theory of aperture

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theory of aperture

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EE5308

Aperture Antennas

1 Introduction

Very often, we have antennas in aperture forms, for

example, the antennas shown below:

Aperture Antennas

NUS/ECE

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Aperture Antennas

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Paraboloidal antenna

Slot antenna

2.1 Uniqueness Theorem

An electromagnetic field (E, H) in a lossy region is uniquely

specified by the sources (J, M) within the region plus (i) the

tangential component of the electric field over the boundary,

or (ii) the tangential component of the magnetic field over

the boundary, or (iii) the former over part of the boundary

and the latter over the rest of boundary. The case for a

lossless region is considered to be the limiting case as the

losses go to zero. Here M is the magnetic current density

assumed that it exists or its existence is derived from M = E

Hon Tat Hui

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normal vector on that surface. (For a proof, see ref. [3])

2.2 Equivalence Principle

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Actual problem

Equivalent problem

interested only to find the fields (E1, H1) outside S (i.e.,

V2), we can replace region V1 with a perfect conductor as

on the right-hand side so that the fields inside it are zero.

We also need to place a magnetic current density

Ms=E1n on the surface of the perfect conductor in order

to satisfy the boundary condition on S. Now for both the

actual problem and the equivalent problem, there are no

sources inside V2. In the actual problem, the tangential

component of the electric field at the outside of S is E1n.

In the equivalent problem, the tangential component of the

Hon Tat Hui

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current density Ms=E1n has been specified on S already.

Hence by using the uniqueness theorem, the fields (E1,

H1) in V2 in the equivalent problem will be the same as

those in the actual problem.

Note that the requirement for zero fields inside V1 is to

satisfy the boundary condition specified on the tangential

component of the electric field across S. Because now in

the equivalent problem just outside S, the electric field is

E1 while there is also a magnetic current density Ms. But

just inside S, the electric field is zero. Hence on S,

(E1 0)n = E1 n = Ms

Hon Tat Hui

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tangential component of the electric field across S with an

added magnetic current source.

The advantage of the equivalent problem is that we can

calculate (E1, H1) in V2 by knowing Ms on the surface of a

perfect conductor.

A modified case with practical interest is shown below.

Aperture Antennas

NUS/ECE

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Only equivalent

Aperture fields

required

Ground plane knowncurrent radiates

equivalent

magnetic

in free space

n

V1

Ea, Ha M = Ea

V1

2,2

(a)

Aperture in a ground plane

ns

V2

V2

V2V1

Aperture

1, 1

2,

1,12

(b)

Equivalent problem

2,

2,2

(c)

Equivalent problem

after using image

theorem

Aperture Antennas

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ground plane is equivalent to the finding of (i) the fields in

V2 due to an equivalent magnetic current density of Ms

radiating in a half-space bounded by the ground plane, or

(ii) the fields in V2 due to an equivalent magnetic current

density of 2Ms radiating in a free space having the

properties of V2. Note that for the equivalent problem in

(c), the field so calculated in V1 may not be equal to the

original fields in V1 in actual problem in (a).

To find the electromagnetic field due to a magnetic current

density Ms, we need to construct an equation with the

source Ms and solve it.

Hon Tat Hui

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Maxwells equations with a magnetic current source

with Ms

with

H = jE

E = jH

E = Ms jH H = J + jE

B = m

D = 0

D =

B = 0

electric vector potential F can be defined similar to the

magnetic vector potential A.

Hon Tat Hui

10

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with Ms

E

with

1

=

F + k F = Ms

2

F R(

)=4

R

e jkR

A + k 2A = J

Ms (R' R dv' (A R) = 4

e jkR

v'

J R( '

dv' '

be calculated from the electric vector potential F, whose

Hon Tat Hui

11

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magnetic and electric current sources, E and H can be

calculated by the superposition principle.

Far-Field Approximations

When the far-field of aperture radiation is interested, the

following approximations can be used to simplify the

factor

(see ref. [1]):e jkRR

R r rcos,

R r,

for numerator

for denominator

12

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(r , , )

R'

(r, , )

Then,

(F R

e jkr

( )

'e

jkr cos

dv '

v'

e jkr

where

Hon Tat Hui

13

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L=

M (R' e)

s

dv'

jkrcos

v'

cos

dv'

v'

L a= rLr +aL

+a L

where

Hon Tat Hui

14

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cos

dv'

jkr

v'

v'

cos

dv'

jkr

v'

1

Hon Tat Hui

1

15

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E=

F

H, =

E j

E = jF

E = + jF

E

H =

E

H = +

e jkr

F =

Hon Tat Hui

L

16

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r jkr e

F = 4r L Note: there is no

need to know Fr. Hence there is

no need to find Lr.

Example 1

Find the far-field produced by a rectangular aperture opened

on an infinitely large ground plane with the following

17

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aperture field distribution:

Solutions

The equivalent magnetic current density is:

Hon Tat Hui

18

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Ms = Ea a z = a y a zE0 = a xE0

a2 x a2

b2 y b2

M x = E0, M y = 0, M z = 0

Actually, there

is no need to

findLr.

L =

L = M x sine jkrcosds

s

Lr =

Hon Tat Hui

19

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rcos= r a r

20

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= (a x x+a y y)

( a

cos)

= xsin cos+ ysin sin

After using the image theorem to remove the ground plane, we

have:

b

2

L = cos

cos

jkx

+y sin sin

( sin cos

dx dy

)

Me

2a2

2 a 2

21

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XX sin

kb

ka

sincos ,

X=

YY

Y=

sinsin

Similarly,

YY

Hon Tat Hui

22

XX sin

Aperture Antennas

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Therefore,

F =

4e jkrr L =

2e jkrr abE0 cos

cos sin

XX sin

YY

4r L=

Y

2r abE0

Er = 0

E = jF =

Hon Tat Hui

23

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E = + jF

jkr

j abkE e20r cos cossin

= j abkE e20r

XX sin

YY

jkr

sinsin

XX

sin

YY

24

Aperture Antennas

Hr = 0

E

H =

E

H =

infinite ground plane (a=3, b=2 )

E-plane

H-plane

infinite ground plane (a=3, b=2 )

Parabolic reflector antennas are frequently used in radar

systems. They are very high gain antennas. There are

two types of parabolic reflector antennas: 1. Parabolic

right cylindrical reflector antenna This antenna is

usually fed by a line source such as a dipole antenna

and converts a cylindrical wave from the source into a

plane wave at the aperture.

2. Paraboloidal reflector antenna

This antenna is usually fed by a point source such as

a horn antenna and converts a spherical wave from

the feeding source into a plane wave at the aperture.

paraboloidal reflector antenna:

d = Aperture diameter

f = focal length

Defining equation for the paraboloidal surface:

OP + PQ = constant = 2f

Physical area of the aperture Ap:

2

Ap =

2

The half subtended angle 0 can be calculated by the

following formula:

1 f

= 2 d

tan 1

0

2

f

d16

Aperture Efficiency ap

Aem maximum effective area ap

==

Ap

physical area

2

= cot2 20 f G (')tan

0

2'd

'

Directivity: maximum directivity = 42 Aem

=d2ap

D0 =

The feed pattern is the radiation pattern produced by the

feeding horn and is given by:

2(n+1)cos ( '),

' / 2 Gf (') = 0,

'

0

/ 2

the feed horn.

major part of the main lobe of many practical feeding

horns. Note that this feed pattern is axially symmetric

about the z axis, independent of .

With this feed pattern formula, the aperture efficiency

can be evaluated to be:

2

cot220

cot220

cos(3 0)]3

1sin (2 )

cot220

20

1 cos (4 0)

ap (n = 8) =18 4 2 2ln

cos 0

[1 cos(0)]3 12sin (2 0)cot2

20

3

)ap

With the aperture efficiency, the maximum effective

aperture can be calculated as:

Aem = Apap

2

physical area =

d

A=

2

p

Radiation Pattern

The radiation pattern of a paraboloidal reflector antenna

is highly directional with a narrow half-power

shown below.

with an axially symmetric feed pattern. Note that the half-power

beamwidth is only about 2.

Example 2

A 10-m diameter paraboloidal reflector antenna with an f/d

ratio of 0.5, is operating at a frequency = 3 GHz. The

reflector is fed by an antenna whose feed pattern is axially

symmetric and which can be approximated by:

6cos ( '),

2 Gf (') =

0,

0 ' /

/ 2 '

directivity of the antenna.

(b) If this antenna is used for receiving an

electromagnetic wave with a power density Pavi = 10-5

W/m2, what is the power PL delivered to a matched load?

Solution

(a) With f/d = 0.5, the half subtended angle 0 can be

calculated.

12 2df =

tan1(0.512()0.52 )1 = 53.13

0 = tan

d 16

16

efficiency formula with n = 2, we find:

ap (n = 2) =

24

)]} cot (26.57)

= 0.75 = 75%

2

maximum

directivity

=d ap

D0 =

0.1

(b) Frequency = 3 GHz, = 0.1 m.

2

D0

= 58.9 m2

4

PL

Aem = PL

Ae (, )=

Pavi Pav (, )

Hence, PL = A Pemavi = 58.9 10

Pavi

5

= 5.89 10

References:

1. C. A. Balanis, Antenna Theory, Analysis and Design, John Wiley &

Sons, Inc., New Jersey, 2005.

2. W. L. Stutzman and G. A. Thiele, Antenna Theory and Design, Wiley,

New York, 1998.

3. R. F. Harrington, Time-Harmonic Electromagnetic Fields, McGrawHill, New York, 1962, pp. 100-103, 143-263, 365-367.

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