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Mapua Institute of Technology

Intramuros, Manila

School of Civil, Environmental and Geological Engineering


Surveying Department
CE121F/B2

FIELDWORK 5
LAYING OF A COMPOUND CURVE USING
TRANSIT AND TAPE
Submitted by:
Pascual, Ma. Nadine Stephanie D.
GROUP NO. 9
D.

Chief of Party: Pascual, Ma. Nadine Stephanie

Date of Fieldwork: September 4, 2014


Date of Submission: September 16, 2014
Submitted to:
Engr. Bienvenido Cervantes
Data:
STATION
INCREMENTAL
CHORD

CENTRAL
INCREMENTAL
ANGLE

DEFLECTION
ANGLE

OCCUPIED

OBSERVED

14+104.6

14+120

15.4m

1.53

0046

14+140

20m

0146

14+160

20m

0246

14+180

20m

0346

14+200

20m

0446

14+220

20m

0546

14+240

20m

0646

14+260

20m

0746

14+280

20m

0846

14+300

20m

0946

14+320

20m

1046

14+340

20m

1146

14+360

20m

1246

14+380

20m

1346

14+400

20m

1446

14+420

20m

1546

14+480

20m

1646

14+500

20m

1746

14+520

20m

1846

14+524.6

4.6m

0.45

1913

14+540

15.4m

2.3

0109

14+560

20m

0239

14+580

20m

0409

14+600

20m

0539

14+640

20m

0709

14+660

20m

0839

14+524.6

14+680

20m

1009

14+700

20m

1139

14+720

20m

1309

14+740

20m

1439

14+760

20m

1609

14+764.6

4.6m

0.68

1630

Discussion:
September 4, 2014 was our assigned date to accomplish
fieldwork 5. The data was given in advance by our professor, Engr.
Bievenido Cervantes. He gave all the necessary data needed and
instructed us to compute for the rest of the data. He also advise
us to do this before laying out or plotting the curve because it will
the task easier for each of us and it also saves time. Hence, we
didnt have much problem in the completion of the fieldwork.
After computing for all the necessary data, we head to the
Surveying Department to borrow instruments for the fieldwork.
We then went to the South Parking Lot of Mapua to lay out the
compound curve. Using the tape and chalk we first plotted the
tangents of the first curve and assigned the stationing including
the PC and PT. After doing those we then set up the theodolite so
we can sight the deflection angle for each station. We then
measured the incremental chord for each station. After getting
the incremental chords, we then measured the central
incremental angles using again the theodolite. We did this all
again for the second curve. After finishing all the sightings and
plotting we then input the data on a table to have an organize

data for the report. We returned the instruments in the Surveying


Department as we finish our fieldwork.
Photos:

Sighting of the deflection angels and central incremental angles.

Plotting of the curve using tape and chalk.

Laying out of the curve


using tape.

Research Works:
PROPERTIES OF CURVES
The center line of a road consists of series of straight lines
interconnected by curves that are used to change the alignment,
direction, or slope of the road. Those curves that change the
alignment or direction are known as horizontal curves, and those
that change the slope are vertical curves.
The initial design is usually based on a series of straight
sections whose positions are defined largely by the topography of
the area. The intersections of pairs of straights are then
connected by horizontal curves. Curves can be listed under three
main headings, as follows:
(1) Horizontal curve
(2) Vertical curves
Horizontal Curves

When a highway changes horizontal direction, making the


point where it changes direction a point of intersection between
two straight lines is not feasible. The change in direction would be
too abrupt for the safety of modem, high-speed vehicles. It is
therefore necessary to interpose a curve between the straight
lines. The straight lines of a road are called tangents because the
lines are tangent to the curves used to change direction.
The smaller the radius of a circular curve, the sharper the
curve. For modern, high-speed highways, the curves must be flat,
rather than sharp. The principal consideration in the design of a
curve is the selection of the length of the radius or the degree of
curvature. This selection is based on such considerations as the
design speed of the highway and the sight distance as limited by
headlights or obstructions.
The horizontal curve may be a simple circular curve or a
compound curve. For a smooth transition between straight and a
curve, a transition or easement curve is provided. The vertical
curves are used to provide a smooth change in direction taking
place in the vertical plane due to change of grade.
Types of Horizontal Curves
There are four types of horizontal curves. They are described as
follows:
A. Simple. The simple curve is an arc of a circle. The radius of the
circle determines the sharpness or flatness of the curve.

B. Compound. Frequently, the terrain will require the use of the


compound curve. This curve normally consists of two simple
curves joined together and curving in the same direction.
C. Reverse. A reverse curve consists of two simple curves joined
together, but curving in opposite direction. For safety reasons, the
use of this curve should be avoided when possible (view C, fig. 2).
D. Spiral. The spiral is a curve that has a varying radius. It is used
on railroads and most modem highways. Its purpose is to provide
a transition from the tangent to a simple curve or between simple
curves in a compound curve (view D, fig. 2).
Horizontal curve or Circular curves of constant radius
A simple circular curve shown in Fig., consists of simple arc of a
circle of radius R connecting two straights lines, intersecting at PI,
called the point of intersection (P.I.), having a deflection angle .
The distance E of the midpoint of the curve from P I is called the
external distance. The arc length from T1 to T2 is the length of
curve, and the chord T1T2 is called the long chord. The distance
M between the midpoints of the curve and the long chord, is
called the mid-ordinate. The distance T1 PI which is equal to the
distance P IT2, is called the tangent length.
Elements of Horizontal Curves
The elements of a circular curve are shown in figure 3. Each
element is designated and explained as follows:

Point of Intersection (PI). The point of intersection is the

point where the back and forward tangents intersect. Sometimes,


the point of intersection is designated as V (vertex).

Deflection Angle ( ). The central angle is the angle formed by


two radii drawn from the center of the circle (O) to the PC and PT.
The value of the central angle is equal to the I angle. Some
authorities call both the intersecting angle and central angle
either I or A.

Radius (R). The radius of the circle of which the curve is an


arc, or segment. The radius is always perpendicular to back and
forward tangents.

Point of Curvature (PC). The point of curvature is the point on


the back tangent where the circular curve begins. It is sometimes
designated as BC (beginning of curve) or TC (tangent to curve).

Point of Tangency (PT), The point of tangency is the point on


the forward tangent where the curve ends. It is sometimes
designated as EC (end of curve) or CT (curve to tangent).

Point of Curve. The point of curve is any point along the


curve. Length of Curve (L) . The length of curve is the distance
from the PC to the PT, measured along the curve.

Tangent Distance (T). The tangent distance is the distance


along the tangents from the PI to the PC or the PT. These
distances are equal on a simple curve.

Long Cord (C). The long chord is the straight-line distance


from the PC to the PT. Other types of chords are designated as
follows: C The full-chord distance between adjacent stations (full,
half, quarter, or one tenth stations) along a curve.

C1 The subchord distance between the PC and the first


station on the curve.

C2 The subchord distance between the last station on the

curve and the PT.

External Distance (E). The external distance (also called the


external secant) is the distance from the PI to the midpoint of the
curve. The external distance bisects the interior angle at the PI.

Middle Ordinate (M). The middle ordinate is the distance


from the midpoint of the curve to the midpoint of the long chord.
The extension of the middle ordinate bisects the central angle.

Degree of Curve. The degree of curve defines the sharpness


or flatness of the curve.
Horizontal Curve Layout
(A) Rectangular Off sets From the Tangent /Coordinate/ Method
This method is also suitable for short curve and, as in the previous
method, no attempt is made to keep the chord of equal lengths.
(B) Polar Staking / Deflection Method/
Polar staking methods have become increasingly popular,
especially with the availability of electronic tachometers. A simple
method can be derived using the starting point of the circle is
equal to the angle between the tangents and chord. For equal arc
lengths the polar staking elements are determined with respect to
the tangent.
Vertical curves
Once the horizontal alignment has been determined, the
vertical alignment of the section of highway can be addressed.
Again, the vertical alignment is composed of a series of straightline gradients connected by curves, normally parabolic in form.
These vertical parabolic curves must therefore be provided at all
changes in gradient. The curvature will be determined by the

design speed being sufficient to provide adequate driver comfort


with appropriate stopping sight distances provided.
Vertical curves should be simple in application and should
result in a design that is safe and comfortable in operation,
pleasing in appearance, and adequate for drainage. The major
control for safe operation on crest vertical curves is the provision
of ample sight distance for the design speed; while research has
shown that vertical curves with limited sight distance do not
necessarily experience safety problems, it is recommended that
all vertical curves should be designed to provide at least stopping
sight distances. Wherever practical, more liberal stopping sight
distances should be used. Furthermore, additional sight distance
should be provided at decision points.
For driver comfort, the rate of change of grade should be
kept within tolerable limits. This consideration is most important
in sag vertical curves where gravitational and vertical centripetal
forces act in opposite directions. Appearance also should be
considered in designing vertical curves. A long curve has a more
pleasing appearance than a short one; short vertical curves may
give the appearance of a sudden break in the profile due to the
effect of foreshortening.
The vertical offset from the tangent grade at any point along
the curve is proportional of the vertical offset at the VPI, which is
AL/800. The quantity L/A, termed K, is useful in determining the
horizontal distance from the Vertical Point of Curvature (VPC) to

the high point of Type I curves or to the low point of type III
curves.

If the azimuth of the backward and the forward tangents are


given, the intersection angle I can be solved using:
I =azimuth of the forward tangent azimuth of thebackward tangent

The tangent distance must be solve using:


T =R ta n

1
2

The middle ordinate distance (M) can be computed using:

M =R 1co s

1
2

The length of the curve (Lc) can be computed using:


Lc=RI /180 ; when I isdegreesLc=RI ; when I isradians

The station of PC can be computed using:


PC=PI T

The station of PT can be found by:


PT=PI + Lc

The length of the first sub chord from PC, if PC is not exactly on a
full station (otherwise C1= a full chord length)
C 1=First full station on the curvePC

The length of the last sub chord from PT, if PT is not exactly on a
full station (otherwise C2= a full chord length)
C 2=PT last full station on the curve

The value of the first deflection angle d1:


d 1=2 sin1

C1
2R

The value of the last deflection angle d2:


d 2=2 sin1

C2
2R

Incremental Chord and Tangent Offset Method


The tangent offset distance x1 must be solved using:
x 1=c 1co s

( d21 )

The tangent offset distance y1 must be solved using:


y 1=c 1si n

( d21 )

The tangent offset distances x2 must be solved using:

x 2=cco s

d 1+ D
2

The tangent offset distance y2 must be solved using:


y 2=csi n

d 1+ D
2

The tangent offset distance x3, must be solved using:


x 3=cco s

D+ D
x 3=cco s D
2

The tangent offset distance y3 must be solved using:


y 3=csi n

D+ D
y 3=csi n D
2

The tangent offset distance xn, must be solved using:


xn=cco s

d 2+ D
2

The tangent offset distance yn, must be solved using:


yn=csin

d 2+ D
2

Conclusion:
From the fieldwork entitled Laying of a Compound Curve using
Theodolite and Tape, the following objectives had been achieved and
accomplished. From laying of a simple curve by using the tape, we
acquired the knowledge in laying a compound curve with the use of
the theodolite and tape. The theodolite is hard to set-up because we
have to put all of the bubbles in the center for it to have a correct
reading.
Aside from the first objective mentioned, we were able to master the
skill in leveling, orienting and using the theodolite effectively. In
addition to reviewing what we learned from Elementary Surveying, our
Solid Mensuration skills were also improved as we analyzed different
parts of the simple curve.
On the other hand, we can say that the fieldwork is a matter of
computations. Hence, the most important thing is the practical
application which in this case, the laying of the curve using the meter
tape, two range poles, and the theodolite.

From the data we have obtained, we can conclude that we have


conducted the fieldwork well. This shows on the two near values of
length of chord we have arrived from the actual and the computed.
Moreover, the climax of this fieldwork is how we established the art of
leading and following the designated and desired task on the group. In
addition, responsibility is a very critical part of the performance in each
member of the group.
With the things we learned, our minds worked harmoniously,
thinking of the right way we can get more accurate results. These field
works are designed for students to utilize their minds and apply it in
the simplest possible way that they can. Organization and proper
knowledge of the activity is really a key to attaining precise outcomes.