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Introduction

Computer vision by phase encoding methods


Developed phase-based measurement system
Conclusions
References

Computer vision for robotic navigation and augmented


reality applications
Dr. Rigoberto Juarez Salazar
1

Instituto Tecnologico
Superior de Zacapoaxtla
de Ingeniera Informatica

Division

Congreso Multidisciplinario Ciencia y Tecnologa para el


Desarrollo Sustentable
October 15, 2014

1 / 40

Dr. Rigoberto Juarez


Salazar

rjuarezsalazar@gmail.com

Computer vision in robotic navigation and augmented reality applications

Introduction
Computer vision by phase encoding methods
Developed phase-based measurement system
Conclusions
References

Content

2 / 40

Introduction

Computer vision by phase encoding methods

Developed phase-based measurement system


de patrones de franjas
Normalizacion
Fourier fringe-normalized analysis
Inhomogeneous phase-shifting
Desenvolvimiento de fase

Conclusions

References

Dr. Rigoberto Juarez


Salazar

rjuarezsalazar@gmail.com

Computer vision in robotic navigation and augmented reality applications

Introduction
Computer vision by phase encoding methods
Developed phase-based measurement system
Conclusions
References

Introduction

Figura : Metrology is a very important task in most of human task. It increases our senses,
particularly, vision sense. Vision is about discovering from images what is present in the scene and
where it is. It is our most powerful sense.
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Dr. Rigoberto Juarez


Salazar

rjuarezsalazar@gmail.com

Computer vision in robotic navigation and augmented reality applications

Introduction
Computer vision by phase encoding methods
Developed phase-based measurement system
Conclusions
References

What is computer vision?


In computer vision a camera (or several cameras) is linked to a computer. The
computer automatically interprets images of a real scene to obtain useful information
(e.g., 3D reconstruction) and then acts on that information (e.g. for navigation or
manipulation).

4 / 40

Dr. Rigoberto Juarez


Salazar

rjuarezsalazar@gmail.com

Computer vision in robotic navigation and augmented reality applications

Introduction
Computer vision by phase encoding methods
Developed phase-based measurement system
Conclusions
References

What is computer vision?


In computer vision a camera (or several cameras) is linked to a computer. The
computer automatically interprets images of a real scene to obtain useful information
(e.g., 3D reconstruction) and then acts on that information (e.g. for navigation or
manipulation).
It is not:
Image processing. Image enhancement, image restoration, image compression. Take
an image and process it to produce a new image which is, in some
way, more desirable.
Pattern recognition. Classifies patterns into one of a finite set of prototypes.

4 / 40

Dr. Rigoberto Juarez


Salazar

rjuarezsalazar@gmail.com

Computer vision in robotic navigation and augmented reality applications

Introduction
Computer vision by phase encoding methods
Developed phase-based measurement system
Conclusions
References

Applications of computer vision


Automation of industrial processes: object recognition, visual inspection, robot
hand-eye coordination, robot navigation.
Space and military: remote sensing, surveillance, target detection and tracking
(traffic, aircraft, etc.), UAV localization.
Human-computer interaction: Face detection and recognition. Mobile-phone
applications, augmented reality.
3D modeling.

5 / 40

Dr. Rigoberto Juarez


Salazar

rjuarezsalazar@gmail.com

Computer vision in robotic navigation and augmented reality applications

Introduction
Computer vision by phase encoding methods
Developed phase-based measurement system
Conclusions
References

A proposed computer vision-based robotic navigation

6 / 40

Dr. Rigoberto Juarez


Salazar

rjuarezsalazar@gmail.com

Computer vision in robotic navigation and augmented reality applications

Introduction
Computer vision by phase encoding methods
Developed phase-based measurement system
Conclusions
References

Computer vision-based robotic navigation

7 / 40

Dr. Rigoberto Juarez


Salazar

rjuarezsalazar@gmail.com

Computer vision in robotic navigation and augmented reality applications

Introduction
Computer vision by phase encoding methods
Developed phase-based measurement system
Conclusions
References

Approaches in computer vision

There are two main approaches to obtain three-dimensional information of a scene.


Amplitude or intensity modulation
The information is obtained from variations of intensity of the object, for example,
shadows, illumination conditions, surface color, etc. It is simple to implement and easy
the experimental setup. However, it is very sensitive to noise sources.
Phase modulation
The information of interest is encoded into a phase distribution, for example, by phase
shifting, or frequency carrier. The experimental setup is lightly more complex than
amplitude modulation approach. The data processing is more complex. The main
advantages is that phase modulation have a very high robustness to noise sources. It
allows to reach a high resolution.

8 / 40

Dr. Rigoberto Juarez


Salazar

rjuarezsalazar@gmail.com

Computer vision in robotic navigation and augmented reality applications

Introduction
Computer vision by phase encoding methods
Developed phase-based measurement system
Conclusions
References

Phase-based measurement systems

Experimental setup
Inputs

Physical Outputs
parameter

Sensing
device

Fringe-
pa+erns

Fringe-
pa9erns

Pre-
processing

Wrapped
phase
extrac7on

Intermediate
processing

Fringe analysis
S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

Mesurand
Mesurand

Post-
processing

Phase-
unwrapping

Figura : General scheme of a phase-based measurement system.

The experimental setup generates fringe-patterns where the encoded phase is


associated with the physical parameter of interest.
The fringe analysis block extracts the physical information from the given
fringe-patterns.

9 / 40

Dr. Rigoberto Juarez


Salazar

rjuarezsalazar@gmail.com

Computer vision in robotic navigation and augmented reality applications

Introduction
Computer vision by phase encoding methods
Developed phase-based measurement system
Conclusions
References

Computer vision by phase encoding methods


By the good properties of using phase modulation, we are focused on reconstruction of
3D objects by phase-shifting as well as Fourier fringe analysis to robotic navigation and
augmented reality applications.
The phase encoding approach consist on the following two procedures.
1. Wrapped phase extraction
One or more fringe-patterns are processed to obtain the encoded phase in a wrapped
format. For this, the two main methods are
Phase-shifting method.
Advantages. Full resolution is reached, algorithms are simple and very robust.
Disadvantages. More than one image is required. This make it no much available
for real-time applications.
Fourier fringe analysis.
Advantages Only one image is sufficient to work, it is appropriate for real-time
applications.
Disadvantages. Reduced resolution, algorithms are complex. Filtering is difficult.

10 / 40

Dr. Rigoberto Juarez


Salazar

rjuarezsalazar@gmail.com

Computer vision in robotic navigation and augmented reality applications

Introduction
Computer vision by phase encoding methods
Developed phase-based measurement system
Conclusions
References

Computer vision by phase encoding methods


By the good properties of using phase modulation, we are focused on reconstruction of
3D objects by phase-shifting as well as Fourier fringe analysis to robotic navigation and
augmented reality applications.
The phase encoding approach consist on the following two procedures.
2. Phase unwrapping
The synthetic phase jumps induced by the phase extraction must be removed before
that any useful information can be reached. For this, a phase unwrapping process is
applied in the pipeline.

11 / 40

Dr. Rigoberto Juarez


Salazar

rjuarezsalazar@gmail.com

Computer vision in robotic navigation and augmented reality applications

Introduction
Computer vision by phase encoding methods
Developed phase-based measurement system
Conclusions
References

Phase demodulation process

(a)

Experimental setup
Inputs

Physical Outputs
parameter

Sensing
device

(b)

Fringe-
pa+erns

Fringe-
pa9erns

Pre-
processing

(c)

Wrapped
phase
extrac7on

Intermediate
processing

Fringe analysis
S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

Mesurand
Mesurand

Post-
processing

Phase-
unwrapping

Figura : General scheme of a phase-based measurement system.


12 / 40

Dr. Rigoberto Juarez


Salazar

rjuarezsalazar@gmail.com

Computer vision in robotic navigation and augmented reality applications

Introduction
Computer vision by phase encoding methods
Developed phase-based measurement system
Conclusions
References

de patrones de franjas
Normalizacion
Fourier fringe-normalized analysis
Inhomogeneous phase-shifting
Desenvolvimiento de fase

Fringe-pattern normalization
...

An efficient and automatic processing algorithm.

Ik

13 / 40

LS

ak

Dr. Rigoberto Juarez


Salazar

LS

rjuarezsalazar@gmail.com

bk2 2

2u

bk

uv

Ik

sat

Ik

Computer vision in robotic navigation and augmented reality applications

Introduction
Computer vision by phase encoding methods
Developed phase-based measurement system
Conclusions
References

de patrones de franjas
Normalizacion
Fourier fringe-normalized analysis
Inhomogeneous phase-shifting
Desenvolvimiento de fase

Fringe-pattern normalization
Let be a set of K fringe-patterns of the form
Ik (p) = ak (p) + bk (p) cos k (p), k = 0, K 1.

(1)

Then, the background and modulation lights can be recovered by1


ak = Aa Aa Ik ,

(2)

bk2 = 2Ab Ab (Ik ak )2 .


Finally, the normalization is carried out by the function sat() as


Ik = sat Ik ak = cos k (p) bk (p) 6= 0.
bk

Ik

LS

ak

u2

LS

bk2 2

2u

bk

uv

Ik

(3)

sat

Ik

Figura : Block diagram of the proposed fringe-pattern normalization method.


1
Juarez-Salazar, R., Robledo-Sanchez, C., Meneses-Fabian, C., Guerrero-Sanchez, F., and Aguilar, L. A.
Generalized phase-shifting interferometry by parameter estimation with the least squares method. Optics and
Lasers in Engineering, 51(5):626 632 (2013).
14 / 40

Dr. Rigoberto Juarez


Salazar

rjuarezsalazar@gmail.com

Computer vision in robotic navigation and augmented reality applications

Introduction
Computer vision by phase encoding methods
Developed phase-based measurement system
Conclusions
References

de patrones de franjas
Normalizacion
Fourier fringe-normalized analysis
Inhomogeneous phase-shifting
Desenvolvimiento de fase

Example for the two-dimensional case


Fringe-pattern normalization

Video...

15 / 40

Dr. Rigoberto Juarez


Salazar

rjuarezsalazar@gmail.com

Computer vision in robotic navigation and augmented reality applications

Introduction
Computer vision by phase encoding methods
Developed phase-based measurement system
Conclusions
References

(a)

Espectrum

FT

(b)

Filtered spectrum Remaning


zero order

FT

IFT

IFT

Filtered spectrum

Espectrum

de patrones de franjas
Normalizacion
Fourier fringe-normalized analysis
Inhomogeneous phase-shifting
Desenvolvimiento de fase

Wrapped phase extraction


...

Advanced algorithms for the extraction of wrapped phase by


using spatial and temporal carriers.

16 / 40

Dr. Rigoberto Juarez


Salazar

(i)
N

LS
LS

cA
cS

rjuarezsalazar@gmail.com

sw cos

(ii)
cos1

LS

I
Computer vision in robotic navigation and augmented reality applications

Introduction
Computer vision by phase encoding methods
Developed phase-based measurement system
Conclusions
References

de patrones de franjas
Normalizacion
Fourier fringe-normalized analysis
Inhomogeneous phase-shifting
Desenvolvimiento de fase

Fourier fringe-normalized analysis

17 / 40

Dr. Rigoberto Juarez


Salazar

rjuarezsalazar@gmail.com

Computer vision in robotic navigation and augmented reality applications

Introduction
Computer vision by phase encoding methods
Developed phase-based measurement system
Conclusions
References

de patrones de franjas
Normalizacion
Fourier fringe-normalized analysis
Inhomogeneous phase-shifting
Desenvolvimiento de fase

Fourier fringe-normalized analysis


The classical approach considers fringe-patterns of the form
I(p) = a(p) + b(p) cos[(p) + 2f p].

(4)

The respective spectrum is


I() = A() + C( f ) + C ( + f ).

(5)

If a fringe-pattern normalization is previously applied, both background and modulation


lights are removed and the respective spectrum is suppressed. Thus, the filtering
procedure is less critical
(a)

Espectrum

FT

(b)

Filtered spectrum Remaning


zero order

FT

IFT

Filtered spectrum

Espectrum

IFT

Figura : (Top) Analysis scheme with the Fourier method. (Down) Proposed scheme.2
2
Casco-Vasquez, J. F., Juarez-Salazar, R., Robledo-Sanchez, C., Rodriguez-Zurita, G., Sanchez, F. G.,

Arevalo
Aguilar, L. M., and Meneses-Fabian, C. Fourier normalized-fringe analysis by zero-order spectrum
suppression using a parameter estimation approach. Optical Engineering, 52(7):074109074109 (2013).
18 / 40

Dr. Rigoberto Juarez


Salazar

rjuarezsalazar@gmail.com

Computer vision in robotic navigation and augmented reality applications

Introduction
Computer vision by phase encoding methods
Developed phase-based measurement system
Conclusions
References

de patrones de franjas
Normalizacion
Fourier fringe-normalized analysis
Inhomogeneous phase-shifting
Desenvolvimiento de fase

Numerical example

Casco-Vasquez, J. F., Juarez-Salazar, et. al., Fourier normalized-fringe analysis by zero-order spectrum
19 / 40

suppression
using
estimation
approach. Optical Engineering,
(2013). reality applications
a parameter
Dr. Rigoberto
Juarez
Salazar
rjuarezsalazar@gmail.com
Computer vision52(7):074109074109
in robotic navigation and augmented

Introduction
Computer vision by phase encoding methods
Developed phase-based measurement system
Conclusions
References

de patrones de franjas
Normalizacion
Fourier fringe-normalized analysis
Inhomogeneous phase-shifting
Desenvolvimiento de fase

Numerical and experimental examples


Wrapped phase extraction by using the proposed Fourier fringe-normalized analysis.

3
Casco-Vasquez, J. F., Juarez-Salazar, R., Robledo-Sanchez, C., Rodriguez-Zurita, G., Sanchez, F. G.,

Arevalo
Aguilar, L. M., and Meneses-Fabian, C. Fourier normalized-fringe analysis by zero-order spectrum
suppression using a parameter estimation approach. Optical Engineering, 52(7):074109074109 (2013).
20 / 40

Dr. Rigoberto Juarez


Salazar

rjuarezsalazar@gmail.com

Computer vision in robotic navigation and augmented reality applications

Introduction
Computer vision by phase encoding methods
Developed phase-based measurement system
Conclusions
References

de patrones de franjas
Normalizacion
Fourier fringe-normalized analysis
Inhomogeneous phase-shifting
Desenvolvimiento de fase

Improved efficiency and robustness


Fourier fringe-normalized analysis
Video...

21 / 40

Dr. Rigoberto Juarez


Salazar

rjuarezsalazar@gmail.com

Computer vision in robotic navigation and augmented reality applications

Introduction
Computer vision by phase encoding methods
Developed phase-based measurement system
Conclusions
References

de patrones de franjas
Normalizacion
Fourier fringe-normalized analysis
Inhomogeneous phase-shifting
Desenvolvimiento de fase

Inhomogeneous generalized
phase-shifting algorithm

22 / 40

Dr. Rigoberto Juarez


Salazar

rjuarezsalazar@gmail.com

Computer vision in robotic navigation and augmented reality applications

Introduction
Computer vision by phase encoding methods
Developed phase-based measurement system
Conclusions
References

de patrones de franjas
Normalizacion
Fourier fringe-normalized analysis
Inhomogeneous phase-shifting
Desenvolvimiento de fase

Inhomogeneous generalized phase-shifting algorithm


For phase-shifting, it are considered fringe-patterns of the form
Ik (p) = ak (p) + bk (p) cos[(p) + k (p)],

(6)

where the phase shift k (p) is, in general, inhomogeneous and unknown.
Video...

Phase shift

(d)

Phase shift

(c)

Phase shift

(b)

Phase shift

(a)

Figura : Generalized phase shift. Homogeneous: (a) linear, and (b) nonlinear in k. Inhomogeneous:
(c) nonlinear in k but linear in p, and (d) nonlinear in both k and p.

23 / 40

Dr. Rigoberto Juarez


Salazar

rjuarezsalazar@gmail.com

Computer vision in robotic navigation and augmented reality applications

Introduction
Computer vision by phase encoding methods
Developed phase-based measurement system
Conclusions
References

de patrones de franjas
Normalizacion
Fourier fringe-normalized analysis
Inhomogeneous phase-shifting
Desenvolvimiento de fase

Algoritmo de corrimiento de fase generalizado inhomogeneo


del algoritmo
Descripcion
1
2

de los patrones de franjas.


Normalizacion
De las cantidades Ak = Ik 1 + Ik y Sk = Ik1 Ik de dos patrones adyacentes,
el coseno del paso de fase entre esos patrones se obtiene mediante
cAk = Ac Ac (A2k 1),

(7a)

Ac Ac (1

(7b)

Sk2 ).

cSk =

() [ver Fig. 8(b)] se usa para seleccionar entre cAk y cSk como
La funcion
cos k = cSk (ck ) + cAk (ck ),

(8)

donde el paso de fase k se obtiene calculando el coseno inverso de (8).


(b)

(a)

3
2
1

3
0

0.6

( c k)

0.4

( c k)

0
1
2

0
/4

3/4
/2
Phase step k

0.2

Equivalent data
cos( )

0.8

(c)

A k2 1
2
1 Sk
cos( k)

0.5

0
ck

0.5

3
0

/4

3/4
/2
Phase step k

de cos k . Para k [0, /2] es


Figura : (a) Los datos A2k 1 y 1 Sk2 para estimacion
conveniente elegir 1 Sk2 porque la amplitud del ruido es baja, y viceversa para k [/2, ].
24 / 40

Dr. Rigoberto Juarez


Salazar

rjuarezsalazar@gmail.com

Computer vision in robotic navigation and augmented reality applications

Introduction
Computer vision by phase encoding methods
Developed phase-based measurement system
Conclusions
References

de patrones de franjas
Normalizacion
Fourier fringe-normalized analysis
Inhomogeneous phase-shifting
Desenvolvimiento de fase

Algoritmo de corrimiento de fase generalizado inhomogeneo


4

El corrimiento de fase es recuperado mediante la sumatoria:


k = 0 +

k
X

` ,

k = 1, 2, , K 1.

(9)

`=1
5

finalmente, la fase envuelta es obtenida mediante


w = arctan(/),

(10)

donde = sin y = cos son obtenidos mediante:


 

T


= A I0 I1 IK 1 ,
A = cos k

(i)
N

LS
LS

cA
cS

sw cos

(ii)
cos1


sin k .

LS

(11)

Figura : Diagrama de bloques del algoritmo de corrimiento de fase generalizado inhomogeneo


propuesto.4
4
R. Juarez-Salazar, et. al., Generalized phase-shifting algorithm for inhomogeneous phase shift and
spatio-temporal fringe visibility variation. Opt. Express, 22(4):47384750 (2014).
25 / 40

Dr. Rigoberto Juarez


Salazar

rjuarezsalazar@gmail.com

Computer vision in robotic navigation and augmented reality applications

Introduction
Computer vision by phase encoding methods
Developed phase-based measurement system
Conclusions
References

de patrones de franjas
Normalizacion
Fourier fringe-normalized analysis
Inhomogeneous phase-shifting
Desenvolvimiento de fase

rapida,

Extraccion
automatica
y robusta de fase envuelta

Algoritmo de corrimiento de fase generalizado inhomogeneo


Video...

Corrimiento de fase generalizado

26 / 40

Dr. Rigoberto Juarez


Salazar

Visibilidad espacio-temporal

rjuarezsalazar@gmail.com

Solo dos patrones

Computer vision in robotic navigation and augmented reality applications

Introduction
Computer vision by phase encoding methods
Developed phase-based measurement system
Conclusions
References

de patrones de franjas
Normalizacion
Fourier fringe-normalized analysis
Inhomogeneous phase-shifting
Desenvolvimiento de fase

rapida,

Extraccion
automatica
y robusta de fase envuelta

Algoritmo de corrimiento de fase generalizado inhomogeneo


Video...

Corrimiento de fase no-lineal inhomogeneo


patrones

27 / 40

Dr. Rigoberto Juarez


Salazar

rjuarezsalazar@gmail.com

Visibilidad espacio-temporal

Solo dos

Computer vision in robotic navigation and augmented reality applications

Introduction
Computer vision by phase encoding methods
Developed phase-based measurement system
Conclusions
References

de patrones de franjas
Normalizacion
Fourier fringe-normalized analysis
Inhomogeneous phase-shifting
Desenvolvimiento de fase

Desenvolvimiento de fase
...

Desenvolvimiento de fase rapido


y exacto

28 / 40

1
2

Dr. Rigoberto Juarez


Salazar

round

rjuarezsalazar@gmail.com

LS

k round k

2 k +

Computer vision in robotic navigation and augmented reality applications

Introduction
Computer vision by phase encoding methods
Developed phase-based measurement system
Conclusions
References

de patrones de franjas
Normalizacion
Fourier fringe-normalized analysis
Inhomogeneous phase-shifting
Desenvolvimiento de fase

Desenvolvimiento de fase
Un mapa de fase envuelto (p) puede ser descrito como
(p) = (p) 2k(p),

k() Z,

(12)

de valor entero)
donde (p) es el mapa de fase continuo y 2k(p) (con k una funcion
son los saltos de fase.
Enfoque espacial de desenvolvimiento de fase
de
En general, los algoritmos de desenvolvimiento de fase se basan en la ecuacion
Itoh:
(p) = W[(p)].
(13)
(13) se puede resolver para mediante los metodos

La ecuacion
de seguimiento de
trayectoria o de norma mnima:
Z


(p) = 0 (p) +
W{(p)} dp,
o
mn W[(p)] (p) .
(14)

29 / 40

Dr. Rigoberto Juarez


Salazar

rjuarezsalazar@gmail.com

Computer vision in robotic navigation and augmented reality applications

Introduction
Computer vision by phase encoding methods
Developed phase-based measurement system
Conclusions
References

de patrones de franjas
Normalizacion
Fourier fringe-normalized analysis
Inhomogeneous phase-shifting
Desenvolvimiento de fase

Desenvolvimiento de fase
Usualmente, el desenvolvimiento de fase se realiza removiendo los saltos de fase y
reconstruyendo el mapa de fase continuo.
(p) = (p) + 2k(p),

(15)

Alternativamente, es posible reconstruir los saltos de fase y entonces agregar la


de fase envuelta para obtener un mapa de fase continuo.
informacion
(p) = (p) + 2k(p).

(16)

Algunas ventajas del metodo


alternativo
() <,

k() D =

(
{1, 0, 1}
{, 0, }

Caso discreto,
Caso continuo.

(17)

simples y robustos debido a que es directo y estable


Esto sugiere algoritmos mas
aproximar a un elemento de tres posibles.

30 / 40

Dr. Rigoberto Juarez


Salazar

rjuarezsalazar@gmail.com

Computer vision in robotic navigation and augmented reality applications

Introduction
Computer vision by phase encoding methods
Developed phase-based measurement system
Conclusions
References

de patrones de franjas
Normalizacion
Fourier fringe-normalized analysis
Inhomogeneous phase-shifting
Desenvolvimiento de fase

Desenvolvimiento de fase por mnimos cuadrados y redondeo

Se puede mostrar que el gradiente k(p) satisface la ecuacion




1
k(p) = round
,
2

(18)

de redondeo. Entonces, la funcion


k se puede
donde round() indica la operacion

estimar desde k mediante el problema de optimizacion:



2
2 




mn kx k LTx + ky Ly k
,
(19)
k

que aproxima a los datos k.


donde k es la funcion
(19) es equivalente a resolver la ecuacion
de Lyapunov
El problema de optimizacion
[?] Ak + k B = C, con A = LTy Ly , B = LTx Lx , y C = LTy ky + kx Lx .

1
2

round

LS

k round k

2 k +

Figura : Desenvolvimiento de fase por mnimos cuadrados y redondeo.5


5
R. Juarez-Salazar, et. al., Phase-unwrapping algorithm by a rounding-least-squares approach. Opt.
Engineering, 53(2):074109 (2013).
31 / 40

Dr. Rigoberto Juarez


Salazar

rjuarezsalazar@gmail.com

Computer vision in robotic navigation and augmented reality applications

Introduction
Computer vision by phase encoding methods
Developed phase-based measurement system
Conclusions
References

de patrones de franjas
Normalizacion
Fourier fringe-normalized analysis
Inhomogeneous phase-shifting
Desenvolvimiento de fase

Desenvolvimiento de fase rapido,


automatico
y exacto
Desenvolvimiento de fase por mnimos cuadrados y redondeo
Video...

32 / 40

Funcionamiento del algoritmo de desenvolvimiento de fase propuesto

Dr. Rigoberto Juarez


Salazar

rjuarezsalazar@gmail.com

Computer vision in robotic navigation and augmented reality applications

Introduction
Computer vision by phase encoding methods
Developed phase-based measurement system
Conclusions
References

de patrones de franjas
Normalizacion
Fourier fringe-normalized analysis
Inhomogeneous phase-shifting
Desenvolvimiento de fase

Desenvolvimiento de fase rapido,


automatico
y exacto
Desenvolvimiento de fase por mnimos cuadrados y redondeo
Video...

33 / 40

Factibilidad del algoritmo propuesto

Dr. Rigoberto Juarez


Salazar

rjuarezsalazar@gmail.com

Computer vision in robotic navigation and augmented reality applications

Introduction
Computer vision by phase encoding methods
Developed phase-based measurement system
Conclusions
References

de patrones de franjas
Normalizacion
Fourier fringe-normalized analysis
Inhomogeneous phase-shifting
Desenvolvimiento de fase

Desenvolvimiento de fase rapido,


automatico
y exacto
Desenvolvimiento de fase por mnimos cuadrados y redondeo

Figura : Ejemplos de desenvolvimiento de fase. (1ra columna) Datos sinteticos,


(2da y 3ra
columna) Datos experimentales obtenidos por interferencia, (4ta columna) Datos experimentales
de franjas.
obtenidos por proyeccion
34 / 40

Dr. Rigoberto Juarez


Salazar

rjuarezsalazar@gmail.com

Computer vision in robotic navigation and augmented reality applications

Introduction
Computer vision by phase encoding methods
Developed phase-based measurement system
Conclusions
References

de patrones de franjas
Normalizacion
Fourier fringe-normalized analysis
Inhomogeneous phase-shifting
Desenvolvimiento de fase

Desenvolvimiento de fase rapido,


automatico
y exacto
Desenvolvimiento de fase por mnimos cuadrados y redondeo

de objetos 3D mediante proyeccion


de franjas usando el algoritmo de
Reconstruccion
desenvolvimiento de fase propuesto.

35 / 40

Dr. Rigoberto Juarez


Salazar

rjuarezsalazar@gmail.com

Computer vision in robotic navigation and augmented reality applications

Introduction
Computer vision by phase encoding methods
Developed phase-based measurement system
Conclusions
References

de patrones de franjas
Normalizacion
Fourier fringe-normalized analysis
Inhomogeneous phase-shifting
Desenvolvimiento de fase

Desenvolvimiento de fase rapido,


automatico
y exacto
Desenvolvimiento de fase por mnimos cuadrados y redondeo

de objetos 3D mediante proyeccion


de franjas usando el algoritmo de
Reconstruccion
desenvolvimiento de fase propuesto.

35 / 40

Dr. Rigoberto Juarez


Salazar

rjuarezsalazar@gmail.com

Computer vision in robotic navigation and augmented reality applications

Introduction
Computer vision by phase encoding methods
Developed phase-based measurement system
Conclusions
References

de patrones de franjas
Normalizacion
Fourier fringe-normalized analysis
Inhomogeneous phase-shifting
Desenvolvimiento de fase

Desenvolvimiento de fase rapido,


automatico
y exacto
Desenvolvimiento de fase por mnimos cuadrados y redondeo

de objetos 3D mediante proyeccion


de franjas usando el algoritmo de
Reconstruccion
desenvolvimiento de fase propuesto.

35 / 40

Dr. Rigoberto Juarez


Salazar

rjuarezsalazar@gmail.com

Computer vision in robotic navigation and augmented reality applications

Introduction
Computer vision by phase encoding methods
Developed phase-based measurement system
Conclusions
References

de patrones de franjas
Normalizacion
Fourier fringe-normalized analysis
Inhomogeneous phase-shifting
Desenvolvimiento de fase

Desenvolvimiento de fase rapido,


automatico
y exacto
Desenvolvimiento de fase por mnimos cuadrados y redondeo

de objetos 3D mediante proyeccion


de franjas usando el algoritmo de
Reconstruccion
desenvolvimiento de fase propuesto.

35 / 40

Dr. Rigoberto Juarez


Salazar

rjuarezsalazar@gmail.com

Computer vision in robotic navigation and augmented reality applications

Introduction
Computer vision by phase encoding methods
Developed phase-based measurement system
Conclusions
References

de patrones de franjas
Normalizacion
Fourier fringe-normalized analysis
Inhomogeneous phase-shifting
Desenvolvimiento de fase

Desenvolvimiento de fase rapido,


automatico
y exacto
Desenvolvimiento de fase por mnimos cuadrados y redondeo

de objetos 3D mediante proyeccion


de franjas usando el algoritmo de
Reconstruccion
desenvolvimiento de fase propuesto.
(a)

36 / 40

Dr. Rigoberto Juarez


Salazar

(b)

rjuarezsalazar@gmail.com

(c)

Computer vision in robotic navigation and augmented reality applications

Introduction
Computer vision by phase encoding methods
Developed phase-based measurement system
Conclusions
References

Conclusions
General conclusions
1

A fringe analysis scheme to phase demodulation for fast and automatic


applications was presented.

The simplicity of the developed algorithms, makes possible the implementation of


the fringe analysis toolbox in dedicated hardware to address real-time
applications.

By the flexibility of the proposed scheme, it may be implemented in many other


measurement areas such as machine vision and adaptive optics.

Particular conclusions

37 / 40

Like the Fourier fringe analysis method, the proposed fringe-pattern and the
generalized phase-shifting algorithms may be extended to more than two spatial
dimensions.

For the proposed generalized phase-shifting algorithm, if the optical setup is static
and the object is dynamic, the computed phase shift will correspond to the object.
It may be useful to extract the phase object without a phase shift. An application of
this may be optical coherent tomography.

Dr. Rigoberto Juarez


Salazar

rjuarezsalazar@gmail.com

Computer vision in robotic navigation and augmented reality applications

Introduction
Computer vision by phase encoding methods
Developed phase-based measurement system
Conclusions
References

References I
R. Juarez-Salazar, C. Robledo-Sanchez, C. Meneses-Fabian, F. Guerrero-Sanchez, and L. A. Aguilar,
Generalized phase-shifting interferometry by parameter estimation with the least squares method, Optics
and Lasers in Engineering 51, 626632 (2013).

Robledo-Sanchez, C., Juarez-Salazar, R., Meneses-Fabian, C., Guerrero-Sanchez,


F., Aguilar, L. M. A.,
Rodriguez-Zurita, G., and Ixba-Santos, V. Phase-shifting interferometry based on the lateral displacement of
the light source Opt. Express, 21(14):1722817233 (2013).
Casco-Vasquez, J. F., Juarez-Salazar, R., Robledo-Sanchez, C., Rodriguez-Zurita, G., Sanchez, F. G.,

Arevalo
Aguilar, L. M., and Meneses-Fabian, C. Fourier normalized-fringe analysis by zero-order spectrum
suppression using a parameter estimation approach Optical Engineering, 52(7):074109074109 (2013).
Gannavarpu Rajshekhar and Pramod Rastogi Fringe analysis: Premise and perspectives Optics and Lasers
in Engineering, 50(8):iiix (2012).
J. H. Bruning, D. R. Herriott, J. E. Gallagher, D. P. Rosenfeld, A. D. White, and D. J. Brangaccio, Digital
wavefront measuring interferometer for testing optical surfaces and lenses,.Appl. Opt. 13, 2693-2703 (1974).
K. Creath, Phase measurement interferometry techniques,n Progress in optics,vol. 26, E. Wolf, ed.
(Elsevier Science Publishers, 1988), pp. 349-393.
L. L. Deck, Suppressing phase errors from vibration in phase-shifting interferometry,.Appl. Opt. 48,
3948-3960 (2009).

38 / 40

Dr. Rigoberto Juarez


Salazar

rjuarezsalazar@gmail.com

Computer vision in robotic navigation and augmented reality applications

Introduction
Computer vision by phase encoding methods
Developed phase-based measurement system
Conclusions
References

References II
C. J. Morgan, Least-squares estimation in phase-measurement interferometry,.Opt. Lett. 7, 368-370 (1982).
J. E. Greivenkamp, Generalized data reduction for heterodyne interferometry,.Optical Engineering 23,
350-352 (1984).
G. Lai and T. Yatagai, Generalized phase-shifting interferometry,J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 822-827 (1991).
L. Z. Cai, Q. Liu, and X. L. Yang, Generalized phase-shifting interferometry with arbitrary unknown phase
steps for difraction objects,.Opt. Lett. 29, 183-185 (2004).
X. Xu, L. Cai, H. Yuan, Q. Zhang, G. Lu, and C. Wang, Phase shift selection for two-step generalized
phase-shifting interferometry,.Appl. Opt. 50, H171-H176 (2011).
A. Patil and P. Rastogi, .Approaches in generalized phase shifting interferometry,.Optics and Lasers in
Engineering 43, 475-490 (2005).
C. T. Farrell and M. A. Player, Phase-step insensitive algorithms for phase-shifting
interferometry,Measurement Science and Technology 5, 648 (1994).
Pramod K. Rastogi. Digital speckle pattern interferometry and related techniques. John Wiley and Sons, LTD,
2001.
D. Malacara, ed., Optical shop testing (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2007), 3rd ed.

39 / 40

Dr. Rigoberto Juarez


Salazar

rjuarezsalazar@gmail.com

Computer vision in robotic navigation and augmented reality applications

Introduction
Computer vision by phase encoding methods
Developed phase-based measurement system
Conclusions
References

Thank you very much for your attention

Any question?

40 / 40

Dr. Rigoberto Juarez


Salazar

rjuarezsalazar@gmail.com

Computer vision in robotic navigation and augmented reality applications