IkLL IkLL Two-phase short-circuit IkLLL IkLL - IkLL=0.5ZPE) IkLPE=1.38IkLL (ZL = 0. The following table briefly shows the type of fault and the relationships between the value of the short-circuit current for a symmetrical fault (three phase) and the short-circuit current for asymmetrical faults (two phase and single phase) in case of faults far from generators.5ZN) IkLN=1.33IkLLL (ZL = 0.73IkLN (ZL = ZN) IkLL=2.Annex C: Calculation of short-circuit current A short-circuit is a fault of negligible impedance between live conductors having a difference in potential under normal operating conditions.87IkLN (ZN ≅ 0) Phase to neutral short-circuit IkLN ILN=0.5IkLLL (ZL = ZPE) ILPE=0. ZN IkLN Phase to PE fault ZL ZL ZL Three phase fault ZL IkLLL ZL IkLLL ZL ZPE IkLPE IkLLL = Ur 3 ZL IkLLL ZN The following table allows the approximate value of a short-circuit current to be found quickly. • two phase fault. Annex C: Calculation of short-circuit current Phase to neutral fault ZL Fault typologies In a three-phase circuit the following types of fault may occur: • three phase fault.5IkLLL (ZL = ZN) ILN=0. ZL ZL In the formulas. • phase to neutral fault. the use of DOCWin software is recommended.

Normally. generators.0 2. However.0 5.8 16.0 10. 2.0 6. The following table gives the approximate values of the short-circuit power of generators (Xd” = 12. the values for Sknet given in the following table can be taken as reference values: Net voltage Ur [kV] Up to 20 Up to 32 Up to 63 Sk 2 ⋅ Ur Short-circuit power Sknet [MVA] 500 750 1000 Generator The short-circuit power is obtained from: where: • Sk is the short-circuit apparent power seen at the point of the fault. ABB SACE . Typical values can be: .4 8.0 25. • Ur is the rated voltage.Xd” from 10 % to 20 %.0 20. . calculation of the short-circuit power at the fault point. this method is not conservative and gives more accurate values. calculation of the short-circuit current. all the elements of the network shall be taken into account. for three-phase systems.Annex C: Calculation of short-circuit current Annex C: Calculation of short-circuit current Determination of the short-circuit current Generally. The “short-circuit power method” calculates the short-circuit current Ik based on the formula: Sk Ik = Three-phase short-circuit 3 ⋅ Ur Two-phase short-circuit Ik = S knet = 3Ur Iknet where Ur is the rated voltage at the point of energy supply. the resultant value is generally acceptable. the value of the power can be obtained by using. . motors. the worst case is considered. the reactances are expressed in percentages of the rated impedance of the generator (Zd) given by: The procedure for the calculation of the short-circuit current involves the following steps: 1.Xd’ from 15 % to 40 %. However. S kgen = To determine the short-circuit apparent power Sk. S r ⋅ 100 X * d% where X*d% is the percentage value of the subtransient reactance (Xd”) or of the transient reactance (Xd’) or of the synchronous reactance (Xd).5 %): Calculation of the short-circuit power for the different elements of the installation The short-circuit apparent power Sk shall be determined for all the components which are part of the installation: Network An electrical network is considered to include everything upstream of the point of energy supply. 3. For more accurate calculation.Xd from 80 % to 300 %. transformers. This method allows the determination of the approximate shortcircuit current at a point in an installation in a simple way. Zd = Ur Sr 2 where Ur and Sr are the rated voltage and power of the generator. that being the subtransient reactance. according to the instant in which the value of the short-circuit power is to be evaluated.5 125 160 200 250 320 400 500 630 800 1000 1250 1600 2000 2500 3200 4000 1.0 1. if the value of the short-circuit current Iknet is known.). calculation of the short-circuit power for the different elements of the installation. the more similar the power factors of the considered components are (network. In general.4 63 0. the following formula: In order to determine the short-circuit current the “short-circuit power method” can be used. the use of DOCWin software for the dimensioning of installations is recommended. which may be: • elements which contribute to the short-circuit current: network. generators.0 ABB SACE . motors and large section cables etc. If the aforementioned data are not available. the energy distribution authority supplies the short-circuit apparent power (Sknet) value at the point of energy supply.Electrical devices 215 .6 32. • elements which limit the value of the short-circuit current: conductors and transformers.6 3.0 12.3 1.2 4.Electrical devices 214 Sr [kVA] Skgen [MVA] 50 0.6 2.

6 47.8 14. If the length of the cable (Lact) is other than 10 m.4 146.8 148.5 2.4 120.7 33. ABB SACE . is analogue to that relevant to the calculation of the equivalent admittance.73 1.4 179.3 8 10 12.7 117.29 6.3 400 [V] 440 [V] 500 [V] Skcable [MVA] @60 Hz 1.5 48. electric motors contribute to the fault for a brief period (5-6 periods).2 36.7 280.6 7.6 400.6 171.8 168.2 41.0 382.4 19.8 24.5 31.1 36.07 2. The power can be calculated according to the short circuit current of the motor (Ik).40 8.0 90.5 109.4 34.0 0. it is necessary to multiply the value given in the table by n.2 93.75 2.7 75.74 26. Cables Sk = A good approximation of the short-circuit power of cables is: 2 S kcable = Ur Zc i Sk = ∑ S i Ur = 3 ZL The following table gives the approximate values of the short-circuit power of cables. This must be done to ensure the correct choice of protection devices installed in the branches.2 114.9 21.8 125.9 4.20 2.47 15. and 7 for larger motors).5 141.1 63.5 49.Electrical devices 1 ∑S • the short-circuit power of elements in parallel is equal to the sum of the single short-circuit powers (as for the series of impedances).2 41.9 21.3 441.6 7.47 15.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 0.1 54.9 56.0 147. according to the supply voltage (cable length = 10 m): ABB SACE .0 198.26 5. at 50 and 60 Hz.2 128.60 2.8 10.6 49.66 3.2 10.5 15.55 10.5 144.8 164.1 25.44 3.32 1.6 125 160 200 250 320 400 500 630 800 1000 1250 1600 2000 2500 3200 4000 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 3.2 119.0 13.6 94.8 228.2 30.44 3.2 90.7 88.44 0.44 0.8 223.07 2.7 434.7 68.1 30. In the case of different branches in parallel. seeing the circuit from the fault point.8 29. In particular: • the power of elements in series is equal to the inverse of the sum of the inverses of the single powers (as for the parallel of impedances).2 36.16 1.5 44.7 13.2 10.0 40.26 5.40 8.2 90.2 400 [V] 440 [V] 500 [V] Skcable [MVA] @50 Hz 1.94 6. where the impedance of the cable (Zc) is: IkLLL 1 216 The elements of the circuit are considered to be in series or parallel.5 229. it is necessary to multiply the value given in the table by the following coefficient: 10 L act Calculation of the short-circuit power at the fault point Sr [kVA] 50 uk% 4 Sktrafo [MVA] 1.7 With n cables in parallel.3 109.6 132.5 155.8 21.4 308.52 4.4 47.5 103. the distribution of the current between the different branches shall be calculated once the short-circuit current at the fault point has been calculated.2 48.3 40.3 690 [V] 3.Electrical devices 217 .1 269.29 6.8 171.3 63 4 1.73 26.66 3. Transformers The short circuit power of a transformer (Sktrafo) can be calculated by using the following formula: Sktrafo = 100 ⋅ Sr uk % The following table gives the approximate values of the short circuit power of transformers: S [mm2] 1.8 355.5 231.5 65.1 4 5 6.26 8.7 134.7 62.4 326.2 42.5 65.52 4.9 26.60 2.1 77.3 18.6 69.16 1.6 162.6 186.26 8.1 176.5 200.7 163.9 34.6 13.4 57.3 The rule for the determination of the short-circuit power at a point in the installation.6 13.0 120.2 690 [V] 230 [V] 3.73 1.4 256.8 16 20 25 26.0 13.0 210.50 5.32 1.8 10.8 90.75 2.8 21.5 488.0 16.94 6.20 2.0 89. according to the short-circuit power of the various elements of the circuit. by using the following expression: Skmot = 3 ⋅U r ⋅ I k Typical values are: Skmot= 5÷7 Srmot (Ik is about 5÷7 Irmot: 5 for motors of small size.55 10.9 26.9 16.5 34.3 39.50 5.Annex C: Calculation of short-circuit current Annex C: Calculation of short-circuit current Asynchronous three phase motors 230 [V] Under short circuit conditions.9 4.6 119.

in the case detailed below. knowing the short-circuit power upstream of the object (SkUP). Figure 1: Chart for the calculation of the three phase short-circuit current at 400 V Ik [kA] 150 Fault right downstream of CB1 140 SkUP = 1000 MVA 130 SkUP CB2 1SDC010050F0001 CB1 CB3 Fault Fault right upstream of CB1 (worst condition for CB1) SkUP = 750 MVA SkUP = ∞ 120 SkUP = 500 MVA 110 SkEL 100 SkUP = 250 MVA 90 Ik 80 70 SkUP = 100 MVA 60 SkUP = 50 MVA 50 40 CB2 CB3 Once the short-circuit power equivalent at the fault point has been determined. the value of Ik can be read on the y-axis. the contribution of the motors shall be taken into account.Electrical devices Ik = Ik = SkUP = 40 MVA 30 SkUP = 30 MVA SkUP = 20 MVA 20 10 SkUP = 10 MVA 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 SkEL [MVA] Sk 3 ⋅ Ur Sk 2 ⋅ Ur 218 ABB SACE . both the fault point as well as the configuration of the system which maximize the short-circuit current involving the device shall be considered. the contribution of two transformers in parallel must be considered. corresponding to this value. For example.Electrical devices 219 1SDC010052F0001 CB1 1SDC010051F0001 Fault . expressed in kA. at 400 V. To determine the short-circuit current in an installation. for circuit-breaker CB1. the short-circuit current can be calculated by using the following formula: Three-phase short-circuit Two-phase short-circuit ABB SACE .Annex C: Calculation of short-circuit current Annex C: Calculation of short-circuit current Calculation of the short-circuit current As a first approximation. by using the following graph. it is possible to evaluate the three phase short-circuit current downstream of an object with short-circuit power (SkEL) known. To determine the breaking capacity of the circuit-breaker. If appropriate. the worst condition occurs when the fault is right upstream of the circuit-breaker itself.

Electrical devices 220 ABB SACE . therefore the circuitbreaker to select is an Emax E3N 2500. Using the chart shown in Figure 1. which is remarkably smaller than the network contribution. is represented by the series of the network with the transformer.917 IrL= 1443.7 MVA: 1SDC010053F0001 Transformer: S knet ⋅ S ktrafo = 25.Electrical devices 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 SkEL [MVA] 221 .4 A cosϕr= 0.6 cosϕr = 0.5 kA 40 1SDC010054F0001 30 Selection of CB1 For circuit-breaker CB1. In the case of a fault right upstream.9 CB2 M CB3 L S kCB1 = 36.7 MVA ABB SACE . 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 SkUP = 26. S kCB1 = Example 1 U the maximum fault current is: Upstream network: Ur = 20000 V Sknet = 500 MVA Motor: Generic load: A IkCB1 = Sr = 1600 kVA uk% = 6% U1r / U2r =20000/400 CB1 B Pr = 220 kW Ikmot/Ir = 6.6. the circuit-breaker would be involved only by the fault current flowing from the motor.Annex C: Calculation of short-circuit current Annex C: Calculation of short-circuit current Examples: The circuit.76 MVA for the first 5-6 periods (at 50 Hz about 100 ms) Calculation of the short-circuit current for the selection of circuit-breakers Ik = 36.6 kA 3 ⋅ Ur The transformer LV side rated current is equal to 2309 A. the short-circuit power is determined by using the following formula: The following examples demonstrate the calculation of the short-circuit current in some different types of installation. seen from the fault point. it is possible to find IkCB1 from the curve with SkUP = Sknet = 500 MVA corresponding to SkEL = Sktrafo = 26.Srmot = 1. the worst condition arises when the fault occurs right downstream of the circuit-breaker itself.35 MVA S knet + S ktrafo Ik [kA] 150 140 130 120 110 Calculation of the short-circuit power of different elements Network: SkUP = 500 MVA 100 Sknet= 500 MVA 90 Pr = = 267 kVA η ⋅ cos ϕ r Transformer: S rmot Motor: S rmot = 80 70 Pr = 267 kVA η ⋅ cos ϕ r 60 50 Skmot = 6.9 η = 0. According to the previous rules.

with reference to the current of the loads. is distributed equally between the two branches (half each). The circuit-breakers CB1(CB2) to select. the worst condition arises when the fault occurs right downstream of the circuit-breaker itself. cosϕ = 0. The short-circuit current is the same used for CB1. are: CB3: Emax E3S 2500 CB4: Emax E3S 1600 CB5: Tmax T2H 160 ABB SACE . is represented by two branches in parallel: the motor and the series of the network and transformer. S knet = 500 MVA S ktrafo = Sr . the worst condition arises when the fault occurs right downstream of the circuit-breaker itself.Electrical devices L2 L3 222 1SDC010055F0001 B CB3 The circuit-breakers to select.Electrical devices 223 .9. L1 ABB SACE . Selection of CB3 For CB3 too. cosϕ = 0. Load L2: Sr = 1000 kVA. The current which flows through CB1 (CB2) is therefore equal to half of that at the busbar. According to the previous rules. two transformers in parallel and three loads. the short circuit power is determined by using the following formula: Motor // (Network + Transformer) The rated current of the load L is equal to 1443 A.9. are Emax E3N 2500. According to the previous rules. seen from the fault point. cosϕ = 0. or an Emax E2N1600. This current. the circuit-breaker to select is an Isomax S5H 400.56 kA CB2 CB1 Transformers 1 and 2: Sr = 1600 kVA uk% = 6% U1r /U2r =20000/400 CB4 CB5 Load L1: Sr = 1500 kVA. Example 2 The circuit shown in the diagram is constituted by the supply.7 MVA uk % Selection of CB1 (CB2) For circuit-breaker CB1 (CB2) the worst condition arises when the fault occurs right downstream of the circuit-breaker itself. the circuit seen from the fault point.Annex C: Calculation of short-circuit current Annex C: Calculation of short-circuit current Selection of CB2 For circuit-breaker CB2. the circuit-breaker to select is a SACE Isomax S7S 1600.9. U Selection of CB3-CB4-CB5 For these circuit-breakers the worst condition arises when the fault occurs right downstream of the circuit-breakers themselves. seen from the fault point. with reference to the rated current of the transformers. Load L3: Sr = 50 kVA. given the symmetry of the circuit. the short-circuit current to be taken into account is that at the busbar: A Trafo 2 Trafo 1 Upstream network: Ur1=20000 V Sknet = 500 MVA IkCB3 = Ikbusbar = 69. is equivalent to the parallel of the two transformers in series with the network: Network + (Trafo 1 // Trafo 2). 100 = 26. The circuit. The circuit. The short-circuit current obtained in this way corresponds to the short-circuit current at the busbar. is represented by the series of the network with the transformer. Calculation of the short-circuit powers of different elements: Network Transformers 1 and 2 The rated current of the motor is equal to 385 A. Therefore.

Annex C: Calculation of short-circuit current

Annex C: Calculation of short-circuit current

Determination of the short-circuit current Ik downstream
of a cable as a function of the upstream one

Note:

The table below allows the determination, in a conservative way, of the threephase short-circuit current at a point in a 400 V network downstream of a
single pole copper cable at a temperature of 20 °C. Known values:
- the three phase short-circuit current upstream of the cable;
- the length and cross section of the cable.
Length
[m]

0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
2.4
2.8
3.2
3.6
4.2
4.8

Ik upstream
[kA]
100
96
90
86
80
77
70
68
60
58
50
49
40
39
35
34
30
30
25
25
20
20
15
15
12
12
10
10
8.0
8.0
6.0
6.0
3.0
3.0

1.1
1.5
2
2.4
2.8
3.2
3.7
4
4.8
5.6
6.4
7.2
8.4
10

92
83
75
66
57
48
39
34
29
24
20
15
12
10
7.9
5.9
3.0

0.9
1.2
1.7
2.3
3
3.6
4.2
4.8
5.5
6
7.2
8.4
10
11
13
14

89
81
73
65
56
47
38
34
29
24
20
15
12
10
7.9
5.9
3.0

1.2
1.6
2.3
3.1
4
4.8
5.6
6.4
7.3
8
10
11
13
14
17
19

85
78
71
63
55
46
38
33
29
24
19
15
12
10
7.9
5.9
3.0

0.9
1.4
2
2.8
3.8
5
6
7
8
9.1
10
12
14
16
18
21
24

82
76
69
62
54
45
37
33
28
24
19
15
12
10
7.8
5.9
3.0

1.1
1.7
2.4
3.4
4.6
6
7.2
8.4
10
11
12
14
17
19
22
25
29

0.9
1.5
2.3
3.2
4.5
6.2
8
10
11
13
15
16
19
23
26
29
34
38

78
72
66
60
53
44
37
32
28
24
19
14
12
10
7.8
5.8
3.0

ABB SACE - Electrical devices

71
67
62
56
50
43
35
32
28
23
19
14
12
10
7.7
5.8
2.9

1.2
1.9
2.9
4
5.7
7.7
10
12
14
16
18
20
24
28
32
36
42
48

65
61
57
53
47
41
34
31
27
23
18
14
11
9.5
7.7
5.8
2.9

0.8
1.4
2.2
3.5
4.8
6.8
9.2
12
14
17
19
22
24
29
34
38
43
51
58

60
57
53
49
45
39
33
30
26
22
18
14
11
9.4
7.6
5.7
2.9

1.1
1.9
3
4.6
6.4
9
12
16
19
23
26
29
32
38
45
51
58
68
77

50
48
46
43
40
35
31
28
25
21
18
14
11
9.2
7.5
5.6
2.9

0.9
1.4
2.3
3.7
5.8
8
11
15
20
24
28
32
37
40
48
56
64
72
84
96

43
42
40
38
36
32
28
26
23
21
17
13
11
9.0
7.4
5.5
2.9

1.2
1.8
2.9
4.7
7.2
10
14
19
25
30
35
40
46
50
60
70
80
90
105
120

0.9
1.4
2.1
3.5
5.6
8.7
12
17
23
30
36
42
48
55
60
72
84
96
108
127
144

1
1.6
2.5
4.1
6.5
10
14
20
27
35
42
49
56
64
70
84
98
112
126
148
168

1.2
1.9
2.8
4.7
7.5
12
16
23
31
40
48
56
64
73
80
96
113
128
144
169
192

Ik downstream
[kA]
36 31 27 24
35 31 27 24
34 30 27 24
33 29 26 23
31 28 25 23
29 26 23 21
26 24 22 20
24 22 20 19
22 20 19 18
19 18 17 16
16 15 15 14
13 12 12 12
11 10 10 10
8.8 8.5 8.3 8.1
7.2 7.1 6.9 6.8
5.4 5.3 5.2 5.1
2.8 2.8 2.8 2.7

0.9
1.5
2.3
3.5
5.8
9.3
14
20
28
38
50
60
70
80
91
100
120
141
160
180
211
240

20
20
20
19
19
18
17
16
16
14
13
11
9.3
7.7
6.5
4.9
2.7

1.1
1.8
2.8
4.2
7
11
17
24
34
46
60
72
84
96
110
120
144
169
192
216
253
288

17
17
17
16
16
15
15
14
14
13
12
10
8.8
7.3
6.2
4.8
2.6

1.4
2.3
3.7
5.6
9.4
15
23
32
45
62
80
96
113
128
146
160
192
225
256
288
338
384

13
13
13
13
12
12
12
11
11
11
10
8.7
7.8
6.5
5.7
4.4
2.5

1.8
2.9
4.7
7
12
19
29
40
57
77
100
120
141
160
183
200
240
281
320
360
422
480

11
11
10
10
10
10
10
10
9.3
9.0
8.4
7.6
7.0
5.9
5.2
4.1
2.4

2.5
4.1
6.6
10
16
26
41
56
79
108
140
168
197
224
256
280
336
394
448
505

3.5
5.9
9.4
14
23
37
58
80
113
154
200
240
281
320
366
400
481
563

5.3
8.8
14
21
35
56
87
121
170
231
300
360
422
480
549

7
12
19
28
47
75
116
161
226
308
400
481

9.4
16
25
38
63
100
155
216
303
413

14
24
38
56
94
150
233
324
455

Example
Data
Rated voltage =
Cable section =
Conductor =
Length =

400 V
120 mm2
copper
29 m

Upstream shortcircuit current =

32 kA
400 V

Ik upstream = 32 kA
QF A

120 mm2
Cu/PVC

L = 29 m
7.8
7.8
7.7
7.6
7.5
7.3
7.1
7.1
7.0
6.8
6.5
6.1
5.7
5.0
4.5
3.6
2.2

5.6
5.6
5.5
5.5
5.4
5.3
5.2
5.1
5.0
5.0
4.8
4.6
4.4
3.9
3.7
3.1
2.0

3.7
3.7
3.7
3.7
3.7
3.6
3.6
3.5
3.5
3.4
3.3
3.2
3.1
2.9
2.8
2.4
1.7

2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.5
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.0
1.4

2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.2

1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.2
1.2
1.1
0.9

224

QF B

1SDC010056F0001

Cable
section
[mm2]
1.5
2.5
4
6
10
16
25
35
50
70
95
120
150
185
240
300
2x120
2x150
2x185
3x120
3x150
3x185

• In the case of the Ik upstream and the length of the cable not being included
in the table, it is necessary to consider:
the value right above Ik upstream;
the value right below for the cable length.
These approximations allow calculations which favour safety.
• In the case of cables in parallel not present in the table, the length must be
divided by the number of cables in parallel.

Ik downstream = ?

QF C

Procedure
In the row corresponding to the cable cross section 120 mm2, it is possible to
find the column for a length equal to 29 m or right below (in this case 24). In the
column of upstream short-circuit current it is possible to identify the row with a
value of 32 kA or right above (in this case 35). From the intersection of this last
row with the previously identified column, the value of the downstream shortcircuit current can be read as being equal to 26 kA.

ABB SACE - Electrical devices

225

Annex D: Calculation of the coefficient k for
the cables (k2S2)

Annex D: Calculation of the coefficient k for
the cables (k2S2)

By using the formula (1), it is possible to determine the conductor minimum
section S, in the hypothesis that the generic conductor is submitted to an
adiabatic heating from a known initial temperature up to a specific final temperature (applicable if the fault is removed in less than 5 s):

Table 2: Values of k for phase conductor

√I t
2

S=

k

(1)

where:
• S is the cross section [mm2];
• I is the value (r.m.s) of prospective fault current for a fault of negligible
impedance, which can flow through the protective device [A];
• t is the operating time of the protective device for automatic disconnection [s];
k can be evaluated using the tables 2÷7 or calculated according to the formula (2):

k=

Qc (B+20)

ρ20

(

ln 1+

θf - θi
B+θi

)

Conductor insulation

Initial temperature °C
Final temperature °C
Material of conductor:
copper
aluminium
tin-soldered joints
in copper conductors
a

Table 1 shows the values of the parameters described above.

ρ20
[Ωmm]

Copper
Aluminium
Lead
Steel

234.5
228
230
202

3.45⋅10-3
2.5⋅10-3
1.45⋅10-3
3.8⋅10-3

17.241⋅10-6
28.264⋅10-6
214⋅10-6
138⋅10-6

Rubber
60 °C
60
200

PVC
70
160

Bare
105
250

115
76

103
68

143
94

141
93

115
-

135/115 a
-

115

-

-

-

-

-

Mineral

This value shall be used for bare cables exposed to touch.

Temperature °C b

Material of conductor
Copper

Initial
30
30
30
30
30
30

Conductor insulation
70 °C PVC
90 °C PVC
90 °C thermosetting
60 °C rubber
85 °C rubber
Silicone rubber
a

Qc
[J/°Cmm3]

EPR
XLPE
90
250

Table 3: Values of k for insulated protective conductors not
incorporated in cables and not bunched with other cables

Table 1: Value of parameters for different materials
B
[°C]

PVC
≤ 300 mm2
70
140

(2)

where:
• Qc is the volumetric heat capacity of conductor material [J/°Cmm3] at 20 °C;
• B is the reciprocal of temperature coefficient of resistivity at 0 °C for the
conductor [°C];
• ρ20 is the electrical resistivity of conductor material at 20 °C [Ωmm];
• θi initial temperature of conductor [°C];
• θf final temperature of conductor [°C].

Material

PVC
≤ 300 mm2
70
160

b

Qc (B+20)

Final
160/140 a
160/140 a
250
200
220
350

143/133 a
143/133 a
176
159
166
201

Aluminium
Value for k
95/88 a
95/88 a
116
105
110
133

Steel
52/49 a
52/49 a
64
58
60
73

The lower value applies to PVC insulated conductors of cross section greater than
300 mm2 .
Temperature limits for various types of insulation are given in IEC 60724.

ρ20
226
148
41
78

Table 4: Values of k for bare protective conductors in contact with
cable covering but not bunched with other cables
Temperature °C a

Material of conductor
Copper

Initial
30
30
30

Cable covering
PVC
Polyethylene
CSP
a

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226

Final
200
150
220

159
138
166

Aluminium
Value for k
105
91
110

Steel
58
50
60

Temperature limits for various types of insulation are given in IEC 60724.

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227

Annex D: Calculation of the coefficient k for
the cables (k2S2)
Table 5: Values of k for protective conductors as a core incorporated in
a cable or bunched with other cables or insulated conductors
Temperature °C b

Material of conductor
Copper

Conductor insulation
70 °C PVC
90 °C PVC
90 °C thermosetting
60 °C rubber
85 °C rubber
Silicone rubber

Initial
70
90
90
60
85
180
a

b

Final
160/140 a
160/140 a
250
200
220
350

Aluminium
Value for k
76/68 a
66/57 a
94
93
89
87

115/103 a
100/86 a
143
141
134
132

Steel
42/37 a
36/31 a
52
51
48
47

The lower value applies to PVC insulated conductors of cross section greater than
300 mm2 .
Temperature limits for various types of insulation are given in IEC 60724..

Table 6: Values of k for protective conductors as a metallic layer of a
cable e.g. armour, metallic sheath, concentric conductor, etc.
Temperature °C

Material of conductor
Copper

Initial
60
80
80
55
75
70
105

Conductor insulation
70 °C PVC
90 °C PVC
90 °C thermosetting
60 °C rubber
85 °C rubber
Mineral PVC covered a
Mineral bare sheath
a

Final
200
200
200
200
220
200
250

141
128
128
144
140
135
135

Aluminium
Lead
Value for k
93
85
85
95
93
-

Steel

26
23
23
26
26
-

51
46
46
52
51
-

This value shall also be used for bare conductors exposed to touch or in contact with
combustible material.

Table 7: Value of k for bare conductors where there is no risk of damage
to any neighbouring material by the temperature indicated
Material of conductor
Copper

Conductor insulation
Visible and in restricted area
Normal conditions
Fire risk

Aluminium

Steel

Maximum
Maximum
Maximum
Initial
temperature
temperature
temperature
temperature
k value
°C
k value
°C
k value
°C
°C
228
500
125
300
82
500
30
159
200
105
200
58
200
30
138
150
91
150
50
150
30

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V.Telefax: +39 035.395. the characteristics and dimensions specified in the present catalogue may only be considered binding after confirmation by ABB SACE.Italy Tel.395.abb:com Electrical devices 1SDC010001D0201 Printed in Italy 04/03 1SDC010001D0201 ABB SACE Electrical devices . 35 24123 Bergamo .306-433 http://www. ABB SACE S.Electrical installation handbook Volume 2 Due to possible developments of standards as well as of materials.p.111 .: +39 035.A. L. Breakers Via Baioni.