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21112010

Forcedventilation
FlowrequiredbyRSECE
Flow
required by RSECE
Theventilationsystem
Dimensioningofductsandpressuredrops
Limitingcriteria
Calculationmethods:equivelocity,equifriction,
pressurerecover
Airdistributioninroomsandmethods
Ventilationefficiencyinclimatization

...

Fresh air
flowrates
(RSECE)
A
AnnexVI
VI
Previouslegislation(98)
specified thevaluesin
Renewalperhourandfor
smokerregionsdoubled
thevalues.
Innewlegislation(2006)
air flowinsmokingareas
ishigherthan60m3/h
andthese shouldbeata
lowerpressureandwitha
directexhaust(Art.29).

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Mechanicalventilationsystem
Systemtosupplyfreshairand/orremovethevitiatedair
fromtheroom.Itcanalsobeusedtoheatorcoolit.

Figure1 VentilationSystem(ASHRAEStandard621999)

Componentsofthesystem
Thesystemmain componentsare:

Fan(Supplyandexhaust)
Filters(for
( p
particlesofdifferentdiametersandtypes)
yp )
Ductnetwork(todistributefresh andcollect vitiatedair)
Difusers(todistributtheair intherooms)
Grilles (toextracttheairfromrooms)

Ventilationcanalsobeusedforclimatizationwhenair
transportsthermalenergy.Formoisturetransportisthe
mostappropriatemethodwhileforsensibleenergyitmay
be changed using heat exchangers with other fluids.
bechangedusingheatexchangerswithotherfluids.
(ATU AirTreatmentUnit/UTA UnidadeTratamentodeAr)
Evenifventilationisonly tosupplyfreshair,thisispre
treatedtoMesmoqueoarnovonoclimatizetemdeter
velocidadelimitadaetemperaturaregulada.
(UTAN UnidadedeTratamentodeArNovo)

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Fantypes
Centrifugal(Radial) Higherpressure
dropsusedtosupplyairtoductnetworks
Axial Ingeneralforlargerflowratesand
usedtomoveairclosetoheatexchangers
g

CatlogosEFAFLU

ASHRAEF35

Axial Fan
Stall
region

Characteristiccurves
CentrifugalFan

Peak
efficiency
Optimum
Optim
m
range

Highervelocity

Largeroperation
Larger
operation
range

Installation
curves

Thecentrifugalfanhasalarger
operationrangespeciallythe
backwardbladesandisoften
usedwithvelocityvariation
Thecasingallowsrecovering
dynamicpressuretostatic.
FiguresfromHundy,TrottandWelch

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Velocityregulation
Fanvelocityregulationto
adjusttotheinstallation
variation.
i i
Thespeedvariation
nowadaysisdone
electronicallyinthe
electricalmotorwith
y
smalllossofefficiency.

CatlogoEFAFLU

FigurefromHundy,TrottandWelch

Energyrecover(HeatExchangers)
WhenusingairrecirculationintheATUonlythefreshair
hastobeheatedorcooledfromtheoutsidetotheinlet
temperature and it can use the exhaust in a HX
temperatureanditcanusetheexhaustinaHX.
Crossflow

Rotativeheat
regenerator

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Airfilters
Filtersandtheheatregeneratorsmaybethemaincontributions
tothepressuredropthatthefanhastoprovide.Thepressure
dropincreaseswithefficiencybutalsowithlackofcleaning!
<95%prefiltersordry
<95%
prefilters or dry
extendedfilters(Mangas)
Largeefficiencies upto
99.99% areachievedwith
setsincludingelectronicor
membrane
Lackofcleaning Blocking

JLA FEUP2008

Ductnetworks
Objectiveofdistributingtheairindifferentlocationsin
controlledquantitymayincludethediffusersorgrilles.
Thedesignoftheductnetworkrequiresthecalculationof
pressuredropsindifferentpathandallowancefortheir
regulationwheninservice.
Maincharacteristicstobeconsideredtosizethemare:

Flowrate
Surfacerugosity
Thermal insulation
Thermalinsulation
Leakresistance
Velocity
Noisegenerated
Acessories

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Typeofducts
Circularductsallowlowerpressuredrop,noiseandcostastheyare
moreoftenbuiltinseries.
Rectangularductsforthesameheightmayhandlehigherflowsbut
thewidthshouldnotexceed5xheightandavoidsharpcorners
Rectangularareoftencustommadebuttheymaybemountedon
sitefromboardsincludinginsulation.
Belowexampleshowtodecreasethespaceocuppied.

CADVentprograminolderversionsusesonlycircular
JLA FEUP2008

Ductpathsanddetails
Passageinfalseceiling,courette,or
tightinwallsorfloors.

Courette

Round and rectangular ducts


Roundandrectangularducts
Verticalpassage
betweenfloors
Throughfloor
Antifirecutoffvalveandfire
proof protection in duct
proofprotectioninduct.

Falseceilingg

Insulationtoavoid
heatlossesalso
reducesnoise.
PhotographsfromJLA FEUP2008

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Pressuredropcalculation
PressuredropfrictionfactordependentonReynolds,rugosity.
Pessurelosscoeficientsinaccessories(curves,Tconnections
distributionandcolection,expansion/contraction,etc...)
2

V j2
L

V
i
i

P i f i
j C j (.k )

D
2
2
h ,i

ConcentratedpressurelosscoefficientsCj,kforj accessorymay
depend on the k branchbeingconsidere,e.g.inTsplitter.
dependonthek
branch being considere e g in T splitter
ThefactormultipliedbytheductlenghtL isdefinedinPa/m
andcanalsobeestimatedfromgraphasfunctionofVandDe
Thevelocityistheactualmeanvalueforanytypeofduct.
TheReynoldsnumberiscalculatedwiththehydraulicDh

Noncircularducts
Therearetwodiameters(hidraulicDh andequivalentDe)
Dhisthehydraulicdiameterdefinedas:
/
/(
)
4Area/Perimeter=2ab/(a+b)
a b
forarectangularduct.
Deistheequivalentdiameterthatrepresentsthesameratio
betweenflowrateandpressuredrop(thatisproportionalto
velocitysquared)leadingto:

De2

Area3
De
Perimeter

1.45 Area0.6
De
Perimeter0.2

ASHRAErecomendsandgivesvaluesbasedonasimilardefinition:

1.55 Area0.625
De
Perimeter0.25

1.30ab
De
a b0.25

0.625

or

forducts
rectangular

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Frictio
onLoss(Pa/m)

A
ASHRAE2009F35

Exampleofpressureloss(Pa/m)

Bandofusualvalues

AirFlow(l/s)

Pressurelosscoefficients
AvailablefromASHRAEintableformator
inlibrariesforcomputercalculations.
Values for ~100
100accessories!
accessories!
Valuesfor
ExamplegivenforaTdiverging:
Coefficientsgivenforeachexit:

Branch

Straight

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Pressuredropinbends
Forrectangularductstheaspectratioshould
belimitedotherwisesplittersshouldbeused.
FiguresfromW.P.Jones

Good
aproach
R/W~1

Specificpressuredrops
Pressuredropsassociatedwiththefanoutletaredefined
forlenghtsbelowtheflowdevelopmentregion
Figuresfrom
ASHRAE

Pressuredropsinterminalunits(diffusersandgrilles)have
tobealsoconsideredandthecalculationsaredonefrom
thefanexituntilltheroom(includingflowdistribution).
Difusersfrom
LINDAB

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Ductdimensioningcriteria
Thesizingcriteriaforductsisoftenbasedonvelocities:

~2,5m/sinfinalbranches
<3,5
3,5to4m/sclosetooccupiedzones
to 4 m/s close to occupied zones
<5to6m/sinlessdemandingzones
>6m/sonlywithsoundattenuation
Thevelocitiesinthedifusersalsohavelimitationsdueto
noiseandduetotheformationofjetsthatmayaffect
thermalcomfort.Ontheotherhandtheyshouldbelarge
enoughtoproducemixingintheroomtoclimatize.

Alternativelythesizingcriteriaissetinspecificpressure
drop(Pa/m)
Thevelocityorpressuredropvaluesaredirectlyrelated
withnoiselevelsthatareoftenalimitingcriteria.

Ductdimensioningmethods
Thedimensionmethodsare:
Equi velocity:Ductdiameterschosenfrommaximum
velocity.Usuallyregulationisnecessaryinbranchesto
equilibratethepressuredropsindifferentbranches.
Equifriction:Asimilarpressuredropinallbranchesis
chosentoavoidtheuseofflowdampers.
Staticpressurerecover:Inthismethodthevelocityis
decreased along the flow path to increase static pressure
decreasedalongtheflowpathtoincreasestaticpressure.
Thismethodisnotalwayspossibletoapply.Thepressure
insidetheductsismoreuniformreducingleaks.

1
1

PTotal , 2 V 2 P V 2 P P1 2
2
2 2
1

10

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Limitsduetonoiserestrictions(10372)

Hundy,TrottandWelch

DimensioningcriteriasuggestedinannexofNP10372:
Pressuredropof0.7Pa/mandvelocityof5m/s.
Basedontheseassumptionstheductdiametersare
selectedasafunctionoftheflowrate:
Q(m3/h) 135

200 280 370 500 660 900 1250 1650 2300 3080 4100 5300 6750

D(mm)

160 180 200 225 250 280 315

125

355

400

450

500

560

630

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Infiltrationinducts(10372)
Therearethreelevelsofleakresistance(A,B,C).RSECErequires
ductnetworkstocomplywithatleastClassAthathasamaximum
of 1 5 l/sm2 whensubjecttoapressuredifferenceof400Pa.
of1.5l/sm
when subject to a pressure difference of 400 Pa
Testsarerequiredinpartorallthenetwork,dependingonresults.
ClassesaredefinedbyaleakcoefficientKindicatingtheclasses:

Insuflation/Extractionflowrates
Thevaluesofforcedflowforinsuflationandextraction
may be similar or different on purpouse, leading to:
maybesimilarordifferentonpurpouse,leadingto:
Equilibriumcondition(Similarflows)
Pressurization(Largerinsuflation)
Underpressurization(Largerextraction)
Theleaksarelargerforpressurizedductsandcanbeair
extraction for underpressurization
extractionforunder
pressurizationconditions.
conditions.
WhenthereisclosetoEquilibriumconditions,thereare
moreairexchangeduetoinfiltration,whileforother
conditionstheairleakthroughthebuildingenvelopmay
beinasingledirection.

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Pressuredistributioninaduct
Pressureisincreasedinthefan
andlossinallotherelements.
Thenetworkischaracterised
normallybyaconstantinlet
anddischargepressure.

ASHRAE
FigurefromHundy,TrottandWelch

Filters
Hundy,TrottandWelch

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