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Energy Management : : 2007/2008 Class # 2P ASSIGNMENT 1 (EXAMPLE) Energy Prices Dr. João Parente
Energy Management : : 2007/2008 Class # 2P ASSIGNMENT 1 (EXAMPLE) Energy Prices Dr. João Parente

Energy Management :: 2007/2008

Class # 2P

ASSIGNMENT 1 (EXAMPLE)

Energy Prices

Dr. João Parente

joao.parente@dem.ist.utl.pt

Energy Management : : 2007/2008 Class # 2P ASSIGNMENT 1 (EXAMPLE) Energy Prices Dr. João Parente

Energy Management

Energy Management Course Organization Week Dates Summary 1 Sustainability and resource management 10, 14 Set 2

Course Organization

Week

Dates

Summary

  • 1 Sustainability and resource management

10, 14 Set

  • 2 Energy Markets

17, 21 Set

  • 3 Energy and environment: LCA

24, 28 Set

  • 4 Energy and environment: LCA

1, 5 Out

  • 5 Energy Services

8, 12 Out

  • 6 Energy Systems modeling: Blocks

15, 19 Out

  • 7 Energy Systems modeling: IO

22, 26 Out

  • 8 Energy Management in Industry

29 Out, 2 Nov

  • 9 Main Energy Transformation Equipments Characterization, energy audits

5, 9 Nov

  • 10 Energy Management Systems in Industry

12, 16 Nov

  • 11 Integration of Energy Systems: Demand side management.

19, 23 Nov

  • 12 Energy Efficiency, tools and practice

26, 30 Nov

  • 13 Energy efficiency in buildings

3, 7 Dez

  • 14 The role of renewables

10, 14 Dez

Assignement

OUT, 1 Presentation TERM PAPER Topics OUT, 2 Definition Term Paper Topics OUT, 3 OUT, 4

OUT, 5

OUT, 6

 

Energy Management

Problems

Problems

ASSIGNMENT 1 (EXAMPLE):

Consider a house with an electrical contract of 10,35 kVA. The present contract is in dual tariff, daily cycle. The consumption power daily profile is represented in the table.

The owner is considering to substitute the heating system. Presently he has a system based on electrical resistances and intend to install a heating system based on a hot water circuit heated by a natural gas boiler. The electrical heating system is used 16 hours/day (between 8:00 to 24:00) just in working days and in 5 months (winter), with an average power of 2 kW. Is expected that the energy efficiency of the hot water boiler is 80%. Consider winter peak schedule as simplification.

Questions:

  • a) What is the present electricity monthly bill ?

  • b) Is simple tariff less expensive ? If so, continue the resolution with simple tariff.

  • c) Calculate the annual electrical resistance consumption and corresponding annual cost ..

  • d) Calculate annual m3 of natural gas consumption

  • e) What is the impact in the energy bill of the heating system substitution ?

 

Energy Management

Problems

Problems

Power consumption daily profile

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
21
23
power (kW)
W.Days Saturday Sunday
W.Days
Saturday
Sunday

hour

 

Energy Management

Problems

Problems

SOLUTION ASSIGNMENT 1 (EXAMPLE):

a)

In dual tariff, the electricity price is 0,1077 €/kWh at peak hours and 0,0584 €/kWh at off-peak hours. Considering the simplification (winter), peak schedule is between 8h00 till 22h00. This leads to the following consumption table

kWh

WD

Sat

Sun

TOTAL

Peak

54

14

14

298

Off-peak

27

10

10

155

Considering 30 days per month:

Peak = 298 kWh/ 7 days x 30 days = 1277 kWh/month Off-peak = 155 kWh/ 7 days x 30 days = 664 kWh/month

TOTAL = 1277 + 664 = 1941 kWh/month

The month bill will be:

Bill = 22,13 + 1277 x 0,1077 +664 x 0,0584 = 198,4 €

 

Energy Management

Problems

Problems

SOLUTION ASSIGNMENT 1 (EXAMPLE):

b)

In simple tariff the bill would be:

Bill = 16,68 + 1941 x 0,1077 = 226,7 €

So is better the dual tariff.

 

Energy Management

Problems

Problems

SOLUTION ASSIGNMENT 1 (EXAMPLE):

c)

Electrical heating as 14 hours as peak and 2 hours as off-peak. So, the average price is:

Average price = (14 x 0,1077 +2 x 0,0584) /16 = 0,1015 €/kWh

The daily consumption is 32 kWh (16x2), so the month consumption is 960 kWh (32 x 30), annual 4800 kWh (960 x 5).

The cost is 487 € (0,1015 x 480).

 

Energy Management

Problems

Problems

SOLUTION ASSIGNMENT 1 (EXAMPLE):

d)

1 kWh of electricity requires 1/0,8 = 1,25 kWh of heat released by burning natural gas due to the thermal efficiency of the boiler.

Considering a LHV of 39 MJ/m3, 1,25 kWh corresponds to 0,032 m3 (1,25 / 39).

The electrical consumption related with heating is calculated by:

Heating natural gas = 4800 kWh x 0,032 m3/kWh = 154 m3/year.

 

Energy Management

Problems

Problems

SOLUTION ASSIGNMENT 1 (EXAMPLE):

e)

The bill will be reduced by 487 € and increased by 89 (154 x 0,58), so the new system will save 398 €/year.

Energy Management

Energy Management TARIFFS FIX TERM Contracted Number of Price for Price for power contracts simple tariff
TARIFFS
TARIFFS

FIX TERM

Contracted

Number of

Price for

Price for

power

contracts

simple tariff

dual tariff

(kVA)

(€/month)

(€/month)

3,45

2.881.831

5,57

8,25

4,6

 
  • 45.504 7,47

10,64

5,75

 
  • 25.336 9,38

13,03

6,9

1.137.272

11,29

15,42

10,35

 
  • 342.316 16,68

22,13

13,8

 
  • 116.915 22,16

28,95

17,25

34.800

27,50

35,58

20,7

141.403

33,09

42,56

VARIABLE TERM

Energy in peak period

0,1077 €/kWh

0,1077 €/kWh

Energy in off peak period

0,0584 €/kWh

Energy Management TARIFFS FIX TERM Contracted Number of Price for Price for power contracts simple tariff

Residential

PEAK SCHEDULE

DAILY CYCLE

WINTER

SUMMER

8h - 22h

9h - 23 h

 

WEEKLY CYCLE

 

Working

Saturday

Sunday

days

ALL YEAR

WINTER

SUMMER

ALL YEAR

7h - 24h

9h30 - 13h 18h30 - 22h

9h - 14h 20h - 22h

Never

Energy Management TARIFFS FIX TERM Contracted Number of Price for Price for power contracts simple tariff

Application: A house with a 6,9 kVA contracted power has a monthly consumption of 200 kWh at peak hours and 100 kWh at off-peak hours. What is the best option in the Regulated Market ?

Energy Management

Energy Management FUEL PRICES LHV PRICE PRICE (MJ/kg) €/GJ INDUSTRY Coal (power st.) 29 0,05 €/kg

FUEL PRICES

 

LHV

PRICE

PRICE

(MJ/kg)

€/GJ

INDUSTRY

Coal (power st.)

29

0,05 €/kg

2

Biomass

10

0,05 €/kg

5

Natural gas

39

0,03 €/kWh

8

Fuel-oil

40

0,46 €/kg

12

Propane

47

1,1 €/kg

23

TRANSPORTS

Gas-oil

43

1,084 €/l (0,835 kg/l)

30

Petrol

45

1,32 €/l (0,75 kg/l)

39

RESIDENTIAL

Natural gas

39

0,58 €/m3

14

Gas-oil

43

0,733 €/l (0,835 kg/l)

20

Butane

47

1,38 €/kg

29

Propane

47

1,7 €/kg

36

Average prices, based on data from DGEG (www.dgge.pt). Natural gas prices are strongly dependent on the consumption magnitude as will be presented forward. Biomass prices depend very much of biomass source, size and humidity

Energy Management FUEL PRICES LHV PRICE PRICE (MJ/kg) €/GJ INDUSTRY Coal (power st.) 29 0,05 €/kg

Consolidation: Is electricity an expensive energy ?