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1.

The carbon dioxide taken up by a leaf enters the chloroplasts.


Name and describe the biochemical pathway which fixes the carbon dioxide into
hexose sugars in the chloroplasts.
name of pathway ......................................................................................................
description ................................................................................................................
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[Total 5 marks]

2.

There are several different pigments involved in the light-dependent reactions of


photosynthesis in flowering plants.
Name two photosynthetic pigments found in flowering plants.
1 ...............................................................................................................................
2 ...............................................................................................................................
[Total 2 marks]

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3.

In an investigation of photosynthesis, the rate of carbon dioxide absorption by leaves of


two plants, barley and sugar cane, was measured. The leaves were provided with air,
moving at a constant rate, through an apparatus that is illustrated by Fig. 1.
o u t f lo w in g a ir
tra n s p a re n t
c o n ta in e r

a n a ly s e r fo r
c a r b o n d io x id e
le a v e s o f p la n t

in flo w in g a ir
a n a ly s e r fo r
c a r b o n d io x id e

g a s tig h t s e a l

Fig. 1

The light intensity was kept constant and high, equivalent to full sunlight.

The concentration of carbon dioxide in the air entering the apparatus could be
varied.

The carbon dioxide taken up or given out by the leaves was determined by
calculating the difference between the concentration in the inflowing and
outflowing air.

The leaves remained attached to the plants during the investigation.

Two different temperatures, 10 C and 25 C, were used for each type of plant.

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The results of the investigation are shown in Fig. 2.


su g a r ca n e a t 2 5 C

r a te o f c a r b o n d io x id e u p ta k e a n d r e le a s e / g m

35
30
25
u p ta k e

b a r le y a t 2 5 C

20
15
10

b a r le y a t 1 0 C

5
0
r e le a s e

su g a r ca n e a t 1 0 C
0

100

200

300

400

500

600

5
10
15

c a r b o n d io x id e c o n c e n t r a t io n / p a r t s p e r m illio n

Fig. 2

(a)

In all four experiments, the rate of carbon dioxide uptake reached a maximum
and became constant.
Suggest why.
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[2]

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(b)

Explain why carbon dioxide was released when the carbon dioxide
concentrations were low.
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[2]

(c)

Explain why all the measurements were made at the same light intensity.
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[1]

(d)

Suggest why it was important that the leaves remained attached to the plants
while the measurements were made.
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[2]

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(e)

Comment on the similarities and differences in response of the two species,


sugar cane and barley, to differences in carbon dioxide concentration and
temperature.
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[5]
[Total 12 marks]

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4.

In this question, one mark is available for the quality of spelling, punctuation and
grammar.
In the palisade cells of a leaf, the fixation of carbon dioxide occurs in the Calvin cycle.
Describe the main features of this cycle. No credit will be given for a flow diagram
of the cycle.
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[7]
Quality of Written Communication [1]
[Total 8 marks]

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5.

Palisade cells have both chloroplasts and mitochondria. Exchanges between a


mitochondrion, a chloroplast and the cytoplasm surrounding them are shown in the
figure below.
t r io s e
p h o s p h a te

hexose
p h o s p h a te

c h lo r o p la s t
e n v e lo p e
in o r g a n ic
p h o s p h a te

p y ru v a te

Pi

ATP
ADP

c a rb o n
d io x id e

w a te r
m ito c h o n d r io n

c h lo r o p la s t

(a)

oxygen

A leafy shoot can be sealed inside a transparent container. The concentration of


oxygen in the atmosphere within this container can be measured. In the dark, the
oxygen concentration falls. At high light intensities, the oxygen concentration
increases. At a particular light intensity, the oxygen concentration in the container
remains constant.
Use the figure above to explain how it is possible for the oxygen concentration to
remain constant.
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[4]

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(b)

Explain why there is no build up in the concentration of phosphate ions inside

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