np
Differential Amplifier:
A circuit that amplifies the difference between two signals is called as difference or
differential amplifier. This type of amplifier is very useful in instrumentation circuit. The
main purpose of difference amplifier stage is to provide high gain to the difference mode
signal and cancel the common mode signal.
RF
R1
V1
VV3
V+
V1
R2
Vo
+
R3
Since the differential voltage at the input terminal of the output ampere is zero, node V and
V+ are at the same potential designated as V3 i.e.
V = V + = V3
The modal equation at V is
V3 V2 V3 Vo
+
= 0 (i )
R1
RF
And at V+ is
V3 V1 V3
+
=0
R2
R3
(ii )
= 3 1 + 3
R1 R1 R F R F R2 R2 R3
Now, Putting R2 = R1 , R3 = R F
V3 V2 V3 Vo V3 V1 V3
+
R1 R1 R F R F R1 R1 R F
Vo V1 V2
=
R F R1 R1
Vo =
RF
(V1 V2 )
R1
Vo = Ad (V1 V2 )
/ 1
Vo
V
= o
Vd
V V
+
+ A
2
Vo
Vo1
+
A1 R 2
R1
RF
R
Vo' = 1 + 1 V2
RF
(i )
The output of the 2nd stage can be obtained by applying the superposition theorem as follows:
Vo =
RF '
R
.Vo + 1 + F .V1
R1
R1
(ii )
RF
R1
R
R
1 + 1 V2 + 1 + F V1
RF
R1
RF
R1
R F + R1
V2 + 1 + F V1
R1
RF
R
R
= 1 + F V2 + 1 + F V1
R1
R1
R
= 1 + F (V1 V2 )
R1
Thus, we see that gain of this amp is identical to the non inverting amplifier.
/ 2
RC1
RC2
R C2
input 1
1
IE1
IE
input 2
2
IE2
RE2
 VEE
1
IF1
2
IF2
IE
IE2
R E2
 VEE
There are two inputs and two outputs shown in the figure. Inputs are applied
essentially to each base of the two separate transistors 1 and 2 . The transistor emitters are
connected to a common emitter resistor show that two output terminals V1(out ) and V2(out ) are
affected by either or both input signals.
Operation:
When the input signal drivers transistor 1 , there will be more voltage drop across RC1
and therefore the collector of 1 will be less +ve and when the input signal is ve it will turn
off the transistor and collector will be more +ve. In brief, we can say that an inverted output
appears at 1 collector for applying signals at input 1.
Now we can see that when transistor 1 is turn on by +ve going input signal. The
current through RE will increase as I E = I C . This makes more voltage drop across RE and
thus emitters of both the transistors will go in a +ve direction. Making 2 ' s emitter +ve has
the same effect has to make the 2 ' s base ve. Under this condition, transistor 2 will
conduct less current which in turn will cause less voltage drop in RC 2 and thus its collector
goes in +ve direction for +ve going input signals. In other words, noninverted appears at the
collector of transistor 2 for input at base of 1 .
Since it combines the two collector voltages VC1 and VC 2 , the AC output voltage is
given by Vout = VC 2 VC1
/ 3
VCC
VCC
RC
RC
RC
Vout
Vo ut
Vout
V2
V1
Rt
RE
RF
VEE
VEE
RC
+
VBE
RE
 VEE
A diff amp is sometimes called long tail pair because the two transistors share a common
resistor R E . The current through this common resistor R E is known as tail current. If we
ignore the V BE drop across the emitter, the tail current is given by I T =
V EE
. When the two
RE
half of figure are perfectly symmetrical then, tail current split equally and hence I E = I T 2 .
The dc voltage on either collector is given by VC = VCC I C RC . When V BE is taken into
consideration,
IT =
V EE V BE
RE
VCC
AC Analysis
RC
Rc
ic
Vout
+
1
ic
2
re1
re1
Vin
Vin
RE
_
 VBE
/ 4
Voltage gain A = C
2re'
Vin
= ib
2re'
Vin
= 2 re '
ib
Input Impedance
Z in = 2 re'
signal. ACM is voltage gain to the common mode signal. The CMMR is frequently expressed
in (dB) as 20 log10
Ad
the desired signal to the undesired signal. In an ideal amplifier the
ACM
ratio should be infinity. But in fact it has finite value. The larger the CMMR, the better is the
amplification.
Common Mode Signals:
The output voltage of a differential amplifier is proportional to the difference between
the input voltages. Thus if there is no difference between if voltage, i.e. when they are equal
the output voltage is zero. Equal inputs are known as common mode signals.
However, in actual practice, when equal inputs are applied to the two inputs, the
output voltage is not exactly equal to zero. But is typically of the order of several hundred
microvolt. Thus the common mode gain (AC) can be defined as
AC =
Vo
VC
/ 5
I B1 + I B 2
2
where,
I B1 = dc base current of X' resistor 1
I B 2 = dc base current of X' resistor 2
I in (diff ) = I B1 I B 2
3. Input Offset Voltage:
Consider basic BJT differential amplifier with both input grounded. If two sides of
differential pair are perfectly watch them current I would split equally between 1 and 2 and
Vout would be zero. But practical circuit exhibit mismatches that result in a dc output voltage
Vo (Verror) even with the both input grounded. We called the dc output voltage as dc offset
voltage where this dc offset voltage is divided by the differential gain of the amplifier, we
obtain the quantity to which we called as off input offset voltage Vos =
Vo Verror
=
Ad
Ad
The input common mode range of a diff. amp is the range of the input voltage VCM
over which the differential pair behave as a linear amplifier for diff. input signals.
5. Features or Advantages of Differential Amplifier:
1. It uses no frequency dependent coupling or bypassing capacitor. It requires only the
resistor and transistor both of which can be easily integrated on a chip. Hence, it is
extensively used in linear Ic.
2. It can compare any two signals and detect any difference. Thus if two signals are fed into
inputs, identical in every respect except that one signal has been slightly distracted, then
only the difference between signals that is distortion will be amplified.
3. It gives higher gain then two cascated stages of ordinary direct coupling.
4. It provides very uniform amplification of signal from dc up to very high frequencies.
5. It is all most a universal choice for amplifying dc.
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/ 6
Application:
1. Amplification
2. Mixing
3. Signal Generation
4. Amplitude Modulation
5. Frequency Modulation
6. Temperature Compensation
Q.
5K
5K
V out
7.5K
 15V
Solution:
25mV
IE
V
15
I T = EE =
= 2mA
RE
7 .5
2mA
IE = Ir /2 =
= 1mA
2
25mV 25mA
re' =
=
= 25
IE
1mA
The AC output voltage is
V = AVin = 100 1mV = 100mV
Q.
re' =
12V
3K
Vout
5K
12V
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from www.jayaram.com.np
/ 7
Solution:
IT =
VEE 12V
=
= 2.4mA
RE
5
I E = IT / 2 =
2.4
= 1.2mA
2
Q. A diff. amp has a gain of Av = 100 , when, mode gain is being measured, we get
V I = 2V and Vo = mV . Calculate the CMRR.
Solution:
Given, Diff gain, Av=100
Vi = 2V
Also,
Vo 10mV 10mV
=
=
= 5 10 3
Vi
2V
2V
CMRR =
Av
100
=
= 20,000
ACM 5 10 3
/ 8
a) CMRR =
Ad
ACM
where,
ACM =
Ad
10 2
= 5 = 10 3
CMRR 10
ACM = 10 3
Vo = AdVi
Vo = 10 2 50 = 5V
c) The noise input is given by
Vo
Vonoise
5V
= 50,000
10 4 V
SNR = 50,000
Q. Compute the common mode gain and differential gain for the diff. amp.
+ VCC
5K
5K
V1
h fe = 100
hie = 1.1K
V2
Yhoe = 80 K
1 mv
50
50
10K
VEE
Solution:
Common Mode Gain
AC =
Diff gain,
1 hfeRC
Ad = .
2 Rs + hie
/ 9
Chapter 2
Instrumentation Amplifier
Characteristic and Feature of Instrumentation of Amplifier:
1. The instrumentation amplifier has high gain accuracy.
2. It has large voltage gain and gain be precisely set by a single internal or external resistor.
3. The high CMRR makes the amplifier very useful in recovery small signals buried in a
large common mode offset and noise.
4. It has high gain stability with low temperature coefficient i.e. it has very low temp. drift.
5. It has very low output impedance.
6. It has very low input offsets.
Relation between input and output of instrumentation amplifier:
The instrumentation amplifier is a dedicated differential amp. with extremely high
input impedance. It is closed loop device consists of two stages.
The first stage offers very high input impedance to both the input signals and allows
setting the gain with the single resistor.
The second stage is a differential amplifier with the output negative feed back.
V1 (+Vom)
opampI
+
R2
V3
R2
R4
R1
Vo
Rg
opampIII
R1
V2 (+Vom)
opampII
R3
RS
/  10
V1(+Vcm)
V3
V3
+
V2
Rg
R1
R
R
V3 = 1 + 1 V1 1 .V2 + Vcm
R
Rg
g
R
R
V4 = 1 + 1 V2 1 .V1 + Vcm
R
Rg
g
R
R
R
R
Vo = 1 + 1 V2 1 .V1 + Vcm 1 + 1 V1 1 .V2 + Vcm
R
Rg
Rg
R g
R
R
R
R
Vo = 1 + 1 V2 1 .V1 + Vcm 1 + 1 V1 + 1 V2 Vcm
R
R
Rg
Rg
g
g
R
R
= 1 + 1 (V2 V1 ) 1 (V1 V2 )
R g
Rg
R
R
= 1 + 1 (V2 V1 ) + 1 (V2 V1 )
R g
Rg
R
R
= (V2 V1 )1 + 1 + 1
R g R g
R
Vo = (V2 V1 )1 + 2 1
Rg
Thus the above equation shows that there is no output corresponding to common
mode signal. The gain of the amp can be changed by changing R g . Hence, the
instrumentation amplifier provides the output without error.
opampI
+
0.2 V
10K
R2
10K
Rp
500
10K
Vo
500
Rp
opampIII
10R
10K
opampII
RS
10K
0.3 VO
/  11
a) Find the maximum and minimum output voltage Vo when 10 K pot RP is adjusted
through its entire range.
b) Find Vo1 and Vo 2 when R p is set in the middle of its resistance range.
Here, R g is the sum of fixed resistor 500 and R p which can be adjusted to 0 to 10 K .
R g (min ) = 500 + 0 = 0.5K
2 R
2 10
Vo (max) = (V2 V 1)1 +
= [0.3 ( 0.2)]1 +
= 20.5V
R (min )
0.5
2 R1
2 10
Vo (min ) = (V2 V1 )1 +
= 1.45V V
= (0.3 ( 0.2 ))1 +
10.5
R g (max )
b) Again,
when R g = 500 + middle of 10 K
a)
1
10 K = 5.5 K
2
R
V1 R V2 = 1 + 10 ( 0.2) 10 0.3 = 1.10
Vo1 = +
R
R
5.5
5.5
g
g
R
V = 1 + 10 0.3 10 0.2 = 1.209
Vo 2 = 1 + 1 V2
R 1 5.5
R
5.5
g
g
R g = 500 +
Va
Vb
Rb
RA
R1
RF
+

Vab
Vo
R2
R3
R A Vdc
R A + (RT R )
/  12
R A Vdc
RB + RC
Vb =
Now,
Vab = Va Vb =
R AVdc
RV
B dc
R A + (RT + R ) RB + RC
If R A = RB = RC = R F = R then,
Vab =
RVdc
RVdc 2 R 2Vdc 2 R 2Vdc RRVdc
RRVdc
RVdc
=
=
=
2r + R
2R
2 R (2 R + R )
2 R(2 R + R ) 2(2 R + R )
RVdc
R
RF
Vab = F x
2(2 R + R )
R1
Rp
RVdc
R
. F
2(2 R + R ) R1
If we approximate (2 R + R ) 2 R, then
Vo =
R.Vdc RF
.
4 R R1
Vo =
RC R
.
.Vdc
R1 4 R
Input
Stage
Intermediate
Stage
Output
Stage
Inductor or
Automatic
Process Control
Stage
The input stage is composed of preamplifier and same type of transducer. The
transducer may be thermester, photo conductive cells or strain gauge. Depending upon the
physical quantity to be measured, the output stage may use devices such as meters,
oscilloscopes, charts or magnetorecorder.
Following are the applications of instrumentation amplifier:
i. Temperature indicator
ii. Temperature controller
iii. Light intensity meter
iv. Measurement of flow & thermal conductivity
v. Analog weight scale
Isolation Amplifier:
/  13
There are number of situations where ordinary amplifiers are either is danger
themselves because of electrical environment or present a danger to the users (e.g. in medical
equipment). An example of the formal might be an amplifier in high voltage experiment such
as electrophoresis system, while latter is represented by cardical monitors and other devices
used in the hospital. In such as case isolation amplifiers are used. Isolation amplifiers are
special subcalls of instrumentations amplifier.
Characteristics and Properties of Isolation Amplifier:
i. Isolation amplifier extremely high impedance.
ii. An isolation amplifier is a differential amplifier equipped with input circuit guard
shied and therefore their input circuits are ohmically separated (electrically isolated)
from both the output circuit and power supply of the opamps.
iii. The leakage and ground loop currents flowing through the circuit of isolation
amplifier are restricted to vary small values (i.e. less than 10A ).
VA
in
A
out
in
VB
VA
UptoElectronic Isolation:
1pf
LED
Phototransistor
A light emitting diode and phototransistor are mounted very close to one another in a
single package. Light from the diode caused by current I 1 falls on the phototransistor giving
rise to current I 2 . The information contained by current I 1 is therefore transferred to the photo
detective element without any electrical coupling path. Light is the coupling link. Typically,
the coupling capacitance that exists between LED and phototransistor of the optoelectric
coupler is 1pF, which is called stray capacitance. Optoelectronic coupler have the
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/  14
advantages over the transformer isolation coupler of being able to operate from DC upto
10KH. However, they do not provide as much electric isolation of linearity.
Transformer Isolation Coupler:
Transformer isolation coupler use magnetic flux coupled through shielded transformer to pass
signal information from the input to the output of the amplifier. They do not function at DC
or variable frequency and have the upper frequency limit of above 1KH.
Application of Isolation Amplifier:
1. In medical electronic equipment.
2. In electric power plants and other high voltage industrial process control system.
3. Where large CMRR is needed.
/  15
Chapter 3
Logarithmic Amplifier
Characteristics and Features of Logarithmic Amplifier:
1. Logarithmic Amplifier has an output voltage which is proportional tot the logarithm
of the input voltage.
2. The circuit configuration of the logarithmic amplifier is that of an inverting amplifier.
3. The feedback element may be a BJT or a diode.
4. The logarithm amplifier offers a significant dynamic range compression.
5. The characteristics of the logarithmic amplifier are dependent on the reverse
saturation current, which is extremely temperature dependent and difficult to control.
Basic Circuit of Logarithmic Amplifier:
Vf
if
+ Vs

D1
Vo
nVT
T
I F = Io e 1 Ioe
(i )
VF
nVr
>> 1
or , I F >> I o
Now, taking log (natural log i.e. ln) on both sides of the equation (i), we have:
VF
nV
ln I F = ln I o e T
ln I F = ln I o + ln e
ln I F ln I o =
VF
nVT
VF
nVT
V F = nVT (ln I F ln I o )
(ii )
Vs
= IF
R
(iii )
/  16
Further, Vo = VF
(iv )
= nVT ln s ln I o
R
V
Vo nVT ln s (v )
RI o
Thus, it is seen that the output voltage is a logarithmic function of the input voltage.
Log opamp with Saturation current and Temperature compensation:
if
Vf

D1
Vo
+ Vs

Vf2
Vo 1
D2
I
From the logarithmic amp. output it is clear that the characteristic of logarithmic
amplifier varies with the reverse saturation current and with the temp. Thus, it is difficult to
control the output voltage. This dependence of temperature can be reduced by modifying the
circuit as shown in the figure above. The following assumptions or conditions have been used
in the circuit.
1. Matching diode D1 and D2 are used.
2. Using temp. dependent resistor RT.
3. Using constant current source I independent of temp. T
From the figure, the voltage V to the noninverting terminal can be written as
V Vo = VF2
V = V F2 + Vo
Where,
(vi )
V F2 = nVT (ln I ln I o )
(vii )
V
V = nVT (ln I ln I o ) nVT ln s ln I o
V
= nVT ln I ln I o ln s + ln I o
R
V
= nVT ln I ln s
R
/  17
= nVT ln s ln I
R
V
V = nVT ln s
IR
(viii )
RF
Vo' = 1 +
V
RT + R1
R + R1 + R F
= T
RT + R1
Vs
* nVT ln
IR
R + R1 + R F
Vs
= T
nVT ln
IR
R1 + RT
(ix )
Is
V1
+

VF

I2
D1
I2
Vg
RF
Vo
D2
R1
Vs
Once the dynamic range of the signal has been compressed by a log amplifier the
original signal may be restored by means of antilog amplifier.
The logarithmic amplifier gives an output Vo proportional to the natural logarithm of
the input Vs . Thus, we have Vo = k1 ln K 2Vs
(i )
Thus, for antilog amplifier we have Vo = k 3 ln 1 k 4Vs , which means the output voltage
Vo is proportional to the antilogarithm of the input signal.
(iii )
V1 =
R1
.Vs
R1 + R2
(iv )
(v )
/  18
R1
Vs (vi )
R1 + R2
V2 = nVT (ln I 2 ln I o )
(vii )
R1
= nVT [ln I F ln I o ln I 2 + ln I o ]
R1 + R2
Vs .
R1
= nVT [ln I F ln I 2 ]
R1 + R2
Vs .
But,
R1
Vs = nVT (ln I 2 ln I o )
R1 + R2
I
R1
= nVT ln 1
R1 + R2
I2
Vo = I 2 R F
(ix )
I .R
R1
= nVT ln F F
R1 + R2
Vo
I .R
ln F F
Vo
R1
1
= Vs .
.
R1 + R2 nVT
I F .R F
R1
1
= ln 1 Vs .
.
Vo
R1 + R2 nVT
Vo
R1
1
= ln 1 Vs .
.
I F RF
R1 + R2 nVT
R1
1
(x )
Vo = I F R F ln 1 Vs .
.
R1 + R2 nVT
Thus, we see that output of an antilogarithm amp is proportional to the antilog of the input
signal.
LogAntilog Multiplier:
There are number of applications of analog multiplier such as frequency doubling,
frequency shifting, and phase angle detection, real power computation, multiplying two
signals, dividing and squaring of signals.
The output of the multiplier is the product of two inputs divided by a reference
V xV y
(i )
voltage Vref i.e. Vo =
Vref
Where, V x & V y are the two inputs as long as, V x < Vref ; V y < Vref
/  19
The output voltage of the multiplier will not saturate. There can be several ways to
make a circuit which will multiply according to equation(i). One commonly used method is
logAntilog method.
The log antilog method relies on the mathematical relationship that the sum of the
logarithmic of the two numbers equal to the logarithmic of the product of these numbers
i.e. ln V x + ln V y = ln (V x .V y )
Vx
Log Amp 1
Vx Vy
Vref
Log Amp 2
in(Vx
Vy)
Fig
(i)
shows
the
block
diagram
of
logantilog
multiplier.
The
log
This is then passed through antilog amplifier which gives the output as V xV y which is
further soaled by Vref .Thus the final output will be
V xV y
Vref
V x = V x sin t
V y = V y sin (t + )
Where, is the phase difference between two signals. Applying there two signals to the input
of an analog multiplier will yield the output as
V x .V y V x sin t.V y sin (t + )
Vo =
=
Vref
Vref
=
=
=
V x .V y
Vref
V x .V y
Vref
V x.V y
2Vref
. sin t. sin (t + )
. sin t [sin t. cos + sin . cos t ]
[2 sin
/  20
=
=
2Vref
V x .V y
V xV y
V xV y
2Vref
[2 sin
V x.V y
2Vref
cos +
V xV y
cos
V xV y
2Vref
V x .V y
2Vref
Vref
Vref
The 1st term is DC and set by the magnitude of signal and their phase difference. The
2nd varies with time but at twice the frequency of input signal.
Analog Divider from Analog Multiplier:
Division can be accomplished by placing the multiplier circuit element in the opamp
feedback loop. The output voltage from the divider with input signal V2 and V x as dividend
and divisor respectively is given by:
Vo = Vref
Vz
Vx
Va
R
Z
multiply
IA
R
Vo
Vz
Vz
R
/  21
V A =
V xV y
Vref
V xV o
Vref
Also, V A = I A R
IA =
But,
VV
VA
= x o
R
Vref .R
Iz = IA
V xV o
I z =
Vref .R
I z .R =
Vz =
V xV o
Vref
V xVo
Vref
Vo = Vref .
Vz
Vx
/  22
Chapter 4
Introduction to Communication System
Communication System:
It is the system designed to send information from a source generating that
information to one (point to point) or more (broadcasting) receiver of that information.
Information
Source
Input
Xducer
Transmittor
Communicaton
Channel
Receiver
Output
Xducer
destination
or output
The source of information could be any device or person or even whose output can be
voice, picture, text, etc.
The input transducer converts the input information into electrical signal suitable for
further processing. Transmitter is extremely important equipment and is housed in the
broadcasting station. Its purpose is to produce radio waves for transmission into space. The
important components of transmitter are microphone, audioamplifier, oscillator and
modulator.
The channel is a physical medium used to pass the signal from transmitter to the
receiver depending upon the medium channel can be subdivided into wire line (cables, optical
fibers, etc) and wire less (free space) channels. Essential features of channel is that it
introduces additive noise (natural as well as man made) to the signal picked up by the
receiver. The receiver receives the modulated signal from the channel through antenna and
demodulates it and produces electrical output signals.
The output xducer converts their electrical output signals to the nonelectrical output
signals which is the destination.
Modulation:
It is the process of combining audio frequency signal or low frequency signal with a
radio frequency carrier wave or high frequency signal. The audio frequency signal is also
called as a modulating signal. And the resultant wave procedure is called modulated wave. In
this process, some characteristics(amplitude, frequency or phase) of a carrier wave in
accordance with the intensity of modulating signal is changed.
Need for Modulation:
Modulation is extremely necessary in communication system due to the following
reasons:
1. Practical Antenna Length
In order to transmit the wave effectively, the length of transmitting antenna should be
approximately equal to the wave length of the wave.
/  23
Velocity
3 10 3 m / s
=
Frequency
f ( Hz )
As the audio frequency ranges from 20 Hz to 20 KHz, if they are transmitted directly
into the space, the length of the transmitting antenna required would be extremely large. For
example to radiate a frequency of 20 KHz directly into the space, we would need an antenna
3 10 8
= 150000m .
20 10 3
This is too long antenna to be constructed practically. For this reason, it is
impracticable to radiate audio signal directly into space. On the other hand, if a carrier wave
of 1000 KHz is used to carry the signal, we need an antenna length of 300m only and this size
can be easily constructed.
length of
2. Operating Range
The energy of a wave depends upon its frequency. The greater the frequency of a
wave the greater the energy possessed by it. As the audio signal frequency is small, therefore
they cannot be transmitted over a large distance if radiated directly into the space. The only
practical solution is to modulate a high frequency carrier with audio signal and permit the
transmission to occur at this high frequency.
3. Wireless Communication
One desirable feature of radio transmission is that it should be carried without wires
i.e. radiated into the space. At audio frequencies, the radiation is not practicable because the
efficiency of radiation is poor. However, efficient radiation of electrical energy is possible at
high frequency. For this reason, modulation is always done in communication system.
Types of Modulation:
Obviously, the waveform can be varied by any of its following three factors or parameters:
i. Amplitude i.e. Ac
ii. Frequency i.e. Fc
iii. Phase i.e. c
Accordingly, there are three types of modulation which are briefly explained as
follows:
i. Amplitude Modulation
When the amplitude of high frequency carrier wave is changed in accordance with the
intensity of the signal, it is called amplitude modulation.
ii. Frequency Modulation
In this case, the information signal changes the frequency of carrier of wave without
changing its amplitude or phase.
iii. Phase Modulation
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/  24
The information signal changes the phase of carrier without changing its other two
parameters.
Amplitude Modulation:
Ac
Am
carrier
Signal
MAC
Vmax
AC
Vmin
t
Modulated Wave
Modulation Factor:
The ratio of change of amplitude of carrier wave to the amplitude of normal carrier
wave is called modulation factor m i.e.
Amp. change of carrier wave
Modulation Factor , m =
Normal carrier wave (un mod ulated )
Importance of Modulation Factor:
Modulation factor is very important since it determines the strength and quality of
transmitted signal. IN an AM wave the signal is contained in the variations of carrier
amplitude. When the carrier is modulated to a small degree small m, the amount of carrier
amplitude variation is small. Consecutely, the audio signal being transmitted will not be very
strong. The greater the degree of modulation, the stronger and clearer will be the audio signal.
It may be impharisted here that if the carrier is over modulated (i.e. m>1), distortion will
occur during reception. The refore degree of modulation should never exceed 100%.
/  25
Q. If the maximum and minimum voltage of an AM wave are Vmax and Vmin respectively.
Then show that modulation factor m is given by m =
Vmax Vmin
.
Vmax + Vmin
Solution:
Let us consider fig (i), from fig(i)
Vmax = Vmin + 2 Am
Am =
We know that, m =
Now,
Vmax Vmin
2
(i )
Am
Ac
Ac = Am + Vmin
Ac =
Vmax Vmin
+ Vmin
2
(ii )
Vmax + Vmin
(iii )
2
Thus from equations (i), (ii) and (iii), we get:
Ac =
m=
(Vmax Vmin ) / 2
(Vmax + Vmin ) / 2
/  26
= Ac cos 2fct +
V AM (t ) = Ac cos 2fct +
mAc
mAc
cos 2 ( f c + f m )t +
cos 2 ( f c f m )t
2
2
In an amplitude modulated wave, the side band frequencies are of our interest. It is
because the signal frequency Fm is contained in the side band frequency.
The bandwidth is from FcFm to Fc+Fm i.e. 2Fm.
Power in DSBAM:
The general equation for DSBAM is given by
mAc
mAc
cos 2 (Fc + Fm )t +
cos 2 (Fc Fm )t
2
2
The total average power of DSBAM is the sum of its carrier power and side bands.
Pt = total average power
V AM (t ) = Ac cos 2fct +
If
(A / 2 )
=
Pc
Ac 2
2R
(mA / 2 2 )
=
m 2 Ac2
R
8R
Where, R is resistance in which power is dissipated and for R=1
PLSB = PUSB
/  27
Ac2
Pc =
2
PLSB = PUSB
and
Ac2
2
m 2 Ac2
=
8
2
8
8
2
4
4
m2
1 +
Ac2
Also, Since, Pc =
2
m2
PT = Pc 1 +
2
PLSB + PUSB
m 2 Ac2 / 4
100% = 2
100% =
Pt
Ac m 2
1 +
2
2
When, m=1, the maximum efficiency is given by
1
max =
100%
2 +1
Efficiency( ) =
m2
m2
21 +
2
max = 33.33%
OneTransistor AM Modulator:
+ Vcc
Ac
Rc
Cc
Cin
C(t)
R2
RL
E
m(t)
/  28
100% =
m2
100%
2 + m2
DSBAM
c(t)
In this method, the level shifted version of m(t) is directly fed to the modulator along
with the carrier signal c(t). Finally, we get DSBAM. This method is very simple and
inexpensive but not suitable for high frequency application.
2) Indirect Method
i) Square Law:
NL Device
C(t)
V1
m(t)
V2
BPF
at
Fc
v(t)
/  29
The sum of modulating signal m(t) and the carrier signal c(t) is applied to the input of
the nonlinear device with assumption that only c(t) can bias the device in the quadratic
region of the characteristics.
The characteristics of NL device can be approximated as:
V2 (t ) = b1V1 (t ) + b2V12 (t ) where, b1 and b2 are constant.
The input voltage V1(t) can be represented as :
V1 (t ) = m(t ) + c(t )
Let,
b A2 b A2
b
= b1 Ac cos 2fct 1 + 2 2 m(t ) + b1 m(t ) + b2 m 2 (t ) + 2 c + 2 c cos 2f c t
b1
2
2
The band pass filter centered at fc will filter out the frequency components centered at 2fc, the
message signal m(t) and the dc component. Thus the output of band pass filter will be
V AM (t ) = b1 Ac [1 + am(t )]cos 2fct where, a =
2b2
= mod ulation index
b1
DSBSC:
It is known as double side band suppressed carrier amplitude modulation. As the
carrier component of DSBAM does not contain any information, the efficiency of AM can
be increased if the carrier is suppressed before transmission. The type of AM where the
carrier is fully suppressed is called DSBSC.
Synchronous Modulation of DSBSC:
[1+am(t)]
DSBAM
c(t)
Balance Modulation:
m(t)
DSB  AM
v1(t)
+
DSB  SC
Dscilloctor c(t)

m(t)
DSB  Am
v2(t)
/  30
It consists of two identical DSBAM modulators. In one modulator the input is empty
where as in other modulator, the input is phase inverted version of m(t) i.e. m(t). The output
of the two DSPAM is then subtracted and the net result is that the output of subtractor is
DSBSC signal.
Here the oscillator produces the carrier frequency Fc which is fed to both AM
modulators. The output DSBSC signal can be obtained as follows:
The outputs of modulator are:
u1 (t ) = Ac [1 + am(t )]cos 2fct
u (t ) = u1 (t ) u 2 (t )
Pt = PLSB = PUSB =
a 2 Ac2
8R
/  31
HT
 USB
LSB
90 shift
Ac/2sin2fct
Ac/2m(t)sin2fct
LSB
VSB(selected side band)
Fc
Vestige of LSB
/  32
m(t)
If we supply the modulated signal into the nonlinear device followed by the low pass
filter, we can recover the message signal m(t).
The characteristics of nonlinear device is given by:
V = b1u + b2 u 2 where u = u (t ) = Ac [1 + a m (t )]cos 2fct
Thus, the output of NL device will be
U NL (t ) = b1 [ Ac (1 + a m (t )) cos 2fct ] + b2 [Ac (1 + a m (t )) cos 2fct ]
1
= b1 Ac [1 + a m (t )]cos 2fct + b2 Ac2 1 + 2a m (t ) + a 2 m 2 (t ) [1 + cos 4fct ]
2
1
1
= b1 Ac (1 + a m (t )) cos 2fct + b2 Ac2 + b2 Ac2 a m (t ) + b2 Ac2 a 2 m 2 (t ) +
2
2
1
b2 Ac2 1 + 2a m (t ) + a 2 m 2 (t ) cos 2fct
2
Thus the output of LPF will be
1
U NL (t )  LPF = b2 Ac2 am(t ) + b2 Ac2 a 2 m 2 (t )
2
nd
The 2 term in the above equation is due to nonlinear characteristics of the device
which will produce noise. The effect of this component can be made negligible by choosing a
small compare to unity.
AM signal
R m(t)
Another mode simple way detecting SSBAM is envelop detector. Since, information
is contained in envelop of the AMsignal, rectification and filtering of AM signal will
produce desired message signal. Envelop of the AM signal is rectified by the diode and the
high frequency components contained in the rectified wave is filtered out low pass filter
consisting of C and R. In order to minimize the distortion and minimize the filtration of high
frequency ripples, the time constant of RC filter (or cut off filter) is selected in the following
manner. This detector is simple to implement, highly efficient and cost effective. Therefore,
this detector circuit is used in almost all the commercial AM broadcast receiver.
/  33
TVcc
R1
C3
Rc
output
C5
Q1
RF signal
CA
C2
R3
R2
C1
AM RF input signal is separated by parallel tuned circuit L1, C4 and is coupled to the
basicemitter circuit, of transistor Q1 by L2. The fixed bias for the transistor Q1 is provided by
R1, R2, R3. Also, C1, C2 are used as bypass capacitor. The positive halves of the modulated
RF input signal will drive the transistor into conduction region where as the negative half of
the input signal will drive the transistor into circuit off region. Thus, an amplified AF (Audio
Frequency) modulating signal appears the load resistor Rc. The capacitor C3 eliminates the
RF high frequency components. Capacitor C5 eliminates the dc reference level, i.e. it blocks
the direct voltage. Thus, the audiofrequency signal is generated at the output of the transistor
Q1.
/  34
Frequency Modulation:
When the frequency of carrier wave is changed in accordance with the intensity of the
signal, it is called frequency modulation.
C
A
Signal
t
Carrier
FM wave
Generation of FM Signal:
Direct Method:
In direct method, the frequency of
oscillation of an oscillator is varied
according to the modulating signal. The
C1
Co
m(t)
/  35
Lo
FM signal
veractor diode is biased by DC bias voltage. The modulating signal is applied to the veractor
diode, the applied m(t) will change the capacitance of the veractor diode and subsequently the
frequency of oscillation. The capacitance of veractor diode is given by
CVD (t ) = CVo + K o m(t ) where, Ko is called sensitivity.
For m(t)=0, C(t)=Cfixed=Co and the frequency of oscillation in the carrier frequency and is
1
and for nonzero m(t), the instantaneous frequency of oscillation
equal to f C =
2 Lo C o
will be
fi =
Let, E =
2 Lo (C o + K o m(t ))
1
2 Lo C o
.
1+
Ko
m(t )
Co
= fc
1+
Ko
m(t )
Co
Ko
m(t )
Co
We know, f i = f c
Now,
(1 + E )
1
2
1
1+ E
1
1+ E
= 1+
1
E + ......
2
= (1 + E )
1
2
= 1
1
E
2
1
Fi = Fc 1 E
2
1 Ko
Fi = Fc 1
m(t )
2 Co
Advantages:
1. It gives noise less reception.
2. The operating range is quite large.
3. It gives high fedality reception.
4. The efficiency of transmission is very high.
FM Verses AM:
1. FM signals have all their information in the frequency of the carrier whereas AM
signals have all their information in the amplitude of the carrier.
2. FM has better noise immunity when compared to AM.
3. AM signals are able to occupy less bandwidth as compare to FM.
/  36
4. FM signal is a constant envelope signal due to fact that the envelope of the carrier
does not change with the change in the modulating signal. Hence, the transmitted
power of FM signal is constant regardless of the amplitude of the message signal. The
constant envelope of the transmitted signal allows efficient class C amplifier. In AM it
is critical to maintain linearity between the applied message and the amplitude of
transmitted signal. Thus linear class A or A, B amplifier are used which are not power
efficient.
5. Class C amplifier have typical efficiencies of 70% whereas A or AB amplifiers have
efficiencies of the order of 30 to 40%. This implies that for the same battery, constant
envelope FM modulation may provide twice as much talk time than AM.
6. FM transmitter and receiver equipment is also made more complex than that use by
the AM system.
7. FM reception is limited to only line of sight, whereas in AM it is not.
Frequency Conversion:
Need: It is very difficult to design amplifiers which give uniformly high gain over a wide
range of radio frequencies used in commercial broadcast station. However, it is possible to
design amplifiers which can provide high gain uniform amplification over a narrow band of
comparatively of lower frequency called intermediated frequencies (IF). Hence, it is
necessary to convert the modulated RF carrier into modulated IF carrier by using frequency
converter. This IF signal is then amplify by narrow band IF amplifiers and passed into the
detector circuit.
Basic Principles:
Modulated
RF signal
from arial
Fs
Mixer
(F o F s)
local
oscillator
Fig : Frequency Converter
The frequency conversion can be achieved by utilizing the heterodyne priniciple. For
this purpose, the modulated RF signal is mixed in a mixture with an unmodulated RF signal
produced by a local oscillator.
The oscillator and the mixture may be either two separate devices or may be
combined into one device called as converter. The process of combining two AC signals of
different frequencies in order to obtain a signal of new frequency is called heterodyning
action. Suppose the carrier signal of frequency fs is heterodyned with another signal of
frequency fo. Then two additional signals are produced whose frequencies are fo+fs sum
component and fofs difference component.
/  37
The sum component is removed by band pass filter and difference frequency also
called beat frequency is retained and forms the IF frequency in AM receiver.
The Superheterodyne Receiver for Standard AM Radio:
RF
Mixer
Local
oscillater
IF
Amplifier
Detector
Radio
Amplifier
Common Turning
The process of combining two separate frequency one modulated RF signal and other
unmodulated RF signal produced by the local oscillator in a mixture in order to obtain a
signal of new frequency is called superheterodyne action. It is also referred to superhet and is
extensively used in modern AM receiver. The operation of this receiver is as follows:
1. Let us assume that the incoming signal frequency is 1500 KHz. It is first amplified by
the RF amplifier.
2. Next, it enters mixture circuit, which is so design that it can conveniently combine
two radio frequencies, one fed into it by RF amplifier and other by local oscillator.
3. The local oscillator is a RF oscillator which frequency of oscillation can be controlled,
so that the difference in the frequency of the selected signal and oscillator frequency
is always a constant (basically 455 KHz) i.e. if signal frequency is 1500 KHz then
oscillator frequency can be 1955 KHz. In fact, the local oscillator frequency is always
higher than the frequency of the incoming signal.
4. When these two frequencies are combined in a mixture, the phenomenon beats is
produce and the beat frequency is 455 KHz.
5. 455 KHz of the mixture is then passed on the IF amplifier which is fixed tuned to 455
KHz. In practice, one or more stage of IF amplifier may be used.
6. The output of IF amplifier is demodulated by a detector which provides the audio
signal.
7. The audio signal is then amplified by the audio frequency amplifier whose output is
fed to the loud speaker which reproduces the original sound.
PhaseLocked Loop (PLL):
Need: Some technique must be applied to synchronize the frequency and the phase of the
local oscillation within the frequency and the phase of the incoming carrier signal in order to
minimize the distortion of the received signal. One of the practical method of synchronization
is the use of phase locked loop.
/  38
Fs
phase
detector
Vo
Fo
Ve
Low pass
filter
amp
VCO
Fig: Basic Block Diagram of PLL
PLL is a circuit used to generate high frequency sinusoidal signal whose phase and
frequency are almost equal to the phase and frequency of incoming signal. This system
comprises of following:
i. Phase detection
ii. Low pass filter
iii. Error amplifier
iv. Voltage controlled oscillator
If an input signal Vc of frequency Fs is applied to a PLL, the phase detector compares
the phase and frequency of the incoming signal to that of the output Vo of the Vco. If the two
signals differ in frequency or phase an error voltage Ve is generated. The Vco continues to
change frequency till its output frequency is exactly the same as the input signal frequency
.The circuit is then said to be locked. Once locked, the output frequency f of Vco is identical
to Fs except for a finite phase difference .
Q. Show that the controlled voltage applied to the Vco of PLL is proportional to the phase
difference between two signals.
Solution:
Vin (t)
V1(t)
LPF
e(t)
VCo(t)
VCo
Solution:
Vin (t ) = Ac cos(2fct ) + c)
Here, it is assumed that the frequency of the two signals is same but differs in phase only.
The output of product modulator will be
V1 (t ) = Ac A cos(2fct + c ). sin (2fct + )
=
Ac A
[2 sin (2fct + ). cos(2fct + c )]
2
Ac A
AA
sin ( c ) + c sin (4fct + + c )
2
2
/  39
The second terms of the above equation will be filtered out by the LPF and the output after
LPF will be
AC A
sin ( c )
2
Assuming the phase difference be very small,
e(t ) = V1 (t )  LPF =
e(t )
Ac A
( c )
2
e(t ) c
Thus, the controlled voltage applied to the VDC is proportional to the phase difference
between the two singals.
PLL as FM Detector:
VFM (t)
phase
detector
ed(t)
leep
filter
ev (t)
VCO
Kv
At this stage the VCO is calibrated in such a way that its free running frequency of
oscillation is equal to the carrier frequency of the incoming FM signal. A constant phase shift
of 90 is also added to the signal of VCO to ensure that the input carrier signal and the VCO
signal are in quadrature. So that the error voltage is zero when there is exact match in phase
and frequency of these two signals. The output of Vco in this case wil be
eo (t ) = Av cos o t = Av sin o t
2
Step: 2 Now let us assume that ev (t ) 0. Then the output of Vco will be
eo (t ) = Av sin ( o t + o (t )) where, o (t ) is the signal proportional to output of the PLL.
/  40
i.e. e (t ) = i (t ) o (t ) 0
or , i (t ) = o (t )
or , ev (t ) =
kf
kv
m(t )
i.e. in locked mode, the output voltage of the PLL is nearly equal to the message
signal m(t). The bandwidth of the loop filter should not be less than the bandwidth of the
message signal.
Application of PLL:
1. Frequency multiplication, division
2. Frequency translation
3. AM detection
4. FM detection
5. Frequency shift keying (FSK)
Q. A modulated carrier wave has maximum and minimum amplitude of 750 mv and 250 mv.
Calculate the value of % modulation.
Vmax = 750mv
Vmin = mv
%m =
Vmax Vmin
750 250
100% =
100% = 50%
750 + 250
Vmax + Vmin
Fc = 10mHz
Ac = 10mv
Fm = 5kHz
Am = 6mv
/  41
Am
6
=
= 0 .6
Ac 10
mAc 0.6 K10
=
= 3mV
2
2
Q. An audio signal given by 15 sin 2 (2000t ) . Amplitude modulates a sinusoidal carrier wave
60 sin 2 (10000 )t . Determine
a) Modular index
b) % modulation
c) frequencies of signal and carrier
d) Frequency spectrum of the modulated wave
Solution:
We have,
Am = 15
a) Modulation index =
and
Ac = 60
Am 15
=
= 0.25
Ac 60
LSB =
98KHz
VSD=
FC =
100 KHz 102 KHz
KHz
/  42
V = Vc sin c t + t sin t
x
Where,
d Fd
=
m Fm
5 10 8
Carrier Frequency, Fc =
= 796 10 7 Hz
2
1500
Modulating Frequency, Fm
= 238.7 Hz
2
Modulating Index, =
d
= 4 = mf
m
V2
20 / 2
Power dissipated, P = rms =
R
20
= 10watt
Formulate for FM
Modulating index, m =
Frequency deviation
f
=
Modulating frequency Fm
m =
% Modulation (m) =
Fd
Fm
(F )actual
(F )max
(F )max
= 75 KHz
/  43
(F )actual
(F )max
18.75
100% = 25%
75
(F )actual
(F )max
30
100% = 40%
75
1
2 LC
C = 1F
Fm = 10 KHz
Fc Fm = ?
2 Fm = ?
1
2 40 10 3 10 9
= 796 KHz
PT = 2.64 KW
m = 0 .8
m2
PT = Pc 1 +
2
2 + m2
PT = Pc
2
2
2
Pc = PT
= 2.64
= 2 KW
2
2
2+m
2 + 0.8
PLSB = PUSB
m 2 p c (108)2 2
=
=
= 320W
p
4
/  44
Q. A transmitter used for radio telephone has an unmodulated carrier power of 10 KW and
can be modulated to a maximum of 80% by a single frequency signal. Find the value to
which carrier power can be changed if a 50% modulation limit is imposed.
Solution:
Pc = 10 KW
%m = 80% = 0.8
m2
Pt = Pc 1 +
2
(0.8)2
= 101 +
= 13.2 KW
Pt = Pc 1 +
2
Pc =
2 Pt
2 13.2
= 11.73KW
=
2
2
2+m
2 + (0.5)
m2
Pt = Pc 1 +
2
Pt = 11.8 KW
m =1
2 Pt
= 2tm 2
Pc
m2 =
b)
2 Pt 2 11.8
=
2
Pc
2
m = 60%
m = 0 .6
m 2 = 0.4
m = 0.6 2 + 0.4 2 = 0.72
(0.72)2
m2
= 101 +
Total radiated power , P(t ) = Pc 1 +
2
2
= 102.59 KW
Q. IN a AM wave calculate the power phasing when a carrier and one side band are
suppressed corresponding to modulation index 50%.
Solution:
m = 0 .5
Downloaded from www.jayaram.com.np
/  45
PLSB = PUSB =
m2
0.25
Pc =
Pc = 0.0625 Pc
4
4
1.0625 Pc
100% = 94.44%
1.125 Pc
/  46
Chapter 5
Data Conversion
The process of conversion of an analog signal to digital signal is referred to as analog
to digital conversion (ADC or A/D). The system used for realizing this conversion is referred
to as analog to digital converter.
The output of the system may be required to be in the analog form and therefore, the
digital output has to be converted back into the analog form. This process is referred to as
digital to analog conversion and the system used for this purpose is referred to as digital to
analog converter (DAC or D/A).
Principle of Digital to Analog Conversion:
1
2
3
Resistive
Sunring
network
Voltage
Switching
Register
Amplifier
e/B
Analog o/p
Converter
VR
The digital input number to be converted is fed into the input register only during the
duration of the convert command. The output of the register feed the digital input number to
voltage switches that provides one of the two possible outputs i.e. (0 o Vr). The switches
provide access to a resistive summing n/w that converts each bit into its weighted current
value and then sums them for a total current. The total value is then fed to an amplifier which
performs two functions:
1. Current to Voltage conversion
2. Output scaling
Binary Weighted Resistor (Digital to Analog Converter):
Vref
MSB 2oR
21 R
Rf
Ri
RF
22 R
2n1 R
Vo
2n2 R
So
LSB
/  47
Rf
i/p
Ri
10 V
The circuit shown in figure is called binary weighted resistor DAC. The circuit
consists of a reference voltage Vref, nnumber of binary weighted resistor, R, 2R, 4R, .,
2n1R. And n number of switches Sn1, Sn2, .., S1, So and opamp with feedback resistor
Rf.
The switches are electronic switches which are controlled such as when one is present
on MSB line. Switch Sn1 connects Vref to the resistor R and when zero is present on MSB,
switch Sn1 connects resistor to the ground. The process is same for the other switches.
Output of that, Vo is given by:
Rf
Rf
Rf
Rf
Vo =
Vref
Vref 2 Vref ...... n 1 Vref
2 R
2' R
2 R
2 R
Vref .R f 1
1
1
1
+ 1 + 2 ...... + n 1
Vo =
o
R 2
2
2
2
Vref .R f 1 1 1
1
Vo =
1 + + + + ...... + n 1
R 2 4 8
2
The output current in binary weighted DAC is
I
I
I
I
I
I
I o = 0 + 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + ......... + n 1
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1 1 1
I o = I 1 + + + + ....... + n 1
2
2 4 8
Vref 1 1 1
1
1 + + + + ...... + n 1
R 2 4 8
2
The output current is maximum when all the bits are 1. Therefore maximum output current is
equal to
I
Vref n
I max = n 1 2 1
2 R
Io =
Resolution:
Vref R f
,
is called the resolution of binary weighted resistor and is defined as the
2 n 1 R
weighed of LSB or the incremental in each step of bit combination.
Q. Design a binary weighted resistor that of 6 bit equivalent which gives the output equal to
10V, when Vref = 5V and bit is 101011.
Solution:
Vo =
10 =
Vref RF 1 1 1 1
1
1+ + + + +
R 2 4 8 16 32
5RF
R
1
1
1
1 + 0 + 4 + 0 + 16 + 32
2 R = RF 1.34
/  48
If R = 1K
R F = 1.48 K
2o K
Vref
21 K
22 K
1.48 K
Vref
23 K
24 K
10 V
Vref
25 K
Vref
Vref
MSB
S4
2R
S3
2R
S2
LSB
2R
2R
2R
Vo
S1
IR
/  49
2R

Vo1
R
R
RF
Vref
2R
2R
V1
Vo1
+
2R
2R
Fig (i)
2R
From fig(i),
V1 =
Vref .R
V1
Vref
3
R + 2R
Similarly, to find the voltage due to terminal or node 2, let us deactivate to other nodes.
RF
Vo
2R
2R

Vref
2R
V2
R
2R
R
2R
2R
R Vref 2 Vref
2 R.V2'
=
=
3R
6
R + 2R
R f Vref
1 R
Vo 2 =
.
= . F Vref
2R 3
6 R
The upper resistor 2R, 2R in parallel
2 R // 2 R = R
V2 =
(i )
R + R = 2R
RF
2R
Vref
2R
Vref
2R
V2
R
+
2R
/  50
V2 =
Vref .R
R + 2R
Vref .R
3R
RF
R
+
R
V2 .R Vref .R R Vref
.
=
=
3R 2 R
6
R+R
Vref .RF
R Vref
Vo 2 = F .
=
2R 6
12 R
RF .Vref
Similarly. Vo 3 =
24 R
Hence, the total output voltage Vo, applying superposition theorem is given by
V1 =
Vo = Vo1 + Vo 2 + Vo 3 + Vo 4
=
RF Vref
RF Vref
RF Vref
RF Vref
6R
12 R
24 R
48R
RF Vref
1
1
1
=
1 + 1 + 2 + 3 + .......
6R 2
2
2
Vo =
R F Vref 1 1 1
1 + + + + ........
6R 2 4 8
Q. Design a R2R ladder circuit that such that output voltage is 5V when the bit is
represented 11111. The reference voltage is 5V.
Solution:
RF Vref 1 1 1 1
Vo =
1+ + + +
6R 2 4 8 16
6 R = 1.93RF
If R=1k, RF = 3K
sampler
quantizer
coder
digital output
signal
Quantized
Discrete time
signal
signal
Fig: Basic Block Diagram of ADS
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Vi
Digital to analog
Convertion
+ Ditital output
Control
Register
Time data
Slet MBS
Start
file
Stop
file
Distribution
register
Start
The single one in the distribution register is shifted to the next position and keeps
track of the comparison mode. The process repeats itself until the final approximation has
been corrected and the distribution register indicates, the end of conversion.
Q. Find the successive approximation AD output for a 4 bit converter to a 3.217V input of the
reference is 5V.
1
1
1
1
1
Solution: Vout = VR 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + ........ + n
2
2
2
2
2
i> set d3=1, o/p=5/2=2.50
Now, 3.217>2.5 and set d3=1
ii> set d2=1, o/p=2.5+5/22=3.75
Now, 3.217<3.75 and set d2=0
iii> set d1=1 o/p=2.5+5/23=3.125
Now, 3.217>3.125 and set d1=1
iv> set do=1 o/p=3.125+5/24=3.4375
Now, 3.217<3.437
Then, the output of D/A Converter is 1010
Downloaded from www.jayaram.com.np
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Unipolar DAC: It converts digital words into analog voltage by scaling the analog output to
be zero, when all bits are zero. And, some maximum value when all bits are 1. This can be
mathematically represented as:
Vout = b1 2 1 + b2 2 2 + b3 2 3 + ...... + bx 2 n
However, the maximum value for N is equal to 2 n 1 . So that the maximum value of output
voltage will be
Vout (max ) =
2 n.V R V R 1
2n 1
1
V
V
=
n VR
R
R
2
2
2n
2n
2
1
1
Vout (max ) = VR n VR
2
2
The Parallel or Flash or Simultaneous A/D Conversion:
3 bit parallel converter AD conver is shown below. Va is the analog voltage to be
converted into digital form. The voltage corresponding to the full scale is Vref from which the
reference voltage VR1, VR2. are generated using resistor n/w. The voltage VAis compared
simultaneously with the reference voltage by using comparator. A seven bit output is
obtained from the comparator which is stored in the latch. This seven bit digital signal is
converted to 3bit output by using decoder circuit.
The principle of parallel A/D converter is the simplest in concept and is fastest. Its
main disadvantages are rapid increase in the number of comparators with the number of bits.
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[(2
1 Comparator are requred for n bit convereter and the corresponding complication of
VR7
R
VR6
R
VR4
R
A1
B2
B1
Bo
Digital o/p
VR3
R
VR2
VR1
R/2
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The block diagram of a dual slope integration A/D converter is shown above. The reference
voltage and the input analog voltage are must be opposite polarity. The input voltage is
integrated for a fixed input sample time. The integrated value is then discharged at a fixed
rate and the time to do this is measured by a counter.
When a convert command is received by the counter it automatically resets to all zeros and
the switch connects the input voltage to the integrator. The output from the comparator is
designed such that at this time it will permit the counter to count up for a output from the
integrator will be increased in value.
On the next count after the counter has counted all the way up to all 1s , the switch
changes position the input voltage is disconnected and the switch connects the reference
voltage to the integrator . Therefore the integrator now integrate the opposite polarity voltage,
which causes the output to decrease towards zero voltage.
Sample and hold ckt:An ideal sample and hold ckt is one that samples the value of an analog signal at a certain point
and holds that value for a specified interval, when it repeats the process based on the new value of
the signal. Sample and hold ckts are used in conjunction with the analog to digital conversion.
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The sigmadelta A/D converter takes into account the fact that the quantization is performed into
the difference of ith sample and its prediction derived from (i1) th sample. That is instead of
quantizing the whole sample value , the sigmadelta quantiges the difference only, thus reducing
the required quantization level to minimum.
Thus in sigmadelta A/D conversion, the difference between the original sample and its
approximation ( derived from its immediate past sample) is quantized in one of the two possible
levels + or  and level is converted into one bit code word ( i, e. 0 , 1 + ). Thus,
the sigma delta A/D uses only one bit to represent each sampled level.
For given ckt verify that:
i) If a strength binary 8bit converter is needed we need r=8R.
ii) If arrangement is intended as to decimal digit BCD converter we need r= 4.8R.
Because of wide spread in resistance values for large N, the weighted resister D/A converter is
not suitable. However , the weighted resister n/w can be modified to accommodate a large no of
bits without consequent spread in resistor values . One such ckt is shown above. For this type of
n/w , it is known that .
Let the s3 bit be 1 and s2,s1 and s0 bits be all 0 . Also assume that there is a virtual shirt at the input
of an opamp.
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But from the equation (i) , it is already clear that , the current Iin of equation (iv) must be 1/16th of
the current of equation (v). Then from equation (i) , (iv) and (v). we can write.
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The ckt.of fig. (i) can be also used for decimal digit BCD converter. In this case, the value of r is
chose so as to make the input current of opamp corresponding to LSD and 1/10th of that of
current due to MSD, This means , in this case
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It is so because NPN transistor needs a +ve voltage. Pulse on its base in order to turn ON. A
saturated xsistor acts as a closed switch. Hence it allows Vin to send current through L and
charge C to the value of the output voltage during the ontime(T0n) of the pulse. The diode D1is
reverse biased at this point and hence does not conduct.
Eventually, when +ve pulse turn to zero, T is cutoff and acts like an open switch during the
off period (Toff) of the pulse. The collapsing magnetic field of the coil produces self induced
voltage and keeps the current flowing by returning energy to the circuit.
The value of output voltage depends on the input voltage and pulse width , i.e, ONtime of the
transistor when on time is increased relative to off time , C charges more thus increasing
Vout.When Ton is decreased, C dischared more thus decreasing Vout. By adjusting the duty
cycle. (Ton/T) of the transistor Vout can be varied. Vout = Vin (Ton/T)
Step up switching regulator:
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When the transistor T turn ON the arrival of the positive pulse at its base , voltage across L
increases quickly to VinVce(sat) and magnetic field of L expands quickly. During ONtimes of the
transistor , UL keeps decreasing from its initial maximum value. The longer transistor is ON, the
smaller VL becomes.
When transistor turn OFF , magnetic field of L collapse and its polarity reverse so that its voltage
adds to the input voltage thus producing an output voltage greater than the input voltage. During
OFFtime of the transistor, D2 is forward biased and allows C to charge. The variations in Vout
due to charging and discharging action are sufficiently smoothed by filtering action of L and C.
It may be noted that shorter the ONtime of the transistor, greater the inductor voltage and
hence greater the o/p voltage. On the other hand, the longer the ONtime, the smaller the inductor
voltage and hence , lesser the output voltage.
Vout = Vin (T/Ton)
Inverting switching Regulator:
This regulator provides on o/p voltage that is opposite in polarity to the input voltage.
When the transistor T turn ON by the +ve pulses the inductor voltage VL jumpes to Vin
Vce(sat) and the magnetic field of the inductor expands rapidly. When the transistor is ON, the
diode D1 is reverse biased and VL decreases from its initial maximum value. When transistor turn
OFF , the magnetic field collapses and inductor polarity reverses . This forward biases D1,
charges C and produces a ve output voltage. This repetitive ONOFF action of the transistor
produces a repetitive charging and discharging that is smoothed by LC filter action.
IC Switched voltage Regulator:
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IC 723/723c is a general purpose adjustable output voltage regulator designed primarily for series
+ve voltage regular applications but it is capable of operation in +ve or ve power supplies as a
series , shunt , switching or floating regulator.
The IC switch voltage regulator 723C has the following features.
i) extremely low stand by drain current.
ii) Provision for liner as well as feedback current limiting .
iii) Wide adjustable o/p voltage range. (2v to 37v)
Low voltage Regulators:
The low voltage regulators is also known as the stepdown voltage regulators. The operating
range of this type of regulator is 2V to 7V.
The o/p voltage in this case is always less than the input voltage. The general IC ckt diagram
for this type of regulator is shown.
The o/p voltage for this type of regulator is given by the eqn.
for minimum temperature difference.
High voltage regulator:
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The high voltage regulator generally operate at the range of 7v to 37 v. The general IC ckt.
diagram for this type for this regulator is shown in figure.
The o/p voltage for this type of regulator is given by the eqn.
for minimum temperature difference.
Control circuits (IC LM117/217/317):
The voltage control ckt. by using IC LM117 three terminal adjustable +ve voltage regulators are
available in the current rating of 0.1 A to 1.5A. The o/p voltage is controlled by adjusting the
variable resister R2 as shown in fig below. The voltage is adjustable from 1.2V to 37V. In high
voltage version LM117 HV/LM217HV/LM317HV.
These type of control ckt. built in current limit and thermal overload protection. Their
performance specifications are much better than those of fixed voltage regulators.
DC choppers:
A dc chopper converts directly from dc to dc and is also know as a dc to dc converter. A Chopper
can be considered as dc equivalent to an ac transformer with a continuously variable turns ratio.
Like a transformers it can be used to stepdown or stepup a dc voltage source. In many industrial
application. It is required to convert a fixed voltage dc source into a variablevoltage dc source.
Principe of StepDown operation of DC chopper:
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When switch S/W is closed for a time t1, the input voltage Vs appears across the load. If the
switch remains off for a time t2, the voltage across the load is zero. The waveform for the output
voltage and load current are shown above. The chopper switch can be implemented by using BJT,
MOSFET, GTO or Thyrister.
The average output voltage is given by
The duty cycle K can be varied from 0 to 1 by varying t1, T or f. Therefore , the output voltage V0
can be varied from o to Vs by controlling K and the power flow can be controlled.
Principle of stepup operation of chopper:
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The duty cycle k can be varied from 0 to 1 . Therefore , the output voltage V0 can be varied from
Vs to infinity (or something large value).
Reactance modulator transistor for FM:
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A PLL may be used to demodulate AM signals as shown in fig. The PLL is locked to the carrier
frequency of the incoming AM signals . The output of VCO which has the same frequency as the
carrier, but unmodulated is fed to the multiplier. Since VCO output is always 90 out of phase
with the incoming AM signal under the locked condition , the AM input signal is also shifted in
phase by 90 before being fed to the multiplier. This makes both the signals applied to the
multiplier in the same phase.The output of the multiplier contains both the sum and difference
signals, the demodulated output is obtained after filtering high frequency components by the LPF.
Since the PLL responds only to the carrier frequency which are very close to the VCO output a
PLL AM detector exhibits a high degree of selectivity and noise immunity which is not possible
with conventional peak detector type AM modulators.
Both D/A and A/D converters are available with wide range of specifications. The various
important specifications of converters generally specified by the manufactures are analyzed.
Resolution: The resolution of a converter is the smallest change in voltage which may be
produced at the output (or input ) of the converter.
Resolution (in volts) = VFS/(2n1) = 1 LSB increment.
For e.g an 8bit D/A converter has 281 =225 equal intervals. Hence the smallest change in output
voltage is (1/225) of the full scale output range .
Linearity: The linearity of an A/D or D/A converter is an important measure of its accuracy and
tells us how close the converter output is to its ideal transfer characteristics.
Accuracy: Absolute accuracy is the maximum deviation between the actual converter output and
the ideal converter output. The accuracy of a converter is also specified in terms of LSB
increments or percentage of full scale voltage.
Setting time: It represents the time it takes for the output to settle within a specified band I (1/2)
LSB of its final value following a code change at the input. It depends upon the switching time of
the logic circuitary due to internal parasitic capacitance and inductance. It is equal to (100ns to
100 s).
Stability: The performance of converter changes with temperature, age and power supply
variations. So all the relevant parameters such as offset , gain, linearity, error must be specified
over the full temperature and power supply ranges.
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Temperature sensitivity: The analog output voltage for any fixed digital input varies with
temperature. It is due to the temperature sensitivities of the reference voltage source, resistors, opamps etc.
A/D converter using Voltage to frequency conversion:
An analog voltage can be converted in to digital form by producing the pulses whose frequency is
proportional to the analog voltage. These pulses are counted by a counter for a fixed duration and
the reading of the counter will be proportional to the frequency of the pulses and hence to the
analog voltage.
The frequency of the output waveform which is proportional to the analog input is given by
Where,
= RC = Time constant of the integrator.
Va = analog input voltage.
VR = reference voltage.
The output of V/F converter is applied at the clock (CK) input of a counter through an AND gate.
The AND gate is enabled for a fixed time interval T1. The reading of the counter at t = T1 is given
by
In an A/D converter using V/R converter , the cycles of a variable frequency source are counted
for a fixed period. Alternatively it is possible to make an A/D converter by counting the cycles of
a fixed frequency source for a variable period. For this , the analog voltage is required to be
converted to a proper time period.
A negative reference voltage VR is applied to an integrator, whose output is connected to the
inverting input terminal of the comparator. The analog voltage Va is applied at the non inverting
input terminal of the comparator. The output of the comparator Vc is at logical level 1 as long as
the output of the integrator V0<Va . When V0 crosses Va at t=T, Vc goes low. The AND gate is
enabled when VEN is low and switch S remains open. When VEN goes high the switch S is closed,
thereby discharging the capacitor. Also the AND gate is disabled . When the AND gate is
enabled, the clock pulses will reach the clock(CK) input terminal of the counter. The output of
the counter is the digital output corresponding to Va.
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Assume that the counter is initially set at zero before conversion is started. A sample of the
analog signal Va appears at one input to the comparator and the counting process is initiated .
Each successive step of the counter causes the digital word at the output to advance one level in
the binary sequence. Each of these successive digital word is converted back to analog form by
D/A converter and the output is compared with the analog sample i,e the analog output Vi of
DAC is compared to the analog input Va by the comparator. If Va> Vi , the output of the
comparator becomes high and AND gate is enabled to allow the transmission of the clock pulses
to the counter. when Va <Vi the output of the comparator becomes low and the AND gate is
disabled. This stops the counting at the time Va Vi and the digital output of the counter represent
the analog input voltage Va.
Limitations:
i) The counter frequency must be low enough to give sufficient time for the DAC to settle and
for the comparator to respond.
ii) Low speed is the most serious drawback of these method.
Tricking A/D based on D/A (or servotralking A/D):
The improved version of the counting ADC is the tracking A/D The ckt consists of an updown
counter with the comparator. Controlling the direction of the count. The analog output of the
DAC (vi) is compared with the analog input voltage (Va). If Va>Vi , the output of comparator
goes high and counter is caused to countup. The DAC output increases with each incoming
pulses and when Vi>Va, the counter reverse the direction and count down. The process goes on
being repeated and the digital output changes back and forth by 1 LSB. As long as the analog
input changes slowely , the tracking A/D will be within 1LSB of the correct value. However,
when the analog input changes rapidly, the tracking A/D connot keep up with the change and
error occurs.
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