good electrical questions

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good electrical questions

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Question-2

Method 1

1. Scarp the outer coating.

2. Clean the Burnt Section of the resistor

3. Measure resistance from one end of the resistor to the damaged section

4. Again measure the resistance from damaged section to the other end of the resistor.

5. Add these two value f resistances

6. This is the approximate value of Burn resistor

7.

Just add a small value of resistance for damaged section .i.e., suppose the value of burnt

resistor was 1k , but you got 970 . So just add 30 , and you will have 1k .

Method 2

This method also can be used for finding the value of resistors (Also, for connected resistors in

the circuit) if you dont know about Resistance Color Coding.

1. Connect Resistor to Multimeter and measure voltage drop across Resistor.

2. Now measure the current flowing into the resistor.

3. Multiply both values and you will get the wattage of Resistor (As P = VI)

4. This Wattage must be less than the wattage of the resistor being replaced

Method 3

This method can be better used if you know the expected Output Voltage of the circuit and you

have resistors set of same wattage as burnt resistor. Perform this method if you dont know the

value of resistor.

1. Start with a high value of resistance and temporarily connect this resistor instead of burnt

resistor

2. Measure the expected output voltage of the circuit. If you obtained same voltage as

expected voltage then you have done.

3. If you dont know about the expected voltage, then keep reducing the value of resistor

until you satisfy with work of circuit for which purpose it was designed.

Question-3

Q Factor in Electrical and Electronics Engineering

In a Tuned Circuit, The ratio between Reactance and Resistance is called Q

Factor or Quality Factor Or

Opposite of the Power factor is called the Q-Factor or Quality Factor of a Coil

or its figure of merit.

Q Factor = 1/ Power Factor=1/Cos= Z/R (Where Power Factor Cos =

R/Z)

If R is too small with respect to Reactance

Then Q factor = Z/R = L/R = 2fL / R (L/R = 2f)

Also, Q Factor may be defined as the ratio between stored energy and

Energy dissipated per cycle in a Circuit

Q = 2 x (Stored Energy/ Power loss)

In a Resonator, Q is the ratio between stored energy in resonator and energy

supplied by generator to keep signal amplitude constant

Q = 2 (Maximum Energy Stored/Energy dissipate per Cycle) in the coil.

Good to Know *1:

In Electrical System & Circuits, The stored Energy is the sum of stored

energies in lossless Inductors and Capacitors. And the lost energy is the sum

of the energies dissipated in resistors (Heat, light etc) per cycle

Whereas;

Capacitor absorbs Reactive Power and Stores Energy in the form of Electric

field

Inductor absorbs Reactive Power and Stores Energy in the form of Magnetic

Field

And

Resistor absorbs the real power and dissipates in the form of heat and light

Q Factor in Pure Capacitive (C) and Pure Inductive (L) Circuits

As we know that the Power in Pure Capacitive and Inductive Circuits are Zero.

Thus the Circuit Power factor is also Zero. But the circuit Q factor is the

inverse of Power factor, thus Q factor in both Pure Capacitive and Inductive

Q Factor in a Series RL Circuit

In Series RL Circuit, Impedance (Z) = the inductive Reactance = XL = 2fL,

Therefore the Quality factor Q

= Z/ R = XL /R = 2frL /R

Q Factor in a Series RC Circuit

In Series RC Circuit, Impedance (Z) = Capacitive Reactance = X C = 1/2fC,

Therefore the Quality factor Q

= Z/ R = XC /R = (1/2frC) /R = 1 / 2frCR.

Where

Z = Impudence = Resistance in AC Circuits (Z = XL2-XC2 )

R = Resistance in

C = Capacitance in Farads

L = Inductance in Hennery

XL = Inductive reactance in

XC = Capacitive Reactance in

fr= Resonance Frequency in Hz

Q Factor of a tuned circuit = resonance frequency / bandwidth

Q = fr / B

Q = fr / (f2 f1)

Where

fr = Resonance Frequency in Hertz

B = Bandwidth = the difference between the upper and lower frequencies in

a continuous set of frequencies = B = (f2- f1)

Q Factor in a Series RLC Circuit (Voltage input resonance Circuit)

In an ideal series RLC circuit (Also in a (TRF) tuned radio frequency receiver)

the Quality Q factor is

Q = (1/R) x ( (L/C) = 0L/R

It is clear from the above equation that the larger the Series Resistance, the

smaller the Q factor of the Circuit i.e., the more energy lost and the wider

bandwidth.

Good to know*2: A high Q factor of resonant circuit has a narrow bandwidth

as compared to a low Q factor

Q Factor in a Parallel RLC Circuit (Current input resonance Circuit)

Q factor in a Parallel RLC circuit is just the inverse of the Q Factor in

Series RLC circuit

Q = R x ( (C /L) = R /0L

Where

R = Resistance in

C = Capacitance in Farads

L = Inductance in Henry

It is clear from the above equation that the lower the Resistance, the larger

the Q factor of the Circuit i.e. the less energy lost and the narrower

bandwidth

Q Factor in a Circuit having Complicated Impedances

As we discussed above that In a Tuned Circuit, The ratio between Reactance

and Resistance is called Q Factor or Quality Factor Or

Opposite of the Power factor is called the Q-Factor or Quality Factor of a Coil.

Q Factor = 1/ Power Factor=1/Cos= Z/R (Where Power Factor Cos =

R/Z)

These for; we can also determine the Q factor of a Circuit having

Complicated Impedances if we know the Circuit Power factorwhere

Power factor= Cos = R/Z or

The Tangent of the phase angle () between current and voltage.

Good to know *3:

A high Q factor of resonant circuit has a narrow bandwidth as compared to a

low Q factor

A low Q factor gives a broad band (wide bandwidth)

A high Q factor gives a narrow band (small bandwidth)

Question-4

What is the difference between AC and DC Resistance & How to calculate it?

AC Resistance

In Simple words, Resistance in AC circuits is called Impedance. Or

The Overall resistance (Resistance, Inductive reactance and Capacitive reactance) in

AC circuits is called Impedance (Z).

Explanation:

When AC Current pass through a wire (resistor, inductor), then current produces a

magnetic field across that wire which opposes the flow of AC Current in it along with the

resistance of that wire. This oppose cause is called Inductance or Inductance is the

property of Coil (or wire) due to which opposes any increase or decrease of current or

flux through it. Also, we know that inductance is only exist in AC because the magnitude

of current continuously changing

Inductive Reactance XL, is the property of Coil or wire in an AC circuit which opposes

the change in the current. The unit of Inductive reactance is same as Resistance,

capacitive reactance i.e. Ohm () but the representative symbol of capacitive reactance

is XL.

Likewise,

Capacitive Reactance in a capacitive circuit is the opposition to current flow in AC

circuits only. The unit of capacitive reactance is same as Resistance, Inductive

reactance i.e. Ohm () but the representative symbol of capacitive reactance is X C.

Measuring AC Resistance

Electrical Resistance & Impedance Formulas in AC Circuits

In AC Circuits (Capacitive or inductive Load), Resistance = Impedance i.e., R = Z

Z = (R2 + XL2) In case of Inductive Load

Z = (R2 + XC2)In case of Capacitive Load

Z = (R2 + (XL- XC)2In case of both inductive and capacitive Loads.

*Good to know:

Where;

XL = Inductive reactance

XL = 2fLWhere L = Inductance in Henry

And;

Xc = Capacitive reactance

Xc = 1/2fC Where C = Capacitance in Farads.

DC Resistance

We know that there is no concept of Inductive and Coactive reactances in DC Circuits.

i.e. capacitive and inductive reactances in DC circuits zero because there is no

frequency in DC circuits, i.e. magnitude of DC current is constant. Therefore, only the

original resistance of wire comes into play.

Good to know:

Thats why the resistance offered by a wire is lower for DC than AC.

Measuring DC Resistance

Electrical Resistance Formulas

In DC Circuits, we calculate the resistance by Ohms Law.

R = V/I.

Good to Know:

When solving electric circuits for finding resistance and you are not sure which one

should you take into account whether AC or DC resistances, then, if the current passed

is AC, then take AC resistance else if the current passed is DC, take DC resistance.

Question-5

Question-6

7)

8)

9)

10)

11)

How to calculate or Find the value of SMD Resistors

SMD Resistor stands for Surface Mount device (Taken out from SMT = Surface Mount Technology)

Resistor. These tiny chips are marked with three (3) or four (4) digit codes which is called SMD Resistor

codes to indicate their resistance values.

Below are the roles to follow for that how to read SMD Resistor codes and values?

Also read:

How to find the value of burnt Resistor (by three handy methods)

How to calculate the value of resistor for LEDs (with different types of LEDs

circuits)

The first, Two (2) digits or numbers will indicate the significant digits or numbers

The third one will be multiplier (in Power of Ten i.e. 10^ something) and then must be multiply by

the first Two (2) significant digits or number or the third one will indicate that how many Zeros

should be add to the first Two (2) significant digits or number

250 = 25 x 100 = 25 x 1 = 25 (This is only and only 25 not 250 )

100 = 10 x 100 = 10x 1 = 10

721 = 72 x 101 = 72 x 10 = 720

102 = 10 102 =10 x 100 = 1000 or 1k

915 = 91 x 105 = 91 x 100000 = 9,100,000 = 9.1M

4R7 = 4.7

R12 = 0.12

There is nothing new but this is the same method to read the value of SMD resistors. The only difference

is that with the significant numbers. I copied the above method (3-Digit Codes) and then past here so you

can see that only First one is changed and other three rules are same.

The first, Two (3) digits or numbers will indicate the significant digits or numbers

The fourth one will be multiplier (in Power of Ten i.e. 10^ something) and then must be multiply by

the first Two (3) significant digits or number or the fourth one will indicate that how many Zeros

should be add to the first Two (2) significant digits or number

The letter R is used for Decimal Point . i.e. 11.5 = 11R5 ( 4-digit SMD resistors (E96

series)

2500 = 250 x 100 = 250 x 1 = 250 (This is only and only 250 not 2500 )

1000 = 100 x 100 = 100x 1 = 100

7201 = 720 x 101 = 720 x 10 = 7200 or 7.2k

1001 = 100 101 =100 x 10 = 1000 or 1k

R102 =0.102 (4-digit SMD resistors (E96 series)

0R10 =0.1 x 100 = 0.1 x 1 = 0.1 (4-digit SMD resistors (E24 series)

25R5 = 25.5 (4-digit SMD resistors (E96 series))

Reading EIA-96 SMD Resistor Codes (for SMD Resistors)

EIA-96 SMD Resistor Codes marking method is a new method which appeared on 1% of all SMD

resistors. It consists on 3- Character codes.

Below are the rules to follow for reading the value of EIA-96 SMD resistors.

The first, Two (2) digits or numbers will indicate the significant digits or numbers

The third one Letter is a multiplier (in Power of Ten i.e. 10^ something) and then must be

multiply by the first Two (2) significant digits.

Below is the table (1) to shows the multiplier values of different Letters using in EIA-96 coding system for

SMD Resistor Codes.

Table (1)

Letters

Multipliers

0.001

R or Y

0.01

S or X

0.1

B or H

10

100

1000

10000

100000

Also, look in the examples of reading EIA-96 SMD Resistor Codes for importance the use of table (2)

Table (2)

Table (2)

Code

Value

Code

Value

Code

Value

Code

Value

01

100

25

178

49

316

73

562

02

102

26

182

50

324

74

576

03

105

27

187

51

332

75

590

04

107

28

191

52

340

76

604

05

110

29

196

53

348

77

619

06

113

30

200

54

357

78

634

07

115

31

205

55

365

79

649

08

118

32

210

56

374

80

665

09

121

33

215

57

383

81

681

10

124

34

221

58

392

82

698

11

127

35

226

59

402

83

715

12

130

36

232

60

412

84

732

13

133

37

237

61

422

85

750

14

137

38

243

62

432

86

768

15

140

39

249

63

442

87

787

16

143

40

255

64

453

88

806

17

147

41

261

65

464

89

825

18

150

42

267

66

475

90

845

19

154

43

274

67

487

91

866

20

158

44

280

68

499

92

887

21

162

45

287

69

511

93

909

22

165

46

294

70

523

94

931

23

169

47

301

71

536

95

953

24

174

48

309

72

549

96

976

01F =

10M

01E =

1M

01C=

10k

01B = 1k

01A =

100

01X = 10

01Y = 1

66X = 475 x 0.1 = 47.5 (in table (2), 66 = 475 and in table (1), X = 0.1. so 475 x 0.1 = 47.1)

85Z = 750 x 0.001 = 0.75 (in table (2), 85 = 750 and in table (1), Z = 0.001. so 750 x 0.001 = 0.75)

36H = 232 x10 = 2320 = 2.32k (in table (2), 36 = 232 and in table (1), H = 10. so 232 x 10= 2.32k)

12)

Real ground is when a terminal is connected physically to the ground or earthed.

where as virtual ground is a concept used in Op-Amps in which a node a assumed to

have the potential that of the ground terminal.

13)

What is The Difference between a VOLTAMETER and a VOLTMETER?

high resistance device used for measuring potential difference or voltage between two

points in an electrical Circuits.

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