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LAYING OF A COMPOUND CURVE USING TRANSIT AND TAPE

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Intramuros, Manila

Surveying Department

CE121F/B2

FIELDWORK 5

LAYING OF A COMPOUND CURVE USING

TRANSIT AND TAPE

Submitted by:

Pascual, Ma. Nadine Stephanie D.

GROUP NO. 9

D.

Date of Submission: September 16, 2014

Submitted to:

Engr. Bienvenido Cervantes

Data:

STATION

INCREMENTAL

CHORD

CENTRAL

INCREMENTAL

ANGLE

DEFLECTION

ANGLE

OCCUPIED

OBSERVED

14+104.6

14+120

15.4m

1.53

0046

14+140

20m

0146

14+160

20m

0246

14+180

20m

0346

14+200

20m

0446

14+220

20m

0546

14+240

20m

0646

14+260

20m

0746

14+280

20m

0846

14+300

20m

0946

14+320

20m

1046

14+340

20m

1146

14+360

20m

1246

14+380

20m

1346

14+400

20m

1446

14+420

20m

1546

14+480

20m

1646

14+500

20m

1746

14+520

20m

1846

14+524.6

4.6m

0.45

1913

14+540

15.4m

2.3

0109

14+560

20m

0239

14+580

20m

0409

14+600

20m

0539

14+640

20m

0709

14+660

20m

0839

14+524.6

14+680

20m

1009

14+700

20m

1139

14+720

20m

1309

14+740

20m

1439

14+760

20m

1609

14+764.6

4.6m

0.68

1630

Discussion:

September 4, 2014 was our assigned date to accomplish

fieldwork 5. The data was given in advance by our professor, Engr.

Bievenido Cervantes. He gave all the necessary data needed and

instructed us to compute for the rest of the data. He also advise

us to do this before laying out or plotting the curve because it will

the task easier for each of us and it also saves time. Hence, we

didnt have much problem in the completion of the fieldwork.

After computing for all the necessary data, we head to the

Surveying Department to borrow instruments for the fieldwork.

We then went to the South Parking Lot of Mapua to lay out the

compound curve. Using the tape and chalk we first plotted the

tangents of the first curve and assigned the stationing including

the PC and PT. After doing those we then set up the theodolite so

we can sight the deflection angle for each station. We then

measured the incremental chord for each station. After getting

the incremental chords, we then measured the central

incremental angles using again the theodolite. We did this all

again for the second curve. After finishing all the sightings and

plotting we then input the data on a table to have an organize

Department as we finish our fieldwork.

Photos:

using tape.

Research Works:

PROPERTIES OF CURVES

The center line of a road consists of series of straight lines

interconnected by curves that are used to change the alignment,

direction, or slope of the road. Those curves that change the

alignment or direction are known as horizontal curves, and those

that change the slope are vertical curves.

The initial design is usually based on a series of straight

sections whose positions are defined largely by the topography of

the area. The intersections of pairs of straights are then

connected by horizontal curves. Curves can be listed under three

main headings, as follows:

(1) Horizontal curve

(2) Vertical curves

Horizontal Curves

point where it changes direction a point of intersection between

two straight lines is not feasible. The change in direction would be

too abrupt for the safety of modem, high-speed vehicles. It is

therefore necessary to interpose a curve between the straight

lines. The straight lines of a road are called tangents because the

lines are tangent to the curves used to change direction.

The smaller the radius of a circular curve, the sharper the

curve. For modern, high-speed highways, the curves must be flat,

rather than sharp. The principal consideration in the design of a

curve is the selection of the length of the radius or the degree of

curvature. This selection is based on such considerations as the

design speed of the highway and the sight distance as limited by

headlights or obstructions.

The horizontal curve may be a simple circular curve or a

compound curve. For a smooth transition between straight and a

curve, a transition or easement curve is provided. The vertical

curves are used to provide a smooth change in direction taking

place in the vertical plane due to change of grade.

Types of Horizontal Curves

There are four types of horizontal curves. They are described as

follows:

A. Simple. The simple curve is an arc of a circle. The radius of the

circle determines the sharpness or flatness of the curve.

compound curve. This curve normally consists of two simple

curves joined together and curving in the same direction.

C. Reverse. A reverse curve consists of two simple curves joined

together, but curving in opposite direction. For safety reasons, the

use of this curve should be avoided when possible (view C, fig. 2).

D. Spiral. The spiral is a curve that has a varying radius. It is used

on railroads and most modem highways. Its purpose is to provide

a transition from the tangent to a simple curve or between simple

curves in a compound curve (view D, fig. 2).

Horizontal curve or Circular curves of constant radius

A simple circular curve shown in Fig., consists of simple arc of a

circle of radius R connecting two straights lines, intersecting at PI,

called the point of intersection (P.I.), having a deflection angle .

The distance E of the midpoint of the curve from P I is called the

external distance. The arc length from T1 to T2 is the length of

curve, and the chord T1T2 is called the long chord. The distance

M between the midpoints of the curve and the long chord, is

called the mid-ordinate. The distance T1 PI which is equal to the

distance P IT2, is called the tangent length.

Elements of Horizontal Curves

The elements of a circular curve are shown in figure 3. Each

element is designated and explained as follows:

the point of intersection is designated as V (vertex).

two radii drawn from the center of the circle (O) to the PC and PT.

The value of the central angle is equal to the I angle. Some

authorities call both the intersecting angle and central angle

either I or A.

arc, or segment. The radius is always perpendicular to back and

forward tangents.

the back tangent where the circular curve begins. It is sometimes

designated as BC (beginning of curve) or TC (tangent to curve).

the forward tangent where the curve ends. It is sometimes

designated as EC (end of curve) or CT (curve to tangent).

curve. Length of Curve (L) . The length of curve is the distance

from the PC to the PT, measured along the curve.

along the tangents from the PI to the PC or the PT. These

distances are equal on a simple curve.

from the PC to the PT. Other types of chords are designated as

follows: C The full-chord distance between adjacent stations (full,

half, quarter, or one tenth stations) along a curve.

station on the curve.

external secant) is the distance from the PI to the midpoint of the

curve. The external distance bisects the interior angle at the PI.

from the midpoint of the curve to the midpoint of the long chord.

The extension of the middle ordinate bisects the central angle.

or flatness of the curve.

Horizontal Curve Layout

(A) Rectangular Off sets From the Tangent /Coordinate/ Method

This method is also suitable for short curve and, as in the previous

method, no attempt is made to keep the chord of equal lengths.

(B) Polar Staking / Deflection Method/

Polar staking methods have become increasingly popular,

especially with the availability of electronic tachometers. A simple

method can be derived using the starting point of the circle is

equal to the angle between the tangents and chord. For equal arc

lengths the polar staking elements are determined with respect to

the tangent.

Vertical curves

Once the horizontal alignment has been determined, the

vertical alignment of the section of highway can be addressed.

Again, the vertical alignment is composed of a series of straightline gradients connected by curves, normally parabolic in form.

These vertical parabolic curves must therefore be provided at all

changes in gradient. The curvature will be determined by the

with appropriate stopping sight distances provided.

Vertical curves should be simple in application and should

result in a design that is safe and comfortable in operation,

pleasing in appearance, and adequate for drainage. The major

control for safe operation on crest vertical curves is the provision

of ample sight distance for the design speed; while research has

shown that vertical curves with limited sight distance do not

necessarily experience safety problems, it is recommended that

all vertical curves should be designed to provide at least stopping

sight distances. Wherever practical, more liberal stopping sight

distances should be used. Furthermore, additional sight distance

should be provided at decision points.

For driver comfort, the rate of change of grade should be

kept within tolerable limits. This consideration is most important

in sag vertical curves where gravitational and vertical centripetal

forces act in opposite directions. Appearance also should be

considered in designing vertical curves. A long curve has a more

pleasing appearance than a short one; short vertical curves may

give the appearance of a sudden break in the profile due to the

effect of foreshortening.

The vertical offset from the tangent grade at any point along

the curve is proportional of the vertical offset at the VPI, which is

AL/800. The quantity L/A, termed K, is useful in determining the

horizontal distance from the Vertical Point of Curvature (VPC) to

the high point of Type I curves or to the low point of type III

curves.

given, the intersection angle I can be solved using:

I =azimuth of the forward tangent azimuth of thebackward tangent

T =R ta n

1

2

M =R 1co s

1

2

Lc=RI /180 ; when I isdegreesLc=RI ; when I isradians

PC=PI T

PT=PI + Lc

The length of the first sub chord from PC, if PC is not exactly on a

full station (otherwise C1= a full chord length)

C 1=First full station on the curvePC

The length of the last sub chord from PT, if PT is not exactly on a

full station (otherwise C2= a full chord length)

C 2=PT last full station on the curve

d 1=2 sin1

C1

2R

d 2=2 sin1

C2

2R

The tangent offset distance x1 must be solved using:

x 1=c 1co s

( d21 )

y 1=c 1si n

( d21 )

x 2=cco s

d 1+ D

2

y 2=csi n

d 1+ D

2

x 3=cco s

D+ D

x 3=cco s D

2

y 3=csi n

D+ D

y 3=csi n D

2

xn=cco s

d 2+ D

2

yn=csin

d 2+ D

2

Conclusion:

From the fieldwork entitled Laying of a Compound Curve using

Theodolite and Tape, the following objectives had been achieved and

accomplished. From laying of a simple curve by using the tape, we

acquired the knowledge in laying a compound curve with the use of

the theodolite and tape. The theodolite is hard to set-up because we

have to put all of the bubbles in the center for it to have a correct

reading.

Aside from the first objective mentioned, we were able to master the

skill in leveling, orienting and using the theodolite effectively. In

addition to reviewing what we learned from Elementary Surveying, our

Solid Mensuration skills were also improved as we analyzed different

parts of the simple curve.

On the other hand, we can say that the fieldwork is a matter of

computations. Hence, the most important thing is the practical

application which in this case, the laying of the curve using the meter

tape, two range poles, and the theodolite.

conducted the fieldwork well. This shows on the two near values of

length of chord we have arrived from the actual and the computed.

Moreover, the climax of this fieldwork is how we established the art of

leading and following the designated and desired task on the group. In

addition, responsibility is a very critical part of the performance in each

member of the group.

With the things we learned, our minds worked harmoniously,

thinking of the right way we can get more accurate results. These field

works are designed for students to utilize their minds and apply it in

the simplest possible way that they can. Organization and proper

knowledge of the activity is really a key to attaining precise outcomes.

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