You are on page 1of 17

# Question -1

Question-2

## How to find The value of Burnt Resistor

Method 1
1. Scarp the outer coating.
2. Clean the Burnt Section of the resistor
3. Measure resistance from one end of the resistor to the damaged section
4. Again measure the resistance from damaged section to the other end of the resistor.
5. Add these two value f resistances
6. This is the approximate value of Burn resistor
7.

Just add a small value of resistance for damaged section .i.e., suppose the value of burnt
resistor was 1k , but you got 970 . So just add 30 , and you will have 1k .

Method 2
This method also can be used for finding the value of resistors (Also, for connected resistors in
the circuit) if you dont know about Resistance Color Coding.
1. Connect Resistor to Multimeter and measure voltage drop across Resistor.
2. Now measure the current flowing into the resistor.
3. Multiply both values and you will get the wattage of Resistor (As P = VI)
4. This Wattage must be less than the wattage of the resistor being replaced
Method 3
This method can be better used if you know the expected Output Voltage of the circuit and you
have resistors set of same wattage as burnt resistor. Perform this method if you dont know the
value of resistor.
resistor
2. Measure the expected output voltage of the circuit. If you obtained same voltage as
expected voltage then you have done.

3. If you dont know about the expected voltage, then keep reducing the value of resistor
until you satisfy with work of circuit for which purpose it was designed.

Question-3
Q Factor in Electrical and Electronics Engineering

## Q Factor in Electrical and Electronics Engineering

In a Tuned Circuit, The ratio between Reactance and Resistance is called Q
Factor or Quality Factor Or
Opposite of the Power factor is called the Q-Factor or Quality Factor of a Coil
or its figure of merit.
Q Factor = 1/ Power Factor=1/Cos= Z/R (Where Power Factor Cos =
R/Z)
If R is too small with respect to Reactance
Then Q factor = Z/R = L/R = 2fL / R (L/R = 2f)
Also, Q Factor may be defined as the ratio between stored energy and
Energy dissipated per cycle in a Circuit
Q = 2 x (Stored Energy/ Power loss)
In a Resonator, Q is the ratio between stored energy in resonator and energy
supplied by generator to keep signal amplitude constant
Q = 2 (Maximum Energy Stored/Energy dissipate per Cycle) in the coil.
Good to Know *1:
In Electrical System & Circuits, The stored Energy is the sum of stored
energies in lossless Inductors and Capacitors. And the lost energy is the sum
of the energies dissipated in resistors (Heat, light etc) per cycle
Whereas;
Capacitor absorbs Reactive Power and Stores Energy in the form of Electric
field
Inductor absorbs Reactive Power and Stores Energy in the form of Magnetic
Field
And
Resistor absorbs the real power and dissipates in the form of heat and light
Q Factor in Pure Capacitive (C) and Pure Inductive (L) Circuits
As we know that the Power in Pure Capacitive and Inductive Circuits are Zero.
Thus the Circuit Power factor is also Zero. But the circuit Q factor is the
inverse of Power factor, thus Q factor in both Pure Capacitive and Inductive

## Circuits are infinite ().

Q Factor in a Series RL Circuit
In Series RL Circuit, Impedance (Z) = the inductive Reactance = XL = 2fL,
Therefore the Quality factor Q
= Z/ R = XL /R = 2frL /R
Q Factor in a Series RC Circuit
In Series RC Circuit, Impedance (Z) = Capacitive Reactance = X C = 1/2fC,
Therefore the Quality factor Q
= Z/ R = XC /R = (1/2frC) /R = 1 / 2frCR.
Where
Z = Impudence = Resistance in AC Circuits (Z = XL2-XC2 )
R = Resistance in
L = Inductance in Hennery
XL = Inductive reactance in
XC = Capacitive Reactance in
fr= Resonance Frequency in Hz
Q Factor of a tuned circuit = resonance frequency / bandwidth
Q = fr / B
Q = fr / (f2 f1)
Where
fr = Resonance Frequency in Hertz
B = Bandwidth = the difference between the upper and lower frequencies in
a continuous set of frequencies = B = (f2- f1)
Q Factor in a Series RLC Circuit (Voltage input resonance Circuit)
In an ideal series RLC circuit (Also in a (TRF) tuned radio frequency receiver)
the Quality Q factor is
Q = (1/R) x ( (L/C) = 0L/R
It is clear from the above equation that the larger the Series Resistance, the
smaller the Q factor of the Circuit i.e., the more energy lost and the wider
bandwidth.
Good to know*2: A high Q factor of resonant circuit has a narrow bandwidth
as compared to a low Q factor
Q Factor in a Parallel RLC Circuit (Current input resonance Circuit)
Q factor in a Parallel RLC circuit is just the inverse of the Q Factor in
Series RLC circuit
Q = R x ( (C /L) = R /0L
Where
R = Resistance in
L = Inductance in Henry
It is clear from the above equation that the lower the Resistance, the larger
the Q factor of the Circuit i.e. the less energy lost and the narrower

## bandwidth and it would be useful in filter design circuits to determine the

bandwidth
Q Factor in a Circuit having Complicated Impedances
As we discussed above that In a Tuned Circuit, The ratio between Reactance
and Resistance is called Q Factor or Quality Factor Or
Opposite of the Power factor is called the Q-Factor or Quality Factor of a Coil.
Q Factor = 1/ Power Factor=1/Cos= Z/R (Where Power Factor Cos =
R/Z)
These for; we can also determine the Q factor of a Circuit having
Complicated Impedances if we know the Circuit Power factorwhere
Power factor= Cos = R/Z or
The Tangent of the phase angle () between current and voltage.
Good to know *3:
A high Q factor of resonant circuit has a narrow bandwidth as compared to a
low Q factor
A low Q factor gives a broad band (wide bandwidth)
A high Q factor gives a narrow band (small bandwidth)

Question-4

What is the difference between AC and DC Resistance & How to calculate it?

AC Resistance
In Simple words, Resistance in AC circuits is called Impedance. Or
The Overall resistance (Resistance, Inductive reactance and Capacitive reactance) in
AC circuits is called Impedance (Z).
Explanation:
When AC Current pass through a wire (resistor, inductor), then current produces a
magnetic field across that wire which opposes the flow of AC Current in it along with the
resistance of that wire. This oppose cause is called Inductance or Inductance is the
property of Coil (or wire) due to which opposes any increase or decrease of current or
flux through it. Also, we know that inductance is only exist in AC because the magnitude
of current continuously changing
Inductive Reactance XL, is the property of Coil or wire in an AC circuit which opposes
the change in the current. The unit of Inductive reactance is same as Resistance,
capacitive reactance i.e. Ohm () but the representative symbol of capacitive reactance
is XL.
Likewise,
Capacitive Reactance in a capacitive circuit is the opposition to current flow in AC
circuits only. The unit of capacitive reactance is same as Resistance, Inductive
reactance i.e. Ohm () but the representative symbol of capacitive reactance is X C.

Measuring AC Resistance
Electrical Resistance & Impedance Formulas in AC Circuits
In AC Circuits (Capacitive or inductive Load), Resistance = Impedance i.e., R = Z
Z = (R2 + XL2) In case of Inductive Load
Z = (R2 + XC2)In case of Capacitive Load
Z = (R2 + (XL- XC)2In case of both inductive and capacitive Loads.
*Good to know:
Where;
XL = Inductive reactance
XL = 2fLWhere L = Inductance in Henry
And;
Xc = Capacitive reactance
Xc = 1/2fC Where C = Capacitance in Farads.
DC Resistance
We know that there is no concept of Inductive and Coactive reactances in DC Circuits.
i.e. capacitive and inductive reactances in DC circuits zero because there is no
frequency in DC circuits, i.e. magnitude of DC current is constant. Therefore, only the
original resistance of wire comes into play.
Good to know:
Thats why the resistance offered by a wire is lower for DC than AC.
Measuring DC Resistance
Electrical Resistance Formulas
In DC Circuits, we calculate the resistance by Ohms Law.
R = V/I.
Good to Know:
When solving electric circuits for finding resistance and you are not sure which one
should you take into account whether AC or DC resistances, then, if the current passed
is AC, then take AC resistance else if the current passed is DC, take DC resistance.
Question-5

Question-6

7)

8)

9)

10)

11)

## SMD Resistor Codes: How to Find the value of SMD Resistors

How to calculate or Find the value of SMD Resistors

## SMD resistor: Surface Mount Technology

SMD Resistor stands for Surface Mount device (Taken out from SMT = Surface Mount Technology)
Resistor. These tiny chips are marked with three (3) or four (4) digit codes which is called SMD Resistor
codes to indicate their resistance values.
Below are the roles to follow for that how to read SMD Resistor codes and values?

How to find the value of burnt Resistor (by three handy methods)

How to calculate the value of resistor for LEDs (with different types of LEDs
circuits)

## Reading 3-Digit SMD Resistor Codes (for SMD Resistors)

The first, Two (2) digits or numbers will indicate the significant digits or numbers

The third one will be multiplier (in Power of Ten i.e. 10^ something) and then must be multiply by
the first Two (2) significant digits or number or the third one will indicate that how many Zeros
should be add to the first Two (2) significant digits or number

## Examples of 3-Digit SMD Resistor Codes

250 = 25 x 100 = 25 x 1 = 25 (This is only and only 25 not 250 )
100 = 10 x 100 = 10x 1 = 10
721 = 72 x 101 = 72 x 10 = 720
102 = 10 102 =10 x 100 = 1000 or 1k
915 = 91 x 105 = 91 x 100000 = 9,100,000 = 9.1M
4R7 = 4.7
R12 = 0.12

## Reading 4-Digit SMD Resistor Codes (for SMD Resistors)

There is nothing new but this is the same method to read the value of SMD resistors. The only difference
is that with the significant numbers. I copied the above method (3-Digit Codes) and then past here so you
can see that only First one is changed and other three rules are same.

The first, Two (3) digits or numbers will indicate the significant digits or numbers

The fourth one will be multiplier (in Power of Ten i.e. 10^ something) and then must be multiply by
the first Two (3) significant digits or number or the fourth one will indicate that how many Zeros
should be add to the first Two (2) significant digits or number

The letter R is used for Decimal Point . i.e. 11.5 = 11R5 ( 4-digit SMD resistors (E96

series)

## Examples of 4-Digit SMD Resistor Codes

2500 = 250 x 100 = 250 x 1 = 250 (This is only and only 250 not 2500 )
1000 = 100 x 100 = 100x 1 = 100
7201 = 720 x 101 = 720 x 10 = 7200 or 7.2k
1001 = 100 101 =100 x 10 = 1000 or 1k

## 1004 = 100 104 =100 x 10000 = 1000,000 or 1M

R102 =0.102 (4-digit SMD resistors (E96 series)
0R10 =0.1 x 100 = 0.1 x 1 = 0.1 (4-digit SMD resistors (E24 series)
25R5 = 25.5 (4-digit SMD resistors (E96 series))
Reading EIA-96 SMD Resistor Codes (for SMD Resistors)
EIA-96 SMD Resistor Codes marking method is a new method which appeared on 1% of all SMD
resistors. It consists on 3- Character codes.
Below are the rules to follow for reading the value of EIA-96 SMD resistors.

The first, Two (2) digits or numbers will indicate the significant digits or numbers

The third one Letter is a multiplier (in Power of Ten i.e. 10^ something) and then must be
multiply by the first Two (2) significant digits.

## Must follow the codes in Table (1) and (2)

Below is the table (1) to shows the multiplier values of different Letters using in EIA-96 coding system for
SMD Resistor Codes.
Table (1)
Letters

Multipliers

0.001

R or Y

0.01

S or X

0.1

B or H

10

100

1000

10000

100000

Also, look in the examples of reading EIA-96 SMD Resistor Codes for importance the use of table (2)
Table (2)
Table (2)
Code

Value

Code

Value

Code

Value

Code

Value

01

100

25

178

49

316

73

562

02

102

26

182

50

324

74

576

03

105

27

187

51

332

75

590

04

107

28

191

52

340

76

604

05

110

29

196

53

348

77

619

06

113

30

200

54

357

78

634

07

115

31

205

55

365

79

649

08

118

32

210

56

374

80

665

09

121

33

215

57

383

81

681

10

124

34

221

58

392

82

698

11

127

35

226

59

402

83

715

12

130

36

232

60

412

84

732

13

133

37

237

61

422

85

750

14

137

38

243

62

432

86

768

15

140

39

249

63

442

87

787

16

143

40

255

64

453

88

806

17

147

41

261

65

464

89

825

18

150

42

267

66

475

90

845

19

154

43

274

67

487

91

866

20

158

44

280

68

499

92

887

21

162

45

287

69

511

93

909

22

165

46

294

70

523

94

931

23

169

47

301

71

536

95

953

24

174

48

309

72

549

96

976

## Examples of EIA-96 SMD Resistor Codes

01F =

10M

01E =

1M

01C=

10k

01B = 1k
01A =

100

01X = 10
01Y = 1
66X = 475 x 0.1 = 47.5 (in table (2), 66 = 475 and in table (1), X = 0.1. so 475 x 0.1 = 47.1)
85Z = 750 x 0.001 = 0.75 (in table (2), 85 = 750 and in table (1), Z = 0.001. so 750 x 0.001 = 0.75)
36H = 232 x10 = 2320 = 2.32k (in table (2), 36 = 232 and in table (1), H = 10. so 232 x 10= 2.32k)

12)

## What is the difference between real ground and virtual ground?

Real ground is when a terminal is connected physically to the ground or earthed.
where as virtual ground is a concept used in Op-Amps in which a node a assumed to
have the potential that of the ground terminal.

13)
What is The Difference between a VOLTAMETER and a VOLTMETER?

## A VOLTA-METER is a device used to carry out electrolytes and a VOLTMETER is a

high resistance device used for measuring potential difference or voltage between two
points in an electrical Circuits.