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Differential Amplifier:
A circuit that amplifies the difference between two signals is called as difference or
differential amplifier. This type of amplifier is very useful in instrumentation circuit. The
main purpose of difference amplifier stage is to provide high gain to the difference mode
signal and cancel the common mode signal.
RF
R1
V1

VV3

V+

V1
R2

Vo
+

R3

Since the differential voltage at the input terminal of the output ampere is zero, node V- and
V+ are at the same potential designated as V3 i.e.

V = V + = V3
The modal equation at V- is
V3 V2 V3 Vo
+
= 0 (i )
R1
RF

And at V+ is
V3 V1 V3
+
=0
R2
R3

(ii )

From equations (i) and (ii), we have:

V3 V2 V3 Vo V3 V1 V3
+
=
+
R1
RF
R2
R3
V3 V 2 V3 V o
V
V
V

= 3 1 + 3
R1 R1 R F R F R2 R2 R3

Now, Putting R2 = R1 , R3 = R F
V3 V2 V3 Vo V3 V1 V3

+
R1 R1 R F R F R1 R1 R F
Vo V1 V2
=

R F R1 R1
Vo =

RF
(V1 V2 )
R1

Vo = Ad (V1 V2 )

/ -1

The Ad in the equation is called difference mode of air signal Vd = V + V is called
difference mode signal or simply difference signal. Thus Ad =

Vo
V
= o

Vd
V V
+

Differential Amplifier with two op-amps:

The gain of the differential amp. can be increased if we use to 10 op-amp as shown
below:
V1
V3
V2

+- A
2

Vo

Vo1
+
A1 R 2
R1

RF

This circuit is composed of two stages:

1. The non-inverting amplifier A1 differential amp. A2.
The output of the 1st stage is

R
Vo' = 1 + 1 V2
RF

(i )

The output of the 2nd stage can be obtained by applying the superposition theorem as follows:
Vo =

RF '
R
.Vo + 1 + F .V1
R1
R1

(ii )

Substituting the values of equation (i) in equation (ii), we get:

Vo =

RF
R1

R
R
1 + 1 V2 + 1 + F V1
RF
R1

RF
R1

R F + R1

V2 + 1 + F V1
R1
RF

R
R
= 1 + F V2 + 1 + F V1
R1
R1

R
= 1 + F (V1 V2 )
R1

Thus, we see that gain of this amp is identical to the non inverting amplifier.

/ -2

BJT Differential Amplifier:
+ VCC

output
output
RC1

RC1

RC2

R C2

input 1
1
IE1

IE

input 2

2
IE2

RE2

- VEE

1
IF1

2
IF2

IE

IE2

R E2

- VEE

Fig: Differential Amplifier Circuit

There are two inputs and two outputs shown in the figure. Inputs are applied
essentially to each base of the two separate transistors 1 and 2 . The transistor emitters are
connected to a common emitter resistor show that two output terminals V1(out ) and V2(out ) are
affected by either or both input signals.
Operation:
When the input signal drivers transistor 1 , there will be more voltage drop across RC1
and therefore the collector of 1 will be less +ve and when the input signal is ve it will turn
off the transistor and collector will be more +ve. In brief, we can say that an inverted output
appears at 1 collector for applying signals at input 1.
Now we can see that when transistor 1 is turn on by +ve going input signal. The
current through RE will increase as I E = I C . This makes more voltage drop across RE and
thus emitters of both the transistors will go in a +ve direction. Making 2 ' s emitter +ve has
the same effect has to make the 2 ' s base ve. Under this condition, transistor 2 will
conduct less current which in turn will cause less voltage drop in RC 2 and thus its collector
goes in +ve direction for +ve going input signals. In other words, non-inverted appears at the
collector of transistor 2 for input at base of 1 .
Since it combines the two collector voltages VC1 and VC 2 , the AC output voltage is
given by Vout = VC 2 VC1

/ -3

+
VCC

VCC

VCC

RC

RC

RC

Vout

Vo ut
Vout

V2

V1

Rt

RE

RF

VEE

VEE

DC Analysis of Diff. amp

VCC

RC

+
VBE

RE

- VEE

A diff amp is sometimes called long tail pair because the two transistors share a common
resistor R E . The current through this common resistor R E is known as tail current. If we
ignore the V BE drop across the emitter, the tail current is given by I T =

V EE
. When the two
RE

half of figure are perfectly symmetrical then, tail current split equally and hence I E = I T 2 .
The dc voltage on either collector is given by VC = VCC I C RC . When V BE is taken into
consideration,
IT =

V EE V BE
RE

VCC

AC Analysis

RC

Rc

ic

Vout

+
1

ic

2
re1
re1

Vin
Vin
RE
_
- VBE

Fig: AC equivalent circuit of diff. amp

/ -4

The AC input voltage is given by

Vin = ie re' + ie re' = 2ie re'

The AC output voltage is given as:
Vout = iC RC
Divide Vout by Vin
Vout
R '
= C'
Vin
2re

Voltage gain A = C
2re'

ie =
or ,

Vin
= ib
2re'

Vin
= 2 re '
ib

Input Impedance

Z in = 2 re'

Common Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR):

The practical operation; amplifier will not have a perfect rejection of common mode
signals a specification called the common mode rejection ratio tells us something of the
ability of any given op-amp to reject such signal.
The CMMR is defined as CMMR =
where, Ad voltage gain to the differential
ACM

signal. ACM is voltage gain to the common mode signal. The CMMR is frequently expressed
in (dB) as 20 log10

the desired signal to the undesired signal. In an ideal amplifier the
ACM

ratio should be infinity. But in fact it has finite value. The larger the CMMR, the better is the
amplification.
Common Mode Signals:
The output voltage of a differential amplifier is proportional to the difference between
the input voltages. Thus if there is no difference between if voltage, i.e. when they are equal
the output voltage is zero. Equal inputs are known as common mode signals.
However, in actual practice, when equal inputs are applied to the two inputs, the
output voltage is not exactly equal to zero. But is typically of the order of several hundred
micro-volt. Thus the common mode gain (AC) can be defined as
AC =

Vo
VC

/ -5

Where, VC = common mode input signal

i.e. VC is the value of input signal that is common to both input and Vo is the output signal
resulting from the common mode input signal.
Input Characteristics of Diff. amp (Non-ideal)
1. Input Bias Current:
The input bias current is defined as the average of the dc base currents i.e.
I in (base ) =

I B1 + I B 2
2

where,
I B1 = dc base current of X' resistor 1
I B 2 = dc base current of X' resistor 2

2. Input Offset Current:

It is defined as the difference between the base current.

I in (diff ) = I B1 I B 2
3. Input Offset Voltage:
Consider basic BJT differential amplifier with both input grounded. If two sides of

differential pair are perfectly watch them current I would split equally between 1 and 2 and
Vout would be zero. But practical circuit exhibit mismatches that result in a dc output voltage
Vo (Verror) even with the both input grounded. We called the dc output voltage as dc offset
voltage where this dc offset voltage is divided by the differential gain of the amplifier, we
obtain the quantity to which we called as off input offset voltage Vos =

Vo Verror
=

4. Input Common Mode Range:

The input common mode range of a diff. amp is the range of the input voltage VCM
over which the differential pair behave as a linear amplifier for diff. input signals.
5. Features or Advantages of Differential Amplifier:
1. It uses no frequency dependent coupling or bypassing capacitor. It requires only the
resistor and transistor both of which can be easily integrated on a chip. Hence, it is
extensively used in linear Ic.
2. It can compare any two signals and detect any difference. Thus if two signals are fed into
inputs, identical in every respect except that one signal has been slightly distracted, then
only the difference between signals that is distortion will be amplified.
3. It gives higher gain then two cascated stages of ordinary direct coupling.
4. It provides very uniform amplification of signal from dc up to very high frequencies.
5. It is all most a universal choice for amplifying dc.

/ -6

Application:
1. Amplification
2. Mixing
3. Signal Generation
4. Amplitude Modulation
5. Frequency Modulation
6. Temperature Compensation

Q.
5K

5K
V out

the input impedance of the diff amp?

1 mv

7.5K

- 15V

Solution:
25mV
IE
V
15
I T = EE =
= 2mA
RE
7 .5
2mA
IE = Ir /2 =
= 1mA
2
25mV 25mA
re' =
=
= 25
IE
1mA
The AC output voltage is
V = AVin = 100 1mV = 100mV
Q.
re' =

12V

3K
Vout

What are the current and voltage in the single ended

output circuit?

5K
-12V
from www.jayaram.com.np

/ -7

Solution:
IT =

VEE 12V
=
= 2.4mA
RE
5

I E = IT / 2 =

2.4
= 1.2mA
2

VC = VCC I C RC = 12 1.2 10 3 3 10 3 = 8.4V

If VBE = 0.3V taken
IT =

VEE VBE 12 0.3

=
= 2.34mA
RE
5K

Q. A diff. amp has a gain of Av = 100 , when, mode gain is being measured, we get
V I = 2V and Vo = mV . Calculate the CMRR.

Solution:
Given, Diff gain, Av=100
Vi = 2V

Also,

Vo = 10mV , which is due to common mode signal.

Common mode gain is given by:
ACM =

Vo 10mV 10mV
=
=
= 5 10 3
Vi
2V
2V

CMRR =

Av
100
=
= 20,000
ACM 5 10 3

CMRR(dB ) = 20 log10 (20,000 ) = 86.62dB

Q. A certain instrumentation amplifier has a gain 40dB and CMMR 100 dB. IT is used noisy
environment in which the signal has the level of 50 mV, the common mode noise level is 100
mV. Determine:
1. Common Mode Gain
2. Signal Output
3. Noise Output
4. Output Signal Voltage to Noise Ratio
The diff. gain of Instrumental Amplifier = 40 dB
The common mode rejection ratio = 100dB
20log CMRR=100dB
CMRR = log-15=105

/ -8

a) CMRR =

ACM

where,

ACM =

10 2
= 5 = 10 3
CMRR 10

ACM = 10 3

ACM (dB ) = 20 log(10 3 ) = 60dB

b) The signal output is given by

Vo = 10 2 50 = 5V
c) The noise input is given by

Vonoise = ACM Vin

Vonoise = 10 3 100 = 0.1mV
d) The output signal to noise ratio is given by
SNR =

Vo
Vonoise

5V
= 50,000
10 4 V

SNR = 50,000
Q. Compute the common mode gain and differential gain for the diff. amp.
+ VCC

5K

5K

V1

h fe = 100
hie = 1.1K

V2

Yhoe = 80 K
1 mv
50

50

10K
-VEE

Solution:
Common Mode Gain
AC =

(2hoeRe hfe )RC

2 Re (1 + hfe ) + (Rs + hie )(2hoeRe + 1)

where, Rs = 0, for this case

Diff gain,
1 hfeRC
2 Rs + hie

/ -9

Chapter 2
Instrumentation Amplifier
Characteristic and Feature of Instrumentation of Amplifier:
1. The instrumentation amplifier has high gain accuracy.
2. It has large voltage gain and gain be precisely set by a single internal or external resistor.
3. The high CMRR makes the amplifier very useful in recovery small signals buried in a
large common mode offset and noise.
4. It has high gain stability with low temperature coefficient i.e. it has very low temp. drift.
5. It has very low output impedance.
6. It has very low input offsets.
Relation between input and output of instrumentation amplifier:
The instrumentation amplifier is a dedicated differential amp. with extremely high
input impedance. It is closed loop device consists of two stages.

The first stage offers very high input impedance to both the input signals and allows
setting the gain with the single resistor.

The second stage is a differential amplifier with the output negative feed back.
V1 (+Vom)

op-amp-I
+

R2

V3

R2

R4

R1
Vo

Rg
op-amp-III
R1

V2 (+Vom)

op-amp-II

R3
RS

Fig : Instrumentation Amplifier

The basic amplifier consists of two carefully matched op-amps. Each input V1 and V2
is applied to the non-inverting input terminals.
The output of the 1st stage is connected through the string of resistors. The second
stage of the amplifier is differential amplifier.
This circuit uses 3 op-amps and hence it is called 3 amplifier configurations. V1 and
V2 are the desired signals and Vcm is the common mode signal. This circuit used to eliminate
common mode signal.
For simplicity in order to minimize common mode gain, let us assume that
R2 = R3 = R4 = Rs = R
Now, the output of op-amps I will be

/ - 10

VR

V1(+Vcm)

V3

V3
+
V2
Rg
R1

R
R
V3 = 1 + 1 V1 1 .V2 + Vcm
R
Rg
g

Similarly, the output of op-amp II will be

R
R
V4 = 1 + 1 V2 1 .V1 + Vcm
R
Rg
g

Thus, the net output voltage Vo of op-amp-III will be Vo = V4 V3

R
R
R
R
Vo = 1 + 1 V2 1 .V1 + Vcm 1 + 1 V1 1 .V2 + Vcm
R
Rg
Rg
R g

R
R
R
R
Vo = 1 + 1 V2 1 .V1 + Vcm 1 + 1 V1 + 1 V2 Vcm
R
R
Rg
Rg
g
g

R
R
= 1 + 1 (V2 V1 ) 1 (V1 V2 )

R g
Rg

R
R
= 1 + 1 (V2 V1 ) + 1 (V2 V1 )

R g
Rg

R
R
= (V2 V1 )1 + 1 + 1
R g R g

R
Vo = (V2 V1 )1 + 2 1

Rg

Thus the above equation shows that there is no output corresponding to common
mode signal. The gain of the amp can be changed by changing R g . Hence, the
instrumentation amplifier provides the output without error.
op-amp-I
+
0.2 V

10K

R2

10K

Rp

500

10K
Vo

500
Rp

op-amp-III

10R
10K

op-amp-II

RS

10K

0.3 VO

/ - 11

a) Find the maximum and minimum output voltage Vo when 10 K pot RP is adjusted
through its entire range.
b) Find Vo1 and Vo 2 when R p is set in the middle of its resistance range.
Here, R g is the sum of fixed resistor 500 and R p which can be adjusted to 0 to 10 K .
R g (min ) = 500 + 0 = 0.5K

R g (max ) = 500 + 10 K = 10.5K

2 R
2 10
Vo (max) = (V2 V 1)1 +
= [0.3 ( 0.2)]1 +
= 20.5V
R (min )
0.5

2 R1
2 10
Vo (min ) = (V2 V1 )1 +
= 1.45V V
= (0.3 ( 0.2 ))1 +
10.5

R g (max )
b) Again,
when R g = 500 + middle of 10 K
a)

1
10 K = 5.5 K
2

R
V1 R V2 = 1 + 10 ( 0.2) 10 0.3 = 1.10
Vo1 = +
R
R
5.5
5.5
g
g

R
V = 1 + 10 0.3 10 0.2 = 1.209
Vo 2 = 1 + 1 V2
R 1 5.5
R
5.5
g
g

R g = 500 +

Rc
Vdc

Va

Vb
Rb
RA

R1

RF

+
-

Vab

Vo

R2
R3

Fig shows a simplifier instrumentation amp. using Xducer bridge. A resistive

transducer is transducer whose resistance changes as a function of some physical energy
connected in one arm with small circle around it and is denoted by RT R , where RT is
resistance of the transducer and R is the change in resistance.
We know,
VA =

R A Vdc
R A + (RT R )

/ - 12

R A Vdc
RB + RC

Vb =

Now,
Vab = Va Vb =

R AVdc
RV
B dc
R A + (RT + R ) RB + RC

If R A = RB = RC = R F = R then,
Vab =

RVdc
RVdc 2 R 2Vdc 2 R 2Vdc RRVdc
RRVdc
RVdc

=
=
=
2r + R
2R
2 R (2 R + R )
2 R(2 R + R ) 2(2 R + R )

The final output Vo is

Vo =
Vo =

RVdc
R
RF
Vab = F x
2(2 R + R )
R1
Rp

RVdc
R
. F
2(2 R + R ) R1

If we approximate (2 R + R ) 2 R, then
Vo =

R.Vdc RF
.
4 R R1

Vo =

RC R
.
.Vdc
R1 4 R

Application of Instrumentation Amplifier:

Physical Quantity
to be measured

Input
Stage

Intermediate
Stage

Output
Stage

Inductor or
Automatic
Process Control
Stage

Fig: Basic Block Diagram of Instrumentation System

The input stage is composed of pre-amplifier and same type of transducer. The
transducer may be thermester, photo conductive cells or strain gauge. Depending upon the
physical quantity to be measured, the output stage may use devices such as meters,
oscilloscopes, charts or magneto-recorder.
Following are the applications of instrumentation amplifier:
i. Temperature indicator
ii. Temperature controller
iii. Light intensity meter
iv. Measurement of flow & thermal conductivity
v. Analog weight scale
Isolation Amplifier:

/ - 13

There are number of situations where ordinary amplifiers are either is danger
themselves because of electrical environment or present a danger to the users (e.g. in medical
equipment). An example of the formal might be an amplifier in high voltage experiment such
as electrophoresis system, while latter is represented by cardical monitors and other devices
used in the hospital. In such as case isolation amplifiers are used. Isolation amplifiers are
special sub-calls of instrumentations amplifier.
Characteristics and Properties of Isolation Amplifier:
i. Isolation amplifier extremely high impedance.
ii. An isolation amplifier is a differential amplifier equipped with input circuit guard
shied and therefore their input circuits are ohmically separated (electrically isolated)
from both the output circuit and power supply of the op-amps.
iii. The leakage and ground loop currents flowing through the circuit of isolation
amplifier are restricted to vary small values (i.e. less than 10A ).

iv. Isolation amplifier offers the capability of protecting measurement system

components from very high voltage (up to 5000V) encountered in some industrial
environments.
v. The amplifier input signal is coupled to the amplifier output circuit by an isolation
element (either an isolation transformer or as up to electronic coupler).
vi. The operating power required by the amplifier is also coupled into the shielded input
circuit through as isolation transformer.
vii. It has very high CMRR.
Symbol for an Isolation Amplifier:
VB +

VA

in

A
out

in
VB-

VA

Upto-Electronic Isolation:
1pf
LED

Phototransistor

A light emitting diode and photo-transistor are mounted very close to one another in a
single package. Light from the diode caused by current I 1 falls on the photo-transistor giving
rise to current I 2 . The information contained by current I 1 is therefore transferred to the photo
detective element without any electrical coupling path. Light is the coupling link. Typically,
the coupling capacitance that exists between LED and photo-transistor of the opto-electric
coupler is 1pF, which is called stray capacitance. Opto-electronic coupler have the

/ - 14

advantages over the transformer isolation coupler of being able to operate from DC upto
10KH. However, they do not provide as much electric isolation of linearity.
Transformer Isolation Coupler:

Transformer isolation coupler use magnetic flux coupled through shielded transformer to pass
signal information from the input to the output of the amplifier. They do not function at DC
or variable frequency and have the upper frequency limit of above 1KH.
Application of Isolation Amplifier:
1. In medical electronic equipment.
2. In electric power plants and other high voltage industrial process control system.
3. Where large CMRR is needed.

/ - 15

Chapter 3
Logarithmic Amplifier
Characteristics and Features of Logarithmic Amplifier:
1. Logarithmic Amplifier has an output voltage which is proportional tot the logarithm
of the input voltage.
2. The circuit configuration of the logarithmic amplifier is that of an inverting amplifier.
3. The feedback element may be a BJT or a diode.
4. The logarithm amplifier offers a significant dynamic range compression.
5. The characteristics of the logarithmic amplifier are dependent on the reverse
saturation current, which is extremely temperature dependent and difficult to control.
Basic Circuit of Logarithmic Amplifier:
Vf

if

+ Vs
-

D1

Vo

Logarithmic amplifier is one in which positive output voltage is proportional to the

logarithm of the input voltage. This circuit is nothing but the inverting amplifier in which
feedback resistor RF has been replaced by a diode D1 as shown in the figure:
VF
VF
nV

nVT
T

I F = Io e 1 Ioe

(i )

Where, I o = reverse saturation current of the diode and e

VF
nVr

>> 1

or , I F >> I o

Now, taking log (natural log i.e. ln) on both sides of the equation (i), we have:
VF
nV

ln I F = ln I o e T

ln I F = ln I o + ln e
ln I F ln I o =

VF
nVT

VF
nVT

V F = nVT (ln I F ln I o )

(ii )

IS =

Vs
= IF
R

(iii )

/ - 16

Further, Vo = VF

(iv )

Thus, from equations (ii), (iii) and (iv), we have:

Vo = nVT [ln I F ln I o ]

= nVT ln s ln I o
R

V
Vo nVT ln s (v )
RI o

Thus, it is seen that the output voltage is a logarithmic function of the input voltage.
Log op-amp with Saturation current and Temperature compensation:
if

Vf
-

D1

Vo

+ Vs
-

Vf2

Vo 1

D2
I

From the logarithmic amp. output it is clear that the characteristic of logarithmic
amplifier varies with the reverse saturation current and with the temp. Thus, it is difficult to
control the output voltage. This dependence of temperature can be reduced by modifying the
circuit as shown in the figure above. The following assumptions or conditions have been used
in the circuit.
1. Matching diode D1 and D2 are used.
2. Using temp. dependent resistor RT.
3. Using constant current source I independent of temp. T
From the figure, the voltage V to the non-inverting terminal can be written as
V Vo = VF2
V = V F2 + Vo

Where,

(vi )

V F2 = nVT (ln I ln I o )

(vii )

Thus from equation (v), (vi) and (vii), we have:

V
V = nVT (ln I ln I o ) nVT ln s ln I o

V
= nVT ln I ln I o ln s + ln I o
R

V
= nVT ln I ln s
R

/ - 17

V

= nVT ln s ln I
R

V
V = nVT ln s
IR

(viii )

RF
Vo' = 1 +
V
RT + R1
R + R1 + R F
= T
RT + R1

Vs
* nVT ln
IR

R + R1 + R F
Vs
= T
nVT ln
IR
R1 + RT

(ix )

In equation (ix), the temperature dependent resistor RT is selected in such a way to

compensate for the factor nVT .
Antilog Amplifier:
IF
+

Is

V1
+
-

VF
-

I2

D1

I2
Vg

RF

Vo

D2

R1

Vs

Once the dynamic range of the signal has been compressed by a log amplifier the
original signal may be restored by means of antilog amplifier.
The logarithmic amplifier gives an output Vo proportional to the natural logarithm of
the input Vs . Thus, we have Vo = k1 ln K 2Vs

(i )

Thus, for antilog amplifier we have Vo = k 3 ln 1 k 4Vs , which means the output voltage
Vo is proportional to the antilogarithm of the input signal.

V1 V2 = V F
V2 = V1 V F

(iii )

And,

V1 =

R1
.Vs
R1 + R2

(iv )

(v )

Thus, from equations (iii) and (iv) and (v), we have:

/ - 18

V1 = nVT (ln I F ln I o ) +

R1
Vs (vi )
R1 + R2

V2 is also a negative voltage across D2. Hence,

V2 = nVT (ln I 2 ln I o )

(vii )

Thus, from equations (vi) and (vii), we have:

nVT (ln I F ln I o ) +
Vs .

R1
= nVT [ln I F ln I o ln I 2 + ln I o ]
R1 + R2

Vs .

R1
= nVT [ln I F ln I 2 ]
R1 + R2

Vs .

But,

R1
Vs = nVT (ln I 2 ln I o )
R1 + R2

I
R1
= nVT ln 1
R1 + R2
I2

Vo = I 2 R F

(ix )

From (viii) and (ix), we have:

Vs .

I .R
R1
= nVT ln F F
R1 + R2
Vo

I .R
ln F F
Vo

R1
1
= Vs .
.
R1 + R2 nVT

I F .R F
R1
1
= ln 1 Vs .
.
Vo
R1 + R2 nVT

Vo
R1
1
= ln 1 Vs .
.
I F RF
R1 + R2 nVT

R1
1
(x )
Vo = I F R F ln 1 Vs .
.
R1 + R2 nVT

Thus, we see that output of an antilogarithm amp is proportional to the antilog of the input
signal.

Log-Antilog Multiplier:
There are number of applications of analog multiplier such as frequency doubling,
frequency shifting, and phase angle detection, real power computation, multiplying two
signals, dividing and squaring of signals.
The output of the multiplier is the product of two inputs divided by a reference
V xV y
(i )
voltage Vref i.e. Vo =
Vref

Where, V x & V y are the two inputs as long as, V x < Vref ; V y < Vref

/ - 19

The output voltage of the multiplier will not saturate. There can be several ways to
make a circuit which will multiply according to equation(i). One commonly used method is
log-Antilog method.
The log antilog method relies on the mathematical relationship that the sum of the
logarithmic of the two numbers equal to the logarithmic of the product of these numbers
i.e. ln V x + ln V y = ln (V x .V y )
Vx

Log Amp 1
Vx Vy
Vref

Vy

Log Amp 2

in(Vx

Vy)

Fig

(i)

shows

the

block

diagram

of

log-antilog

multiplier.

The

log

A / F 1 and log A / F 2 accept the signal V x and V y respectively.

The output of log A / F1 is log V x and that of log A / F 2 is ln V y . These outputs are
fed to the summer, i.e. the output at the summer will be
ln V x + ln V y = ln (V x .V y )

This is then passed through antilog amplifier which gives the output as V xV y which is
further soaled by Vref .Thus the final output will be

V xV y
Vref

can be used as multiplier.

Analog Multiplier as Freq. Doubling:
The multiplication of two sine waves of the same frequency but of possibly different
amplitude and phase allows to double a frequency.

V x = V x sin t
V y = V y sin (t + )

Where, is the phase difference between two signals. Applying there two signals to the input
of an analog multiplier will yield the output as
V x .V y V x sin t.V y sin (t + )
Vo =
=
Vref
Vref
=
=
=

V x .V y
Vref
V x .V y
Vref
V x.V y
2Vref

. sin t. sin (t + )
. sin t [sin t. cos + sin . cos t ]

[2 sin

/ - 20

=
=

2Vref
V x .V y
V xV y

V xV y

2Vref

[2 sin

V x.V y

2Vref

cos +

V xV y

cos

V xV y

2Vref
V x .V y
2Vref

Vref
Vref

[sin sin 2t cos cos 2t ]

cos(2t + )

The 1st term is DC and set by the magnitude of signal and their phase difference. The
2nd varies with time but at twice the frequency of input signal.
Analog Divider from Analog Multiplier:
Division can be accomplished by placing the multiplier circuit element in the op-amp

feedback loop. The output voltage from the divider with input signal V2 and V x as dividend
and divisor respectively is given by:
Vo = Vref

Vz
Vx
Va

R
Z

multiply

IA

R
Vo

Vz

The result can be derived as follows:

Since the op-amps inverting terminals are at virtual ground,
Iz = IA
Iz =

Vz
R

The output voltage V A of the multiplier is determined by the multiplication of V x and

Vy .
V y = Vo

/ - 21

V A =

V xV y
Vref

V xV o
Vref

Also, V A = I A R
IA =
But,

VV
VA
= x o
R
Vref .R

Iz = IA
V xV o
I z =
Vref .R

I z .R =
Vz =

V xV o
Vref

V xVo
Vref

Vo = Vref .

Vz
Vx

Application of Log Amplifier:

1. The logarithmic amp. can be utilize to study the variation of amplitude of the input
signal according to the log scale variations.
2. It may be adopted on voltmeter or spectrum analysis to study the dB plot of the signal
for the proper display on the screen.
3. For transmission purpose, amplifier may be used to integrate the signals and encoding
and recording them.

/ - 22

Chapter 4
Introduction to Communication System
Communication System:
It is the system designed to send information from a source generating that
information to one (point to point) or more (broadcasting) receiver of that information.
Information
Source

Input
Xducer

Transmittor

Communicaton
Channel

Output
Xducer

destination
or output

Fig: Basic Block Diagram of Communication System

The source of information could be any device or person or even whose output can be
voice, picture, text, etc.
The input transducer converts the input information into electrical signal suitable for
further processing. Transmitter is extremely important equipment and is housed in the
broadcasting station. Its purpose is to produce radio waves for transmission into space. The
important components of transmitter are microphone, audio-amplifier, oscillator and
modulator.
The channel is a physical medium used to pass the signal from transmitter to the
receiver depending upon the medium channel can be subdivided into wire line (cables, optical
fibers, etc) and wire less (free space) channels. Essential features of channel is that it
introduces additive noise (natural as well as man made) to the signal picked up by the
demodulates it and produces electrical output signals.
The output xducer converts their electrical output signals to the non-electrical output
signals which is the destination.
Modulation:
It is the process of combining audio frequency signal or low frequency signal with a
radio frequency carrier wave or high frequency signal. The audio frequency signal is also
called as a modulating signal. And the resultant wave procedure is called modulated wave. In
this process, some characteristics(amplitude, frequency or phase) of a carrier wave in
accordance with the intensity of modulating signal is changed.
Need for Modulation:
Modulation is extremely necessary in communication system due to the following
reasons:
1. Practical Antenna Length
In order to transmit the wave effectively, the length of transmitting antenna should be
approximately equal to the wave length of the wave.

/ - 23

wave length( ) =

Velocity
3 10 3 m / s
=
Frequency
f ( Hz )

As the audio frequency ranges from 20 Hz to 20 KHz, if they are transmitted directly
into the space, the length of the transmitting antenna required would be extremely large. For
example to radiate a frequency of 20 KHz directly into the space, we would need an antenna
3 10 8
= 150000m .
20 10 3
This is too long antenna to be constructed practically. For this reason, it is
impracticable to radiate audio signal directly into space. On the other hand, if a carrier wave
of 1000 KHz is used to carry the signal, we need an antenna length of 300m only and this size
can be easily constructed.
length of

2. Operating Range
The energy of a wave depends upon its frequency. The greater the frequency of a
wave the greater the energy possessed by it. As the audio signal frequency is small, therefore
they cannot be transmitted over a large distance if radiated directly into the space. The only
practical solution is to modulate a high frequency carrier with audio signal and permit the
transmission to occur at this high frequency.
3. Wireless Communication
One desirable feature of radio transmission is that it should be carried without wires
i.e. radiated into the space. At audio frequencies, the radiation is not practicable because the
efficiency of radiation is poor. However, efficient radiation of electrical energy is possible at
high frequency. For this reason, modulation is always done in communication system.
Types of Modulation:

The mathematical expression for a carrier wave is C (+ ) = AC cos(2fct + c ) .

Obviously, the waveform can be varied by any of its following three factors or parameters:
i. Amplitude i.e. Ac
ii. Frequency i.e. Fc
iii. Phase i.e. c
Accordingly, there are three types of modulation which are briefly explained as
follows:
i. Amplitude Modulation
When the amplitude of high frequency carrier wave is changed in accordance with the
intensity of the signal, it is called amplitude modulation.
ii. Frequency Modulation
In this case, the information signal changes the frequency of carrier of wave without
changing its amplitude or phase.
iii. Phase Modulation

/ - 24

The information signal changes the phase of carrier without changing its other two
parameters.
Amplitude Modulation:
Ac
Am

carrier

Signal

MAC

Vmax
AC
Vmin
t

Modulated Wave

Modulation Factor:
The ratio of change of amplitude of carrier wave to the amplitude of normal carrier
wave is called modulation factor m i.e.
Amp. change of carrier wave
Modulation Factor , m =
Normal carrier wave (un mod ulated )
Importance of Modulation Factor:
Modulation factor is very important since it determines the strength and quality of
transmitted signal. IN an AM wave the signal is contained in the variations of carrier
amplitude. When the carrier is modulated to a small degree small m, the amount of carrier
amplitude variation is small. Consecutely, the audio signal being transmitted will not be very
strong. The greater the degree of modulation, the stronger and clearer will be the audio signal.
It may be impharisted here that if the carrier is over modulated (i.e. m>1), distortion will
occur during reception. The refore degree of modulation should never exceed 100%.

/ - 25

Q. If the maximum and minimum voltage of an AM wave are Vmax and Vmin respectively.
Then show that modulation factor m is given by m =

Vmax Vmin
.
Vmax + Vmin

Solution:
Let us consider fig (i), from fig(i)
Vmax = Vmin + 2 Am
Am =

We know that, m =
Now,

Vmax Vmin
2

(i )

Am
Ac

Ac = Am + Vmin
Ac =

Vmax Vmin
+ Vmin
2

(ii )

Vmax + Vmin
(iii )
2
Thus from equations (i), (ii) and (iii), we get:
Ac =

m=

(Vmax Vmin ) / 2
(Vmax + Vmin ) / 2

DSB-AM (Double Side Band-Amplitude Modulation):

A carrier wave may be represented by
c(t ) = Ac cos 2fct

Where, c(t ) = instantaneous voltage of carrier

Ac = Amplitude of carrier
Fc = carrier frequency
In an amplitude modulation, the amplitude Ac of the carrier wave is varied in
accordance with the signal. Suppose the modulation factor is m, it means that signal produces
a maximum change of mAc in the carrier amplitude.
Therefore the signal can be represented by
m(t ) = Am cos 2fmt

m(t ) = mAc cos 2fmt

Therefore, the amplitude of AM wave is given by
= Ac + mAc cos 2fmt
= Ac (1 + m cos 2fmt )
The instantaneous voltage of AM is

/ - 26

= Ac (1+ m cos 2fmt ) cos 2fct

mAc
.2 cos 2fct. cos 2fmt
2

= Ac cos 2fct +
V AM (t ) = Ac cos 2fct +

mAc
mAc
cos 2 ( f c + f m )t +
cos 2 ( f c f m )t
2
2

Thus, the AM wave contain three frequencies viz. Fc , Fc + Fm , Fc Fm . The first

frequency is the carrier frequency. Thus the process of modulation does not change the
original carrier frequency but produces two new frequencies Fc + Fm and Fc Fm , which are
called side band frequencies. Fc + Fm is called upper side band and Fc Fm is called lower
side band.
AM Spectrum:
VAM(t)
Ac
mAc/2
F
Fc -Fm Fc Fc+Fm

In an amplitude modulated wave, the side band frequencies are of our interest. It is
because the signal frequency Fm is contained in the side band frequency.
The band-width is from Fc-Fm to Fc+Fm i.e. 2Fm.
Power in DSB-AM:
The general equation for DSB-AM is given by
mAc
mAc
cos 2 (Fc + Fm )t +
cos 2 (Fc Fm )t
2
2
The total average power of DSB-AM is the sum of its carrier power and side bands.
Pt = total average power
V AM (t ) = Ac cos 2fct +

If

Pc = total carrier power

PLSB = lower side band power
PUSB = upper side band power

Then, Pt = Pc + PLSB + PUSB

(A / 2 )
=

Pc

Ac 2
2R

(mA / 2 2 )
=

m 2 Ac2
R
8R
Where, R is resistance in which power is dissipated and for R=1
PLSB = PUSB

/ - 27

Ac2
Pc =
2

PLSB = PUSB

and

PT =

Ac2
2

m 2 Ac2
=
8

Ac2 m 2 Ac2 m 2 Ac2 Ac2 m 2 m 2

+
+
=
+
1 +

2
8
8
2
4
4

m2
1 +

Ac2
Also, Since, Pc =
2
m2

PT = Pc 1 +
2

When, m = mmax i.e. (m = 1)

PT = PT max
PT max = Pc (1 + 0.5)
PT max = 1.5Pc
Efficiency of DSB-AM:
The efficiency of any system is defined as the ratio of useful power at the output to
the total power consumed. In DSB-AM, the useful power is the power contained in the
sideband only, therefore

PLSB + PUSB
m 2 Ac2 / 4
100% = 2
100% =
Pt
Ac m 2
1 +

2
2
When, m=1, the maximum efficiency is given by
1
max =
100%
2 +1
Efficiency( ) =

m2
m2

21 +
2

max = 33.33%
One-Transistor AM Modulator:
+ Vcc

Ac

Rc

Cc
Cin
C(t)
R2

RL
E

m(t)

/ - 28

100% =

m2
100%
2 + m2

Figure shows the circuit of simple AM modulator. It is common emitter amplifier

having a voltage gain of A. The carrier is the input to the amplifier. The modulating signal is
applied in the emitter resistor circuit.
The amplifier circuit amplifies the carrier by a factor A so that the output is AAc.
Since the modulating signal is a part of biasing circuit, it produces low frequency variations
in the emitter circuit. This in turn causes variation in A. The principle of this circuit is to
change the gain A, by the modulating signal. The result is that amplitude of the carrier varies
in accordance with the strength of the signal. Consequently, amplitude modulated output is
obtained across RL.
Features of DSB-AM:
1. The modulation index is controlled by the amplitude of the carrier.
2. Bandwidth occupied by this type of modulation is twice the bandwidth of the message
signal. Thus there is wastage of bandwidth.
3. As the carrier is also transmitted, there is wastage of power. Hence, it is less efficient.
4. The modulation and demodulation process are very simple and less expensive.
Limitation:
1. Noisy reception
2. Low efficiency
3. Small operating range
4. Lack of audio quality
Generation of DSB AM:
There are two methods:
1) Direct Method
[1+am(t)]

Where q-modulation index

DSB-AM
c(t)

In this method, the level shifted version of m(t) is directly fed to the modulator along
with the carrier signal c(t). Finally, we get DSB-AM. This method is very simple and
inexpensive but not suitable for high frequency application.
2) Indirect Method
i) Square Law:
NL Device
C(t)
V1
m(t)

V2

BPF
at
Fc

v(t)

/ - 29

The sum of modulating signal m(t) and the carrier signal c(t) is applied to the input of
the non-linear device with assumption that only c(t) can bias the device in the quadratic
region of the characteristics.
The characteristics of NL device can be approximated as:
V2 (t ) = b1V1 (t ) + b2V12 (t ) where, b1 and b2 are constant.
The input voltage V1(t) can be represented as :
V1 (t ) = m(t ) + c(t )

Let,

V1 (t ) = m(t ) + Ac cos fct

Thus, the output of NL device will be
V2 (t ) = b1 [m(t ) + Ac cos 2fct ] + b2 [m(t ) + Ac cos 2fct ]

b A2 b A2
b
= b1 Ac cos 2fct 1 + 2 2 m(t ) + b1 m(t ) + b2 m 2 (t ) + 2 c + 2 c cos 2f c t
b1
2
2

The band pass filter centered at fc will filter out the frequency components centered at 2fc, the
message signal m(t) and the dc component. Thus the output of band pass filter will be
V AM (t ) = b1 Ac [1 + am(t )]cos 2fct where, a =

2b2
= mod ulation index
b1

DSB-SC:
It is known as double side band suppressed carrier amplitude modulation. As the
carrier component of DSB-AM does not contain any information, the efficiency of AM can
be increased if the carrier is suppressed before transmission. The type of AM where the
carrier is fully suppressed is called DSB-SC.
Synchronous Modulation of DSB-SC:
[1+am(t)]
DSB-AM
c(t)

Balance Modulation:

m(t)

DSB - AM

v1(t)

+
DSB - SC

Dscilloctor c(t)
-

-m(t)

DSB - Am
v2(t)

/ - 30

It consists of two identical DSB-AM modulators. In one modulator the input is empty
where as in other modulator, the input is phase inverted version of m(t) i.e. m(t). The output
of the two DSP-AM is then subtracted and the net result is that the output of subtractor is
DSB-SC signal.
Here the oscillator produces the carrier frequency Fc which is fed to both AM
modulators. The output DSB-SC signal can be obtained as follows:
The outputs of modulator are:
u1 (t ) = Ac [1 + am(t )]cos 2fct

u 2 (t ) = Ac [1 am(t )]cos 2fct

Thus, the output is then,

u (t ) = u1 (t ) u 2 (t )

= Ac [1 + am(t )]cos 2fct Ac [1 am(t )]cos 2fc(t )

= Ac cos 2fct [1 + am(t ) 1 + am(t )]

u (t )DSB SC = nAc am(t ) cos 2fct

This type of modulation is relatively simple to construct at two identical and simple
convensation AM modular are used.
Ring Modulator: (Read yourself from communication manual)
SSB-AM:
As both side band(USB and LSB) of a standard AM carry the same information, it is
sufficient to transmit only one side band to recover the information at the receiving end. In
this way we can conserve the power as well as band-width. This type of modulation is
referred to as single side band modulation. The power in case of SSB is given by

Pt = PLSB = PUSB =

a 2 Ac2
8R

And for R=1,

a 2 Ac2 Ac2 a 2
=
Pt =
.
8
2 4
a2
Pt =
.Pc
4
In general the SSB signal can be represented as
Ac
A
m(t ) cos 2fct m c m (t )sin 2fct
2
2
Where, m (t ) represents the Hilber X' transform of m(t)
i.e. if m(t ) = Am cos 2f m t
m (t ) = Am cos(90 2fmt ) = Am sin 2fmt
Here, negative sign represents the USB and positive sign represents the LSB
U SSB (t ) =

/ - 31

Phase Shift Method:
m(t)
Dscilloctor
+

HT

- USB-

LSB

90 shift
Ac/2sin2fct

Ac/2m(t)sin2fct

The expression for SSB is

VSSB (t ) = Ac / 2 m(t ) cos 2fct m Ac / 2 m (t )sin 2fct can be directly implemented using two
DSB-s modulation as shown in the figure.
VSB-AM (Vestigial Side Band Modulation):
uvsb(t)

LSB
VSB(selected side band)

Fc
Vestige of LSB

Stringent requirement in SSB filter in SSB modulator can be achieved if portion of

low frequency component of other side band is also transmitted along with the required side
band. This is specially required for message signal like VDU signal where very low
frequency components play major role in the quality of picture reproduced at the receiving
end. This type of SSB modulation in which some portion of other side band is also
transmitted along with the desire side band at the cost of loss of some low frequency portion
of desired side band is called vestigial side band modulation.
Demodulation of AM Signal:
We know that modulator translates the message signal into high frequency side of
frequency spectrum; the demodulation process retranslates the information carrying high
frequency signal to its original spectrum. Thus, we define demodulation as the process of
regenerating or recovering the original message signal i.e. low frequency signal from the
modulated high frequency signal.
Standard AM with two side band and full carrier can be demodulated using square
law and envelop detector.

/ - 32

i) Square Law Detector

NL Device
LPE

m(t)

If we supply the modulated signal into the non-linear device followed by the low pass
filter, we can recover the message signal m(t).
The characteristics of non-linear device is given by:
V = b1u + b2 u 2 where u = u (t ) = Ac [1 + a m (t )]cos 2fct
Thus, the output of NL device will be
U NL (t ) = b1 [ Ac (1 + a m (t )) cos 2fct ] + b2 [Ac (1 + a m (t )) cos 2fct ]

1
= b1 Ac [1 + a m (t )]cos 2fct + b2 Ac2 1 + 2a m (t ) + a 2 m 2 (t ) [1 + cos 4fct ]
2
1
1
= b1 Ac (1 + a m (t )) cos 2fct + b2 Ac2 + b2 Ac2 a m (t ) + b2 Ac2 a 2 m 2 (t ) +
2
2
1
b2 Ac2 1 + 2a m (t ) + a 2 m 2 (t ) cos 2fct
2
Thus the output of LPF will be
1
U NL (t ) | LPF = b2 Ac2 am(t ) + b2 Ac2 a 2 m 2 (t )
2
nd
The 2 term in the above equation is due to non-linear characteristics of the device
which will produce noise. The effect of this component can be made negligible by choosing a
small compare to unity.

ii) Envelop Detector

Diode

AM signal

R m(t)

Another mode simple way detecting SSB-AM is envelop detector. Since, information
is contained in envelop of the AM-signal, rectification and filtering of AM signal will
produce desired message signal. Envelop of the AM signal is rectified by the diode and the
high frequency components contained in the rectified wave is filtered out low pass filter
consisting of C and R. In order to minimize the distortion and minimize the filtration of high
frequency ripples, the time constant of R-C filter (or cut off filter) is selected in the following
manner. This detector is simple to implement, highly efficient and cost effective. Therefore,
this detector circuit is used in almost all the commercial AM broadcast receiver.

/ - 33

1. Total saving of 83.3% in the transmitted power (66.7% due to suppression of carrier
wave and 60.67% due to suppression of one side band). Hence, the power is conserved
in SSB-SC transmitter.
2. Bandwidth required is reduced by R i.e. 50%. Hence, twice as many channel can be
multiplexed in a given frequency range.
3. Since, the SSB signal has narrow band-width a narrow pass band is permissible within
the receiver thereby limiting the noise pick up.
AM Detector using Transistor:

TVcc

R1

C3

Rc
output
C5
Q1

RF signal
CA

C2
R3
R2

C1

AM RF input signal is separated by parallel tuned circuit L1, C4 and is coupled to the
basic-emitter circuit, of transistor Q1 by L2. The fixed bias for the transistor Q1 is provided by
R1, R2, R3. Also, C1, C2 are used as bypass capacitor. The positive halves of the modulated
RF input signal will drive the transistor into conduction region where as the negative half of
the input signal will drive the transistor into circuit off region. Thus, an amplified AF (Audio
Frequency) modulating signal appears the load resistor Rc. The capacitor C3 eliminates the
RF high frequency components. Capacitor C5 eliminates the dc reference level, i.e. it blocks
the direct voltage. Thus, the audio-frequency signal is generated at the output of the transistor
Q1.

/ - 34

Frequency Modulation:
When the frequency of carrier wave is changed in accordance with the intensity of the
signal, it is called frequency modulation.

C
A

Signal

t
Carrier

FM wave

In frequency modulation, only the frequency of carrier wave is changed in accordance

with the signal. However the amplitude of the modulated wave remains the same i.e. carrier
wave amplitude. The frequency variation of the carrier wave depends upon the instantaneous
amplitude of the signal. When the signal voltage is zero as at A, C, E and G the carrier
frequency is unchanged. When the signal approaches its +ve peaks as at B, D, F the carrier
frequency is increased to maximum or high frequency. However, during the ve peaks of the
signal as at D, the carrier frequency is reduced to minimum as shown by the widely spaced
cycle.
R

Generation of FM Signal:
Direct Method:
In direct method, the frequency of
oscillation of an oscillator is varied
according to the modulating signal. The

C1

Co

m(t)

/ - 35

Lo

FM signal

veractor diode is biased by DC bias voltage. The modulating signal is applied to the veractor
diode, the applied m(t) will change the capacitance of the veractor diode and subsequently the
frequency of oscillation. The capacitance of veractor diode is given by
CVD (t ) = CVo + K o m(t ) where, Ko is called sensitivity.

The capacitance of the LC tank circuit will be

C (t ) = C fized + K o m(t )

For m(t)=0, C(t)=Cfixed=Co and the frequency of oscillation in the carrier frequency and is
1
and for non-zero m(t), the instantaneous frequency of oscillation
equal to f C =
2 Lo C o
will be
fi =

Let, E =

2 Lo (C o + K o m(t ))

1
2 Lo C o

.
1+

Ko
m(t )
Co

= fc
1+

Ko
m(t )
Co

Ko
m(t )
Co

We know, f i = f c
Now,

(1 + E )

1
2

1
1+ E

1
1+ E

= 1+

1
E + ......
2

= (1 + E )

1
2

= 1

1
E
2

1
Fi = Fc 1 E
2
1 Ko

Fi = Fc 1
m(t )
2 Co

1. It gives noise less reception.
2. The operating range is quite large.
3. It gives high fedality reception.
4. The efficiency of transmission is very high.
FM Verses AM:
1. FM signals have all their information in the frequency of the carrier whereas AM
signals have all their information in the amplitude of the carrier.
2. FM has better noise immunity when compared to AM.
3. AM signals are able to occupy less bandwidth as compare to FM.

/ - 36

4. FM signal is a constant envelope signal due to fact that the envelope of the carrier
does not change with the change in the modulating signal. Hence, the transmitted
power of FM signal is constant regardless of the amplitude of the message signal. The
constant envelope of the transmitted signal allows efficient class C amplifier. In AM it
is critical to maintain linearity between the applied message and the amplitude of
transmitted signal. Thus linear class A or A, B amplifier are used which are not power
efficient.
5. Class C amplifier have typical efficiencies of 70% whereas A or AB amplifiers have
efficiencies of the order of 30 to 40%. This implies that for the same battery, constant
envelope FM modulation may provide twice as much talk time than AM.
6. FM transmitter and receiver equipment is also made more complex than that use by
the AM system.
7. FM reception is limited to only line of sight, whereas in AM it is not.
Frequency Conversion:
Need: It is very difficult to design amplifiers which give uniformly high gain over a wide
range of radio frequencies used in commercial broadcast station. However, it is possible to
design amplifiers which can provide high gain uniform amplification over a narrow band of
comparatively of lower frequency called intermediated frequencies (IF). Hence, it is
necessary to convert the modulated RF carrier into modulated IF carrier by using frequency
converter. This IF signal is then amplify by narrow band IF amplifiers and passed into the
detector circuit.
Basic Principles:
Modulated
RF signal
from arial

Fs

Mixer
(F o- F s)

Modulated IF Sig nal

to IF amplifier

local
oscillator
Fig : Frequency Converter

The frequency conversion can be achieved by utilizing the heterodyne priniciple. For
this purpose, the modulated RF signal is mixed in a mixture with an unmodulated RF signal
produced by a local oscillator.
The oscillator and the mixture may be either two separate devices or may be
combined into one device called as converter. The process of combining two AC signals of
different frequencies in order to obtain a signal of new frequency is called heterodyning
action. Suppose the carrier signal of frequency fs is heterodyned with another signal of
frequency fo. Then two additional signals are produced whose frequencies are fo+fs sum
component and fo-fs difference component.

/ - 37

The sum component is removed by band pass filter and difference frequency also
called beat frequency is retained and forms the IF frequency in AM receiver.

RF

Mixer

Local
oscillater

IF
Amplifier

Detector

Amplifier

Fig: Block diagram of standard AM radio

Common Turning

The process of combining two separate frequency one modulated RF signal and other
unmodulated RF signal produced by the local oscillator in a mixture in order to obtain a
signal of new frequency is called superheterodyne action. It is also referred to superhet and is
extensively used in modern AM receiver. The operation of this receiver is as follows:
1. Let us assume that the incoming signal frequency is 1500 KHz. It is first amplified by
the RF amplifier.
2. Next, it enters mixture circuit, which is so design that it can conveniently combine
two radio frequencies, one fed into it by RF amplifier and other by local oscillator.
3. The local oscillator is a RF oscillator which frequency of oscillation can be controlled,
so that the difference in the frequency of the selected signal and oscillator frequency
is always a constant (basically 455 KHz) i.e. if signal frequency is 1500 KHz then
oscillator frequency can be 1955 KHz. In fact, the local oscillator frequency is always
higher than the frequency of the incoming signal.
4. When these two frequencies are combined in a mixture, the phenomenon beats is
produce and the beat frequency is 455 KHz.
5. 455 KHz of the mixture is then passed on the IF amplifier which is fixed tuned to 455
KHz. In practice, one or more stage of IF amplifier may be used.
6. The output of IF amplifier is demodulated by a detector which provides the audio
signal.
7. The audio signal is then amplified by the audio frequency amplifier whose output is
fed to the loud speaker which reproduces the original sound.
Phase-Locked Loop (PLL):
Need: Some technique must be applied to synchronize the frequency and the phase of the
local oscillation within the frequency and the phase of the incoming carrier signal in order to
minimize the distortion of the received signal. One of the practical method of synchronization
is the use of phase locked loop.

/ - 38

Basic Principle:
Vs
I/p

Fs

phase
detector

Vo
Fo

Ve

Low pass
filter

amp

VCO
Fig: Basic Block Diagram of PLL

PLL is a circuit used to generate high frequency sinusoidal signal whose phase and
frequency are almost equal to the phase and frequency of incoming signal. This system
comprises of following:
i. Phase detection
ii. Low pass filter
iii. Error amplifier
iv. Voltage controlled oscillator
If an input signal Vc of frequency Fs is applied to a PLL, the phase detector compares
the phase and frequency of the incoming signal to that of the output Vo of the Vco. If the two
signals differ in frequency or phase an error voltage Ve is generated. The Vco continues to
change frequency till its output frequency is exactly the same as the input signal frequency
.The circuit is then said to be locked. Once locked, the output frequency f of Vco is identical
to Fs except for a finite phase difference .
Q. Show that the controlled voltage applied to the Vco of PLL is proportional to the phase
difference between two signals.
Solution:
Vin (t)
V1(t)
LPF

e(t)

VCo(t)
VCo

Solution:

Vin (t ) = Ac cos(2fct ) + c)

VVCO (t ) = A sin (2fct + )

Here, it is assumed that the frequency of the two signals is same but differs in phase only.
The output of product modulator will be
V1 (t ) = Ac A cos(2fct + c ). sin (2fct + )
=

Ac A
[2 sin (2fct + ). cos(2fct + c )]
2

Ac A
AA
sin ( c ) + c sin (4fct + + c )
2
2

/ - 39

The second terms of the above equation will be filtered out by the LPF and the output after
LPF will be
AC A
sin ( c )
2
Assuming the phase difference be very small,
e(t ) = V1 (t ) | LPF =

e(t )

Ac A
( c )
2

e(t ) c
Thus, the controlled voltage applied to the VDC is proportional to the phase difference
between the two singals.
PLL as FM Detector:
VFM (t)

phase
detector

ed(t)

leep
filter

ev (t)

VCO
Kv

The operation of PLL as FM detector can be explained as follows:

Step:1 Let us assume in the beginning that ev(t)=0 which means that input FM signal is also
zero. In this case the error signal at the output of PD (Phase Detector) i.e. ed (t ) = 0 .

At this stage the VCO is calibrated in such a way that its free running frequency of
oscillation is equal to the carrier frequency of the incoming FM signal. A constant phase shift
of 90 is also added to the signal of VCO to ensure that the input carrier signal and the VCO
signal are in quadrature. So that the error voltage is zero when there is exact match in phase
and frequency of these two signals. The output of Vco in this case wil be

eo (t ) = Av cos o t = Av sin o t
2

Step: 2 Now let us assume that ev (t ) 0. Then the output of Vco will be
eo (t ) = Av sin ( o t + o (t )) where, o (t ) is the signal proportional to output of the PLL.

o (t ) = 2k v ev (t )dt where k is known as sensitivity.

Step: 3 Now finally let us assume that V FM (t ) = Ac cos( c (t ) + i (t )) ,
where o (t ) = 2kf m( )d

Now the error voltage at the output of pd (phase detector) will be

/ - 40

Ac Av
AA
sin ( i (t ) o (t )) = c v sin[ e (t )] where, e (t ) = i (t ) o (t )
2
2
When the PLL enters into the locked mode i.e. when the two frequencies and phase
match, then the error voltage will be very low or nearly equal to zero.
ed (t ) =

i.e. e (t ) = i (t ) o (t ) 0
or , i (t ) = o (t )

or , 2kf m( )d = 2kv ev (t )dt

or , kfm(t ) = kvev(t )

or , ev (t ) =

kf
kv

m(t )

i.e. in locked mode, the output voltage of the PLL is nearly equal to the message
signal m(t). The bandwidth of the loop filter should not be less than the bandwidth of the
message signal.
Application of PLL:
1. Frequency multiplication, division
2. Frequency translation
3. AM detection
4. FM detection
5. Frequency shift keying (FSK)

Q. A modulated carrier wave has maximum and minimum amplitude of 750 mv and 250 mv.
Calculate the value of % modulation.
Vmax = 750mv
Vmin = mv
%m =

Vmax Vmin
750 250
100% =
100% = 50%
750 + 250
Vmax + Vmin

Q. A 10 mHz sinusoidal carrier wave of amplitude 10mv is modulated by a 5KHz sinusoidal

audio signal wave of magnitude 6V. Find the frequency component of the resulting
modulated wave and their amplitude.
Solution:

Fc = 10mHz

Ac = 10mv

Fm = 5kHz

Am = 6mv

USB = Fc + Fm = 10mHz 5kHz = 10.005mHz

LSB = Fc Fm = 10mHz 0.005mHz = 9.99mHz
Fc = 10mHz
Now,

/ - 41

m=

Am
6
=
= 0 .6
Ac 10
mAc 0.6 K10
=
= 3mV
2
2

Amplitude of USB = Amplitude of LSB =

Amplitude of carrier ( Ac = mV

Q. An audio signal given by 15 sin 2 (2000t ) . Amplitude modulates a sinusoidal carrier wave
60 sin 2 (10000 )t . Determine

a) Modular index
b) % modulation
c) frequencies of signal and carrier
d) Frequency spectrum of the modulated wave
Solution:

Compare it with the original equation of m(t) and c(t),

m(t ) = Am sin 2fm(t ) &

We have,

Am = 15

a) Modulation index =

and

Ac = 60

Am 15
=
= 0.25
Ac 60

b) % Modulation = 0.25 100% = 25%

c) Fc = 100000 Hz = 100 KHz
Fm = 2000 Hz = 2 Hz
Frequency spectrum of modulated wave
d) USB = Fc + Fm = 100000 + 1000 = 102 KHz
LSB = Fc Fm = 100000 2000 = 98KHz
Fc = 10000 Hz = 100 KHz

LSB =
98KHz

VSD=
FC =
100 KHz 102 KHz

KHz

Q. FM wave is represented by voltage equation V = 20 sin 5 10 8 t + 4 sin 1500t . Find the

carrier and modulating frequency, the modulation index and the maximum deviation of the
FM. What power will this FM voltage will dissipate in 20 resistor.
Solution:
Here, the FM voltage is given by

/ - 42

V = Vc sin c t + t sin t
x

Where,

d Fd
=
m Fm

5 10 8
Carrier Frequency, Fc =
= 796 10 7 Hz
2
1500
Modulating Frequency, Fm
= 238.7 Hz
2
Modulating Index, =

d
= 4 = mf
m

Frequency Deviation, Fd = m f m = 4 238.7 = 955Hz

V2
20 / 2
Power dissipated, P = rms =
R
20

= 10watt

Formulate for FM

Modulating index, m =

Frequency deviation
f
=
Modulating frequency Fm

m =

% Modulation (m) =

Fd
Fm

(F )actual
(F )max

Carrier Swing (CS) = 2 frequency deviation = 2 F

Q. What is the modulation index of FM carrier, having a carrier swing of 100Hz and
modulating signal of 5 KHz.
Solution:
CS = 2 F
CS 100
F =
=
= 50 KHz
2
2
F 50
m=
=
= 10
Fm
5
Q. FM transmission has a frequency deviation of 18.75 KHz. Calculate percent modulation if
it is broadcast in the 88 to 108 mHz and in the TV broadcast.
Solution: Maximum deviation for commercial FM broadcast is

(F )max

= 75 KHz

/ - 43

m =

(F )actual
(F )max

18.75
100% = 25%
75

Maximum deviation for TV broadcast is

(F )max = 25KHz
18.75
100 = 75%
25
Q. FM signal has a resting frequency of 105 MHz and highest frequency of 105.03 mHz.
When modulated by a signal frequency of 5 KHz. Determine a) frequency deviation
b) carrier swing c) modulation index d) %modulation
Solution:
m=

i. Frequency Deviation (F ) =105.03-105=300Hz

ii. Carrier Swing (CS) = 2 F =230=60KHz
F
30
=
=6
iii. Deviation index(m) =
Fmax
5
iv. %modulation =

(F )actual
(F )max

30
100% = 40%
75

Q. The turned circuit of oscillator in an AM transmitter uses a 40 mH and 1 F capacitor. If

the carrier wave produced by oscillator is modulated by audio frequency of 10 KHz.
Calculate frequency band occupied by the side band and channel width.
Solution: L = 40mH
Fc + Fm = ?
Fc =

1
2 LC

C = 1F

Fm = 10 KHz

Fc Fm = ?

2 Fm = ?

1
2 40 10 3 10 9

= 796 KHz

Q. The total power content of an AM wave is 2.64KW at a modulation factor of 80%.

Determine the power contain of each a) carrier b) each side band
Solution:

PT = 2.64 KW
m = 0 .8

m2

PT = Pc 1 +
2

2 + m2
PT = Pc
2

2
2

Pc = PT
= 2.64
= 2 KW
2
2
2+m
2 + 0.8
PLSB = PUSB

m 2 p c (108)2 2
=
=
= 320W
p
4

/ - 44

Q. A transmitter used for radio telephone has an unmodulated carrier power of 10 KW and
can be modulated to a maximum of 80% by a single frequency signal. Find the value to
which carrier power can be changed if a 50% modulation limit is imposed.
Solution:
Pc = 10 KW
%m = 80% = 0.8

m2
Pt = Pc 1 +
2

(0.8)2

= 101 +

= 13.2 KW

m2

Pt = Pc 1 +
2

Pc =

2 Pt
2 13.2
= 11.73KW
=
2
2
2+m
2 + (0.5)

Note: Modulation by several waves, m = m12 + m22 + m32 ..... + mn2

Where, m1 , m2 , m3 are the modulation factor of individual wave.
Q. A certain transmitter radiates 10KW of power with the carrier unmodulated and 11.8 KW
with the carrier sinusoidally modulated. Find a) modulation factor b) If another wave
modulated to 40% is also transmitted, calculate the radiated power.
Solution:
Pc = 10 KW
a)

m2
Pt = Pc 1 +
2

Pt = 11.8 KW

m =1

2 Pt
= 2tm 2
Pc
m2 =

b)

2 Pt 2 11.8
=
2
Pc
2

m = 60%
m = 0 .6

m 2 = 0.4
m = 0.6 2 + 0.4 2 = 0.72

(0.72)2
m2
= 101 +
Total radiated power , P(t ) = Pc 1 +

2
2

= 102.59 KW

Q. IN a AM wave calculate the power phasing when a carrier and one side band are
suppressed corresponding to modulation index 50%.
Solution:
m = 0 .5

/ - 45

m2
0.25
= Pc 1 +
Pt = Pc 1 +
= 1.1025 Pc
2
2

PLSB = PUSB =

m2
0.25
Pc =
Pc = 0.0625 Pc
4
4

Pc + PLSB = Pc + 0.0625Pc = 1.0625Pc

% sharing =

1.0625 Pc
100% = 94.44%
1.125 Pc

/ - 46

Chapter 5
Data Conversion
The process of conversion of an analog signal to digital signal is referred to as analog
to digital conversion (ADC or A/D). The system used for realizing this conversion is referred
to as analog to digital converter.
The output of the system may be required to be in the analog form and therefore, the
digital output has to be converted back into the analog form. This process is referred to as
digital to analog conversion and the system used for this purpose is referred to as digital to
analog converter (DAC or D/A).
Principle of Digital to Analog Conversion:
1
2
3

Resistive
Sunring
network

Voltage
Switching

Register

Amplifier
e/B

Analog o/p

Converter

VR

Fig: Basic Block Diagram of DAC

The digital input number to be converted is fed into the input register only during the
duration of the convert command. The output of the register feed the digital input number to
voltage switches that provides one of the two possible outputs i.e. (0 o Vr). The switches
provide access to a resistive summing n/w that converts each bit into its weighted current
value and then sums them for a total current. The total value is then fed to an amplifier which
performs two functions:
1. Current to Voltage conversion
2. Output scaling
Binary Weighted Resistor (Digital to Analog Converter):
Vref
MSB 2oR

21 R

Rf
Ri

RF

22 R

2n-1 R

Vo

2n-2 R
So

LSB

Fig: n-bit Binary Weighted Resistor DAC

/ - 47

Rf
i/p
Ri
10 V

The circuit shown in figure is called binary weighted resistor DAC. The circuit
consists of a reference voltage Vref, n-number of binary weighted resistor, R, 2R, 4R, .,
2n-1R. And n number of switches Sn-1, Sn-2, .., S1, So and op-amp with feedback resistor
Rf.
The switches are electronic switches which are controlled such as when one is present
on MSB line. Switch Sn-1 connects Vref to the resistor R and when zero is present on MSB,
switch Sn-1 connects resistor to the ground. The process is same for the other switches.
Output of that, Vo is given by:
Rf
Rf
Rf
Rf
Vo =
Vref
Vref 2 Vref ...... n 1 Vref
2 R
2' R
2 R
2 R
Vref .R f 1
1
1
1
+ 1 + 2 ...... + n 1
Vo =
o

R 2
2
2
2
Vref .R f 1 1 1
1
Vo =
1 + + + + ...... + n 1
R 2 4 8
2
The output current in binary weighted DAC is
I
I
I
I
I
I
I o = 0 + 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + ......... + n 1
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1 1 1
I o = I 1 + + + + ....... + n 1
2
2 4 8
Vref 1 1 1
1
1 + + + + ...... + n 1
R 2 4 8
2
The output current is maximum when all the bits are 1. Therefore maximum output current is
equal to
I
Vref n
I max = n 1 2 1
2 R
Io =

Resolution:
Vref R f
,
is called the resolution of binary weighted resistor and is defined as the
2 n 1 R
weighed of LSB or the incremental in each step of bit combination.

Q. Design a binary weighted resistor that of 6 bit equivalent which gives the output equal to
10V, when Vref = 5V and bit is 101011.
Solution:
Vo =

10 =

Vref RF 1 1 1 1
1
1+ + + + +

R 2 4 8 16 32

5RF
R

1
1
1

1 + 0 + 4 + 0 + 16 + 32

2 R = RF 1.34

/ - 48

If R = 1K
R F = 1.48 K

2o K

Vref

21 K
22 K

1.48 K

Vref
23 K

24 K

10 V

Vref
25 K

Vref

Accuracy and Limitation of Binary Weighted Resistor DAC:

1. Vref should be constant and stable.
2. Switch-ON resistance should be zero i.e. there should be no voltage drop on the
switch.
3. In this type DAC, wide range of resistors are required, so there is wide spreading
resistor.
4. The exact values R, 2R, 4R 2n-1R may not be available.
The ladder resistive summing n/w largely overcomes the problem of binary weighted
resistor DAC. The DAC R-2R ladder, there is only two resistance values are required. The
magnitude resistance is set by the input characteristics of the amplifier.
RF

Vref

MSB

S4
2R
S3
2R
S2

LSB

2R

2R

2R

Vo

S1
IR

To explain the operation of this circuit, we analyze it by using the superposition

theorem. This is done by assuming that an input signal Vref is applied to only one input at a
time and all the other inputs are at zero. The output current when each of these individual
input is applied, each then determinant. Finally, all of these outputs are added to get the total
output.
To find the voltage due to terminal or node 1, let us first deactivate on ground the
other nodes.

/ - 49

RF
Vref

2R
-

Vo1

R
R

RF
Vref

2R

2R

V1

Vo1

+
2R

2R

Fig (i)
2R

From fig(i),
V1 =

Vref .R

V1

Vref

3
R + 2R
Similarly, to find the voltage due to terminal or node 2, let us deactivate to other nodes.
RF
Vo

2R

2R
-

Vref

2R

V2
R

2R

R
2R
2R

R Vref 2 Vref
2 R.V2'
=
=
3R
6
R + 2R
R f Vref
1 R
Vo 2 =
.
= . F Vref
2R 3
6 R
The upper resistor 2R, 2R in parallel
2 R // 2 R = R
V2 =

(i )

R + R = 2R

The lower is also 2R.

RF

RF
2R
Vref

2R

Vref

2R

V2

R
+

2R

/ - 50

V2 =

Vref .R
R + 2R

Vref .R
3R

RF
R
+
R

V2 .R Vref .R R Vref
.
=
=
3R 2 R
6
R+R
Vref .RF
R Vref
Vo 2 = F .
=
2R 6
12 R
RF .Vref
Similarly. Vo 3 =
24 R
Hence, the total output voltage Vo, applying superposition theorem is given by
V1 =

Vo = Vo1 + Vo 2 + Vo 3 + Vo 4
=

RF Vref

RF Vref

RF Vref

RF Vref

6R
12 R
24 R
48R
RF Vref
1
1
1

=
1 + 1 + 2 + 3 + .......

6R 2
2
2

Vo =

R F Vref 1 1 1

1 + + + + ........

6R 2 4 8

Q. Design a R-2R ladder circuit that such that output voltage is 5V when the bit is
represented 11111. The reference voltage is 5V.
Solution:
RF Vref 1 1 1 1
Vo =
1+ + + +
6R 2 4 8 16
6 R = 1.93RF

If R=1k, RF = 3K

Principle of Analog to Digital conversion:

analog output
signal

sampler

quantizer

coder

digital output
signal

Quantized
Discrete time
signal
signal
Fig: Basic Block Diagram of ADS

/ - 51

Successive Approximation A/D Conversion:
Vref Supply
Analog i/p
Va

Vi

Digital to analog
Convertion

+ Ditital output

Control
Register
Time data
Slet MBS
Start
file

Stop
file

Distribution
register

Start

The generalize block diagram of a basic successive approximation converter uses a

digital control register, D/A converter with reference voltage supply, a comparison circuit
control timing loop and distribution register.
At a start of conversion cycle, both the control register and distribution register are set
with one in MSB and zero in all bits. The controlled register shows 1000 and this causes an
output voltage at D/A converter section of one half of reference supply. When the next MSB
is set in controlled register, the MSB remains in the one state or it is reset to zero depending
i.e. if Va > Vi , it is set to 1
.
upon the comparator output.
if
V
<
V
,
it
is
set
to
0
a
i

The single one in the distribution register is shifted to the next position and keeps
track of the comparison mode. The process repeats itself until the final approximation has
been corrected and the distribution register indicates, the end of conversion.
Q. Find the successive approximation AD output for a 4 bit converter to a 3.217V input of the
reference is 5V.
1
1
1
1
1
Solution: Vout = VR 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + ........ + n
2
2
2
2
2
i> set d3=1, o/p=5/2=2.50
Now, 3.217>2.5 and set d3=1
ii> set d2=1, o/p=2.5+5/22=3.75
Now, 3.217<3.75 and set d2=0
iii> set d1=1 o/p=2.5+5/23=3.125
Now, 3.217>3.125 and set d1=1
iv> set do=1 o/p=3.125+5/24=3.4375
Now, 3.217<3.437
Then, the output of D/A Converter is 1010

/ - 52

Types of DAC:
1. Unipolar DAC
2. Bipolar DAC

Unipolar DAC: It converts digital words into analog voltage by scaling the analog output to
be zero, when all bits are zero. And, some maximum value when all bits are 1. This can be
mathematically represented as:

Vout = b1 2 1 + b2 2 2 + b3 2 3 + ...... + bx 2 n

Where, Vout =analog output voltage

Vref = reference voltage
b1 , b2 , b3 ......bn = n bit binary words
An alternative equation to the above is given by:
NVref
Vout =
2n
Where, N=base 10 whole number equivalent to DAC input
Bipolar DAC: IT is design to output voltage that ranges from + to some maximum value
when the input binary ranges over the counting states and is given by
N
1
Vout = n .VR VR
2
2
1
If N=0, the Vout will be minimum value and is given by Vout (min ) = VR
2

However, the maximum value for N is equal to 2 n 1 . So that the maximum value of output
voltage will be
Vout (max ) =

2 n.V R V R 1
2n 1
1
V

V
=
n VR
R
R
2
2
2n
2n
2

1
1
Vout (max ) = VR n VR
2
2
The Parallel or Flash or Simultaneous A/D Conversion:
3 bit parallel converter AD conver is shown below. Va is the analog voltage to be
converted into digital form. The voltage corresponding to the full scale is Vref from which the
reference voltage VR1, VR2. are generated using resistor n/w. The voltage VAis compared
simultaneously with the reference voltage by using comparator. A seven bit output is
obtained from the comparator which is stored in the latch. This seven bit digital signal is
converted to 3-bit output by using decoder circuit.
The principle of parallel A/D converter is the simplest in concept and is fastest. Its
main disadvantages are rapid increase in the number of comparators with the number of bits.

/ - 53

[(2

1 Comparator are requred for n bit convereter and the corresponding complication of

Vrf
Avaleg
i/p Va
R/2

VR7
R

VR6
R

VR4
R

A1

B2

B1

Bo

Digital o/p

VR3
R

VR2

VR1

R/2

Fig: A 3 bit parallel comparator A/D Converter

/ - 54

Dual Slope A/D converter:-

The block diagram of a dual slope integration A/D converter is shown above. The reference
voltage and the input analog voltage are must be opposite polarity. The input voltage is
integrated for a fixed input sample time. The integrated value is then discharged at a fixed
rate and the time to do this is measured by a counter.
When a convert command is received by the counter it automatically resets to all zeros and
the switch connects the input voltage to the integrator. The output from the comparator is
designed such that at this time it will permit the counter to count up for a output from the
integrator will be increased in value.
On the next count after the counter has counted all the way up to all 1s , the switch
changes position the input voltage is disconnected and the switch connects the reference
voltage to the integrator . Therefore the integrator now integrate the opposite polarity voltage,
which causes the output to decrease towards zero voltage.
Sample and hold ckt:An ideal sample and hold ckt is one that samples the value of an analog signal at a certain point
and holds that value for a specified interval, when it repeats the process based on the new value of
the signal. Sample and hold ckts are used in conjunction with the analog to digital conversion.

/ - 55

A Basic sample and hold ckt is shown above. The ckt is designed to acquire (sample) the input
signal during conversion and just before conversion take, place , the ckt is placed in the hold
mode. During the hold mode, the ckt holds constant the value of the signal that it possessed at the
time of the hold command, for the required duration of A/D conversion. After the hold value is
converted, the ckt is switched back to the sample mode to respond again to the input voltage. The
sample and hold function is usually carried out by charging a capacitor with the signal value
during the sample interval. The sample and hold ckt uses a voltage followers for isolation
purpose.
Sigma-delta A/D converter:-

The sigma-delta A/D converter takes into account the fact that the quantization is performed into
the difference of ith sample and its prediction derived from (i-1) th sample. That is instead of
quantizing the whole sample value , the sigma-delta quantiges the difference only, thus reducing
the required quantization level to minimum.
Thus in sigma-delta A/D conversion, the difference between the original sample and its
approximation ( derived from its immediate past sample) is quantized in one of the two possible
levels + or - and level is converted into one bit code word ( i, e. 0 , 1 + ). Thus,
the sigma delta A/D uses only one bit to represent each sampled level.
For given ckt verify that:
i) If a strength binary 8-bit converter is needed we need r=8R.
ii) If arrangement is intended as to decimal digit BCD converter we need r= 4.8R.

Because of wide spread in resistance values for large N, the weighted resister D/A converter is
not suitable. However , the weighted resister n/w can be modified to accommodate a large no of
bits without consequent spread in resistor values . One such ckt is shown above. For this type of
n/w , it is known that .

Let the s3 bit be 1 and s2,s1 and s0 bits be all 0 . Also assume that there is a virtual shirt at the input
of an op-amp.

/ - 56

The current due to s7 can be easily calculated as follows.

But from the equation (i) , it is already clear that , the current Iin of equation (iv) must be 1/16th of
the current of equation (v). Then from equation (i) , (iv) and (v). we can write.

/ - 57

The ckt.of fig. (i) can be also used for decimal digit BCD converter. In this case, the value of r is
chose so as to make the input current of op-amp corresponding to LSD and 1/10th of that of
current due to MSD, This means , in this case

This equations (vi) and (vii) are the required results.

Switch power supply:Voltage Regulator:
A voltage regulator is a circuit that supplies a constant voltage regardless of changes in load
currents. The function of voltage regulator is to provide a stable dc voltage for powering other
electronic
circuits. A voltage regulator should be capable of providing substantial output current . Voltage
regulator are classified as:
1. Series (liner) regulator.
2. Switching regulator.
Series regulator use a power transistor connected in series between the unregulated dc input and
the load. The output voltage is controlled by the continuous voltage drop taking place across the
series pass xsistor. Since the transistor conducts in the active or linear region , these regulator are
also called linear regulators may have fixed or variable o/p voltage and could be +ve or Ve. The
impedance of linear regulators active element may be continuously varied to supply a desired
On the other hand, in switching regulator a switch is turned On and OFF at a rate such that the
regulators deliver the desired average current in periodic pulses to the load. Because the
switching element dissipates negligible power in either the ON or OFF state, the switching
regulator is more efficient than the linear regulator.
Characteristics and features of switched power supply:
1. The series regulator , the pass transistor is operated in its linear region to provide a controlled
voltage drop across it with a steady dc current flows , where as in case of switched mode
regulator , the pass transistor is used as a controlled switch and is operated at either cutoff
or saturation state. Hence the power transmitted across the pass device is in discrete pulses
rather then as a steady current flow.

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2. Greater efficiency is achieved in switched mode regulator since the pass device is operated as
a low impedance switch. The efficiency in switched mode power supply is in the range of 7090%.
3. Switched mode power supply dissipates only small amount of average power. When the pass
device is in saturation and thus provides a maximum current to the load.
4. When the pass device is at cutoff, there is no current and dissipates no power.
5. Switched mode regulators rely on pulse width modulation to control the average value of the
output voltage.
6. The switching power supply allows a decrease in size and cost.
7. Switched mode regulator basically operate at 20KHZ or faster.
8. Operating at this frequency allows the use of smaller transformer, capacitor, and inductors.
9. Switched mode power supply is slow in responding to transient load changes compared to the
conventional series regulator.
10. The switching regulators are quite complex and one should be careful about the
electromagnetic and radio frequency interference while using switched mode power supply.
Types of Switching regulators:
Switching regulators are of three basics types.
i) Step-down regulator.
ii) Step-up regulator.
iii) Inverting regulator.
Step-down regulator.
In this type of regulator , Vout is always less then Vin . An unregulated +ve dc voltage is applied to
the collector of the NPN transistor. A series of pulses from an oscillator is sent to the base of the
transistor T which gets saturated (close) on each of the +Ve pulses.

It is so because NPN transistor needs a +ve voltage. Pulse on its base in order to turn ON. A
saturated xsistor acts as a closed switch. Hence it allows Vin to send current through L and
charge C to the value of the output voltage during the on-time(T0n) of the pulse. The diode D1is
reverse biased at this point and hence does not conduct.
Eventually, when +ve pulse turn to zero, T is cutoff and acts like an open switch during the
off period (Toff) of the pulse. The collapsing magnetic field of the coil produces self induced
voltage and keeps the current flowing by returning energy to the circuit.
The value of output voltage depends on the input voltage and pulse width , i.e, ON-time of the
transistor when on time is increased relative to off time , C charges more thus increasing
Vout.When Ton is decreased, C dischared more thus decreasing Vout. By adjusting the duty
cycle. (Ton/T) of the transistor Vout can be varied. Vout = Vin (Ton/T)
Step up switching regulator:-

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When the transistor T turn ON the arrival of the positive pulse at its base , voltage across L
increases quickly to Vin-Vce(sat) and magnetic field of L expands quickly. During ON-times of the
transistor , UL keeps decreasing from its initial maximum value. The longer transistor is ON, the
smaller VL becomes.
When transistor turn OFF , magnetic field of L collapse and its polarity reverse so that its voltage
adds to the input voltage thus producing an output voltage greater than the input voltage. During
OFF-time of the transistor, D2 is forward biased and allows C to charge. The variations in Vout
due to charging and discharging action are sufficiently smoothed by filtering action of L and C.
It may be noted that shorter the ON-time of the transistor, greater the inductor voltage and
hence greater the o/p voltage. On the other hand, the longer the ON-time, the smaller the inductor
voltage and hence , lesser the output voltage.
Vout = Vin (T/Ton)
Inverting switching Regulator:

This regulator provides on o/p voltage that is opposite in polarity to the input voltage.
When the transistor T turn ON by the +ve pulses the inductor voltage VL jumpes to Vin
Vce(sat) and the magnetic field of the inductor expands rapidly. When the transistor is ON, the
diode D1 is reverse biased and VL decreases from its initial maximum value. When transistor turn
OFF , the magnetic field collapses and inductor polarity reverses . This forward biases D1,
charges C and produces a ve output voltage. This repetitive ON-OFF action of the transistor
produces a repetitive charging and discharging that is smoothed by LC filter action.
IC Switched voltage Regulator:

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IC 723/723c is a general purpose adjustable output voltage regulator designed primarily for series
+ve voltage regular applications but it is capable of operation in +ve or ve power supplies as a
series , shunt , switching or floating regulator.
The IC switch voltage regulator 723C has the following features.
i) extremely low stand by drain current.
ii) Provision for liner as well as feedback current limiting .
iii) Wide adjustable o/p voltage range. (2v to 37v)
Low voltage Regulators:
The low voltage regulators is also known as the step-down voltage regulators. The operating
range of this type of regulator is 2V to 7V.
The o/p voltage in this case is always less than the input voltage. The general IC ckt diagram
for this type of regulator is shown.

The o/p voltage for this type of regulator is given by the eqn.
for minimum temperature difference.
High voltage regulator:-

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The high voltage regulator generally operate at the range of 7v to 37 v. The general IC ckt.
diagram for this type for this regulator is shown in figure.
The o/p voltage for this type of regulator is given by the eqn.
for minimum temperature difference.
Control circuits (IC LM117/217/317):
The voltage control ckt. by using IC LM117 three terminal adjustable +ve voltage regulators are
available in the current rating of 0.1 A to 1.5A. The o/p voltage is controlled by adjusting the
variable resister R2 as shown in fig below. The voltage is adjustable from 1.2V to 37V. In high
voltage version LM117 HV/LM217HV/LM317HV.
These type of control ckt. built in current limit and thermal overload protection. Their
performance specifications are much better than those of fixed voltage regulators.

DC choppers:
A dc chopper converts directly from dc to dc and is also know as a dc to dc converter. A Chopper
can be considered as dc equivalent to an ac transformer with a continuously variable turns ratio.
Like a transformers it can be used to step-down or step-up a dc voltage source. In many industrial
application. It is required to convert a fixed voltage dc source into a variable-voltage dc source.
Principe of Step-Down operation of DC chopper:

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When switch S/W is closed for a time t1, the input voltage Vs appears across the load. If the
switch remains off for a time t2, the voltage across the load is zero. The waveform for the output
voltage and load current are shown above. The chopper switch can be implemented by using BJT,
MOSFET, GTO or Thyrister.
The average output voltage is given by

Ia = Va/R = KVs/R
Where T is the chopping period, K= t1/T is the duty cycle of chopper and f is chopping frequency.
The rms value of output voltage is found from

The duty cycle K can be varied from 0 to 1 by varying t1, T or f. Therefore , the output voltage V0
can be varied from o to Vs by controlling K and the power flow can be controlled.
Principle of step-up operation of chopper:

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When switch S/W is closed for time t1, the inductor current rises and energy is stored in the
inductor L. If the switch is opened for time t2 , the energy stored in the inductor is transferred to
load through diode D1 and inductor current falls.
When the chopper is turned on, the voltage across the inductor is
VL = L di/dt
And it gives current in the inductor as

The instantaneous output voltage is

The duty cycle k can be varied from 0 to 1 . Therefore , the output voltage V0 can be varied from
Vs to infinity (or something large value).
Reactance modulator transistor for FM:

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With this system the modulating signal is fed to separate transistor (Q2) where the voltage
change of modulating signal causes changes in the output capacitance Cce of the transistor Q2 .
So there is a change in the reactance of the output ckt.
ii) Q1 acts as an oscillator whereas Q2 acts as reactance modulator.
iii) Oscillator transistor Q1 receive its positive feedback from the secondary winding (Ls) of
transformer T1.
iv) The frequency of the carrier wave is generated by the primary winding L1, L2 of transformer
T1 and capacitor C1.
v) Modulating signal is coupled to Q2 by the secondary winding of transformer T2.
vi) The output of Q2 is coupled to a portion of primary winding of T1.
vii) The change in modulating signal causes the change in collector voltage and the change in
collector voltage and the change in collector voltage causes the change in collector to emitter
capacitance Cce. As the collector voltage increases the collector to emitter capacitance
decreases the thus the resonant frequency of tuned ckt. L1, L2, C1 , Cce increases and vice
versa. Finally , the output will be frequency modulated signal.
i)

The above ckt can be explained as follows:

i) R1, R2, Vce provide fixed bias for the transistor C3 is the bypass capacitor.
ii) The positive feedback for oscillatory action provided by the secondary winding of T2.
iii) The oscillator frequency is determined by the parallel resonant ckt. L3 C4.
iv) Desired Rf input signal is selected by tuned ckt. L1 C1 and is coupled to the base of transistor
Q by the secondary winding L2.
v) As a result of heterodyne action the following signal frequencies are generated.
a. A signal frequency creates sum of Rf input and local oscillator frequency.
b. A signal frequency equal to the difference between Rf input and the local oscillator
frequency.
vi) The tuned ckt. L5C5 selects the one signal frequency. (i.e the difference frequency or If
frequency) which is further coupled to load L6 by L5 of T3.
In this way we can achieve If (intermediate frequency) by using one transistor.
Frequency conversion using two transistor:

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Phase Locked loop(PLL) as AM detection:

A PLL may be used to demodulate AM signals as shown in fig. The PLL is locked to the carrier
frequency of the incoming AM signals . The output of VCO which has the same frequency as the
carrier, but unmodulated is fed to the multiplier. Since VCO output is always 90 out of phase
with the incoming AM signal under the locked condition , the AM input signal is also shifted in
phase by 90 before being fed to the multiplier. This makes both the signals applied to the
multiplier in the same phase.The output of the multiplier contains both the sum and difference
signals, the demodulated output is obtained after filtering high frequency components by the LPF.
Since the PLL responds only to the carrier frequency which are very close to the VCO output a
PLL AM detector exhibits a high degree of selectivity and noise immunity which is not possible
with conventional peak detector type AM modulators.
Both D/A and A/D converters are available with wide range of specifications. The various
important specifications of converters generally specified by the manufactures are analyzed.
Resolution: The resolution of a converter is the smallest change in voltage which may be
produced at the output (or input ) of the converter.
Resolution (in volts) = VFS/(2n-1) = 1 LSB increment.
For e.g an 8-bit D/A converter has 28-1 =225 equal intervals. Hence the smallest change in output
voltage is (1/225) of the full scale output range .
Linearity: The linearity of an A/D or D/A converter is an important measure of its accuracy and
tells us how close the converter output is to its ideal transfer characteristics.
Accuracy: Absolute accuracy is the maximum deviation between the actual converter output and
the ideal converter output. The accuracy of a converter is also specified in terms of LSB
increments or percentage of full scale voltage.
Setting time: It represents the time it takes for the output to settle within a specified band I (1/2)
LSB of its final value following a code change at the input. It depends upon the switching time of
the logic circuitary due to internal parasitic capacitance and inductance. It is equal to (100ns to
100 s).
Stability: The performance of converter changes with temperature, age and power supply
variations. So all the relevant parameters such as offset , gain, linearity, error must be specified
over the full temperature and power supply ranges.

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Temperature sensitivity: The analog output voltage for any fixed digital input varies with
temperature. It is due to the temperature sensitivities of the reference voltage source, resistors, opamps etc.
A/D converter using Voltage to frequency conversion:

An analog voltage can be converted in to digital form by producing the pulses whose frequency is
proportional to the analog voltage. These pulses are counted by a counter for a fixed duration and
the reading of the counter will be proportional to the frequency of the pulses and hence to the
analog voltage.
The frequency of the output waveform which is proportional to the analog input is given by

Where,
= RC = Time constant of the integrator.
VR = reference voltage.
The output of V/F converter is applied at the clock (CK) input of a counter through an AND gate.
The AND gate is enabled for a fixed time interval T1. The reading of the counter at t = T1 is given
by

A/D converter using voltage to time conversion:

In an A/D converter using V/R converter , the cycles of a variable frequency source are counted
for a fixed period. Alternatively it is possible to make an A/D converter by counting the cycles of
a fixed frequency source for a variable period. For this , the analog voltage is required to be
converted to a proper time period.
A negative reference voltage -VR is applied to an integrator, whose output is connected to the
inverting input terminal of the comparator. The analog voltage Va is applied at the non inverting
input terminal of the comparator. The output of the comparator Vc is at logical level 1 as long as
the output of the integrator V0<Va . When V0 crosses Va at t=T, Vc goes low. The AND gate is
enabled when VEN is low and switch S remains open. When VEN goes high the switch S is closed,
thereby discharging the capacitor. Also the AND gate is disabled . When the AND gate is
enabled, the clock pulses will reach the clock(CK) input terminal of the counter. The output of
the counter is the digital output corresponding to Va.

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Assume that the counter is initially set at zero before conversion is started. A sample of the
analog signal Va appears at one input to the comparator and the counting process is initiated .
Each successive step of the counter causes the digital word at the output to advance one level in
the binary sequence. Each of these successive digital word is converted back to analog form by
D/A converter and the output is compared with the analog sample i,e the analog output Vi of
DAC is compared to the analog input Va by the comparator. If Va> Vi , the output of the
comparator becomes high and AND gate is enabled to allow the transmission of the clock pulses
to the counter. when Va <Vi the output of the comparator becomes low and the AND gate is
disabled. This stops the counting at the time Va Vi and the digital output of the counter represent
Limitations:
i) The counter frequency must be low enough to give sufficient time for the DAC to settle and
for the comparator to respond.
ii) Low speed is the most serious drawback of these method.
Tricking A/D based on D/A (or servotralking A/D):

The improved version of the counting ADC is the tracking A/D The ckt consists of an up-down
counter with the comparator. Controlling the direction of the count. The analog output of the
DAC (vi) is compared with the analog input voltage (Va). If Va>Vi , the output of comparator
goes high and counter is caused to count-up. The DAC output increases with each incoming
pulses and when Vi>Va, the counter reverse the direction and count down. The process goes on
being repeated and the digital output changes back and forth by 1 LSB. As long as the analog
input changes slowely , the tracking A/D will be within 1LSB of the correct value. However,
when the analog input changes rapidly, the tracking A/D connot keep up with the change and
error occurs.